1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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I Maccabees 1:1 Now *it came to pass after that Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian, who first reigned in Greece, coming out of the land of Cethim, had overthrown Darius, king of the Persians and Medes:

Year of the World 3668, Year before Christ 336. Now. Literally, "And." (Haydock) --- Thus many Hebrew books commence, as Exodus, Josue, Baruch, etc. (Calmet) --- Greece, over the whole. He was chosen generalissimo. (Haydock) --- He conquered many of the Greeks, and overthrew Darius Condomanus, the year of the world 3674. (Calmet) --- His dominion in Syria may be meant. (Grotius) --- Alexander [the Great] was the first who reigned in that great monarchy, which he founded. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 1:2 He fought many battles, and took the strong holds of all, and slew the kings of the earth:

Holds. He was never defeated. (Just. xii.)
I Maccabees 1:3 And he went through even to the ends of the earth, and took the spoils of many nations: and the earth was quiet before him.

Earth, even to India, beyond which the ancients knew of nothing. --- Quiet, or silent; depopulated, (Isaias 14:7.) and obedient, Habacuc 2:20.
I Maccabees 1:4 And he gathered a power, and a very strong army: and his heart was exalted and lifted up:

Up. He was spoiled by prosperity, (Calmet) and would pass for a god, and be styled "king of the world." (Just. xii.)
I Maccabees 1:5 And he subdued countries of nations, and princes; and they became tributaries to him.

I Maccabees 1:6 And after these things, he fell down upon his bed, and knew that he should die.

Bed. Some suppose through poison, (Diodorus xvii.; St. Jerome, ad Laetam.) or excess of wine. (Atheneus 10:11.) --- This was enough. (Haydock) --- So perished the man who would claim divine honours! (Calmet)
I Maccabees 1:7 And he called his servants, the nobles that were brought up with him from his youth: and he divided his kingdom among them, while he was yet alive.

Servants. On the ninth day of sickness which preceded his death, he admitted all his soldiers to kiss his hand. Then he asked his friends, if they thought they should find such another king? As they were silent, he predicted what bloodshed would ensue, and told them to bury him in the temple of Ammon. When they asked to whom he left the throne, he said, "to the most worthy." He gave his ring to Perdiccas; whence all inferred, that he should be regent till the proper heirs came of age. Perdiccas desired to know when he would have divine honours: to which Alexander [the Great] replied with these his last words, "when you are happy:" (Just. xii.; Diodorus xvii.) as much as to say, never. (Haydock) --- This seems contrary to the sacred historian. But his authority is far superior. (Calmet) --- Kingdom. This is otherwise by Q. Curtius; though he acknowledges that divers were of that opinion, and that it had been delivered by some authors. (liber[book] x.) But here we find from the sacred text that he was in error. (Challoner) --- By delivering his ring to Perdiccas, Alexander gave him authority to make this division. (Worthington) --- Many assert, that he gave him directions in his last will. This was observed for some time, ver. 10.
I Maccabees 1:8 And Alexander reigned twelve years, and he died.*

Year of the World 3681, Year before Christ 323. Twelve. Josephus, etc. Some add, a few months. He was about thirty-three years old.
I Maccabees 1:9 And his servants made themselves kings, every one in his place:

I Maccabees 1:10 And they all put crowns upon themselves after his death, and their sons after them, many years; and evils were multiplied in the earth.

Death, twelve years being expired, when all the posterity of Alexander [the Great] were dead. His generals gradually destroyed each other, and four took the diadem at the same time: Ptolemy, in Egypt; Seleucus, in Syria; Cassander, in Macedonia; and Lysimachus, in Thrace. (Just. xiii., and xv.) (Calmet) --- Those who choose to read in order, may, after the preface [in] 2 Machabees 2:20., read the above, then 2 Machabees 3:1. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 1:11 And there came out of them a wicked root, Antiochus the Illustrious, the son of king Antiochus, who had been a hostage at Rome: and he reigned in the hundred and thirty-seventh year* of the kingdom of the Greeks.

Year of the World 3829, Year before Christ 175. Antiochus the illustrious; Epiphanes, the younger son of Antiochus the great, who usurped the kingdom, to the prejudice of his nephew Demetrius, son of his elder brother, Seleucus Philopater. (Challoner) --- Epiphanes means "renowed." (Worthington) --- He took this title, particularly after the Samaritans had offered it to him. (Josephus, Antiquities xii.; Vaillant. A. 145.) --- His medals have always God prefixed, "the god appearing;" as he came opportunely, like a god, to defend the kingdom against the Egyptians, after he had been fourteen years a hostage at Rome. (Calmet) --- Nothing could be more abject than his character. (St. Jerome, in Daniel viii., and ix.) (Atheneus 5:4., and 10:12.) --- Greeks, counting not from the beginning of the reign of Alexander [the Great], but from the first year of Seleucus Nicator. (Challoner) --- The era of the Seleucides began in spring or autumn, the year of the world 3692, the year before Christ 312, though the Chaldeans and Ptolemy date from the following spring. (Calmet) --- The Grecian monarchy had then stood twenty years. (Eusebius) (Worthington)
I Maccabees 1:12 In those days there went out of Israel wicked men, and they persuaded many, saying: Let us go, and make a covenant with the heathens that are round about us: for since we departed from them, many evils have befallen us.

Men. Jason attempted to supplant Onias III and introduced pagan customs, when he was dead. Menelaus treated him in like manner. Being cited to pay what he had promised, he left Lysimachus in his place, who was slain in the temple, which he was robbing, 2 Machabees 4:--- Us. Thus the Jews complained in the days of Jeremias, (xliv. 18.) and the Christian religion was blamed for all the miseries which fell upon the Roman empire. (Calmet) --- St. Augustine proves in his City of God, that this accusation was false. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 1:13 And the word seemed good in their eyes.

I Maccabees 1:14 And some of the people determined to do this, and went to the king: and he gave them licence to do after the ordinances of the heathens.

I Maccabees 1:15 And they built a place of exercise in Jerusalem, according to the laws of the nations:

Exercise, to wrestle (Calmet) and teach. (Lyranus)
I Maccabees 1:16 And they made themselves prepuces, and departed from the holy covenant, and joined themselves to the heathens, and were sold to do evil:

Made. St. Jerome thinks the attempt useless. But the Jews discovered the art. (St. Epiphanius; Pond. xvi.; Bartol.) (1 Corinthians 7:18.) --- Sold to the devil, becoming his instruments, 3 Kings 21:25., and Romans 7:14. (Calmet) --- Go to 2 Machabees 4:7.
I Maccabees 1:17 *And the kingdom was established before Antiochus, and he had a mind to reign over the land of Egypt, that he might reign over two kingdoms.

Year of the World 3834, Year before Christ 170. Egypt. He coveted this kingdom, having Syria already. (Worthington) --- He was not very fit for war: but Egypt was not under Philometor a child, and Ephphanes made an easy conquest. This was his second visit to that country. While he besieged Alexandria, a report of his death was spread; and as he was informed that the Jews rejoiced at it, he fell upon them, ver. 21. (Calmet) --- After ver. 20, read 2 Machabees 4:21. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 1:18 And he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great number of ships:

I Maccabees 1:19 And he made war against Ptolemee, king of Egypt; but Ptolemee was afraid at his presence, and fled, and many were wounded unto death.

I Maccabees 1:20 And he took the strong cities in the land of Egypt: and he took the spoils of the land of Egypt.

I Maccabees 1:21 And after Antiochus had ravaged Egypt, in the hundred and forty-third year, *he returned and went up against Israel.

Year of the World 3834.
I Maccabees 1:22 And he went up to Jerusalem, with a great multitude.

I Maccabees 1:23 And he proudly entered into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof, and the table of proposition, and the pouring vessels, and the vials, and the little mortars of gold, and the veil, and the crowns, and the golden ornament that was before the temple: and he broke them all in pieces.

