1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Nehemiah 1:1 The *words of Nehemias, the son of Helchias. And it came to pass in the month of Casleu, in the twentieth year, as I was in the castle of Susa,

Year of the World 3550, Year before Christ 454. Words, or transactions written by Nehemias. (Menochius) --- Helcias, or Hebrew and Septaugint, "Chelcias." --- Casleu, the third of the civil year, 1 Esdras 10:9. --- Year of Artaxerxes, (Calmet) after he was associated with his father on the throne; (Tirinus) or rather the death of Xerxes. From this period the seventy weeks of Daniel are dated, (Du Hamel) or from the 23rd of Artaxerxes, and the 28th of Xerxes, (Tirinus) as above three years must have been consumed in making preparations for the walls, etc. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 11:5.) --- The name of Nehemias, "comforter of God," as well as his being sent by a king to build, etc., prefigured Jesus Christ, sent by God to comfort and establish his Church. (Ven. Bede) (Worthington) (Haydock) --- Susa. Hebrew, "in Susa, the palace," where the kings of Persia resided in the months of winter, (Athen. 12:1.) and of spring. (Xenophon) (Cyr. viii.) (Curt. 5:8.) --- Here Darius probably kept his court at other times, Esther 1:2. (Calmet) --- Susa was situated on the river Coaspes, between the provinces of Babylon and Persia. (Du Hamel)
Nehemiah 1:2 That Hanani, one of my brethren, came, he and some men of Juda; and I asked them concerning the Jews, that remained and were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem.

Hanani, a relation, whom Nehemias brought back, 2 Esdras 7:2. --- Came. Some Latin copies add, "to me," (Lyranus) as if a deputation had been sent; but of this the text is silent. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 1:3 And they said to me: They that have remained, and are left of the captivity there in the province, are in great affliction and reproach: and the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and the gates thereof are burnt with fire.

Province of Judea, subject to the Persians, as it was afterwards to the Romans; though, at present, they were allowed to have governors of their own nation. (Menochius) --- Reproach, on account of the surrounding enemies. (Haydock) --- Fire, recently; (Menochius. See 1 Esdras 4:12., and 9:9.) or rather by Nabuchodonosor; as the kings of Persia would not suffer the city to be fortified, for fear of a fresh rebellion. (Lyranus) (Tirinus) --- We find that little progress (chap. 3.; chap 4.) (Calmet) had at least been made in the work, though the blame must rather be laid on the enemies of Israel, than on several of the kings of Persia, who seem to have authorized the undertaking, which Cambyses, or Smerdis, had for a time interrupted. They only specify, indeed, that leave was granted to build the temple. But they allowed them to erect houses for themselves, which could not have been done to any purpose, among so many enemies, unless they had been defended by some sort of fortifications. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 1:4 And when I had heard these words, I sat down, and wept, and mourned for many days: and I fasted, and prayed before the face of the God of heaven.

Days; about four months, till Nisan. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 1:5 And I said: *I beseech thee, O Lord God of heaven, strong, great, and terrible, who keepest covenant and mercy with those that love thee, and keep thy commandments:

Daniel 9:4.
Nehemiah 1:6 Let thy ears be attentive, and thy eyes open, to hear the prayer of thy servant, which I pray before thee now, night and day, for the children of Israel, thy servants: and I confess the sins of the children of Israel, by which they have sinned against thee: I and my father's house have sinned.

They. Hebrew and Septuagint, "we have sinned." (Menochius)
Nehemiah 1:7 We have been seduced by vanity, and have not kept thy commandments, and ceremonies, and judgments, which thou hast commanded thy servant, Moses.

Vanity. Hebrew, "we have been corrupted." (Vatable) "we have dealt very corruptly." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- The author of the Vulgate has read e for é. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "we have been very dissolute, or weak."
Nehemiah 1:8 Remember the word that thou commandedst to Moses, thy servant, saying: If you shall transgress, I will scatter you abroad among the nations:

Nehemiah 1:9 But if you return to me, and keep my commandments, and do them, though you should be led away to the uttermost parts of the world, I will gather you from thence, and bring you back to the place which I have chosen for my name to dwell there.

World. Literally, "of heaven, or the sky," (Haydock) which seems to the vulgar (Calmet) to rest upon the horizon. (Tirinus) See Deuteronomy 30:4.
Nehemiah 1:10 And these are thy servants, and thy people: whom thou hast redeemed by thy great strength, and by thy mighty hand.

Redeemed, or liberated from great evils. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 1:11 I beseech thee, O Lord, let thy ear be attentive to the prayer of thy servant, and to the prayer of thy servants, who desire to fear thy name: and direct thy servant this day, and give him mercy before this man. For I was the king's cup-bearer.

Man; (virum) the great king, (Haydock) Artaxerxes. (Calmet) --- Cup-bearer; Athersatha, 1 Esdras 2:63., and 2 Esdras 7:65.
Nehemiah 2:0 Nehemias, with commission from king Artaxerxes, cometh to Jerusalem: and exhorteth the Jews to rebuild the walls.

Nehemiah 2:1 And *it came to pass in the month of Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, the king: that wine was before him, and I took up the wine, and gave it to the king: and I was as one languishing away before his face.

Year of the World 3550, Year before Christ 454. Year. It seems the Persians began the year with Tizri, since both Casleu (the third) and Nisan (the seventh month of the civil year) fall on the twentieth of the king. --- Wine. These kings drunk only that of Syria. (Strabo xv.) --- People of distinction were appointed cup-bearers; and even the children of kings did not esteem the office beneath them. (Herodotus 3:34.) (Athen. 10:6.) (Homer, etc.) (Calmet) --- I was. Protestants, "I had not been before-time sad in his presence." (Haydock) --- Hebrew literally, "I was not evil." Septuagint, "an enemy, or stranger." Arabic, "disagreeable." Syriac, "sorrowful." Septuagint also, "there was not another (ouk en eteros) present," 2 Esdras 5:6. St. Jerome seems not to have read the negation. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 2:2 And the king said to me: Why is thy countenance sad, seeing thou dost not appear to be sick? this is not without cause, but some evil, I know not what, is in thy heart. And I was seized with an exceedingly great fear:

Is not. Hebrew, "nothing but sorrow of heart;" (Syriac; Calmet; Protestants) or rather, thou art meditating only treason. Septuagint, "This is nothing but wickedness of heart," (Haydock) which often shews itself on the countenance. The king might suspect that he was giving him poison. (Menochius) --- Hence Nehemias feared, (Calmet) dreading such suspicions, (Haydock) and aware lest the company might frustrate his good design, as contrary to the interests of the crown. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 2:3 And I said to the king: O king, live for ever: why should not my countenance be sorrowful, seeing the city of the place of the sepulchres of my fathers is desolate, and the gates thereof are burnt with fire?

Live; an usual salutation, Daniel 3:9., and 5:10. So Aelian (var. 1:32.) says, "O king Artaxerxes, mayst thou reign for ever." --- Father, ver. 5. He knew that the Persians shewed great regard to the dead, (Calmet; Tirinus) whose bodies they sometimes cover with wax, and keep in their house, (Cic.[Cicero?] Tusc. i.; Alex. Genial 3:2.) or inter. (Herodotus 1:140.)
Nehemiah 2:4 Then the king said to me: For what doest thou make request? And I prayed to the God of heaven.

Heaven, a fervent ejaculation, in secret, (Tirinus) to touch the king's heart, (Calmet) and to enable me to speak in a proper manner. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 2:5 And I said to the king: If it seem good to the king, and if thy servant hath found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldst send me into Judea, to the city of the sepulchre of my father, and I will build it.

Nehemiah 2:6 And the king said to me, and the queen that sat by him: For how long shall thy journey be, and when wilt thou return? And it pleased the king, and he sent me: and I fixed him a time.

And, etc. In private the queen might dine with her husband, but not in public, Esther 1:(Calmet) --- Queen; probably Esther, if she were married to this king. (Menochius) --- But this is uncertain. (Haydock) --- Usher thinks it was Damaspia, mentioned by Ctesias. (Calmet) --- Time, when I should return. Some say a year (Tirinus) or two afterwards; but it is generally believed that he begged to be absent twelve years. He then waited on the king eight or ten years, and returned into Judea towards the end of the reign of Artaxerxes, 2 Esdras 13:6. (Calmet) --- He perhaps asked permission to visit Jerusalem for only a short period, at first, but his presence being deemed necessary, he was permitted to continue there as governor full twelve years. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 2:7 And I said to the king: If it seem good to the king, let him give me letters to the governors of the country beyond the river, that they convey me over, till I come into Judea:

Over; give me a guard, (Haydock) or accompany me to Jerusalem. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 2:8 And a letter to Asaph, the keeper of the king's forest, to give me timber, that I may cover the gates of the tower of the house, and the walls of the city, and the house that I shall enter into. And the king gave me according to the good hand of my God with me.

Forest. Hebrew pordes, "paradise," or garden planted with trees. Pliny ([Natural History?] 5:23.) mentions a "paradise," in Coelosyria. (Grotius) --- But Nehemias might petition to be supplied with cedars from Libanus, (Tirinus) as they had been given for the temple, 1 Esdras 3:7. (Haydock) --- Tower. Hebrew bira, means also "a palace or temple." It may designate the porch of the temple, which was 120 cubits high; (2 Paralipomenon 3:4.; Calmet) though that had been lately repaired by Esdras. (Menochius) --- Others think the doors of the courts are meant, as they were as strong as those of towers. (Vatable) --- They were not yet finished, 2 Esdras 10:9. Many believe that (Calmet) Nehemias speaks of the royal palace, which had been almost contiguous to the temple, (Menochius) where he intended to build one for himself, while he should reside in the city. (Tirinus) --- But this might give umbrage to the king. (Calmet) --- He could not, however, intend his favourite to remain without a suitable palace; and the latter seems to have designed not only to repair that which Solomon had founded, but also to erect another house for the governor. (Haydock) --- Good hand; favour, (Menochius) and powerful aid. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 2:9 And I came to the governors of the country beyond the river, and gave them the king's letters. And the king had sent with me captains of soldiers, and horsemen.

Nehemiah 2:10 And Sanaballat, the Horonite, and Tobias, the servant, the Ammonite, heard it, and it grieved them exceedingly, that a man was come, who sought the prosperity of the children of Israel.

Horonite, a native, not (Calmet) a petty king (Grotius) of Horonaim, in the country of Moab, Jeremias 48:3. He must have been very old, if he lived till the temple was built at Garizim: (Josephus and Scaliger) but Petau supposes that there were two of the name. --- Servant; an officer appointed over the Samaritans, as well as Sanaballat. The Persian monarchs styled all their subjects servants or slaves. (Calmet) --- Grieved. Thus unbelievers repine when any one endeavours to propagate the truth, (Haydock) or to establish the Church. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 2:11 And I came to Jerusalem, and was there three days.

Nehemiah 2:12 And I arose in the night, I and some few men with me, and I told not any man what God had put in my heart to do in Jerusalem, and there was no beast with me, but the beast that I rode upon.

Any man, at Jerusalem, (ver. 16.) though he had informed the king, ver. 8. (Haydock) --- No beast; that none might be alarmed.
Nehemiah 2:13 And I went out by night, by the gate of the valley, and before the dragon-fountain, and to the dung gate, and I viewed the wall of Jerusalem, which was broken down, and the gates thereof, which were consumed with fire.

Valley of Cedron, on the east, (Calmet) or west, near Calvary. (Menochius) (Tirinus) --- Dragon. Hebrew Tannin, or "great fish," which might be kept there, unless the fountain was famous for the appearance of some dragon, or the water proceeded from the mouth of a brazen one. Septuagint have read thanim, "figs." The fountain of Siloe might have many names. (Calmet) --- Viewed. Septuagint, "I walked upon the wall of Jerusalem, which these men are demolishing or clearing away," etc. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 2:14 And I passed to the gate of the fountain, and to the king's aqueduct, and there was no place for the beast on which I rode to pass.

Aqueduct, or reservoir, made by Ezechias, 2 Paralipomenon 32:30.
Nehemiah 2:15 And I went up in the night by the torrent, and viewed the wall, and going back, I came to the gate of the valley, and returned.

Torrent of Cedron, having gone round the city. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 2:16 But the magistrates knew not whither I went, or what I did: neither had I as yet told any thing to the Jews, or to the priests, or to the nobles, or to the magistrates, or to the rest that did the work.

Magistrates. Septuagint, "guards." Seganim denotes various officers. (Calmet) --- Work, or to any workmen. (Haydock) --- None were now employed. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 2:17 Then I said to them: You know the affliction wherein we are, because Jerusalem is desolate, and the gates thereof are consumed with fire: come, and let us build up the walls of Jerusalem, and let us be no longer a reproach.

Nehemiah 2:18 And I shewed them how the hand of my God was good with me, and the king's words, which he had spoken to me, and I said: Let us rise up, and build. And their hands were strengthened in good.

Hand. God had manifested his goodness and power, at the court of Persia. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 2:19 But Sanaballat, the Horonite, and Tobias, the servant, the Ammonite, and Gossem, the Arabian, heard of it, and they scoffed at us, and despised us, and said: What is this thing that you do? are you going to rebel against the king?

Arabian governor. He afterwards accuses Nehemias, 2 Esdras 6:6. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 2:20 And I answered them, and said to them: The God of heaven he helpeth us, and we are his servants: let us rise up and build: but you have no part, nor justice, nor remembrance in Jerusalem.

Answered. Septuagint, "returned them an account (logon) ....we are his pure servants, and we will build." (Haydock) --- Part, or business, 1 Esdras 4:4. --- Justice, or right to the city. (Calmet) --- You may mind your own affairs. (Tirinus) --- Remembrance. It was esteemed a high honour to be a citizen of Jerusalem, Psalm 86:5.
Nehemiah 3:0 They begin to build the walls: the name and order of the builders.

Nehemiah 3:1 Then *Eliasib, the high priest, arose, and his brethren, the priests, and they built the flock-gate: they sanctified it, and set up the doors thereof, even unto the tower of a hundred cubits they sanctified it unto the tower of Hananeel.