Sanctuary. Josephus (Antiquities 12:6.) writes, that Antiochus slew such as opposed his entrance into the city, and afterwards those who opened the gates, but would have prevented his plundering the temple. (Worthington) --- Menelaus conducted the king, 2 Machabees 5:15. Profane authors condemn this conduct of the king towards a city subject to him. (Josephus, contra Apion 2.) --- Diodorus relates several fables on this occasion. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 1:24 And he took the silver and gold, and the precious vessels: and he took the hidden treasures, which he found: and when he had taken all away, he departed into his own country.

I Maccabees 1:25 And he made a great slaughter of men, and spoke very proudly.

I Maccabees 1:26 And there was great mourning in Israel, and in every place where they were:

I Maccabees 1:27 And the princes, and the ancients mourned, and the virgins and the young men were made feeble, and the beauty of the women was changed.

I Maccabees 1:28 Every bridegroom took up lamentation: and the bride that sat in the marriage bed, mourned:

I Maccabees 1:29 And the land was moved for the inhabitants thereof, and all the house of Jacob was covered with confusion.

I Maccabees 1:30 And after two full years, *the king sent the chief collector of his tributes to the cities of Juda, and he came to Jerusalem with a great multitude.

Year of the World 3836, Year before Christ 168. The chief collector, etc. Apollonius. (Challoner) (2 Machabees 5:24.) (Worthington) --- He basely fell upon the unsuspecting citizens on a sabbath day. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 1:31 And he spoke to them peaceable words in deceit; and they believed him.

I Maccabees 1:32 And he fell upon the city suddenly, and struck it with a great slaughter, and destroyed much people in Israel.

I Maccabees 1:33 And he took the spoils of the city, and burnt it with fire, and threw down the houses thereof, and the walls thereof round about:

Fire, thus destroying a great part. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:7.)
I Maccabees 1:34 And they took the women captive, and the children, and the cattle they possessed.

I Maccabees 1:35 And they built the city of David with a great and strong wall, and with strong towers, and made it a fortress for them:

The city of David. That is, the castle of Sion. (Challoner) --- In it was placed a garrison of Macedonians. (Worthington) --- This castle had been occupied by Syrians before. It was now enlarged, 2 Machabees 4:27., and 5:5.
I Maccabees 1:36 And they placed there a sinful nation, wicked men, and they fortified themselves therein: and they stored up armour, and victuals, and gathered together the spoils of Jerusalem;

I Maccabees 1:37 And laid them up there: and they became a great snare.

I Maccabees 1:38 And this was a place to lie in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil devil in Israel.

Sanctuary, to pillage all who came to the temple. (Calmet) --- An evil devil. Literally, an adversary, watching constantly to do harm, as the evil spirit is always watching and seeking whom he could devour. (Challoner)
I Maccabees 1:39 And they shed innocent blood round about the sanctuary, and defiled the holy place.

I Maccabees 1:40 And the inhabitants of Jerusalem fled away by reason of them, and the city was made the habitation of strangers, and she became a stranger to her own seed, and her children forsook her.

Fled with Judas, etc. (2 Machabees v.) Josephus (Antiquities 12:7.) assures us that the Samaritans flattered Epiphanes, and begged their temple might be consecrated to Jupiter, etc. They pretended that they were of Sidonian extraction.
I Maccabees 1:41 Her sanctuary was desolate like a wilderness, *her festival days were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into reproach, her honours were brought to nothing.

Tobias 2:6.; Amos 8:10.
I Maccabees 1:42 Her dishonour was increased according to her glory, and her excellency was turned into mourning.

I Maccabees 1:43 *And king Antiochus wrote to all his kingdom, that all the people should be one: and every one should leave his own law.

Year of the World 3837, Year before Christ 167. Be one. This reason herself teaches. But the king wished to establish a false religion, or rather he desired to root out all religion, and to shew his authority. (Haydock) --- Demere superstitionem et mores Graecorum dare adnixus. (Tacitus v.) --- He was not content with plunder, unless he ruined souls. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 1:44 And all nations consented, according to the word of king Antiochus.

I Maccabees 1:45 And many of Israel consented to his service, and they sacrificed to idols, and profaned the sabbath.

Service, or worship, (Calmet) introduced by Epiphanes. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 1:46 And the king sent letters by the hands of messengers to Jerusalem, and to all the cities of Juda; that they should follow the law of the nations of the earth.

I Maccabees 1:47 And should forbid holocausts and sacrifices, and atonements to be made in the temple of God.

I Maccabees 1:48 And should prohibit the sabbath, and the festival days to be celebrated.

I Maccabees 1:49 And he commanded the holy places to be profaned, and the holy people of Israel.

People. He forced them to eat forbidden meat.
I Maccabees 1:50 And he commanded altars to be built, and temples, and idols, and swine's flesh to be immolated, and unclean beasts,

I Maccabees 1:51 And that they should leave their children uncircumcised, and let their souls be defiled with all uncleannesses, and abominations, to the end that they should forget the law, and should change all the justifications of God.

I Maccabees 1:52 And that whosoever would not do according to the word of king Antiochus, should be put to death.

I Maccabees 1:53 According to all these words he wrote to his whole kingdom: and he appointed rulers over the people that should force them to do these things.

I Maccabees 1:54 And they commanded the cities of Juda to sacrifice.

I Maccabees 1:55 Then many of the people were gathered to them that had forsaken the law of the Lord: and they committed evils in the land:

I Maccabees 1:56 And they drove away the people of Israel into lurking holes, and into the secret places of fugitives.

I Maccabees 1:57 On the fifteenth day of the month, Casleu, in the hundred and forty-fifth year, *king Antiochus set up the abominable idol of desolation upon the altar of God, and they built altars throughout all the cities of Juda round about:

Year of the World 3837. Fifteenth. In all other places the 25th, whence this may be incorrect, (Calmet) or the altar was now set up, (Haydock) though sacrifices were not yet offered. (Calmet) --- Idol. The statue of Jupiter Olympius, (Challoner) as Daniel (ix.) had foretold, as a figure of what antichrist would do, (Matthew xxiv.; Worthington) as well as the Romans, when they took Jerusalem.
I Maccabees 1:58 And they burnt incense, and sacrificed at the doors of the houses and in the streets.

Doors, to Trivia, Isaias 57:8. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 1:59 And they cut in pieces, and burnt with fire the books of the law of God:

Law, and all the sacred writings. (Josephus; Sulpitius ii.) --- The pious Jews secreted what they could, and Judas took care to collect them, 2 Machabees 1:14., and 3:48. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 1:60 And every one with whom the books of the testament of the Lord were found, and whosoever observed the law of the Lord, they put to death, according to the edict of the king.

I Maccabees 1:61 Thus by their power did they deal with the people of Israel, that were found in the cities month after month.

After month. The officers took an account of the slain, (Grotius) or the dedication of the statue was renewed, or rather the king's nativity was kept, 2 Machabees 6:7. (Calmet) --- But this would only occur once a-year. People were compelled to sacrifice on the same day of each month on which the statue had been dedicated, ver. 62.
I Maccabees 1:62 And on the five and twentieth day of the month, they sacrificed upon the altar of the idol that was over-against the altar of God.

Over-against, or (Haydock) "upon," epi. The Greek altars were of a smaller size.
I Maccabees 1:63 *Now the women that circumcised their children, were slain according to the commandment of king Antiochus,

2 Machabees 6:10.
I Maccabees 1:64 And they hanged the children about their necks in all their houses: and those that had circumcised them, they put to death.

I Maccabees 1:65 And many of the people of Israel determined with themselves, that they would not eat unclean things: and they chose rather to die, than to be defiled with unclean meats:

Many. Eleazar, and the seven Machabees, etc. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 1:66 And they would not break the holy law of God, and they were put to death:

I Maccabees 1:67 And there was very great wrath upon the people.

Wrath. God seemed displeased, as he was with too many. The pious were exposed to various trials, and to the fury of persecutors. (Haydock) --- Read 2 Machabees 5:11. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 2:0 The zeal and success of Mathathias. His exhortation to his sons at his death.

I Maccabees 2:1 In *those days arose Mathathias, the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, from Jerusalem, and he abode in the mountain of Modin:

Year of the World 3837. Joarib. This family was the most distinguished, as Josephus, who sprung from it, asserts, (Haydock) being the first of the twenty-four families of priests, 1 Paralipomenon 24:7, 19. (Menochius) --- Mathathias was probably a descendant of Phinees, (ver. 54.) and was officiating when the impious orders arrived. Whereupon he retired to Modin, (Calmet) near Diospolis. (St. Jerome) --- Many say he was chosen high priest; and therefore decided the question about fighting on the sabbath. But any other, in similar emergencies, might have given that decision. (Calmet) --- Judas was chosen, (Josephus) and Jonathas exercised the functions. (Antiquities 20:8.) --- To verify the prediction of Jacob, some have concluded that the Machabees were allied to the tribe of Juda by the mother's side. (St. Jerome; St. Augustine, contra Faust. 1:72.) --- Yet this is not proved, nor requisite. They were called Asmoneans, either from the town of Asamon, (Josue 15:27.) or from Assamoneus, great grandfather of Mathathias. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:8.) --- This family ruled till Herod, 128 years. (Calmet) --- Here an account is given of their wars, and more fully in the eight last chapters of the second Book[2 Machabees]. (Worthington) --- Perhaps John, Mathathias, etc., were chosen high priests by the people, while the king sent others. (Selden)
I Maccabees 2:2 And he had five sons: John, who was surnamed Gaddis;

Gaddis, "a troop, fortunate, or a heap of wheat." (Calmet)
I Maccabees 2:3 And Simon, who was surnamed Thasi;

Thasi, Syriac, "ardent," or feeble, (Calmet) or a destroyer. (Pagnin)
I Maccabees 2:4 And Judas, who was called Machabeus;

Machabeus. The common etymology has been given [in the Introduction]. (Haydock) --- But Judas had then no banners, and there is no proof that the Jews used such abbreviations, (Calmet) though moderns write Rambam, for "R. Moses, son of Maimon," Moce-bie, (Haydock) "conquering in God," (equivalent to Nicator, the title of Sedeucus) seems better, particularly as the word is written Machabee. (Calmet) --- Yet this is liable to the objection of c being placed instead of k, which occurs invariably in the Chaldean and Syriac. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 2:5 And Eleazar, who was surnamed Abaron; and Jonathan, who was surnamed Apphus.

Abaron, "passing," undaunted, (Calmet) or "potent." --- Apphus, "the wrath or flying of counsel," (Pagnin) "fainting, abundant, or dissipating." (Calmet) --- This small help, of great importance, was foretold by Daniel, 11:34. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 2:6 These saw the evils that were done in the people of Juda, and in Jerusalem.

I Maccabees 2:7 And Mathathias said: Wo is me, wherefore was I born to see the ruin of my people, and the ruin of the holy city, and to dwell there, when it is given into the hands of the enemies?

Ruin. St. Polycarp used a similar expression. (Eusebius, [History of the Church] 5:19.)
I Maccabees 2:8 The holy places are come into the hands of strangers: her temple is become as a man without honour.

I Maccabees 2:9 The vessels of her glory are carried away captive; her old men are murdered in the streets, and her young men are fallen by the sword of the enemies.

I Maccabees 2:10 What nation hath not inherited her kingdom, and gotten of her spoils?

I Maccabees 2:11 All her ornaments are taken away. She that was free is made a slave.

I Maccabees 2:12 And behold our sanctuary, and our beauty, and our glory is laid waste, and the Gentiles have defiled them.

I Maccabees 2:13 To what end then should we live any longer?

I Maccabees 2:14 And Mathathias and his sons rent their garments, and they covered themselves with haircloth, and made great lamentation.

Lamentation. By voluntary mortification, he sought to appease God's indignation. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 2:15 And they that were sent from king Antiochus, came thither, to compel them that were fled into the city of Modin, to sacrifice, and to burn incense, and to depart from the law of God.

I Maccabees 2:16 And many of the people of Israel consented and came to them: but Mathathias and his sons stood firm.

I Maccabees 2:17 And they that were sent from Antiochus, answering, said to Mathathias: Thou art a ruler, and an honourable, and great man in this city, and adorned with sons, and brethren.

I Maccabees 2:18 Therefore, come thou first, and obey the king's commandment, as all nations have done, and the men of Juda, and they that remain in Jerusalem: and thou, and thy sons, shall be in the number of the king's friends, and enriched with gold, and silver, and many presents.

They. Josephus mentions Apelles. Persecutors have thus frequently attempted to delude the faithful; first by flattery, and then by torments.
I Maccabees 2:19 Then Mathathias answered, and said with a loud voice: Although all nations obey king Antiochus, so as to depart every man from the service of the law of his fathers, and consent to his commandments:

I Maccabees 2:20 I and my sons, and my brethren will obey the law of our fathers.

I Maccabees 2:21 God be merciful unto us: it is not profitable for us to forsake the law, and the justices of God:

Profitable. But quite the reverse both for this world and for the next. It is a dreadful crime.
I Maccabees 2:22 We will not hearken to the words of king Antiochus, neither will we sacrifice and transgress the commandments of our law, to go another way.

Way. Greek, "to the right or to the left." (Haydock)
I Maccabees 2:23 Now as he left off speaking these words, there came a certain Jew in the sight of all to sacrifice to the idols upon the altar in the city of Modin, according to the king's commandment.

I Maccabees 2:24 And Mathathias saw, and was grieved, and his reins trembled, and his wrath was kindled according to the judgment of the law, and running upon him he slew him upon the altar:

Law. Deuteronomy 11:6., (Menochius) and 13:9. Those who attempted to introduce the worship of idols, were to be slain without farther trial. (Calmet) --- Mathathias was then judge and high priest. (Worthington) --- He acted not though private revenge. (St. Cyprian, exhort. 5.; St. Bernard, ep. 158.) (Worthington)
I Maccabees 2:25 Moreover the man whom king Antiochus had sent, who compelled them to sacrifice, he slew at the same time, and pulled down the altar.

I Maccabees 2:26 And shewed zeal for the law, *as Phinees did by Zamri, the son of Salomi.

Numbers 25:13.
I Maccabees 2:27 And Mathathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: Every one that hath zeal for the law, and maintaineth the testament, let him follow me.

I Maccabees 2:28 So he and his sons fled into the mountains, and left all that they had in the city.

I Maccabees 2:29 Then many that sought after judgment, and justice, went down into the desert:

And justice. The ceremonial and moral law, (Calmet) or to live piously. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 2:30 And they abode there, they and their children, and their wives, and their cattle: because afflictions increased upon them.

I Maccabees 2:31 And it was told to the king's men, and to the army that was in Jerusalem, in the city of David, that certain men, who had broken the king's commandment, were gone away into the secret places in the wilderness, and that many were gone after them.

I Maccabees 2:32 And forthwith they went out towards them, and made war against them on the sabbath day,

I Maccabees 2:33 And they said to them: Do you still resist? come forth, and do according to the edict of king Antiochus, and you shall live.

I Maccabees 2:34 And they said: We will not come forth, neither will we obey the king's edict, to profane the sabbath day.

Sabbath. By sacrificing to idols, or by coming forth to fight. (Haydock) --- They were of opinion that the latter was unlawful, and their ignorance might be excused. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 2:35 And they made haste to give them battle.

I Maccabees 2:36 But they answered them not, neither did they cast a stone at them, nor stopped up the secret places,

I Maccabees 2:37 Saying: Let us all die in our innocency: and heaven and earth shall be witnesses for us, that you put us to death wrongfully.

Innocency. Literally, "simplicity," has often this sense. Their piety was not, however, enlightened, as the ceremonial law gives way on such occasions. (Calmet) --- Their simplicity is commended by St. Ambrose, Of. 1:40. Yet they had not the prudence of serpents, which is also requisite. The Church remains. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 2:38 So they gave them battle on the sabbath: and they were slain with their wives, and their children, and their cattle, to the number of a thousand persons.