Year of the World 3550, Year before Christ 454. Priest, the third since the captivity, son (Calmet) or brother of Joachim. (Lyranus) --- Flock-gate, near which was probably the miraculous pool, John 5:2. But the situation of these gates is not ascertained. --- Sanctified it, beginning the work (Calmet) with some religious ceremonies. (Junius) --- It was designed to protect God's temple; and therefore, when finished, they dedicated it (Worthington) with solemnity, as they did all the walls, 2 Esdras 12:27. The like custom is observed on laying the foundation-stone of our temples. (Haydock) Sanctified may also mean, cleared away the rubbish. (Vatable) (Tirinus) --- Hundred. Hebrew Mea. --- Cubits is not in the original, Septuagint or Syriac, (Calmet) though it seems to be understood. The ancient Jerusalem had twelve principal gates, four east, north, and west. There were none on the south, where Mount Sion lay. (Tirinus) --- The priests and others undertook this work, considering their eternal as well as their temporal inheritance. (Du Hamel)
Nehemiah 3:2 And next to him the men of Jericho built: and next to them built Zachur, the son of Amri.

Nehemiah 3:3 But the fish-gate, the sons of Asnaa, built: they covered it, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks, and the bars. And next to them built Marimuth, the son of Urias, the son of Accus.

Nehemiah 3:4 And next to him built Mosollam, the son of Barachias, the son of Merezebel, and next to them built Sadoc, the son of Baana.

Nehemiah 3:5 And next to them the Thecuites built: but their great men did not put their necks to the work of their Lord.

Nehemiah 3:6 And Joiada, the son of Phasea, and Mosollam, the son of Besodia, built the old gate: they covered it, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks, and the bars.

Old gate, or of the judges, who there assembled. (Lyranus)
Nehemiah 3:7 And next to them built Meltias, the Gabaonite, and Jadon, the Meronathite, the men of Gabaon and Maspha, for the governor that was in the country beyond the river.

For the. Hebrew, "for (Calmet; or) unto the throne of the governor on this side of the river." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- These people worked near the palace, which had been built for the Persian governor, who came to administer justice, till the time of Esdras, 2 Esdras 5:15., and 1 Esdras 7:25. Perhaps the governor of Syria had (Haydock) assisted the Jews, unless Nehemias himself be meant. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 3:8 And next to him built Eziel, the son of Araia, the goldsmith: and next to him built Ananias, the son of the perfumer: and they left Jerusalem unto the wall of the broad street.

Goldsmith and perfumer, are plural in Hebrew. --- Left, 400 cubits, (Tirinus) as the wall was not demolished, (Menochius) having been repaired by Ozias just before the coming of the Chaldeans, 2 Paralipomenon 26:9. (Tirinus) --- Hebrew, "they pushed forward, (repaired, Calmet; or) paved, (Du Dieu) or fortified Jerusalem unto the broad wall." (Protestants) --- The Septuagint copies vary: some read, they placed, (restored) etheka. (Complutensian) But the Roman edition has, "they left." (Du Hamel)
Nehemiah 3:9 And next to him built Raphaia, the son of Hur, lord of the street of Jerusalem.

Street. Protestants, "of the half part," (Haydock) belonging to Benjamin. Sellum was the inspector of that part which fell to the share of Juda, ver. 12., and 2 Esdras 4:19. (Grotius) --- Jerusalem, like all great cities, was divided into parts. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 3:10 And next to him Jedaia, the son of Haromaph, over-against his own house: and next to him built Hattus, the son of Hasebonia.

House. Thus he would be induced to do the work more perfectly. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 3:11 Melchias, the son of Herem, and Hasub, the son of Phahath Moab, built half the street, and the tower of the furnaces.

Built. Hebrew, "repaired the other piece," or the part of the wall which corresponded with half a division, as in the following ver. 12, 15, 24, etc.
Nehemiah 3:12 And next to him built Sellum, the son of Alohes, lord of half the street of Jerusalem, he and his daughters.

Alohes, "the enchanter," (Calmet) as he could perhaps enchant serpents. (Grotius) --- Daughters, who forwarded the work, as they had no brothers. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 3:13 And the gate of the valley Hanun built, and the inhabitants of Zanoe: they built it, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks, and the bars, and a thousand cubits in the wall unto the gate of the dunghill.

Nehemiah 3:14 And the gate of the dunghill, Melchias, the son of Rechab, built, lord of the street of Bethacharam: he built it, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks, and the bars.

Bethacharam, in the tribe of Benjamin, Jeremias 6:1.
Nehemiah 3:15 And the gate of the fountain, Sellum, the son of Cholhoza, built, lord of the street of Maspha: he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks, and the bars, and the walls of the pool of Siloe, unto the king's garden, and unto the steps that go down from the city of David.

King's garden. This fountain is mentioned, Isaias 8:6., and John 9:7. --- Steps. The place was so steep, 2 Esdras 12:36.
Nehemiah 3:16 After him built Nehemias, the son of Azboc, lord of half the street of Bethsur, as far as over-against the sepulchre of David, and to the pool, that was built with great labour, and to the house of the mighty.

Labour, by Ezechias, for a reservoir, 2 Paralipomenon 32:4. --- Mighty men of David, (1 Paralipomenon 11:10.) or the king's guards, (Calmet) or the garrison. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 3:17 After him built the Levites, Rehum, the son of Benni. After him built Hasebias, lord of half the street of Ceila, in his own street.

Ceila, in the tribe of Juda. He inspected the workmen from this place.
Nehemiah 3:18 After him built their brethren Bavai, the son of Enadad, lord of half Ceila.

Nehemiah 3:19 And next to him Aser, the son of Josue, lord of Maspha, built another measure, over-against the going up of the strong corner.

Strong corner, noted for some fortress, tower, (Calmet) or arsenal. (Vatable) (Du Hamel) --- Septuagint, "the ascent connecting the corner." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 3:20 After him in the mount, Baruch, the son of Zachai, built another measure, from the corner to the door of the house of Eliasib, the high priest.

Mount Sion. (Menochius) --- Hebrew and Septuagint, "earnestly repaired;" (Haydock) being indignant at the negligence of his neighbour, or undertaking his work with zeal. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 3:21 After him Merimuth, the son of Urias, the son of Haccus, built another measure, from the door of the house of Eliasib, to the end of the house of Eliasib.

Nehemiah 3:22 And after him built the priests, the men of the plains of the Jordan.

Plains. Septuagint, "from Chechar," retaining the original term cucar, which means "a plain." It lay in the environs of Jerusalem, 2 Esdras 12:28. --- Of the Jordan, is not in Hebrew, etc. (Calmet) --- They might be natives of that place. (Sa) (Vatable) (Menochius)
Nehemiah 3:23 After him built Benjamin and Hasub, over-against their own house: and after him built Azarias, the son of Maasias, the son of Ananias, over-against his house.

Nehemiah 3:24 After him built Bennui, the son of Hanadad, another measure, from the house of Azarias unto the bending, and unto the corner.

Nehemiah 3:25 Phalel, the son of Ozi, over-against the bending and the tower, which lieth out from the king's high house, that is, in the court of the prison: after him Phadaia, the son of Pharos.

Nehemiah 3:26 And the Nathinites dwelt in Ophel, as far as over-against the water-gate toward the east, and the tower that stood out.

Ophel. A very strong tower. See 2 Paralipomenon 27:3., and 33:14. --- East of the great court of the temple, from which it was not remote, as Esdras here harangued the people, 2 Esdras 12:36., and 3 Esdras 8:1. Out of the gate was a pond of water, (Calmet) for the service of the temple. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 3:27 After him the Thecuites built another measure over-against, from the great tower that standeth out unto the wall of the temple.

Nehemiah 3:28 And upward from the horse-gate, the priests built, every man over-against his house.

Horse-gate, by which the king's horses were led to water, at the torrent Cedron. It was near the temple and palace, 4 Kings 11:16. (Calmet) --- Some Rabbins assert that people were obliged to alight here, and to go on foot to the temple. (Lyranus)
Nehemiah 3:29 After them built Sadoc, the son of Emmer, over-against his house. And after him built Semaia, the son of Sechenias, keeper of the east-gate.

\f + \fr 3:29-30\ft After him, Semaia; as the Septuagint, etc., intimate; and not (Calmet) "after me," as if Nehemias spoke of himself, as some Hebrew copies require. (Junius) (Grotius) --- Treasury, or "room." (Pagnin) --- Judgment. Septuagint, "Maphekad." Hebrew mopkod. Protestants, "miphkad," (Haydock) may signify "command, review," etc. We can only guess at the reason of this appellation. (Calmet) --- Perhaps the causes of the Nathinites were here decided, (Menochius) as well as those of others. It seems to be the same with the watch-gate, (chap. 12:38.) and led not out of the city, but into the street of the Nathinites. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 3:30 After him built Hanania, the son of Selemia, and Hanun, the sixth son of Seleph, another measure: after him built Mosollam, the son of Barachias, over-against his treasury. After him Melchias, the goldsmith's son, built unto the house of the Nathinites, and of the sellers of small wares, over-against the judgment-gate, and unto the chamber of the corner,

Nehemiah 3:31 And within the chamber of the corner in the flock-gate, the goldsmiths and the merchants built.

Nehemiah 4:0 The building is carried on notwithstanding the opposition of their enemies.

Nehemiah 4:1 And *it came to pass, that when Sanaballat heard that we were building the wall, he was angry: and being moved exceedingly, he scoffed at the Jews.

Year of the World 3550.
Nehemiah 4:2 And said before his brethren, and the multitude of the Samaritans: What are the silly Jews doing? Will the Gentiles let them alone? will they sacrifice and make an end in a day? are they able to raise stones out of the heaps of the rubbish, which are burnt?

Multitude. Hebrew and Septuagint, "army." (Calmet) --- Silly. Literally, "feeble." (Haydock) --- Sacrifice, at the dedication. (Tirinus) --- Day, in so short a time, as their present vigorous proceedings seem to promise, notwithstanding their feeble condition, and the paucity of their numbers. (Haydock) --- But no: we shall have time enough to hinder them, (Menochius) if the nature of their materials do it not for us. (Haydock) --- Raise. Hebrew, "revive;" a word used for reparations of walls, etc. (Calmet) (Delrio, adag. 221.) --- Septuagint, "heal." God's providence did not permit the enemy to rage, till the work was greatly advanced; so infidels laugh at the attempts of poor priests to restore religion, which nevertheless flourishes. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 4:3 Tobias also, the Ammonite, who was by him said: Let them build: if a fox go up, he will leap over their stone wall.

Leap over. Hebrew, Septuagint, etc., "break down." (Calmet) --- Bitter sarcasm, which excites the indignation of Nehemias! (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 4:4 Hear thou, our God, for we are despised: turn their reproach upon their own head, and give them to be despised in a land of captivity.

Captivity. Since they have not learnt to commiserate others. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 4:5 Cover not their iniquity, and let not their sin be blotted out from before thy face, because they have mocked thy builders.

Face. Punish the obstinate. (Tirinus) --- He does not wish that they may continue impenitent. (Calmet) --- But, on that supposition, he approves of the divine justice, and foretells what will happen. (Estius) --- Revenge was equally criminal under the old law, as it is at present. But the servants of God express their approbation (Calmet) of his inscrutable counsels. The imperative in Hebrew is often used for the future tense. (Haydock) --- Mocked. Protestants, "provoked thee....before the builders." Septuagint omit most of this and the following verses; having only, "Do not hide thyself, with respect to wickedness." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 4:6 So we built the wall, and joined it all together unto the half thereof: and the heart of the people was excited to work.

Thereof, all round; as masons were stationed in different parts, (ver. 19.) and not barely on one side of the city. (Calmet) --- Tobias alludes to the present lowness of the walls, ver. 3. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 4:7 And it came to pass, when Sanaballat, and Tobias, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Azotians, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and the breaches began to be closed, that they were exceedingly angry.

Nehemiah 4:8 And they all assembled themselves together, to come, and to fight against Jerusalem, and to prepare ambushes.

Together, to the number of 180,000, according to the Jews; who say that they were terrified at the excommunication pronounced by 300 priests against them, while 300 young men sounded trumpets; and they fled, leaving Nehemias at liberty to continue the work. It is a pity that we have no foundation for this in Scripture. (Calmet) See 1 Esdras 4:3. (Haydock) --- The Samaritans durst not openly attack the Jews, who were under the protection of the Persian monarch. But they endeavoured clandestinely to injure them, (Tirinus) and to prepare ambushes. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 4:9 And we prayed to our God, and set watchmen upon the wall day and night against them.

Nehemiah 4:10 And Juda said: The strength of the bearer of burdens is decayed, and the rubbish is very much, and we shall not be able to build the wall.

Juda. Some of the Jews, (Menochius) who were dispirited at the greatness of the work and the threats of the enemy. --- Burdens. Septuagint, "of the enemies." Arabic, "the Jews were strengthened, there were many porters, but they could not finish the work." (Calmet) --- Rubbish to be removed. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 4:11 And our enemies said: Let them not know, nor understand, till we come in the midst of them, and kill them, and cause the work to cease.

Nehemiah 4:12 And it came to pass, that when the Jews that dwelt by them, came and told us ten times, out of all the places from whence they came to us,

Ten times, frequently. (Menochius) --- Places, among the Cuthites. --- Whence they. Protestants, "ye return unto us, they will be upon you." Hebrew, the second person is put for the third, which occurs in the Septuagint, etc., though they refer it to the enemy. "They come up from all places against us." (Haydock) --- De Dieu would translate, "return to us," cultivate the friendship of Sanaballat; or "return home," and leave off this work. The sense of the Vulgate is the most easy, and the best. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 4:13 I set the people in the place behind the wall round about in order, with their swords, and spears, and bows.

Place. Hebrew adds, "below." --- Round. Hebrew, "on the hills." (Haydock) --- To remove the apparent contradiction, (Calmet) Protestants supply, "and on the higher places." Septuagint, "in lurking holes," skepeinois.
Nehemiah 4:14 And I looked and rose up: and I said to the chief men and the magistrates, and to the rest of the common people: Be not afraid of them. Remember the Lord, who is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, and your wives, and your houses.

Remember. These are the most powerful arguments to encourage an army. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 4:15 And it came to pass, when our enemies heard that the thing had been told us, that God defeated their counsel. And we returned all of us to the walls, every man to his work.

Nehemiah 4:16 And it came to pass from that day forward, that half of their young men did the work, and half were ready for to fight, with spears, and shields, and bows, and coats of mail, and the rulers were behind them in all the house of Juda.