I Maccabees 2:39 And Mathathias and his friends heard of it, and they mourned for them exceedingly.

I Maccabees 2:40 And every man said to his neighbour: If we shall all do as our brethren have done, and not fight against the heathens for our lives, and our justifications: they will now quickly root us out of the earth.

I Maccabees 2:41 And they determined in that day, saying: Whosoever shall come up against us to fight on the sabbath day, we will fight against him: and we will not all die, as our brethren that were slain in the secret places.

Come up. They say not that they will attack. (Calmet) --- Pompey perceived this, and made his advances and works on the sabbath, without opposition. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 1:5.) --- Pompey I had thus taken Jerusalem. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:1.) --- The Samaritans will not move on that day. (Exodus 16:29.; ep. 2. ad Scaliger) --- The Jews now take care of the sick, but will not help a beast out of the ditch on the sabbath, though in our Saviour's time they did just the reverse, Luke 14:5. The law has thus been variously explained. The Machabees judged with prudence. Yet superstition had again gained ground, when Josephus (vita) would not fight or assemble his forces on the sabbath, as being contrary to the law. In a storm, a Jewish pilot abandoned the helm till the danger was evident. (Synes. ep. iv.)
I Maccabees 2:42 Then was assembled to them the congregation of the Assideans, the stoutest of Israel, every one that had a good will for the law.

The Assideans. A set of men that led a religious life; and were zealous for the law and worship of God. (Challoner) --- They fought like the knights of Malta. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Esidim (Haydock) means "the pious," Ecclesiasticus 44:10. Many think they were the same with the Cinites, Rechabites, and Essenes. From them sprung the Pharisees. (Calmet) --- The society was intent on adorning the temple, (Scaliger) by which they swore, Matthew 23:6. (Calmet) --- They were like monks in the old law. (Simon.) (Menochius) --- These Essenes followed piety, avoiding the hypocrisy and error of the Pharisees and Sadducees. (Worthington) (Josephus, Jewish Wars 2:12.)
I Maccabees 2:43 And all they that fled from the evils, joined themselves to them, and were a support to them.

I Maccabees 2:44 And they gathered an army, and slew the sinners in their wrath, and the wicked men in their indignation: and the rest fled to the nations for safety.

Sinners. Apostate Jews. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 2:45 And Mathathias and his friends went round about, and they threw down the altars:

I Maccabees 2:46 And they circumcised all the children whom they found in the confines of Israel that were uncircumcised: and they did valiantly.

I Maccabees 2:47 And they pursued after the children of pride, and the work prospered in their hands:

I Maccabees 2:48 And they recovered the law out of the hands of the nations, and out of the hands of the kings: and they yielded not the horn to the sinner.

Horn. That is, they suffered not the power of Antiochus, that man of sin, to abolish the law and religion of God.
I Maccabees 2:49 Now the days drew near that Mathathias should die, and he said to his sons: Now hath pride and chastisement gotten strength, and the time of destruction, and the wrath of indignation:

I Maccabees 2:50 Now, therefore, O my sons, be ye zealous for the law, and give your lives for the covenant of your fathers.

I Maccabees 2:51 And call to remembrance the works of the fathers, which they have done in their generations: and you shall receive great glory, and an everlasting name.

I Maccabees 2:52 *Was not Abraham found faithful in temptation, and it was reputed to him unto justice?

Genesis 22:2.
I Maccabees 2:53 *Joseph, in the time of his distress, kept the commandment, and he was made lord of Egypt.

Genesis 41:40.
Lord, next to the king, Genesis 41:40.
I Maccabees 2:54 *Phinees, our father, by being fervent in the zeal of God, received the covenant of an everlasting priesthood.

Numbers 25:13.; Ecclesiasticus 45:28.
Everlasting, as long as the old law should subsist. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 2:55 *Jesus, whilst he fulfilled the word, was made ruler in Israel.

Josue 1:2.
Jesus; i.e., Josue. (Challoner) --- He and Caleb alone gave a true relation. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 2:56 *Caleb, for bearing witness before the congregation, received an inheritance.

Numbers 14:6.; Josue 14:14.
I Maccabees 2:57 *David, by his mercy, obtained the throne of an everlasting kingdom.

2 Kings 2:4.
Mercy. This virtue was characteristic. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 2:58 *Elias, while he is full of zeal for the law, was taken up into heaven.

4 Kings 2:11.
I Maccabees 2:59 *Ananias and Azarias and Misael, by believing, were delivered out of the flame.

Daniel 3:50.
I Maccabees 2:60 *Daniel, in his innocency, was delivered out of the mouth of the lions.

Daniel 6:22.
I Maccabees 2:61 And thus consider, through all generations: that none that trust in him, fail in strength.

I Maccabees 2:62 And fear not the words of a sinful man, for his glory is dung, and worms:

I Maccabees 2:63 To-day he is lifted up, and to-morrow he shall not be found, because he is returned into his earth, and his thought is come to nothing.

I Maccabees 2:64 You, therefore, my sons, take courage, and behave manfully in the law: for by it you shall be glorious.

I Maccabees 2:65 And behold, I know that your brother Simon is a man of counsel: give ear to him always, and he shall be a father to you.

I Maccabees 2:66 And Judas Machabeus, who is valiant and strong from his youth up, let him be the leader of your army, and he shall manage the war of the people.

People. Order is peculiarly requisite in all things, so here the proper persons are chosen, to whom each must submit in their sphere. (Worthington) --- Mathathias speaks as chief of the nation. (Calmet) --- Judas was his eldest son, and Simon the fourth. (Josephus; Seder., etc.)
I Maccabees 2:67 And you shall take to you all that observe the law: and revenge ye the wrong of your people.

I Maccabees 2:68 Render to the Gentiles their reward, and take heed to the precepts of the law.

I Maccabees 2:69 And he blessed them, and was joined to his fathers.

I Maccabees 2:70 And he died in the hundred and forty-sixth *year: and he was buried by his sons in the sepulchres of his fathers, in Modin, and all Israel mourned for him with great mourning.

Year of the World 3838. Year. Not of his age, but of the Greeks, (Menochius) after being at the head about twelve months. (The year of the world 3838.) (Calmet)
I Maccabees 3:0 Judas Machabeus succeeds his father, and overthrows Apollonius and Seron. A great army is sent against him out of Syria. He prepares his people for battle by fasting and prayer.

I Maccabees 3:1 Then his son Judas, called Machabeus, rose up in his stead.

Judas, the eldest. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 1:1.) --- His skill and valour also entitled him to this post. (Calmet) --- He did not claim this honour, but received it from his father, and was obeyed by the virtuous people. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 3:2 And all his brethren helped him, and all they that had joined themselves to his father, and they fought with cheerfulness the battle of Israel.

I Maccabees 3:3 And he got his people great honour, and put on a breastplate as a giant, and girt his warlike armour about him in battles, and protected the camp with his sword.

I Maccabees 3:4 In his acts he was like a lion, and like a lion's whelp roaring for his prey.

I Maccabees 3:5 And he pursued the wicked and sought them out, and them that troubled his people he burnt with fire:

I Maccabees 3:6 And his enemies were driven away for fear of him, and all the workers of iniquity were troubled: and salvation prospered in his hand.

I Maccabees 3:7 And he grieved many kings, and made Jacob glad with his works, and his memory is blessed for ever.

Kings. Epiphanes, Eupator,and Demetrius, with their generals. (Calmet) --- Judas gained four great battles against Apollonius, Seron, Gorgias, and Lysias, 1 Machabees 4:1, 28. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 3:8 And he went through the cities of Juda, and destroyed the wicked out of them, and turned away wrath from Israel.

Wrath. Making the enemy retire, (Haydock) and purifying the temple, etc.
I Maccabees 3:9 And he was renowned even to the utmost part of the earth, and he gathered them that were perishing.

Perishing. So the Jews style the miserable. (Calmet) --- Go to 2 Machabees 8:1. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 3:10 *And Apollonius gathered together the Gentiles, and a numerous and great army from Samaria, to make war against Israel.