Their. Hebrew, "my servants," (Menochius) half of whom only wrought, while the rest stood guard. If we adhere to the Vulgate, we must suppose that Nehemias altered his first plan, and ordered almost all to be ready to fight or to labour, as occasion might require, ver. 17. (Calmet) --- In. "Over, (Haydock) or behind all the family of Juda," (Vatable) encouraging the people by word, and sometimes by example. (Tirinus) (Menochius)
Nehemiah 4:17 Of them that built on the wall, and that carried burdens, and that laded: with one of his hands he did the work, and with the other he held a sword.

Sword. Hebrew, "dart." (Calmet) --- The expression seems to be proverbial. So Ovid makes Canacea speak, "My right hand holds the pen, my left the sword;" (Haydock) while I write, I am on the point of killing myself. (Calmet) Dextra tenet calamum, strictum tenet altera ferrum. (Ep. Her.)
Nehemiah 4:18 For every one of the builders was girded with a sword about his reins. And they built, and sounded with a trumpet by me.

By me, when the enemy appeared. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 4:19 And I said to the nobles, and to the magistrates, and to the rest of the common people: The work is great and wide, and we are separated on the wall, one far from another:

Nehemiah 4:20 In what place soever you shall hear the sound of the trumpet, run all thither unto us: our God will fight for us.

For us. Yet we must act with prudence and courage. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 4:21 And let us do the work: and let one half of us hold our spears from the rising of the morning, till the stars appear.

Nehemiah 4:22 At that time, also, I said to the people: Let every one with his servant stay in the midst of Jerusalem, and let us take our turns, in the night, and by day, to work.

Midst. Before they had gone home. (Calmet) --- Let us. Protestants, "that in the night they may be a guard to us, and labour on the day." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 4:23 Now I and my brethren, and my servants, and the watchmen, that followed me, did not put off our clothes: only every man stript himself when he was to be washed.

Clothes, even to sleep. --- Only. Septuagint Complutensian, "man and his arms to the water." (Haydock) --- They went armed to fetch water; (Malvenda) or they had their armour and water always at hand. (Junius, etc.) --- Hebrew, "each kept his dart at the water." It may have various senses. (Calmet) --- Protestants agree with the Vulgate, "saving that every one put them off for washing" (Haydock) them, or themselves. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 5:0 Nehemias blameth the rich for their oppressing the poor. His exhortation, and bounty to his countrymen.

Nehemiah 5:1 Now *there was a great cry of the people, and of their wives, against their brethren, the Jews.

Year of the World 3550. Cry. Ven. Bede (III. 21.) complains of some pastors who neglect the flock, but exacted revenues. May not the same complaint still be made? (Worthington)
Nehemiah 5:2 And there were some that said: Our sons and our daughters are very many: Yet us take up corn for the price of them, and let us eat and live.

Very. Syriac, "and our brethren are too numerous" to find meat. --- For, etc. Hebrew, Septuagint, etc., "by force." (Abenezra, etc.) --- Yet most people explain it in the sense of the Vulgate. It was permitted to sell children in extreme distress, Exodus 21:7. (Grotius) (Calmet)
Nehemiah 5:3 And there were some that said: Let us mortgage our lands, and our vineyards, and our houses, and let us take corn because of the famine.

Let us. Protestants, "We have mortgaged." --- Famine, or "hunger." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 5:4 And others said: Let us borrow money for the king's tribute, and let us give up our fields and vineyards:

Let us. Septuagint Mont.[Montanus?], "We have borrowed" on usury, contrary to Exodus 22:25. The Jews were still obliged to pay tribute.
Nehemiah 5:5 And now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren: and our children as their children. Behold we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters; and some of our daughters are bond-women already, neither have we wherewith to redeem them; and our fields and our vineyards other men possess.

Brethren, who are still in captivity, or we are of the same nature as the rich, (Calmet) who so cruelly oppress us. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 5:6 And I was exceedingly angry, when I heard their cry according to these words.

Nehemiah 5:7 And my heart thought with myself: and I rebuked the nobles and magistrates, and said to them: Do you every one exact usury of your brethren? And I gathered together a great assembly against them,

Against them, as a private rebuke would not suffice. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 5:8 And I said to them: We, as you know, have redeemed, according to our ability, our brethren, the Jews, that were sold to the Gentiles: and will you then sell your brethren, for us to redeem them? And they held their peace, and found not what to answer.

Redeemed, by paying the ransom to the Babylonians, or by using all our endeavours to procure the releasement of our brethren. (Calmet) --- For us. Protestants, "or shall they be sold unto us?" (Haydock) --- A true pastor practises what he preaches to others. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 5:9 And I said to them: The thing you do is not good: why walk you not in the fear of our God, that we be not exposed to the reproaches of the Gentiles, our enemies?

Nehemiah 5:10 Both I and my brethren, and my servants, have lent money and corn to many: let us all agree not to call for it again; let us forgive the debt that is owing to us.

Nehemiah 5:11 Restore ye to them this day their fields, and their vineyards, and their oliveyards, and their houses: and the hundredth part of the money, and of the corn, the wine, and the oil, which you were wont to exact of them, give it rather for them.

For them, to the Persian governors, ver. 14. (Haydock) --- Nehemias remits this pension, which was before paid by the people, and exacted by the rich. (Wolphius) --- Du Moulin asserts that there is no question of usury, which the Jews always abhorred, much less of that which the Romans called the 100th, (Calmet) consisting in the payment of 12 per cent, (Tirinus) or one every month. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "Give back to them, " (Haydock) that they may enjoy those things.
Nehemiah 5:12 And they said: We will restore, and we will require nothing of them: and we will do as thou sayest. And I called the priests, and took an oath of them, to do according to what I had said.

Oath of them. Priests, in private, (Menochius) who were not innocent; (Tirinus) or these were witnesses of the oath taken by the rich. (Piscator)
Nehemiah 5:13 Moreover, I shook my lap, and said: So may God shake every man that shall not accomplish this word, out of his house, and out of his labours: thus may he be shaken out, and become empty. And all the multitude said: Amen. And they praised God. And the people did according to what was said.

Lap, or skirt of my robes. (Tirinus) --- Such figurative actions were very common. Thus a Roman ambassador at Carthage, folding up his garment, said he brought peace or war. (Livy 21:18.) (Calmet) --- Said. Behold how easily was that effected at Jerusalem, which the Romans could never perfectly bring about, after the most violent riots! (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 5:14 And from the day, in which the king commanded me to be governor in the land of Juda, from the twentieth year, even to the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes, the king, for twelve years, I and my brethren, did not eat the yearly allowance that was due to the governors.

Not eat, out of pity for the poor. (Menochius) --- He was supported by the king, (Calmet) or by his own patrimony. (Haydock) (Ver. 11.)
Nehemiah 5:15 But the former governors that had been before me, were chargeable to the people, and took of them, in bread, and wine, and in money, every day, forty sicles: and their officers also oppressed the people. But I did not so for the fear of God.

Nehemiah 5:16 Moreover, I built in the work of the wall, and I bought no land, and all my servants were gathered together to the work.

Wall, pleading no exemption, but making my servants work. (Calmet) --- Though no particular portion was assigned to him, he helped all. (Tirinus) --- No land, as I might have done, on advantageous terms. (Haydock) --- Rare example of disinterestedness! He praises himself without vanity, only to induce others to follow the same course. So Moses, David, St. Paul, and others acted, Numbers 12:3., etc.
Nehemiah 5:17 The Jews also, and the magistrates, to the number of one hundred and fifty men, were at my table, besides them that came to us from among the nations that were round about us.

Men, my brethren, not (Calmet) Persians. (Grotius) --- Them; ambassadors. (Menochius) --- If Nehemias behaved with such generosity for twelve years, he must have been very rich; or he received a great pension from the king, or voluntary and abundant contributions from the rich.
Nehemiah 5:18 And there was prepared for me, day by day, one ox, and six choice rams, besides fowls, and once in ten days I gave store of divers wines, and many other things: yet I did not require my yearly allowance as governor: for the people were very much impoverished.

Wines. This was only produced, in abundance, on extraordinary occasions; for the people of the East do not drink wine at every feast, Ecclesiasticus 31:17. (Calmet) --- Yearly. Septuagint, "Moreover, loaves of extortion I did not seek, because a hard servitude lay upon this people." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 5:19 Remember me, O my God, for good, according to all that I have done for this people.

Good. A good conscience confidently hopeth for a reward. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 6:0 The enemies seek to terrify Nehemias. He proceedeth and finisheth the wall.

Nehemiah 6:1 And *it came to pass, when Sanaballat, and Tobias, and Gossem, the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had built the wall, and that there was no breach left in it (though at that time I had not set up the doors in the gates,)

Year of the World 3550.
Nehemiah 6:2 Sanaballat and Gossem sent to me, saying: Come, and let us make a league together in the villages, in the plain of Ono. But they thought to do me mischief.

Make. Protestants, "meet together." (Haydock) --- When the adversaries of faith find themselves unable to suppress it, they offer peace: so when Protestants began, and where they are still weak, they would have none persecuted for any opinions in religious matters; "but where they are strong they hardly grant toleration to Catholics." (Worthington) --- This has been no where more observable than in these [British] islands, where the spirit of persecution has not yet subsided, though banished from most other countries. See Dr. Milner's 4th let. to a Preb.; Debates in Parl. 1810, etc. (Haydock) --- Villages. Most of the Latin editions, before Sixtus V read, in vitulis in campo uno, (Calmet) "with sacrifices of calves in some one field." (Haydock) --- Perhaps Cephirim, (Tirinus) or copirim, "villages," (Haydock) may be the name of a place in the plain of Ono, (Tirinus) which is styled the valley of craftsmen, (chap. 11:35.; Calmet) in the tribe of Benjamin, near the Jordan. (Adrichomius) --- Mischief, by taking or killing. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 6:3 And I sent messengers to them, saying: I am doing a great work, and I cannot come down, lest it be neglected whilst I come, and go down to you.

You. This was one, (Haydock) though not the principal reason which hindered him. It is often adviseable not to seem to suspect any evil.
Nehemiah 6:4 And they sent to me according to this word, four times: and I answered them after the same manner.

Nehemiah 6:5 And Sanaballat sent his servant to me the fifth time, according to the former word, and he had a letter in his hand, written in this manner:

\f + \fr 6:5-6\ft Letter. Hebrew, Septuagint, and Arabic add, "open:" but this word is not in Syriac. The letter might be an order to appear, or might be left open to signify that the bearer was a man of confidence, from whom Nehemias might receive any farther information; unless it was sent in this manner out of contempt. --- Gossem, the Arabian governor, 2 Esdras 2:19. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 6:6 It is reported amongst the Gentiles, and Gossem hath said it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel, and therefore thou buildest the wall, and hast a mind to set thyself king over them: for which end

Nehemiah 6:7 Thou hast also set up prophets, to preach of thee at Jerusalem, saying: There is a king in Judea. The king will hear of these things: therefore come now, that we may take counsel together.

Prophets. This was false; though, no doubt, the true prophets who lived at that time, would promote the laudable undertakings of Nehemias. (Haydock) --- To counteract their influence, the enemies hired Semaia and Noadias, ver. 10., and 14. --- Together, that thou mayst clear thyself; (Vatable) or that we may repress these rumors, lest the king should suspect us of any connivance. The first sense appears to be preferable. Nehemias did not take the information as a piece of civility. (Calmet) --- The enemies left it ambiguous, whether they would not join their forces with his, in case he meant to revolt. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 6:8 And I sent to them, saying: There is no such thing done as thou sayest: but thou feignest these things out of thy own heart.

Nehemiah 6:9 For all these men thought to frighten us, thinking that our hands would cease from the work, and that we would leave off. Wherefore I strengthened my hands the more:

1:Hebrew, "Now, O Lord, strengthen my hands; (Junius, etc.) or, "now strengthening my hands, (Calmet) I went," etc. Septuagint, etc., agree with the Vulgate. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 6:10 And I went into the house of Samaia, the son of Dalaia, the son of Metabeel, privately. And he said: Let us consult together in the house of God in the midst of the temple: and let us shut the doors of the temple, for they will come to kill thee, and in the night they will come to slay thee.

Went, being invited. (Tirinus) --- Semaia, of the twenty-third course of priests, 1 Paralipomenon 24:18. (Menochius) --- Privately. Hebrew, "who was shut up," like a recluse, (Haydock) to deceive the people, by the appearance of superior sanctity, and by an imitation of the true prophets. (Calmet) --- Some translate hatsur, "bound by vow," (1 Kings 21:7.) to protect the governor; (Malvenda) but this seems too far-fetched. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 6:11 And I said: Should such a man as I flee? and who is there that, being as I am, would go into the temple, to save his life? I will not go in.

Should. Literally, "Does one like me retire from his post? And who like me shall enter the temple and live?" (Haydock) --- It is unlawful for a layman to flee into the part of the temple assigned to the priests. Yet into this he had been invited, as the court of Israel was not perhaps yet secured. Those who suppose that Nehemias was a priest, say (Calmet) that he refused to flee, lest he should intimidate the people by his cowardly departure. (Tirinus) (Menochius) --- Semaia might also have a design upon his life, when they should be alone.
Nehemiah 6:12 And I understood that God had not sent him, but that he had spoken to me as if he had been prophesying, and Tobias, and Sanaballat, had hired him.

Understood, by the nature of the suggestion, and the manner in which he heard the refusal. Aggeus, or some of the true prophets, might also inform him, (Calmet) or a supernatural light irradiated his mind, unless human sagacity sufficed. (Tirinus) (Menochius)
Nehemiah 6:13 For he had taken money, that I, being afraid, should do this thing, and sin, and they might have some evil to upbraid me withal.

Sin, by taking any false step, so as to offend the people.
Nehemiah 6:14 Remember me, O Lord, for Tobias and Sanaballat, according to their works of this kind: and Noadias, the prophet, and the rest of the prophets, that would have put me in fear.

Prophet. Hebrew, "the prophetess." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "My God, think thou upon Tobiah,...and on the prophetess Noadiah."
Nehemiah 6:15 But the wall was finished the five and twentieth day of the month of Elul, in two and fifty days.

Elul, the last of the civil year, corresponding with our August and September, when the walls were dedicated, 2 Esdras 12:27. --- Days. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 11:5.) says, "two years and three (Greek four) months" (Haydock) had been spent in perfecting the work. (Cajetan) --- Others date from the reception of the letter, ver. 5. (Vatable) --- But the work only lasted the time here specified, as the materials were at hand, and some of the walls were standing, while the rocks defended other parts; and the city was not then so large as it was afterwards. (Calmet) --- The whole people wrought almost day and night, and Nehemias encouraged them with all his power. (Tirinus) --- Thus Alexander the Great built the walls of New Alexandria, on the Tanais, 60 stadia, or near 6000 paces (Calmet) long, in less than twenty days; (Tirinus) and Caesar perfected other works, before Alise, etc., with equal expedition. (Bel. Gal. i., and vii.) --- The Romans, at the last siege of Jerusalem, surrounded the city with a wall 5000 paces long, and with thirteen towers, in three days. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 6:13.) (Calmet)
Nehemiah 6:16 And it came to pass, when all our enemies heard of it, that all nations which were round about us, were afraid, and were cast down within themselves, for they perceived that this work was the work of God.

Nehemiah 6:17 Moreover, in those days, many letters were sent by the principal men of the Jews to Tobias; and from Tobias there came letters to them.

Nehemiah 6:18 For there were many in Judea sworn to him, because he was the son-in-law of Sechenias, the son of Area, and Johanan, his son, had taken to wife the daughter of Mosollam, the son of Barachias.

Mosollam, one of the builders, 2 Esdras 3:4. (Menochius) --- These two powerful men had consequently acted contrary to the laws of God, and the covenant of Esdras, with respect to marriages. They might fear the resentment of the zealous governor. Dangers from false brethren, (2 Corinthians 11:26.) wars without, and fears within, generally assail the servants of God. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 6:19 And they praised him also before me, and they related my words to him: and Tobias sent letters to put me in fear.

Nehemiah 7:0 Nehemias appointeth watchmen in Jerusalem. The list of those who came first from Babylon.

Nehemiah 7:1 Now *after the wall was built, and I had set up the doors, and numbered the porters and singing men, and Levites:

Ecclesiasticus 49:15.
Year of the World 3550.
Nehemiah 7:2 I commanded Hanani, my brother, and Hananias, ruler of the house of Jerusalem, (for he seemed as a sincere man, and one that feared God above the rest),

House: "the citadel;" (Tigurin) "palace." (Vatable) --- The Septuagint retain the original, Beira, (Haydock) which signifies a palace, (Pagnin) concerning which Nehemias had spoken, 2 Esdras 2:8. (Menochius) --- But as it was not yet built, the house, being placed alone, more properly signifies the temple. We read of Zacharias and Jehiel, who occupied the same post (Calmet) as Hananias, 2 Paralipomenon 35:8. (Haydock) He was next to Eliasib, the high priest. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 7:3 And I said to them: Let not the gates of Jerusalem be opened till the sun be hot. And while they were yet standing by, the gates were shut, and barred: and I set watchmen of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, every one by their courses, and every man over-against his house.

Sun. Literally, "the heat of the sun," or perfect daylight. (Haydock) --- They. Syriac and Arabic, "while it was still day," (Calmet) or the sun shone. Before dusk the gates were shut, to prevent any improper person from entering. (Haydock) --- House, on the walls. (Calmet) --- These things protect a city; as grace a guard over the senses, and watchfulness do the soul. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 7:4 And the city was very wide and great, and the people few in the midst thereof, and the houses were not built.

Not built, sufficient for so great a multitude. (Calmet) --- They lodged under tents, or in huts. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 7:5 But God had put in my heart, and I assembled the princes and magistrates, and common people, to number them: and I found a book of the number of them who came up at the first, and therein it was found written:

Heart, inspired me to provide inhabitants for the city, as was afterwards done by lot, 2 Esdras 11. (Tirinus) --- Written. Hence it seems evident that Nehemias here only transcribes this ancient record, of those who came under Zorobabel, and consequently this chapter ought to agree with 1 Esdras ii., as well as with 3 Esdras 5:9., (Haydock) which is now strangely corrupted; so that it can throw no light upon the matter. (Calmet) --- Some think that various catalogues were taken, at Babylon, at the first coming to Jerusalem, (Menochius) and at the dedication of the temple; (Tirinus) and that Nehemias refer to a different one from that of Esdras. (Sa) (Lucas) (Tirinus) --- Others suppose that changes were introduced, as the families were increased or diminished, in the time of Nehemias; (Tirinus) who, therefore, judged it necessary to write a fresh catalogue, but only adjusted the old one to the present circumstances, including probably the names of those who had returned with Esdras, or with himself. (Calmet) --- This seems contrary to the text, a book of, etc., and it would perhaps be as well to allow that the variations arise from transcribers, as all allow that many of the names and numbers are corrupted. (Haydock) --- The similarity of Hebrew letters for different numbers might easily occasion this; as we cannot suppose but Esdras would be able to give the total of sixty particular sums. (Watson, let. 5.)
Nehemiah 7:6 *These are the children of the province, who came up from the captivity of them that had been carried away, whom Nabuchodonosor, the king of Babylon had carried away, and who returned into Judea, every one into his own city.

1 Esdras 2:1.
Nehemiah 7:7 Who came with Zorobabel, Josue, Nehemias, Azarias, Raamias, Nahamani, Mardochai, Belsam, Mespharath, Begoai, Nahum, Baana. The number of the men of the people of Israel:

Nehemiah 7:8 The children of Pharos, two thousand one hundred seventy-two.

Nehemiah 7:9 The children of Saphatia, three hundred seventy-two.

Nehemiah 7:10 The children of Area, six hundred fifty-two.

Nehemiah 7:11 The children of Phahath Moab, of the children of Josue and Joab, two thousand eight hundred eighteen.

Nehemiah 7:12 The children of Elam, one thousand two hundred fifty-four.

Nehemiah 7:13 The children of Zethua, eight hundred forty-five.

Nehemiah 7:14 The children of Zachai, seven hundred sixty.

Nehemiah 7:15 The children of Bannui, six hundred forty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:16 The children of Bebai, six hundred twenty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:17 The children of Azgad, two thousand three hundred twenty-two.

Nehemiah 7:18 The children of Adonicam, six hundred sixty-seven.

Nehemiah 7:19 The children of Beguai, two thousand sixty-seven.

Nehemiah 7:20 The children of Adin, six hundred fifty-five.

Nehemiah 7:21 The children of Ater, children of Hezecias, ninety-eight.

Nehemiah 7:22 The children of Hasem, three hundred twenty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:23 The children of Besai, three hundred twenty-four.

Nehemiah 7:24 The children of Hareph, a hundred and twelve.

Nehemiah 7:25 The children of Gabaon, ninety-five.

Nehemiah 7:26 The children of Bethlehem, and Netupha, a hundred eighty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:27 The men of Anathoth, a hundred twenty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:28 The men of Bethazmoth, forty-two.

Nehemiah 7:29 The men of Cariathiarim, Cephira, and Beroth, seven hundred forty-three.

Nehemiah 7:30 The men of Rama and Geba, six hundred twenty-one.

Nehemiah 7:31 The men of Machmas, a hundred twenty-two.

Nehemiah 7:32 The men of Bethel and Hai, a hundred twenty-three.

Nehemiah 7:33 The men of the other Nebo, fifty-two.

Other Nebo. We find no first mentioned; but in the ancient Latin edition, Nebo occurred instead of Geba, ver. 30. See 1 Esdras 2:29. Septuagint and Arabic omit, "the other." This Nebo may be Nob, or Nobe, in the tribe of Benjamin. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 7:34 The men of the other Elam, one thousand two hundred fifty-four.

Nehemiah 7:35 The children of Harem, three hundred and twenty.

Nehemiah 7:36 The children of Jericho, three hundred forty-five.

Nehemiah 7:37 The children of Lod, of Hadid and Ono, seven hundred twenty-one.

Nehemiah 7:38 The children of Senaa, three thousand nine hundred thirty.

Nehemiah 7:39 The priests: The children of Idaia, in the house of Josue, nine hundred and seventy-three.

Nehemiah 7:40 The children of Emmer, one thousand fifty-two.

Nehemiah 7:41 41The children of Phashur, one thousand two hundred forty-seven.

Nehemiah 7:42 The children of Arem, one thousand and seventeen. The Levites:

Nehemiah 7:43 The children of Josue and Cedmihel, the sons

The sons; or, "who were the sons (filiorum) of Oduia." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 7:44 Of Oduia, seventy-four: The singing men:

Nehemiah 7:45 The children of Asaph, a hundred forty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:46 The porters: The children of Sellum, the children of Ater, the children of Telmon, the children of Accub, the children of Hatita, the children of Sobai: a hundred thirty-eight.

Nehemiah 7:47 The Nathinites: The children of Soha, the children of Hasupha, the children of Tebbaoth,

Nehemiah 7:48 The children of Ceros, the children of Siaa, the children of Phadon, the children of Lebana, the children of Hagaba, the children of Selmai,

Nehemiah 7:49 The children of Hanan, the children of Geddel, the children of Gaher,

Nehemiah 7:50 The children of Raaia, the children of Rasin, the children of Necoda,

Nehemiah 7:51 The children of Gezem, the children of Asa, the children of Phasea,

Nehemiah 7:52 The children of Besai, the children of Munim, the children of Nephussim,

Nehemiah 7:53 The children of Bacbuc, the children of Hacupha, the children of Harhur.

Nehemiah 7:54 The children of Besloth, the children of Mahida, the children of Harsa,

Nehemiah 7:55 The children of Bercos, the children of Sisara, the children of Thema,

Nehemiah 7:56 The children of Nasia, the children of Hatipha,

Nehemiah 7:57 The children of the servants of Solomon, the children of Sothai, the children of Sophereth, the children of Pharida,

Nehemiah 7:58 The children of Jahala, the children of Darcon, the children of Jeddel,

Nehemiah 7:59 The children of Saphatia, the children of Hatil, the children of Phochereth, who was born of Sabaim, the son of Amon.

Nehemiah 7:60 All the Nathinites, and the children of the servants of Solomon, three hundred ninety-two.

Nehemiah 7:61 And these are they that came up from Thelmela, Thelharsa, Cherub, Addon, and Emmer: and could not shew the house of their fathers, nor their seed, whether they were of Israel.

Nehemiah 7:62 The children of Dalaia, the children of Tobia, the children of Necoda, six hundred forty-two.

Nehemiah 7:63 And of the priests, the children of Habia, the children of Accos, the children of Berzellai, who took a wife of the daughters of Berzellai, the Galaadite, and he was called by their name.

Nehemiah 7:64 These sought their writing in the record, and found it not: and they were cast out of the priesthood.

Nehemiah 7:65 And Athersatha said to them: That they should not eat of the Holies of Holies, until there stood up a priest, learned and skilful.

Athersatha; Nehemias, (Calmet) as he is called in Chaldean, 1 Esdras 2:63. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 7:66 All the multitude, as it were one man, forty-two thousand three hundred sixty,

Nehemiah 7:67 Beside their men-servants and women-servants, who were seven thousand three hundred thirty-seven: and among them, singing men and singing women, two hundred forty-five.

Nehemiah 7:68 Their horses, seven hundred thirty-six: their mules, two hundred forty-five:

Their. Hebrew, Roman Septuagint, Syriac and Arabic omit this verse; but it is found in the Alexandrian Septuagint and even in the Rab. Bible, printed at Venice, 1564, as well as in the 1st and 3rd Esdras, (Calmet) and it is inserted by Protestants. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 7:69 Their camels, four hundred thirty-five, their asses, six thousand seven hundred and twenty. [Hitherto is related what was written in the record. From this place forward goeth on the history of Nehemias.]

Hitherto. This is not in the original, or in the other versions. It is inserted in the margin of some Latin manuscripts, and entirely omitted in others of great authority. The gloss might have been placed after ver. 64. (Calmet) --- Yet some of the following verses seem also to be copied from 1 Esdras. (Haydock) --- St. Jerome informs us from what sources the work was compiled, which is all declared canonical by the Church, (Worthington) whether written by Esdras or by Nehemias. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 7:70 And some of the heads of the families gave unto the work. Athersatha gave into the treasure a thousand drams of gold, fifty bowls, and five hundred and thirty garments for priests.

Athersatha; that is, Nehemias, as appears from 2 Esdras 8:9. Either that he was so called at the court of the king of Persia, where he was cup-bearer, or that, as some think, this name signifies governor; and he was at that time governor of Judea. (Challoner) --- Roman Septuagint insinuates that the princes gave these things "to Nehemias." (Calmet) --- Alexandrian Septuagint, "They gave for the work, unto Athersatha." --- Protestants, "The Tirshatha gave," etc. (Haydock) --- Thersa means, "he fed," and satha, "he caused to drink." (Tirinus) --- The A, at the beginning, is only the article. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 7:71 And some of the heads of families gave to the treasure of the work, twenty thousand drams of gold, and two thousand two hundred pounds of silver.

Nehemiah 7:72 And that which the rest of the people gave, was twenty thousand drams of gold, and two thousand pounds of silver, and sixty-seven garments for priests.

Nehemiah 7:73 And the priests, and the Levites, and the porters, and the singing men, and the rest of the common people, and the Nathinites, and all Israel, dwelt in their cities.

Nehemiah 8:0 Esdras readeth the law before the people. Nehemias comforteth them. They celebrate the feast of tabernacles.

Nehemiah 8:1 And *the seventh month came: and the children of Israel were in their cities. And all the people were gathered together as one man, to the street which is before the water-gate, and they spoke to Esdras, the scribe, to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the Lord had commanded to Israel.

Year of the World 3551, Year before Christ 453. Were in, or had been at home, (Haydock) after the dedication of the walls, (Calmet) till they assembled (Haydock) at the beginning of the civil year, on the feast of trumpets, which was a day of rejoicing, (ver. 9., and Numbers 29:1.) the festival of the new moon. (Ribera) (Menochius) --- Gate, near the temple, 2 Esdras 3:26. (Calmet) --- Moses; the pentateuch. (Menochius) --- He is not desired to restore what was lost. (Tirinus) --- As many copies had been preserved by the prophets, which Esdras revised. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 8:2 Then Esdras, the priest, brought the law before the multitude of men and women, and all those that could understand, in the first day of the seventh month.

Women, who were in a separate place. --- Understand, being come to the use of reason. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 8:3 And he read it plainly in the street that was before the water-gate, from the morning until mid-day, before the men, and the women, and all those that could understand: and the ears of all the people were attentive to the book.