Year of the World 3838. Apollonius, who had pillaged Jerusalem, 2 Machabees 5:24.
I Maccabees 3:11 And Judas understood it, and went forth to meet him: and he overthrew him, and killed him: and many fell down slain, the rest fled away.

I Maccabees 3:12 And he took their spoils, and Judas took the sword of Apollonius, and fought with it all his lifetime.

I Maccabees 3:13 And Seron, captain of the army of Syria, heard that Judas had assembled a company of the faithful, and a congregation with him,

I Maccabees 3:14 And he said: I will get me a name, and will be glorified in the kingdom, and will overthrow Judas, and those that are with him, that have despised the edict of the king.

I Maccabees 3:15 And he made himself ready; and the host of the wicked went up with him, strong succours, to be revenged of the children of Israel.

Wicked apostates. (Calmet) --- They are the most virulent. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 3:16 And they approached even as far as Bethoron: and Judas went forth to meet him, with a small company.

Bethoron, seven leagues north of Jerusalem.
I Maccabees 3:17 But when they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Judas: How shall we, being few, be able to fight against so great a multitude and so strong, and we are ready to faint with fasting to-day?

Fasting. Judas thus laudably prepared for battle. (Calmet) --- Human frailty fears to engage a strong enemy. But true confidence in God gives courage and victory. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 3:18 And Judas said: It is an easy matter for many to be shut up in the hands of a few: and there is no difference in the sight of the God of heaven to deliver with a great multitude, or with a small company:

I Maccabees 3:19 For the success of war is not in the multitude of the army, but strength cometh from heaven.

I Maccabees 3:20 They come against us with an insolent multitude, and with pride, to destroy us, and our wives, and our children, and to take our spoils.

I Maccabees 3:21 But we will fight for our lives, and our laws:

I Maccabees 3:22 And the Lord himself will overthrow them before our face: but as for you, fear them not.

I Maccabees 3:23 And as soon as he had made an end of speaking, he rushed suddenly upon them: and Seron, and his host were overthrown before him:

I Maccabees 3:24 And he pursued him by the descent of Bethoron, even to the plain, and there fell of them eight hundred men, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines.

I Maccabees 3:25 And the fear of Judas, and of his brethren, and the dread of them, fell upon all the nations round about them.

Them. Philip wrote from Jerusalem to Ptolemy, to send aid. He immediately despatched Nicanor and Gorgias, who doubted not of success, so that they brought the merchants to buy the Jews, 2 Machabees viii.
I Maccabees 3:26 And his fame came to the king, and all nations told of the battles of Judas.

I Maccabees 3:27 Now *when king Antiochus heard these words, he was angry in his mind: and he sent, and gathered the forces of all his kingdom, an exceeding strong army.

Year of the World 3839, Year before Christ 165.
I Maccabees 3:28 And he opened his treasury, and gave out pay to the army for a year: and he commanded them, that they should be ready for all things.

I Maccabees 3:29 And he perceived that the money of his treasures failed, and that the tributes of the country were small because of the dissension, and the evil that he had brought upon the land, that he might take away the laws of old times:

Land. He formerly received three hundred talents from Judea; now he was forced to send money thither. (Sulpitius ii.) (Calmet) --- Times. He not only disturbed the Jews, but other nations, which rebelled. (Worthington) --- Though he had plundered the temple, he was still poor: the usual fate of wicked princes. (Menochius) --- Sacrilege seldom prospers. When Henry VIII took the revenues of monasteries, he was still needy. They had amply provided for the poor. Soon after, however, the poor rates commenced; and in the 39th Eliz.[Elizabeth?], no less than eleven bills were brought into Parliament for their relief. (Dugdale.) See Hist. of Prot. Ch.[Challoner?] (Haydock)
I Maccabees 3:30 And he feared that he should not have as formerly, enough for charges and gifts, which he had given before with a liberal hand: for he had abounded more than the kings that had been before him.

Liberal. Epiphanes left many vestiges of his magnificence. (Vaillant.) --- The very year when Apollonius was defeated, (Usher, the year of the world 3838.; Calmet) he exhibited most costly games at Daphne, near Antioch, to excel those of P. Emilius, at Amphipolis. Yet he disgusted the company with his apeish conduct. (Atheneus 5:4.)
I Maccabees 3:31 And he was greatly perplexed in mind, and purposed to go into Persia, and to take tributes of the countries, and to gather much money.

Persia. The Arabic (2 Machabees vii.) says the king had revolted. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 3:32 And he left Lysias, a nobleman of the blood royal, to oversee the affairs of the kingdom from the river Euphrates even to the river of Egypt:

I Maccabees 3:33 And to bring up his son, Antiochus, till he came again.

I Maccabees 3:34 And he delivered to him half the army, and the elephants: and he gave him charge concerning all that he would have done, and concerning the inhabitants of Judea, and Jerusalem.

I Maccabees 3:35 And that he should send an army against them, to destroy and root out the strength of Israel, and the remnant of Jerusalem, and to take away the memory of them from that place:

I Maccabees 3:36 And that he should settle strangers to dwell in all their coasts, and divide their land by lot.

I Maccabees 3:37 So the king took the half of the army that remained, *and went forth from Antioch, the chief city of his kingdom, in the hundred and forty-seventh year: and he passed over the river Euphrates, and went through the higher countries.

Year of the World 3839. Countries, and took Artaxias, king of Armenia. (St. Jerome)
I Maccabees 3:38 Then Lysias chose Ptolemee, the son of Dorymenus, and Nicanor, and Gorgias, mighty men of the king's friends.

Ptolomee. He had been governor of Cyprus, under Philometor, and gave him the revenue only when he was capable of acting for himself. (Polybius) --- He afterwards betrayed the island to Epiphanes, 2 Machabees viii.
I Maccabees 3:39 And he sent with them forty thousand men, and seven thousand horsemen: to go into the land of Juda, and to destroy it, according to the king's orders.

I Maccabees 3:40 So they went forth with all their power, and came, and pitched near Emmaus, in the plain country.

Emmaus, two leagues west of Jerusalem, (Calmet) different from that mentioned in St. Luke. (Reland.)
I Maccabees 3:41 And the merchants of the countries heard the fame of them: and they took silver and gold in abundance, and servants: and they came into the camp, to buy the children of Israel for slaves: and there were joined to them the forces of Syria, and of the land of the strangers.

Servants. Josephus (Antiquities 12:11.) adds "chains," which were all turned against them by Judas. Nicanor had promised ninety Jews for a talent, 2 Machabees 8:10. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 3:42 And Judas, and his brethren, saw that evils were multiplied, and that the armies approached to their borders: and they knew the orders the king had given to destroy the people, and utterly abolish them.

I Maccabees 3:43 And they said, every man to his neighbour: Let us raise up the low condition of our people, and let us fight for our people, and our sanctuary.

I Maccabees 3:44 And the assembly was gathered, that they might be ready for battle: and that they might pray, and ask mercy and compassion.

Pray. This, with fasting and other penitential works, is the best armour in holy wars of religion.
I Maccabees 3:45 Now Jerusalem was not inhabited, but was like a desert: there was none of her children that went in or out: and the sanctuary was trodden down: and the children of strangers were in the castle, there was the habitation of the Gentiles: and joy was taken away from Jacob, and the pipe and harp ceased there.

I Maccabees 3:46 And they assembled together, and came to Maspha, over-against Jerusalem: for in Maspha was a place of prayer heretofore in Israel.

Maspha. Silo had been, and Jerusalem was afterwards, the place for public prayer. (Worthington) --- As the Jews could not go to Jerusalem, they performed their duty as well as they could at Maspha, where Israel had often met, Judges xx., and xxi., and 1 Kings 7:5., and 10:17.
I Maccabees 3:47 And they fasted that day, and put on haircloth, and put ashes upon their heads: and they rent their garments:

I Maccabees 3:48 And they laid open the books of the law, in which the Gentiles searched for the likeness of their idols:

In which. The Greek text seems corrupt. By a small change we might render, "while." (Calmet) --- From some passages abused, the pagans sought to establish their religion. (Salien) --- For. Many Greek copies add, "to inscribe," (Menochius) or "draw upon them the likenesses of their idols." (Haydock) --- Thus they wished to defile the books, as they had done the temple, (Menochius) and render them useless to the Jews. (Haydock) --- Syriac, "law, before the sanctuary on account of the Gentiles, who wished to make them imitate their idolatry." (Calmet) --- The sacred books would be a good preservative. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 3:49 And they brought the priestly ornaments, and the first-fruits and tithes, and stirred up the Nazarites that had fulfilled their days:

Ornaments, which they had rescued from plunder. It seems they had also set up a sort of tabernacle, and had some ornament from the sanctuary. --- Days. They ought then to offer victims, which was now impossible.
I Maccabees 3:50 And they cried with a loud voice toward heaven, saying: What shall we do with these, and whither shall we carry them?

I Maccabees 3:51 For thy holies are trodden down, and are profaned, and thy priests are in mourning, and are brought low.

I Maccabees 3:52 And behold the nations are come together against us, to destroy us: thou knowest what they intend against us.

I Maccabees 3:53 How shall we be able to stand before their face, unless thou, O God, help us?

I Maccabees 3:54 Then they sounded with trumpets, and cried out with a loud voice.

Trumpets. Protection seemed to be promised, Numbers 10:9.
I Maccabees 3:55 And after this, Judas appointed captains over the people, over thousands, and over hundreds, and over fifties, and over tens.

I Maccabees 3:56 *And he said to them that were building houses, or had betrothed wives, or were planting vineyards, or were fearful, that they should return every man to his house, according to the law.

Deuteronomy 20:5-6.; Judges 7:3.
Law. Deuteronomy 20:5. (Calmet) --- Yet his forces were already few. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 3:57 So they removed the camp, and pitched on the south side of Emmaus.

I Maccabees 3:58 And Judas said: Gird yourselves, and be valiant men, and be ready against the morning, that you may fight with these nations that are assembled against us, to destroy us and our sanctuary.

I Maccabees 3:59 For it is better for us to die in battle, than to see the evils of our nation, and of the holies:

I Maccabees 3:60 Nevertheless, as it shall be the will of God in heaven, so be it done.

Done. This godly resolution inspired them with courage, and procured the victory. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 4:0 Judas routs the king's army. Gorgias flies before him. Lysias comes against him with a great army, but is defeated. Judas cleanses the temple, sets up a new altar, and fortifies the sanctuary.

I Maccabees 4:1 Then *Gorgias took five thousand men, and a thousand of the best horsemen; and they removed out of the camp by night.

Year of the World 3839, Year before Christ 165.
I Maccabees 4:2 That they might come upon the camp of the Jews, and strike them suddenly: and the men that were of the castle were their guides.

Guides. Several were apostates. Judas was at or near Maspha. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 4:3 And Judas heard of it, and rose up, he and the valiant men, to attack the king's forces that were in Emmaus.

Rose up. The vigilance of rulers and pastors preserves from the devil's stratagems. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 4:4 For as yet the army was dispersed from the camp.

Camp, foraging, as they despised the forces of Judas, and supposed he was in the camp, or engaged with Gorgias.
I Maccabees 4:5 And Gorgias came by night into the camp of Judas, and found no man; and he sought them in the mountains: for he said: These men flee from us.

I Maccabees 4:6 And when it was day, Judas shewed himself in the plain with three thousand men only, who neither had armour nor swords:

Three. We find seven thousand elsewhere. He was at the head of three thousand, and set his three brothers over fifteen hundred each. --- Who. Some copies read, "because." He could arm no more completely. --- Swords. This is added in Greek and in some Latin copies. Having already gained two victories, they must have had some swords, with which they slew the fugitives, ver. 15. (Calmet) --- They were ill armed, through poverty (Josephus) chiefly, (Haydock) using slings, Zacharias 9:15. (Calmet) --- Confidence in God procureth his assistance, ver. 8. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 4:7 And they saw the camp of the Gentiles that it was strong, and the men in breastplates, and the horsemen round about them, and these were trained up to war.

I Maccabees 4:8 And Judas said to the men that were with him: Fear ye not their multitude, neither be ye afraid of their assault.

I Maccabees 4:9 *Remember in what manner our fathers were saved in the Red Sea, when Pharao pursued them with a great army.

Exodus 14:9.
I Maccabees 4:10 And now let us cry to heaven, and the Lord will have mercy on us, and will remember the covenant of our fathers, and will destroy this army before our face this day:

I Maccabees 4:11 And all nations shall know that there is one that redeemeth and delivereth Israel.

I Maccabees 4:12 And the strangers lifted up their eyes, and saw them coming against them.

I Maccabees 4:13 And they went out of the camp to battle, and they that were with Judas sounded the trumpet.

Trumpet. There were many priests in the army.
I Maccabees 4:14 And they joined battle: and the Gentiles were routed, and fled into the plain.

I Maccabees 4:15 But all the hindmost of them fell by the sword, and they pursued them as far as Gezeron, and even to the plains of Idumea, and of Azotus, and of Jamnia: and there fell of them to the number of three thousand men.

Gezeron, or Gazera, near Emmaus. --- Idumea. Alexandrian manuscript reads "Judea," which seems more probable. The enemy fled on all sides, some among the Philistines; (Calmet) others to the southern parts of Juda, occupied by Edom. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 4:16 And Judas returned again with his army that followed him.

I Maccabees 4:17 And he said to the people: Be not greedy of the spoils; for there is war before us:

I Maccabees 4:18 And Gorgias and his army are near us in the mountain: but stand ye now against our enemies, and overthrow them, and you shall take the spoils afterwards with safety.

I Maccabees 4:19 And as Judas was speaking these words, behold part of them appeared, looking forth from the mountain.

I Maccabees 4:20 And Gorgias saw that his men were put to flight, and that they had set fire to the camp: for the smoke that was seen declared what was done.

I Maccabees 4:21 And when they had seen this, they were seized with great fear, seeing at the same time Judas and his army in the plain ready to fight.

I Maccabees 4:22 So they all fled away into the land of the strangers.

I Maccabees 4:23 And Judas returned to take the spoils of the camp, and they got much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great riches.

Sea. This sort of purple was most esteemed. The art of dying it is now lost. The merchants' goods fell into the hands of the Jews. The pursuit was interrupted by the sabbath. At various times Bacchides and Timothy lost above 20,000; Phylarchus and Callisthenes perished; and Nicanor saved himself by flight. The booty was laid up in places of security, 2 Machabees 8:25, 30.
I Maccabees 4:24 And returning home, they sung a hymn, and blessed God in heaven, because he is good, because his mercy endureth for ever.

For ever. This was the chorus of Psalm cxxxv., which was sung; (Calmet) or the [Psalm] cxvii. might be used on this occasion. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 4:25 So Israel had a great deliverance that day.

I Maccabees 4:26 And such of the strangers as escaped, went and told Lysias all that had happened.

I Maccabees 4:27 And when he heard these things, he was amazed and discouraged: because things had not succeeded in Israel according to his mind, and as the king had commanded.

Commanded. See what followed, 2 Machabees 8:8., to the end. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 4:28 So the year *following, Lysias gathered together threescore thousand chosen men, and five thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them.

Year of the World 3839.
I Maccabees 4:29 And they came into Judea, and pitched their tents in Bethoron, and Judas met them with ten thousand men.

I Maccabees 4:30 And they saw that the army was strong, and he prayed, and said: Blessed art thou, O Saviour of Israel, *who didst break the violence of the mighty by the hand of thy servant David, **and didst deliver up the camp of the strangers into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of his armour-bearer.

1 Kings 17:10. --- ** 1 Kings 14:13.
I Maccabees 4:31 Shut up this army in the hands of thy people, Israel, and let them be confounded in their host and their horsemen.