It plainly. Protestants, "therein, before the street." (Haydock) --- Esdras probably read select pieces from Leviticus, etc., but principally from Deuteronomy. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 8:4 And Esdras, the scribe, stood upon a step of wood, which he had made to speak upon: and there stood by him, Mathathias, and Semeia, and Ania, and Uria, and Helcia, and Maasia, on his right hand: and on the left, Phadaia, Misael, and Melchia, and Hasum, and Hasbadana, Zacharia and Mosollam.

Step. Hebrew, "wooden tower." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "pulpit," (Haydock) made in the form of a cup," (Calmet) like the cior, or tribune of Solomon, 2 Paralipomenon 6:13. --- Mosollam. We should imagine that this was not the person who had given his daughter in marriage to the son of Tobias, 2 Esdras 6:18. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 8:5 And Esdras opened the book before all the people: for he was above all the people: and when he had opened it, all the people stood.

Stood, out of respect, as we do while the gospel is read. See Numbers 23:18. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 8:6 And Esdras blessed the Lord, the great God: and all the people answered: Amen, amen: lifting up their hands: and they bowed down, and adored God with their faces to the ground.

Nehemiah 8:7 Now Josue, and Bani, and Serebia, Jamin, Accub, Sephthai, Odia, Maasia, Celita, Azarias, Jozabed, Hanan, Phalaia, the Levites, made silence among the people to hear the law: and the people stood in their place.

Nehemiah 8:8 And they read in the book of the law of God distinctly and plainly to be understood: and they understood when it was read.

Understood, by those who were near enough, and were skilled in Hebrew, (Haydock) though many began to forget that language; (chap. 13:24.) and for their benefit, an explanation was given in Chaldean, (ver. 9.; Calmet) or Syriac, the vulgar tongue after the captivity. Pure Hebrew was still retained in the public liturgy. (Tirinus) --- Thus the Catholic Church retains the use of the language first use in the conversion of the respective people, whether Greek, Latin, etc., while she takes care to explain to the people what is necessary, in their own language. Any change might be attended with more serious inconveniences than benefit. Our Saviour never blamed this practice, which subsisted among the Jews in his time, no more than that which obliged the people to keep without, while the priest offered incense, etc., Luke 1:10, 21. --- And plainly. Protestants, "and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading," as much as they were able, though many would, no doubt, still find difficulties, as we do at present. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 8:9 And Nehemias (he is Athersatha) and Esdras, the priest and scribe, and the Levites, who interpreted to all the people, said: This is a holy day to the Lord, our God: do not mourn, nor weep: for all the people wept, when they heard the words of the law.

Interpreted. St. Jerome renders the same term, made silence, (ver. 7.) as it was the office of the Levites to keep the people in awe, ver. 11. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "taught." They had also (Haydock) to instruct, 1 Esdras 8:16. (Menochius) --- Weep. The Jews had only one feast for mourning, the day of expiation. On all the rest, a holy joy was commended. For the same reason, the Church does not fast on such days. (Calmet) --- Law, reflecting on the threats denounced against transgressors, which they had so lately witnessed. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 8:10 And he said to them: Go, eat fat meats, and drink sweet wine, and send portions to them that have not prepared for themselves: because it is the holy day of the Lord, and be not sad: for the joy of the Lord is our strength.

Wine. Hebrew and Septuagint, "things." Syriac and Arabic have simply, "drink." --- Portions. The Greeks styled them, merides; and the Latins, sportulae. The custom prevailed not only among the Jews, (Esther 9:19.) but also among Christians and pagans. Moses frequently exhorts the people to invite the poor; (Deuteronomy 16:14.) and St. Paul blames the rich Corinthians, for giving no part of their feast to them, 1 Corinthians 11:21. --- Strength. By this holy joy, we shall be encouraged to perform all our duties. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "Be not downcast, because he (the Lord) is our strength." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 8:11 And the Levites stilled all the people, saying: Hold your peace, for the day is holy, and be not sorrowful.

Nehemiah 8:12 So all the people went to eat and drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth: because they understood the words that he had taught them.

Nehemiah 8:13 And on the second day the chiefs of the families of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, were gathered together to Esdras, the scribe, that he should interpret to them the words of the law.

Law, concerning some difficulties, particularly the manner of keeping the ensuing festival. (Tirinus) --- Thus Christ explained to his disciples what he had spoken to the people. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 8:14 And they found written in the law, that the Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in tabernacles, on the feast in the seventh month:

Nehemiah 8:15 And that they should proclaim and publish the word in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: Go forth to the mount, and fetch branches of olive, and branches of beautiful wood, branches of myrtle, and branches of palm, and branches of thick trees, to make tabernacles, as it is written.

And that. This is not expressed in the law, though it was probably practised. (Calmet) --- Some translate, "And they proclaimed," etc. (Vatable) --- Beautiful. Literally, "very or most beautiful." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "of oily wood." Septuagint, "cypress." Syriac, "nut-tree." Others understand the pine, (Pagnin) balm, (Mariana) citron, (Haydock) or any other species of branches, which might then be used. (Calmet) (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 8:16 And the people went forth, and brought. And they made themselves tabernacles every man on the top of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the street of the water-gate, and in the street of the gate of Ephraim.

House, which was flat. (Haydock) --- The tents might be erected in any place; in the open air. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 8:17 And all the assembly of them that were returned from the captivity, *made tabernacles, and dwelt in tabernacles: for since the days of Josue, the son of Nun, the children of Israel had not done so, until that day: and there was exceedingly great joy.

Leviticus 23:39.
Done so, with such alacrity, though they had displayed more magnificence. See the meaning of similar expressions, 4 Kings 23:22. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 8:18 And he read in the book of the law of God, day by day, from the first day till the last, and they kept the solemnity seven days, and in the eighth day a solemn assembly according to the manner.

Assembly. Literally, "the collect." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "the day of retention;" the people being kept at the temple. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the dismission;" as they were afterwards permitted to depart. (Haydock) See Leviticus 23:26. --- It was probably on this occasion, that the sacred fire was found again; (2 Machabees 1:18.; Calmet) and also the ark, the tabernacle, and the altar of incense, which had been hidden by Jeremias, 2 Machabees 2:4. (Torniel, the year of the world 3610.) (Cano, etc.) --- But this is not so certain. (Haydock) (Calmet, Diss.)
Nehemiah 9:0 The people repent with fasting and sack-cloth. The Levites confess God's benefits, and the people's ingratitude: they pray for them, and make a coventant with God.

Nehemiah 9:1 And *in the four and twentieth day of the month, the children of Israel came together with fasting, and with sack-cloth, and earth upon them.

Year of the World 3551. Month; Tizri, the day after they had sent away those women, (Calmet) whose company now covered them with confusion. (Haydock) --- They were moved to compunction, by the hearing of the law, read by Esdras. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 9:2 And the seed of the children of Israel separated themselves from every stranger: and they stood, and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers.

Stranger; idolatrous woman. (Haydock) --- True repentance requires the works of mortification, and particularly the removal of all occasions of sin and disorderly pleasures. (Worthington) --- The reformation had been commenced under Esdras, but some had relapsed, 1 Esdras 10:3. (Calmet) --- The true born Israelites would have no society with the sons of infidels. (Tirinus) --- Fathers, that they might not be punished for them, Exodus 20:5. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:3 And they rose up to stand: and they read in the book of the law of the Lord, their God, four times in the day, and four times they confessed, and adored the Lord, their God.

Stand, to hear the law, out of reverence; (Menochius) or the Levites ascended the pulpit to read, four times in the day. (Tirinus) --- After each lecture psalms were sung, (Calmet) to praise God, and to declare the sins of the people, and their sincere repentance. (Haydock) --- On days of mourning, the Jews assembled four times to pray, and thrice on other days, by the institution of Esdras. (Maimonides) See Acts 3:1. --- On their fasts, they refrained from all meat, as well as from work, spending their time in prayer. They began at the first hour, and continued their exercises of devotion till the third, when they recommenced for other three hours. They did the like at the sixth and ninth hours; hearing the law, then prostrating themselves to confess their sins. Afterwards they rose to join with the Levites in praising the Lord. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:4 And there stood up upon the step of the Levites, Josue, and Bani, and Cedmihel, Sabania, Bonni, Sarebias, Bani, and Chanani: and they cried with a loud voice to the Lord, their God.

Step, erected by Esdras, 2 Esdras 8:4. --- Josue, etc. These Levites are mentioned again, (ver. 5.) with some variation. Bani is called Bonni; Sebania, is Hasebnia. (Calmet) --- Perhaps some of them might be different, as there seems to be no reason for thus changing their names so soon. There are eight persons in both places. Septuagint have, "Jesus and the sons (Bani) of Kadmiel, Sachania, son of Sarabaia, the sons of Chanani, etc.; (5.) and the Levites, Jesus and Kadmiel said, Arise, etc. (6.) and Esdras said, Thou," etc. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 9:5 And the Levites, Josue and Cedmihel, Bonni, Hasebnia, Serebia, Odaia, Sebnia, and Phathahia, said: Arise, bless the Lord, your God, from eternity to eternity: and blessed be the high name of thy glory, with all blessing and praise.

To eternity. Existing. (Sa) --- Bless him continually. (Menochius) --- Let one generation after another praise his holy name. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 9:6 Thou, thyself, O Lord, alone, thou hast made heaven, and the heaven of heavens, and all the host thereof: the earth, and all things that are in it: the seas, and all that are therein: and thou givest life to all these things, and the host of heaven adoreth thee.

Of heavens. The highest, (Calmet) and most glorious (Haydock) residence of the Eternal. --- Host. Stars (Calmet) and angels, (Menochius) which are like his guards. --- Life, or being. If the Levites had adopted the sentiments of the Persians, that the stars were animated, this does not prove the truth of that opinion, which has nevertheless been maintained by many, Genesis 1:18. (Calmet) --- The expression is used for preserving, (Psalm 40:3.; Menochius) re-establishing, etc., 2 Esdras 4:2. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:7 Thou, O Lord God, art he who didst choose Abram *and broughtest him forth out of the fire of the Chaldeans, and gavest him the name of Abraham.

Genesis 11:31.
The fire of the Chaldeans. The city of Ur, in Chaldea, the name of which signifies fire. Or out of the fire of the tribulations and temptations, to which he was there exposed. The ancient Rabbins understood this literally, affirming that Abraham was cast into the fire by the idolaters, and brought out by a miracle without any hurt. (Challoner) --- The Chaldeans adored fire, (St. Jerome, q. Heb. in Genesis 11:31.) and the Persians probably imitated them. (Strabo xv.) --- The emperor Heraclius destroyed their Pyreia. (Suidas.) --- St. Jerome translates Ur of the Chaldeans, in all other places. (Amama) --- Septuagint, "the country of," etc. (Calmet) --- It is supposed that the sacred fire preserved in this city, gave name to it, (Ur, "fire,") as Heliopolis was so called, from the particular worship of "the sun." (Haydock) --- Abraham, to imply some mystery, Genesis xvii. (Worthington) --- See Isaias 43:27.
Nehemiah 9:8 And thou didst find his heart faithful before thee: and thou madest a covenant with him, to give him the land of the Chanaanite, of the Hethite, and of the Amorrhite, and of the Pherezite, and of the Jebusite, and of the Gergesite, to give it to his seed: and thou hast fulfilled thy words, because thou art just.

Nehemiah 9:9 And thou sawest the affliction of our fathers in Egypt: and thou didst hear their cry by the Red Sea.

Nehemiah 9:10 And thou shewedst signs and wonders upon Pharao, and upon all his servants, and upon the people of his land: for thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them: and thou madest thyself a name, as it is at this day.

A name, Glorious, (Menochius) and to be feared by all, Exodus xiv.
Nehemiah 9:11 And thou didst divide the sea before them, and they passed through the midst of the sea on dry land: but their persecutors thou threwest into the depth, as a stone into mighty waters.

Nehemiah 9:12 And in a pillar of a cloud thou wast their leader by day, and in a pillar of fire by night, that they might see the way by which they went.

Nehemiah 9:13 Thou camest down, also, to Mount Sinai, and didst speak with them from heaven, and thou gavest them right judgments, and the law of truth, ceremonies, and good precepts.

Nehemiah 9:14 Thou madest known to them thy holy sabbath, and didst prescribe to them commandments, and ceremonies, and the law, by the hand of Moses, thy servant.

Sabbath. Which it seems had not been observed by them before, (Exodus 16:23.; Calmet) at least not with such exactitude. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 9:15 And thou gavest them bread from heaven in their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock in their thirst, and thou saidst to them that they should go in, and possess the land, upon which thou hadst lifted up thy hand to give it them.

Hand. Promising with an oath, (Genesis 14:22.; Menochius; and 22:16.; Calmet) or displaying thy power. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 9:16 But they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardened their necks, and hearkened not to thy commandments.

Nehemiah 9:17 And they would not hear, and they remembered not thy wonders which thou hadst done for them. And they hardened their necks, and set their head to return to their bondage, as it were by contention. But thou, a forgiving God, gracious, and merciful, long-suffering, and full of compassion, didst not forsake them.

Their head. Or appointed a leader instead of Moses, (Numbers 14:4.; Menochius) or an idol, Exodus 32:1. Septuagint, "they gave a beginning, or a chief to return." Syriac, "their heart returned to their crimes." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "and in their rebellion appointed a captain to," etc. They turned their back upon the promised land, and set their faces to return into Egypt. (Haydock) --- Sinners are not deprived of free-will. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 9:18 Yea, when they had made also to themselves a molten calf, and had said: This is thy God, that brought thee out of Egypt: and had committed great blasphemies:

Blasphemies. By attributing the perfections of God to a senseless idol. Protestants follow the Septuagint, "provocations." Neatsoth (Haydock) properly implies words of an insulting nature. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:19 Yet thou, in thy many mercies, didst not leave them in the desert: the pillar of the cloud departed not from them by day, to lead them in the way, and the pillar of fire by night, to shew them the way by which they should go.

Nehemiah 9:20 And thou gavest them thy good Spirit to teach them, and thy manna thou didst not withhold from their mouth, and thou gavest them water for their thirst.

Spirit. The conducting angel. (Menochius) --- God enlightened and moved the hearts of the people, by his grace; which he gave in abundance to Moses. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:21 Forty years didst thou feed them in the desert, and nothing was wanting to them: their garments did not grow old, and their feet were not worn.

Worn. So as to be sore, (Haydock) or without shoes. (Menochius) See Deuteronomy 8:4. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "their feet swelled not."
Nehemiah 9:22 And thou gavest them kingdoms, and nations, and didst divide lots for them: and they possessed the land of Sehon, and the land of the king of Hesebon, and the land of Og, king of Basan.

Lots. Hebrew, "them (the Chanaanites, or as it is more commonly understood, the Israelites,) into corners." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "by lot they possessed," etc. (Haydock) --- Sehon was king of Hesebon, Numbers 21:26. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:23 And thou didst multiply their children, as the stars of heaven, and broughtest them to the land concerning which thou hadst said to their fathers, that they should go in and possess it.

Nehemiah 9:24 And the children came and possessed the land, and thou didst humble before them the inhabitants of the land, the Chanaanites, and gavest them into their hands, with their kings, and the people of the land, that they might do with them as it pleased them.

Land. From which most of their fathers were excluded by death.
Nehemiah 9:25 And they took strong cities and a fat land, and possessed houses full of all goods: cisterns made by others, vineyards, and oliveyards, and fruit-trees, in abundance: and they eat, and were filled, and became fat, and abounded with delight in thy great goodness.

Goodness. Prosperity was their ruin, (Haydock) as Moses had foretold, Deuteronomy 32:15. (Calmet) --- "Empire is easily retained by the same arts by which it was procured: but when idleness takes the place of industry, when lust and pride banish continence and equity, fortune is changed with manners." (Sallust; Grotius)
Nehemiah 9:26 But they provoked thee to wrath, and departed from thee, and threw thy law behind their backs: and they killed thy prophets, who admonished them earnestly to return to thee: and they were guilty of great blasphemies.

Earnestly. Literally, called to witness" (Haydock) themselves, (Josue 24:21.) or heaven and earth, Deuteronomy 4:26., and 30:19. (Calmet) --- Blasphemies. See ver. 18. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 9:27 And thou gavest them into the hands of their enemies, and they afflicted them. And, in the time of their tribulation, they cried to thee, and thou heardest from heaven, and according to the multitude of thy tender mercies thou gavest them saviours, to save them from the hands of their enemies.

Saviours. Josue, (Calmet) and more particularly the judges, (Menochius) David, etc. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:28 But after they had rest, they returned to do evil in thy sight: and thou leftest them in the hand of their enemies, and they had dominion over them. Then they returned, and cried to thee: and thou heardest from heaven, and deliveredst them many times in thy mercies.

Rest from their enemies. (Haydock) --- The interval between their relapses was very short. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:29 And thou didst admonish them to return to thy law. But they dealt proudly, and hearkened not to thy commandments, but sinned against thy judgments, which if a man do, he shall live in them: and they withdrew the shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear.

Shoulder. Slipping from under the burden of the law. (Haydock) --- It seems this and the following verses chiefly regard the ten tribes, which proudly rebelled against Juda, (Calmet) and against the Lord. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 9:30 And thou didst forbear with them for many years, and didst testify against them by thy spirit, by the hand of thy prophets: and they heard not, and thou didst deliver them into the hand of the people of the lands.

Years, 254; during which time God had not ceased to recall his people to a sense of their duty, but all in vain.
Nehemiah 9:31 Yet in thy very many mercies thou didst not utterly consume them, nor forsake them: because thou art a merciful and gracious God.

Nehemiah 9:32 Now, therefore, our God, great, strong, and terrible, who keepest covenant and mercy, turn not away from thy face all the labour which hath come upon us, upon our kings, and our princes, and our priests, and our prophets, and our fathers, and all the people from the days of the king of Assur, until this day.

Labour. Receive it in satisfaction. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "let not all the trouble seem little before thee;" as if it were not enough to appease thy anger, when borne with proper dispositions and faith. (Haydock) --- Assur. Theglathphalassar, who led some of the tribes into captivity, as Salmanasar did the rest. During this period, the whole nation was involved in misery, (Calmet) from which they had not been liberated even when the author wrote, ver. 36. (Haydock) (1 Paralipomenon 5:26.) (Menochius)
Nehemiah 9:33 And thou art just in all things that have come upon us: because thou hast done truth, but we have done wickedly.

Truth, fulfilled thy promises. We have broken the covenant.
Nehemiah 9:34 Our kings, our princes, our priests, and our fathers, have not kept thy law, and have not minded thy commandments, and thy testimonies, which thou hast testified among them.

Nehemiah 9:35 And they have not served thee in their kingdoms, and in thy manifold goodness, which thou gavest them, and in the large and fat land, which thou deliveredst before them, nor did they return from their most wicked devices.

Nehemiah 9:36 Behold we, ourselves, this day are bondmen: and the land, which thou gavest our fathers, to eat the bread thereof, and the good things thereof, and we, ourselves, are servants in it.

In it. Tributary to Persia, 2 Esdras 5:4., and 1 Esdras 7:24., and 9:9. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:37 And the fruits thereof grow up for the kings, whom thou hast set over us for our sins, and they have dominion over our bodies, and over our beasts, according to their will, and we are in great tribulation.

Tribulation. As we cannot enjoy the fruits, being so heavily taxed, and obliged to work in person for the king of a foreign country. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 9:38 And because of all this we, ourselves, make a covenant, and write it, and our princes, our Levites, and our priests, sign it.

Because. Or "considering all these things," as chastisements due to our transgressions, we are resolved now to reform our conduct, (Haydock) and to comply more exactly with the covenant, which we will now solemnly renew. A copy was probably deposited in the temple, signed by the princes, (Calmet) in the name of all. (Haydock) --- Malachy (Malachias 1:4.) seems to allude to this covenant. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 10:0 The names of the subscribers to the covenant, and the contents of it.

Nehemiah 10:1 And *the subscribers were Nehemias, Athersatha, the son of Hachelai, and Sedecias.

Year of the World 3551. Athersatha. Hebrew hatirshatha. Protestants, "the tirshatha," cup-bearer, or governor, highly (Haydock) "privileged" and honoured by Artaxerxes. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "And over those who were sealed, (Calmet; Septuagint; or who sealed the deed. Haydock) Nehemias, the cup-bearer." Esdras, Eliasib, etc., were also princes. (Calmet) --- It is not easy to account for the omission of their names. (Menochius) --- They may be designated by different titles. An aristocracy, mixed with oligarchy, was the present form of government. The advice of the ancients, and of the people, was taken. (Calmet) --- Hachelai, is less properly styled Helchias; (chap. 1:1.) where the Septuagint read Chelchias, or Achalia, (Hebrew chacala) as well as here.
Nehemiah 10:2 Saraias, Azarias, Jeremias,

Nehemiah 10:3 Pheshur, Amarias, Melchias,

Nehemiah 10:4 Hattus, Sebenia, Melluch,

Nehemiah 10:5 Harem, Merimuth, Obdias,

Nehemiah 10:6 Daniel, Genthon, Baruch,

Nehemiah 10:7 Mosollam, Abia, Miamin,

Nehemiah 10:8 Maazia, Belgia, Semeia: these were priests.

Priests. All, at least after Nehemias. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 10:9 And the Levites, Josue, the son of Azanias, Bennui, of the sons of Henadad, Cedmihel.

Nehemiah 10:10 And their brethren, Sebenia, Odaia, Celita, Phalaia, Hanan,

Nehemiah 10:11 Micha, Rohob, Hasebia,

Nehemiah 10:12 Zachur, Serebia, Sabania,

Nehemiah 10:13 Odaia, Bani, Baninu.

Nehemiah 10:14 The heads of the people, Pharos, Phahath Moab, Elam, Zethu, Bani,

Pharos. Many of these are mentioned as returning from Babylon, 2 Esdras 7:8, 11, etc.
Nehemiah 10:15 Bonni, Azgad, Bebai,

Nehemiah 10:16 Adonia, Begoai, Adin,

Nehemiah 10:17 Ater, Hezecia, Azur,

Nehemiah 10:18 Odaia, Hasum, Besai,

Nehemiah 10:19 Hareph, Anathoth, Nebai,

Nehemiah 10:20 Megphias, Mosollam, Hazir,

Nehemiah 10:21 Mesizabel, Sadoc, Jeddua,

Nehemiah 10:22 Pheltia, Hanan, Anaia,

Nehemiah 10:23 Osee, Hanania, Hasub,

Nehemiah 10:24 Alohes, Phalea, Sobec,

Nehemiah 10:25 Rehum, Hasebna, Maasia,

Nehemiah 10:26 Echaia, Hanan, Anan,

Nehemiah 10:27 Melluch, Haran, Baana:

Nehemiah 10:28 And the rest of the people, priests, Levites, porters, and singing men, Nathinites, and all that had separated themselves from the people of the lands to the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters.

Lands. Idolaters, (Haydock) namely, the proselytes. (Menochius) --- Daughters. These did not all subscribe in person, but by the hands of the intelligent, and chief men, (ver. 29.) or, (Calmet) as the Septuagint seem to understand, these went through the different ranks of the people, and received their oaths. (Estius) (Menochius)
Nehemiah 10:29 All that could understand, promising for their brethren, with their chief men; and they came to promise, and swear that they would walk in the law of God, which he gave in the hand of Moses, the servant of God, that they would do and keep all the commandments of the Lord, our God, and his judgments, and his ceremonies.

Understand. Hebrew mebin, "the teachers," or Levites, 1 Esdras 8:16. (Menochius) --- Promising. Hebrew, "clave to their brethren;" and they promised with a curse to transgressors, and with an oath to walk, etc. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 10:30 And that we would not give our daughters to the people of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons.

And. In all covenants, the articles which have been chiefly broken, are specified. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 10:31 And if the people of the land bring in things to sell, or any things for use, to sell them on the sabbath-day, that we would not buy them of them on the sabbath, or on the holy day. And that we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every hand.

Holy day. The contrary practice is therefore sinful. (Haydock) --- Year. Not cultivating the land, Leviticus 25:4. --- Hand. No debts were to be demanded, Deuteronomy 15:1. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 10:32 And we made ordinances for ourselves, to give the third part of a sicle every year for the work of the house of our God,

Third part. About 9d., (Haydock) on account of the poverty of the people. (Calmet) --- They afterwards paid half a sicle, or 1s. 2d., conformably to the law, Exodus 30:13., and Matthew 17:23. (Haydock) --- Before the captivity, the kings of Juda provided sacrifices, (2 Paralipomenon 31:3.) and after, the Persian monarchs supplied what was requisite, in favour of Zorababel and Esdras, 2 Esdras 6:8., and 7:21. But these grants had been recalled, or were not well executed.
Nehemiah 10:33 For the loaves of proposition, and for the continual sacrifice, and for a continual holocaust on the sabbaths, on the new moons, on the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin-offering: that atonement might be made for Israel, and for every use of the house of our God.

Nehemiah 10:34 And we cast lots among the priests, and the Levites, and the people, for the offering of wood, that it might be brought into the house of our God, by the houses of our fathers, at set times, from year to year: to burn upon the altar of the Lord, our God, as it is written in the law of Moses:

Wood. The Nathinites had performed this office till the captivity. But not their numbers were too small. (Calmet) --- The people therefore brought the wood. The Levites, with the Nathinites, carried it into the temple, and the priests laid it upon the altars; all being regulated by lots. (Lyranus) --- Hence the feast called Xylophoria, was instituted about the month of August, as we may gather from Josephus. The Rabbins say that the priests cut the wood, from March till the 15th of July.
Nehemiah 10:35 And that we would bring the first-fruits of our land, and the first-fruits of all fruit of every tree, from year to year, in the house of our Lord.

Every tree, of seven species; the pear, apple, fig, apricot, olive, palm, and vine trees; besides wheat, legumes, etc. (Calmet) --- For three years the fruit was deemed unclean, Leviticus 19:23. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 10:36 And the first-born of our sons, and of our cattle, as it is written in the law, and the firstlings of our oxen, and of our sheep, to be offered in the house of our God, to the priests who minister in the house of our God.

Nehemiah 10:37 And that we would bring the first-fruits of our meats, and of our libations, and the fruit of every tree, of the vintage also, and of oil to the priests, to the store-house of our God, and the tithes of our ground to the Levites. The Levites, also, shall receive the tithes of our works out of all the cities.

Meats. Hebrew, "paste," Numbers 15:20., (Calmet) and 23:17. --- Ground, or the produce. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 10:38 And the priest, the son of Aaron, shall be with the Levites in the tithes of the Levites, and the Levites shall offer the tithe of their tithes, in the house of our God, to the store-room, into the treasure-house.

With. To observe that all is done according to the law, Numbers 18:26. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 10:39 For the children of Israel, and the children of Levi, shall carry to the treasury the first-fruits of corn, of wine, and of oil: and the sanctified vessels shall be there, and the priests, and the singing men, and the porters, and ministers, and we will not forsake the house of our God.

Nehemiah 11:0 Who were the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the other cities.

Nehemiah 11:1 And the princes of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: but the rest of the people cast lots, to take one part in ten to dwell in Jerusalem, the holy city, and nine parts in the other cities.

Lots. Those who had a mind to fix their abode at Jerusalem, received every encouragement. But some were compelled, that the city might regain its ancient splendour, and become the bulwark of the nation. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 11:5.) says, that Nehemias built at his own expense houses for the priest and Levites, who chose to reside there.
Nehemiah 11:2 And the people blessed all the men that willingly offered themselves to dwell in Jerusalem.

Blessed. Applauding their zeal and disinterestedness, as the city was yet only a heap of ruins. (Calmet) --- Some from the other ten tribes returned; but the transactions of three tribes are more particularly noticed. (Ven. Bede) (Worthington)
Nehemiah 11:3 These, therefore, are the chief men of the province, who dwelt in Jerusalem, and in the cities of Juda. And every one dwelt in his possession, in their cities: Israel, the priests, the Levites, the Nathinites, and the children of the servants of Solomon.

Solomon. See 1 Esdras 2:55., and 1 Paralipomenon 9:2.
Nehemiah 11:4 And in Jerusalem there dwelt some of the children of Juda, and some of the children of Benjamin: of the children of Juda, Athaias, the son of Aziam, the son of Zacharias, the son of Amarias, the son of Saphatias, the son of Malaleel: of the sons of Phares,

Benjamin, as well as of Ephraim and Manasses, 1 Paralipomenon 9:3. The difference between this last record and the present, arises from Nehemias including many who returned with Esdras and with himself. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 11:5 Maasia, the son of Baruch, the son of Cholhoza, the son of Hazia, the son of Adaia, the son of Joiarib, the son of Zacharias, the son of the Silonite:

Silonite. Or the son of Sela, 1 Paralipomenon 9:5. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 11:6 All these, the sons of Phares, who dwelt in Jerusalem, were four hundred sixty-eight valiant men.