I Maccabees 4:32 Strike them with fear, and cause the boldness of their strength to languish, and let them quake at their own destruction.

Destruction. Let them perish, or fall upon each other.
I Maccabees 4:33 Cast them down with the sword of them that love thee: and let all that know thy name praise thee with hymns.

I Maccabees 4:34 And they joined battle: and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men.

I Maccabees 4:35 And when Lysias saw that his men were put to flight, and how bold the Jews were, and that they were ready either to live, or to die manfully, he went to Antioch, and chose soldiers, that they might come again into Judea with greater numbers.

I Maccabees 4:36 Then Judas, and his brethren said: Behold our enemies are discomfited: let us go up now to cleanse the holy places, and to repair them.

I Maccabees 4:37 And all the army assembled together, and they went up into Mount Sion.

I Maccabees 4:38 And they saw the sanctuary desolate, and the altar profaned, and the gates burnt, and shrubs growing up in the courts as in a forest, or on the mountains, and the chambers joining to the temple thrown down.*

Year of the World 3840. Burnt by Callisthenes, whom the Jews burnt in a house, 2 Machabees viii. (Calmet) --- Chambers; (pastophoria. Septuagint) places for beds, veils, etc. (Haydock) --- St. Jerome commonly prefers "the treasury," with Aquila, or "beds," as Symmachus translates. Chambers for the officers of the temple were common both among pagans and Christians. (Rufin, Hist. 2:23.; Com. Apost.[Apostolic Constitutions?] 2:57; Clement [of Alexandria,] paed. 3:2.) (Calmet) --- As it was the chief design of Judas to defend religion, so he presently purifies the temple. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 4:39 And they rent their garments, and made great lamentation, and put ashes on their heads:

I Maccabees 4:40 And they fell face down to the ground on their faces, and they sounded with the trumpets of alarm, and they cried towards heaven.

I Maccabees 4:41 Then Judas appointed men to fight against them that were in the castle, till they had cleansed the holy places.

Fight, or to be ready, if the garrison should offer to molest them (Calmet) from the higher part of Sion, while they were performing what religion required of them. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 4:42 And he chose priests without blemish, whose will was set upon the law of God:

Blemish. Legal uncleanness or immorality. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 4:43 And they cleansed the holy places, and took away the stones that had been defiled into an unclean place.

Defiled. Altars, temples, and statues of false gods made of stone, and set up in the temple, (chap. 1:50.; Worthington) and before the houses, (2 Machabees 10:1.) were now demolished and thrown into the vale of Cedron, 2 Paralipomenon 29:16.
I Maccabees 4:44 And he considered about the altar of holocausts that had been profaned, what he should do with it.

Profaned with impure victims, and with the altar of Jupiter erected above it, 1 Machabees 1:23.
I Maccabees 4:45 And a good counsel came into their minds, to pull it down: lest it should be a reproach to them, because the Gentiles had defiled it; so they threw it down.

I Maccabees 4:46 And they laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple, in a convenient place, till there should come a prophet, and give answer concerning them.

Stones; rough, and covered with brass: (Exodus 20:25.) though this latter circumstances is not certain with respect to the altar built by the captives. --- Prophet. None was recognized after Malachias, as God prepared his people to pay more attention to the Messias.
I Maccabees 4:47 Then they took whole stones according to the law, and built a new altar, according to the former:

Law. Nothing was specified. The altar in the desert was of wood. At Sinai and Hebal, turf or rough stones were used; whence unhewed stones were judged most proper.
I Maccabees 4:48 And they built up the holy places, and the things that were within the temple: and they sanctified the temple, and the courts.

Up, or repaired the temple chambers, etc.
I Maccabees 4:49 And they made new holy vessels, and brought in the candlestick, and the altar of incense, and the table, into the temple.

I Maccabees 4:50 And they put incense upon the altar, and lighted up the lamps that were upon the candlestick, and they gave light in the temple.

I Maccabees 4:51 And they set the loaves upon the table, and hung up the veils, and finished all the works that they had begun to make.

Veils, at the entrance of the holy of holies. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 4:52 And they arose before the morning, on the five and twentieth day of the ninth month, (which is the month of Casleu) in the hundred and forty-eighth year.*

Year of the World 3840. Year. The temple was purified a little more than two years after it had been profaned. (The year [of the kingdom of the Greeks?] 145.) (Worthington) --- The sacrifices had been interrupted just three years. The Second Book [of Machabees] 10:3. specifies two years; whence some infer, that the temple was twice dedicated. But these two years most probably refer to the administration of Judas. (St. Thomas Aquinas or some other com.[commentator]; Usher, the year of the world 3840.; Tirinus; Calmet; Salien; Menochius)
I Maccabees 4:53 And they offered sacrifice, according to the law, upon the new altar of holocausts which they had made.

I Maccabees 4:54 According to the time, and according to the day wherein the heathens had defiled it, in the same was it dedicated anew with canticles, and harps, and lutes, and cymbals.

I Maccabees 4:55 And all the people fell upon their faces, and adored, and blessed up to heaven, him that had prospered them.

I Maccabees 4:56 And they kept the dedication of the altar eight days, and they offered holocausts with joy, and sacrifices of salvation, and of praise.

I Maccabees 4:57 And they adorned the front of the temple with crowns of gold, and escutcheons, and they renewed the gates, and the chambers, and hanged doors upon them.

Escutcheons, or bucklers of gold, taken from the soldiers of Antiochus, 1 Machabees 6:39. Such ornaments were placed in temples, to testify the gratitude of the people. They wished to restore as much as possible what had been taken away, 1 Machabees 1:23. On this occasion the Jews carried branches in memory of what they had suffered in desert places for three years. Hence they style it the feast of tabernacles of Casleu, 2 Machabees 1:9., and 10:6. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 4:58 And there was exceeding great joy among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was turned away.

I Maccabees 4:59 *And Judas, and his brethren, and all the church of Israel decreed, that the day of the dedication of the altar should be kept in its season from year to year for eight days, from the five and twentieth day of the month of Casleu, with joy and gladness.

John 10:22.
Decreed. Our Saviour observed this [Hanukkah] festival, which was appointed so long after Moses, John 10:22. (Worthington) --- It was styled Encoenia, and kept in winter, while Solomon's temple was dedicated in Tisri, and Zorobabel's in Adar. The Jews light lamps, (Calmet) to testify their joy. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:11.) --- The Rabbins add, that a small bottle of oil had been preserved by the high priest, which multiplied so as to supply the lamps during the whole octave. Hence they still have lights at their windows on this festival. (Selden, Syn. 3:13.)
I Maccabees 4:60 They built up also at that time Mount Sion, with high walls, and strong towers round about, lest the Gentiles should at any time come, and tread it down, as they did before.

I Maccabees 4:61 And he placed a garrison there to keep it, and he fortified it, to secure Bethsura, that the people might have a defence against Idumea.

Bethsura, which might receive reinforcements from Sion; or rather, (Calmet) Greek, they "fortified Bethsura to keep it, (Sion) that," etc. (Grotius) (Vatable) --- Idumea. The people of that country had seized many cities of Juda. (Calmet) --- Read 2 Machabees 10:1. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 5:0 Judas and his brethren attack the enemies of their country, and deliver them that were distressed. Josephus and Azarius attempting, contrary to order, to fight against their enemies, are defeated.

I Maccabees 5:1 Now it came to pass, when the nations round about heard that the altar and the sanctuary were built up, as before, that they were exceeding angry.

Nations. They were always ready to oppress the Jews. Thus God punished or tried his people. (Calmet) --- Judas, or his brethren, here gains eight victories over them. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 5:2 And they thought to destroy the generation of Jacob that were among them, and they began to kill some of the people, and to persecute them.

I Maccabees 5:3 Then Judas fought against the children of Esau, in Idumea, and them that were in Acrabathane: because they beset the Israelites around about, and he made a great slaughter of them.