Nehemiah 11:7 And these are the children of Benjamin: Sellum, the son of Mosollam, the son of Joed, the son of Phadaia, the son of Colaia, the son of Masia, the son of Etheel, the son of Isaia.

Nehemiah 11:8 And after him, Gebbai, Sellai, nine hundred twenty-eight.

Nehemiah 11:9 And Joel, the son of Zechri, their ruler, and Judas, the son of Senua, was second over the city.

Second. Vicegerent of Joel, (Calmet) or commander of a second part of the city. (Syriac)
Nehemiah 11:10 And of the priests, Idaia, the son of Joarib, Jachin,

Nehemiah 11:11 Saraia, the son of Helcias, the son of Mosollam, the son of Sadoc, the son of Meraioth, the son of Achitob, the prince of the house of God,

Achitob had the inspection over the Levites and treasures. Eliasib was then pontiff. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 11:12 And their brethren that do the works of the temple: eight hundred twenty-two. And Adaia, the son of Jeroham, the son of Phelelia, the son of Amsi, the son of Zacharias, the son of Pheshur, the son of Melchias,

Nehemiah 11:13 And his brethren, the chiefs of the fathers: two hundred forty-two. And Amassai, the son of Azreel, the son of Ahazi, the son of Mosollamoth, the son of Emmer,

Amassai. Or (1 Paralipomenon 9:12.) Maasai, the son of Adiel, the son of Jezra, the son of Mosollam, the son of Mosollamoth, the son of Emmer.
Nehemiah 11:14 And their brethren, who were very mighty, a hundred twenty-eight: and their ruler, Zabdiel, son of the mighty.

The mighty, for riches and power; on which account this family was conspicuous.
Nehemiah 11:15 And of the Levites, Semeia the son of Hasub, the son of Azaricam, the son of Hasabia, the son of Bonni,

Semeia. The ancient Latin manuscripts read Sebenia. (Martinay.)
Nehemiah 11:16 And Sabathai and Jozabed, who were over all the outward business of the house of God, of the princes of the Levites.

Outward. For repairs of the temple, cultivation of the lands given by vow; also to buy provisions, sacred vestments, etc.
Nehemiah 11:17 And Mathania, the son of Micha, the son of Zebedei, the son of Asaph, was the principal man to praise, and to give glory in prayer, and Becbecia, the second, one of his brethren, and Abda the son of Samua, the son of Galal, the son of Idithum.

Praise. Master of music. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "chief to begin the thanksgiving in prayer." Syriac, "leader of the Jews in prayer." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 11:18 All the Levites in the holy city were two hundred eighty-four.

Nehemiah 11:19 And the porters, Accub, Telmon, and their brethren, who kept the doors: a hundred seventy-two.

Nehemiah 11:20 And the rest of Israel, the priests, and the Levites, were in all the cities of Juda, every man in his possession.

Nehemiah 11:21 And the Nathinites, that dwelt in Ophel, and Siaha, and Gaspha, of the Nathinites.

Gaspha, were chiefs of the Nathinites. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "over the," etc. Ophel was their place of residence, 2 Esdras 3:26.
Nehemiah 11:22 And the overseer of the Levites, in Jerusalem, was Azzi, the son of Bani, the son of Hasabia, the son of Mathania, the son of Micha. Of the sons of Asaph, were the singing men in the ministry of the house of God.

Overseer. Literally, "bishop." Hebrew pekid, which has the same meaning. (Haydock) --- Christians styled him who was at the head, bishop; as the Athenians did their chief justice. (Grotius) (Estius) (Calmet)
Nehemiah 11:23 For the king's commandment was concerning them, and an order among the singing men, day by day.

King's. David's, (chap. 12:24,) or perhaps the Persian monarch, who had appointed a maintenance for the priests, etc., 1 Esdras vi., and vii. (Calmet) --- Order. Hebrew, "that a certain portion should be for the singers, due for every day." (Protestants)
Nehemiah 11:24 And Phathahia, the son of Mesezebel, of the children of Zara, the son of Juda, was at the hand of the king, in all matters concerning the people,

People. They addressed themselves to him, (Haydock) and he gave an exact account to the king (Calmet) of Persia. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 11:25 And in the houses through all their countries. Of the children of Juda, some dwelt at Cariatharbe, and in the villages thereof, and at Dibon, and in the villages thereof, and at Cabseel, and in the villages thereof,

The houses. Hebrew, "and for the dwellings, (Calmet) or villages." (Pagnin) (Menochius) --- Villages. Literally, "daughters," which is often used in this sense. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 11:26 And at Jesue, and at Molada, and at Bethphaleth,

Jesue. This, and many of the other cities, had changed names, or were not built in the time of Josue. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 11:27 And at Hasersual, and at Bersabee, and in the villages thereof,

Nehemiah 11:28 And at Siceleg, and at Mochona, and in the villages thereof,

Nehemiah 11:29 And at Remmon, and at Saraa, and at Jerimuth,

Nehemiah 11:30 Zanoa, Odollam, and in their villages, at Lachis, and its dependencies, and at Azeca, and the villages thereof. And they dwelt from Bersabee unto the valley of Ennom.

Bersabee. The southern extremity of Juda, (Menochius) unto the valley on the east of Jerusalem. (Adrichomius 186.)
Nehemiah 11:31 And the children of Benjamin, from Geba, at Mechmas, and at Hai, and at Bethel, and in the villages thereof,

Nehemiah 11:32 At Anathoth, Nob, Anania,

Nehemiah 11:33 Asor, Rama, Gethaim,

Nehemiah 11:34 Hadid, Seboim, and Neballat, Lod,

\f + \fr 11:34-35\ft Lod. Built by Samad, 1 Paralipomenon 8:12. It is called Lod-Hadid, 2 Esdras 7:37. --- Ono had the same founder, and stood in the valley of craftsmen, 2 Esdras 6:2., and 1 Paralipomenon 4:14.
Nehemiah 11:35 And Ono, the valley of craftsmen.

Nehemiah 11:36 And of the Levites, were portions of Juda and Benjamin.

Portions. The Levites dwelt in the cities assigned to these two tribes. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 12:0 The priests, and Levites, that came up with Zorobabel. The succession of high priests: the solemnity of the dedication of the wall.

Nehemiah 12:1 Now these are the priests, and the Levites, that went up with Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel, and Josue: Saraia, Jeremias, Esdras,

Priests. But not all, as some are omitted. See ver. 7, 22, etc. --- Josue, or Jesus, the high priest. --- Esdras, the famous scribe, who is supposed to have returned to Babylon, and to have been living under Nehemias, who came to Jerusalem 81 years after Zorobabel. If, therefore, Esdras was only 20 years old at the former period, he must have lived above 100 years, (Calmet) which is not improbable. (Lyranus; Tirinus, etc.) --- He returned again with many of his countrymen, by the king's leave. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 12:2 Amaria, Melluch, Hattus,

Nehemiah 12:3 Sebenias, Rheum, Merimuth,

Nehemiah 12:4 Addo, Genthon, Abia,

Nehemiah 12:5 Miamin, Madia, Belga,

Nehemiah 12:6 Semeia, and Joiarib, Idaia, Sellum, Amoc, Helcias,

Nehemiah 12:7 Idaia. These were the chief of the priests, and of their brethren, in the days of Josue.

Chief. Heads of the 24 great families, 1 Paralipomenon 24:18.
Nehemiah 12:8 And the Levites, Jesua, Bennui, Cedmihel, Sarebia, Juda, Mathanias, they and their brethren were over the hymns:

Hymns. To preside over the bands, 2 Esdras 11:17. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 12:9 And Becbecia, and Hanni, and their brethren, every one in his office.

Office. Hebrew, "in the watches," each in his turn, (Vatable) "daily." (Septuagint) (Menochius)
Nehemiah 12:10 And Josue begot Joacim, and Joacim begot Eliasib, and Eliasib begot Joiada,

Joacim. These are some of the successors of Josue, (Menochius) who were high priests till the time of Jeddoa, or Jaddus. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 12:11 And Joiada begot Jonathan, and Jonathan begot Jeddoa.

Jonathan, is called Johanan by St. Jerome, (in Daniel) Josephus, etc. --- Jeddoa. The Jaddus, who went to meet Alexander, in his pontifical attire, and was graciously received by him; as the monarch revered in his person the God of the Hebrews, who had formerly appeared to him in this manner, to encourage him to undertake the conquests of Asia. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 11:8.) --- Some think that the names of Jonathan and Jeddoa, and the ver. 22, 23, and 24, have been inserted since the time of Nehemias; as he must have lived 140 years, to see the conquests of Alexander. (Tirinus; Petau; N. Alex. T. 2 Dis. 7.) --- He could not be less than 20, when he returned in [the year of the world] 3550. Jaddus met Alexander in 3672; consequently, at that time, Nehemias was 142 years old. But if he died at the commencement of the reign of Darius Codomannus 3668, he would still be 138. (Calmet) --- Yet this longevity is by no means incredible, ver. 1., and 2 Esdras 13:28. (Haydock) --- Usher (the year of the world 3602) maintains that Johanan was pontiff under Memnon.
Nehemiah 12:12 And in the days of Joacim, the priests and heads of the families were: Of Saraia, Maraia: of Jeremias, Hanania:

Saraia had given his name to one of the principal families, at the head of which was Maraia, at this time. The Latin manuscripts, Septuagint, and Syriac style him Amaria.
Nehemiah 12:13 Of Esdras, Mosollam: and of Amaria, Johanan:

Nehemiah 12:14 Of Milicho, Jonathan: of Sebenia, Joseph:

Nehemiah 12:15 Of Haram, Edna: of Maraioth, Helci:

Nehemiah 12:16 Of Adaia, Zacharia: of Genthon, Mosollam:

Nehemiah 12:17 Of Abia, Zechri: of Miamin and Moadia, Phelti:

Phelti was chief of two families, (Calmet) or perhaps the name of the head of Miamin (Haydock) is lost. (Vatable) --- And, is not in Hebrew, "of Miniamin, of Moadiah, Pittai," (Protestants) (Haydock)
Nehemiah 12:18 Of Belga, Sammua: of Semaia, Jonathan:

Nehemiah 12:19 Of Joiarib, Mathanai: of Jodaia, Azzi:

Jodaia. The same name is written Idaia, ver. 6, and 21.
Nehemiah 12:20 Of Sellai, Celai: of Amoc, Heber:

Nehemiah 12:21 Of Helcias, Hasebia: of Idaia, Nathanael.

Nehemiah 12:22 The Levites, the chiefs of the families, in the days of Eliasib, and Joiada, and Johanan, and Jeddoa, were recorded, and the priests, in the reign of Darius, the Persian.

Persian. Surnamed Codomannus, (Haydock) Condomanus, (Grotius; Calmet) or Natus, under whom Jaddus was born, though he was pontiff under the former. (Usher, the year of the world 3553.)
Nehemiah 12:23 The sons of Levi, heads of the families, were written in the book of Chronicles, even unto the days of Jonathan, the son of Eliasib.

Chronicles. Not those which are now extant: but some records which regarded the families of the priests. See 1 Esdras 2:61. --- The son, or grandson of Eliasib. The author refers to others records, ver. 26. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 12:24 Now the chief of the Levites were Hasebia, Serebia, and Josue, the son of Cedmihel: and their brethren, by their courses, to praise, and to give thanks according to the commandment of David, the man of God, and to wait equally in order.

Order. Hebrew, "ward over-against ward." One company kept guard while another retired. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 12:25 Mathania, and Becbecia, Obedia, and Mosollam, Telmon, Accub, were keepers of the gates, and of the entrances before the gates.

Entrances. These are not distinctly mentioned before. See 1 Paralipomenon 26:15, 17., and Ezechiel 40:8. (Calmet) --- Septuagint have only, after order, or him, ver. 25. "When I assembled the door-keepers, (ver. 26,) in the days of Joakeim." (Haydock)
Nehemiah 12:26 These were in the days of Joacim, the son of Josue, the son of Josedec, and in the days of Nehemias, the governor, and of Esdras, the priest and scribe.

Scribe. Could these records have any greater authority than Nehemias himself? It seems, therefore, that this had been added by a later hand, whose testimony is perfectly authentic and inspired. (Calmet) --- Nehemias might also refer to some records which he, or some other, had drawn up. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 12:27 And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem, and to keep the dedication, and to rejoice with thanksgiving, and with singing, and with cymbals, and psalteries, and harps.

Wall. Some time before, (Usher; Calmet) or now, when the houses were completed. (Ven. Bede) (Tirinus) --- Places, for greater solemnity. The ancients deemed "the walls and gates sacred things, the property of no man." (Justinian, L. sacra loca.) --- Ovid describes the superstitious rites, with which the Romans laid the foundations of their cities, on some lucky day. Fossa fit ad solidum, fruges jaciuntur in ima, etc. (Fast. iv.)
Nehemiah 12:28 And the sons of the singing men were gathered together out of the plain country about Jerusalem, and out of the villages of Nethuphati,

Nehemiah 12:29 And from the house of Galgal, and from the countries of Geba, and Azmaveth: for the singing men had built themselves villages round about Jerusalem.

Nehemiah 12:30 And the priests, and the Levites, were purified, and they purified the people, and the gates, and the wall.

Were purified first, that they might purify the rest. (Haydock) --- Priests were obliged to abstain from wine, and from their wives, while they were on duty. See 2 Paralipomenon 29:34., and 35:2., etc. Levites were to wash their garments, Leviticus 8:21. All lepers, etc., required a certain purification, ibid. 5:2. 6.[Leviticus 8:2, 6.?] and Numbers 19:16. Care was taken that no dead body was found on the walls. These were probably sprinkled with water, etc., like the tabernacle, Leviticus 8:11.
Nehemiah 12:31 And I made the princes of Juda go up upon the wall, and I appointed two great choirs to give praise. And they went on the right hand upon the wall toward the dunghill-gate.

Choirs. This is not expressed in Hebrew and Septuagint, but must be understood. Protestants, "great companies of them that gave thanks. Whereof one went." (Haydock) --- The princes led the way, then the priests sounded the trumpets, (Numbers 10:8.) the Levites sung, and were followed by the people. All were divided into two equal parts, and went round half the city. (Calmet) --- They set out from the dunghill-gate, on the west, and proceeded to the watch-gate, on the east, ver. 38. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 12:32 And after them went Osaias, and half of the princes of Juda,

Nehemiah 12:33 And Azarias, Esdras, and Mosollam, Judas, and Benjamin, and Semeia, and Jeremias.

Nehemiah 12:34 And of the sons of the priests with trumpets, Zacharias, the son of Jonathan, the son of Semeia, the son of Mathania, the son of Michaia, the son of Zechur, the son of Asaph,

Nehemiah 12:35 And his brethren, Semeia, and Azareel, Malalai, Galalai, Maai, Nathanael, and Judas, and Hanani, with the musical instruments of David, the man of God: and Esdras, the scribe, before them at the fountain-gate.

Esdras, mentioned [in] ver. 33, was the chief personage, at the head of this company. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 12:36 And they went up over-against them by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall of the house of David, and to the water-gate eastward:

Nehemiah 12:37 And the second choir of them that gave thanks went on the opposite side, and I after them, and the half of the people upon the wall, and upon the tower of the furnaces, even to the broad wall,

And, etc. Protestants, "And the other company of them that gave thanks." --- And upon. Hebrew, "beyond." This company (Haydock) proceeded northward. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 12:38 And above the gate of Ephraim, and above the old gate, and above the fish-gate, and the tower of Hananeel, and the tower of Emath, and even to the flock-gate: and they stood still in the watch-gate.

Watch-gate. Syriac and Arabic, "great gate," by which they came down.
Nehemiah 12:39 And the two choirs of them that gave praise, stood still at the house of God, and I, and the half of the magistrates with me.

Nehemiah 12:40 And the priests, Eliachim, Maasia, Miamin, Michea, Elioenai, Zacharia, Hanania, with trumpets,

Nehemiah 12:41 And Maasia, and Semeia, and Eleazar, and Azzi, and Johanan, and Melchia, and Elam, and Ezer. And the singers sung loud, and Jezraia was their overseer:

Nehemiah 12:42 And they sacrificed, on that day, great sacrifices, and they rejoiced: for God had made them joyful with great joy: their wives, also, and their children rejoiced, and the joy of Jerusalem was heard afar off.

Great. Numerous, or victims of a large size, oxen, etc.
Nehemiah 12:43 They appointed, also, in that day, men over the storehouses of the treasure, for the libations, and for the first-fruits, and for the tithes, that the rulers of the city might bring them in by them in honour of thanksgiving, for the priests and Levites: for Juda was joyful in the priests and Levites that assisted.

Thanksgiving. St. Jerome, Septuagint, and Syriac have read in a different manner from the present Hebrew, (Calmet which has, "for the tithes to gather into them, out of the fields of the cities, the portions of (or by) the law assigned to the priests, etc. Tora, "law," has been read, toda, "thanksgiving," by St. Jerome; and sarim, "princes," has been substituted for sadim, "fields." (Haydock) --- The Syriac admits the second reading. (Calmet) --- Septuagint omit the first entirely. "For the tithes, and for the collections in them, brought to the princes of the cities, being the portions for the priests," etc. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 12:44 And they kept the watch of their God, and the observance of expiation, and the singing men, and the porters, according to the commandment of David, and of Solomon, his son.

Expiation. Or the legal purifications, (Menochius) when necessary. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 12:45 For in the days of David and Asaph, from the beginning, there were chief singers appointed, to praise with canticles, and give thanks to God.

Asaph was master of music in the reign of David. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 12:46 And all Israel, in the days of Zorobabel, and in the days of Nehemias, gave portions to the singing men, and to the porters, day by day, and they sanctified the Levites, and the Levites sanctified the sons of Aaron.

Sanctified. That is, they gave them that which by the law was set aside, and sanctified for their use. (Challoner) --- The Levites paid a tithe to the priests, (chap. 10:38., and Numbers 18:26.; Calmet) as the people did to them. (Worthington)
Nehemiah 13:0 Divers abuses are reformed.

Nehemiah 13:1 And* on that day they read in the book of Moses, in the hearing of the people: and therein was found written, that the Ammonites and the Moabites should not come into the church of God for ever:

Deuteronomy 23:3.
That day, is often used for an indefinite time. (Haydock) --- It is not probable that all this happened when the walls were dedicated. After that event, Nehemias rather went to court, and remained there about ten years. During his absence, many abuses crept in, which he endeavoured to remedy, (ver. 7.) perhaps on the solemn day of tabernacles, when the law had been read. --- Ever, (Deuteronomy 23:3.) so as to marry. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 13:2 Because they met not the children of Israel with bread and water: and they hired against them Balaam, to curse them: and our God turned the curse into blessing.

Nehemiah 13:3 And it came to pass, when they had heard the law, that they separated every stranger from Israel.

Stranger. Hebrew hereb, "mixture," (Haydock) infidel women and their offspring.
Nehemiah 13:4 And over this thing was Eliasib, the priest, who was set over the treasury of the house of our God, and was near akin to Tobias.

Over this thing, etc. Or, he was faulty in this thing, or in this kind. (Challoner) --- He was the source of all this evil. Hebrew, "and before this Eliasib," etc. It is probable that he was a different person from the high priest, (Usher) who had married his grandson to the daughter of Sanaballat, the intimate friend of Tobias. (Calmet) --- The latter was a persecutor, and prefigured heretics, as Nehemias did our Saviour, who drove traffickers out of the temple. (Ven. Bede in Esdras, L. 3:19.) (Worthington)
Nehemiah 13:5 And he made him a great store-room, where before him they laid up gifts, and frankincense, and vessels, and the tithes of the corn, of the wine, and of the oil, the portions of the Levites, and of the singing men, and of the porters, and the first-fruits of the priests.

He. Eliasib, or Tobias. The original is also ambiguous. Eliasib probably permitted Tobias to furnish himself apartments in the temple, where, by law, he was not allowed to enter. Hence the priests, being deprived of their support, were forced to retire. (Calmet) --- Tobias rented the apartments, and was steward of the priests' revenues. (Tirinus)
Nehemiah 13:6 But in all this time I was not in Jerusalem, because in the two and thirtieth year* of Artaxerxes, king of Babylon, I went to the king, and after certain days I asked the king:

Year of the World 3562, Year before Christ 442. Days. Prefixed (chap. 2:6.) I asked. Hebrew, "was required to attend by the king," for about ten years. After which period, I returned and found such disorders. Some believe that Nehemias had been at Babylon, a long while before the 32d year of the king.
Nehemiah 13:7 And I came to Jerusalem, and I understood the evil that Eliasib had done for Tobias, to make him a storehouse in the courts of the house of God.

Nehemiah 13:8 And it seemed to me exceedingly evil. And I cast forth the vessels of the house of Tobias out of the storehouse.

And 1:Nehemias acted as governor, and performed the duty which the high priest neglected. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 13:9 And I commanded, and they cleansed the storehouses: and I brought thither again the vessels of the house of God, the sacrifice, and the frankincense.

Storehouses, which had been profaned by the presence of a pagan. (Menochius) --- Sacrifice. Hebrew mincha, "offerings of flour, fruits, and liquors," which were kept in the storehouses, as well as frankincense. Eliasib had caused these things to be removed, to make place for Tobias. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 13:10 And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them: and that the Levites, and the singing men, and they that ministered, were fled away, every man to his own country.

Country. Hebrew, "field," that he might cultivate it, (Haydock) and get food. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 13:11 And I pleaded the matter against the magistrates, and said: Why have we forsaken the house of God? And I gathered them together, and I made them to stand in their places.

Pleaded. Accusing them of treachery, in not opposing the wicked attempt. --- Have we. He placed himself in the number of the guilty, in order to soften the reproach. (Septuagint, etc.) (Calmet) --- "Why is the house of God forsaken?" (Protestants)
Nehemiah 13:12 And all Juda brought the tithe of the corn, and the wine, and the oil, into the storehouses.

Nehemiah 13:13 And we set over the storehouses Selemias, the priest, and Sadoc, the scribe, and of the Levites, Phadaia, and next to them Hanan, the son of Zachur, the son of Mathania: for they were approved as faithful, and to them were committed the portions of their brethren.

Nehemiah 13:14 Remember me, O my God, for this thing, and wipe not out my kindnesses, which I have done relating to the house of my God, and his ceremonies.

And his. Hebrew, "its offices," and for the good of the sacred ministers. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 13:15 In those days I saw in Juda some treading the presses on the sabbath, and carrying sheaves, and lading asses with wine, and grapes, and figs, and all manner of burthens, and bringing them into Jerusalem on the sabbath-day. And I charged them that they should sell on a day on which it was lawful to sell.

Treading. Syriac and Arabic, "travelling."
Nehemiah 13:16 Some Tyrians also dwelt there, who brought fish, and all manner of wares: and they sold them on the sabbaths to the children of Juda in Jerusalem.

Tyrians. Who had established themselves there, for the sake of commerce, though the chosen people ought to have kept them at a great distance, for fear of seduction. (Calmet)
Nehemiah 13:17 And I rebuked the chief men of Juda, and said to them: What is this evil thing that you are doing, profaning the sabbath-day?

Nehemiah 13:18 Did not our fathers do these things, and our God brought all this evil upon us, and upon this city? And you bring more wrath upon Israel by violating the sabbath.

Fathers. Though warned by Jeremias, 17:21. (Menochius)
Nehemiah 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem were at rest on the sabbath-day, I spoke: and they shut the gates, and I commanded that they should not open them till after the sabbath: and I set some of my servants at the gates, that none should bring in burthens on the sabbath-day.

At rest. People travelling no longer. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "shaded, or in the dark." Before Friday night on, the sabbath commenced, and then the gates were shut. (Haydock) --- On the. Hebrew, "before the sabbath." (Menochius)
Nehemiah 13:20 So the merchants, and they that sold all kind of wares, stayed without Jerusalem once or twice.

Nehemiah 13:21 And I charged them, and I said to them: Why stay you before the wall? if you do so another time, I will lay hands on you. And from that time they came no more on the sabbath.

On you. To punish you, (Calmet) for thus endeavouring to tempt the people. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 13:22 I spoke also to the Levites, that they should be purified, and should come to keep the gates, and to sanctify the sabbath-day: for this, also, remember me, O my God, and spare me according to the multitude of thy tender mercies.

Gates. The Levites would more conscientiously discharge their duty, (Menochius) and restrain the people, so that they might keep the day holy. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 13:23 In those days, also, I saw Jews that married wives, women of Azotus, and of Ammon, and of Moab.

Azotus. In the country of the Philistines.
Nehemiah 13:24 And their children spoke half in the speech of Azotus, and could not speak the Jews' language, but they spoke according to the language of this and that people.

Half. In the same family, some spoke the Philistine (Vatable) or Phenician language: others the Hebrew; which, though it resembled the other very much, was still sufficiently distinct to be noticed. The children might also speak a jargon, composed of both languages. It is probable that, at this time, many of the common people spoke the Chaldean language, so that it was necessary to interpret pure Hebrew to them, 2 Esdras 8:8.
Nehemiah 13:25 And I chid them, and laid my curse upon them. And I beat some of them, and shaved off their hair, and made them swear by God that they would not give their daughters to their sons, nor take their daughters for their sons, nor for themselves, saying:

Curse, or excommunicated them, (Calmet) the guilty parents. (Haydock) --- Shaved. Hebrew and Septuagint, "plucked off their hair," by the roots, for greater torment. Sometimes quicklime was then sprinkled on the head, (Calmet) as adulterers were treated at Athens. Schol. Aristoph.[Aristophanes?] --- King Artaxerxes changed this punishment, and ordered that his officers should be forbidden to wear the tiara instead. Domitian caused the hair and beard of Apollonius to be shaven. (Philost. 3:14.) (Calmet) --- That they. Hebrew, "Ye shall not," etc.
Nehemiah 13:26 *Did not Solomon, king of Israel, sin in this kind of thing? and surely among many nations, there was not a king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel:** and yet women of other countries brought even him to sin.

3 Kings 3:1. --- ** 3 Kings 11:4.
Nehemiah 13:27 And shall we also be disobedient, and do all this great evil, to transgress against our God, and marry strange women?

Also be. Hebrew, "hearken unto you;" (Protestants; Haydock) or "Have ye not heard the evils which fell upon our fathers (Calmet) for doing all?" etc. (Haydock)
Nehemiah 13:28 And one of the sons of Joiada, the son of Eliasib, the high priest, was son-in-law to Sanaballet, the Horonite, and I drove him from me.

One. Manasses, brother of Jaddus. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 11:8.) --- Sanaballet, noted for his enmity towards the Jews, 2 Esdras 6:1. He obtained leave of Alexander to build the famous temple on Garizim, for his son-in-law. He must have been 150 yeas old when Alexander laid siege to Tyre, the year of the world 3672. Esdras and Nehemias were noted for their great age. Yet some would suppose that there were two of the name of Sanaballet; and Josephus says that the one in question was appointed governor of Samaria by Darius, the last king of the Persians. This opinion is adopted by Usher, the year of the world 3972. (Tirinus, etc.) --- But there is still a difficulty to know whether it be necessary. (Calmet) --- From me. In revenge he set up an opposition altar. (Haydock) --- He had contracted a marriage, which was unlawful for all, and entailed degradation upon priests.
Nehemiah 13:29 Remember them, O Lord my God, that defile the priesthood, and the law of priests and Levites.

Nehemiah 13:30 So I separated from them all strangers, and I appointed the courses of the priests and the Levites, every man in his ministry:

Nehemiah 13:31 And for the offering of wood at times appointed, and for the first-fruits: remember me, O my God, unto good. Amen.

Wood. Conformably to the regulations mentioned, 2 Esdras 10:34. (Calmet) --- Good. A just man may confidently beg for a reward. (Worthington) --- Amen, is not found in Hebrew, etc. The Holy Spirit records the praises of Nehemias, Ecclesiasticus 49:15. His political and moral virtues must ever assign him an exalted rank among the true Israelites. Like Jesus Christ, he rebuilt Jerusalem, reformed the nation, was the mediator of a new covenant, defended the rights of the priesthood and of all the people. (Calmet)