Idumea. Alexandrian manuscript has, "Judea." Both may be right. The country had been wrested from Juda by the Idumeans. --- Acrabathane is "the ascent of scorpions," (hakrabim) which were probably numerous, to the south of the Dead Sea, Numbers 34:4., and Deuteronomy 8:15.
I Maccabees 5:4 And he remembered the malice of the children of Bean: who were a snare and a stumbling-block to the people, by lying in wait for them in the way.

Bean; perhaps Beon, near the sea of Sodom, (Calmet) or Bathaner, beyond the Jordan [River]. (Serarius)
I Maccabees 5:5 And they were shut up by him in towers, and he set upon them, and devoted them to utter destruction, and burnt their towers with fire, and all that were in them.

Destruction. Sometimes the people were spared. All depended on the wording of the vow, Leviticus 27:28., and Numbers 21:1. See other particulars, 2 Machabees 10:16., to 23. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 5:6 Then he passed over to the children of Ammon, where he found a mighty power, and much people, and Timotheus was their captain:

I Maccabees 5:7 And he fought many battles with them, and they were discomfited in their sight, and he smote them:

I Maccabees 5:8 *And he took the city of Gazer and her towns, and returned into Judea.

Year of the World 3481, Year before Christ 163. Gazer, in Ephraim. But Jazer, in the tribe of Gad, seems to be meant, as the Greek expresses it. (Menochius) --- Towns. Literally, "daughters," or dependant (Haydock) villages. (Worthington) --- Afterwards Judas returned and defeated Timotheus, 2 Machabees 10:24.
I Maccabees 5:9 And the Gentiles that were in Galaad, assembled themselves together against the Israelites that were in their quarters, to destroy them: and they fled into the fortress of Datheman.

Galaad. Most of the towns had been seized by the Ammonites, etc. After the return of the captives, they were probably driven out. They attempted to regain possession, when Epiphanes declared against the Jews. --- Datheman; Petra, (Calmet) or perhaps Rathma, Numbers 33:18. (Drusius)
I Maccabees 5:10 And they sent letters to Judas, and his brethren, saying, The heathens that are round about are gathered together against us, to destroy us:

I Maccabees 5:11 And they are preparing to come, and to take the fortress into which we are fled: and Timotheus is the captain of their host.

Timotheus. Another of this name had been slain the preceding year, [the year of the world] 3840, at Gazara, 2 Machabees 10:37.
I Maccabees 5:12 Now therefore come, and deliver us out of their hands, for many of us are slain.

I Maccabees 5:13 And all our brethren that were in the places of Tubin, are killed: and they have carried away their wives, and their children, captives, and taken their spoils, and they have slain there almost a thousand men.

Tubin, or Tob, to the south of Gad, Judges 11:3. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 5:14 And while they were yet reading these letters, behold there came other messengers out of Galilee with their garments rent, who related according to these words:

I Maccabees 5:15 Saying, that they of Ptolemais, and of Tyre, and of Sidon, were assembled against them, and all Galilee is filled with strangers, in order to consume us.

Is filled. Greek Alexandrian, "All Galilee of the Gentiles to destroy us." (Haydock) --- This part of Galilee was occupied by pagans, who were excited by Epiphanes to fall upon the Jews, 2 Machabees 6:8.
I Maccabees 5:16 Now when Judas and all the people heard these words, a great assembly met together to consider what they should do for their brethren that were in trouble, and were assaulted by them.

I Maccabees 5:17 And Judas said to Simon, his brother: Choose thee men, and go, and deliver thy brethren in Galilee: and I, and my brother Jonathan, will go into the country of Galaad:

I Maccabees 5:18 And he left Joseph, the son of Zacharias, and Azarias, captains of the people, with the remnant of the army in Judea, to keep it:

I Maccabees 5:19 And he commanded them, saying: Take ye the charge of this people; but make no war against the heathens, till we return.

I Maccabees 5:20 Now three thousand men were allotted to Simon, to go into Galilee: and eight thousand to Judas, to go into the land of Galaad.

I Maccabees 5:21 And Simon went into Galilee, and fought many battles with the heathens: and the heathens were discomfited before his face, and he pursued them even to the gate of Ptolemais.

I Maccabees 5:22 And there fell of the heathens almost three thousand men, and he took the spoils of them.

I Maccabees 5:23 And he took with him those that were in Galilee and in Arbatis, with their wives, and children, and all that they had, and he brought them into Judea with great joy.

Arbatis. Arboth means "deserts" uncultivated, here probably denoting the valley of Jezrahel. Simon wisely concentrated the people, as Judas did in Galaad, ver. 45.
I Maccabees 5:24 And *Judas Machabeus, and Jonathan, his brother, passed over the Jordan, and went three days' journey through the desert.

Year of the World 3481. Desert; probably from Bethsan to Bosor, marching with all secrecy.
I Maccabees 5:25 And the Nabutheans met them, and received them in a peaceable manner, and told them all that happened to their brethren in the land of Galaad,

Nabutheans; descendants of Ismael's eldest son, whose capital was Petra. They continued friends to the Jews.
I Maccabees 5:26 And that many of them were shut up in Barasa, and in Bosor, and in Alima, and in Casphor, and in Mageth, and in Carnaim; all these strong and great cities.

Barasa; probably the Bozra of Moab. Greek, "Bosorra." (Jos.[Josephus?]) --- Bosor means a fortress. It is not wonderful that there should be many places of this name in Arabia, to defend the people from robbers. --- Alima; Elim, or Almon, Isaias 15:8. --- Casphor, or rather Casbon, (ver. 36.) the famous Hesebon, Numbers 21:26. (Calmet) --- Mageth, or Machati; (Grotius) though it seems too far off, Deuteronomy 3:14. --- Carnaim, "horns," being sacred to the moon, (Calmet) called Astaroth, Genesis 14:5. (Haydock) --- Strabo styles it Carna.
I Maccabees 5:27 Yea, and that they were kept shut up in the rest of the cities of Galaad, and that they had appointed to bring their army on the morrow near to these cities, and to take them, and to destroy them all in one day.

I Maccabees 5:28 Then Judas and his army suddenly turned their march into the desert, to Bosor, and took the city: and he slew every male by the edge of the sword, and took all their spoils, and burnt it with fire.

I Maccabees 5:29 And they removed from thence by night, and went till they came to the fortress.

Fortress of Datheman, ver. 9.
I Maccabees 5:30 And it came to pass that early in the morning, when they lifted up their eyes, behold there were people without number, carrying ladders and engines to take the fortress, and assault them.

I Maccabees 5:31 And Judas saw that the fight was begun, and the cry of the battle went up to heaven like a trumpet, and a great cry out of the city:

I Maccabees 5:32 And he said to his host: Fight ye to-day for your brethren.

I Maccabees 5:33 And he came with three companies behind them, and they sounded their trumpets, and cried out in prayer.

I Maccabees 5:34 And the host of Timotheus understood that it was Machabeus, and they fled away before his face: and they made a great slaughter of them: and there fell of them in that day almost eight thousand men.

I Maccabees 5:35 And Judas turned aside to Maspha, and assaulted, and took it, and he slew every male thereof, and took the spoils thereof, and burnt it with fire.

I Maccabees 5:36 From thence he marched, and took Casbon, and Mageth, and Bosor, and the rest of the cities of Galaad.

Bosor, or Bosra, ver. 26. Bosor was taken before, ver. 28.
I Maccabees 5:37 But after this Timotheus gathered another army, and camped over-against Raphon, beyond the torrent.

After. Judas had in the mean time defeated Lysias, 2 Machabees 11:1., etc. (Calmet) --- Raphon, or Raphana; (Grotius) or as that was too remote, probably Saphon, Numbers 32:35. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 5:38 And Judas sent men to view the army: and they brought him word, saying: All the nations, that are round about us, are assembled unto him an army exceeding great:

I Maccabees 5:39 And they have hired the Arabians to help them, and they have pitched their tents beyond the torrent, ready to come to fight against thee. And Judas went to meet them.

I Maccabees 5:40 And Timotheus said to the captains of his army: When Judas and his army come near the torrent of water, if he pass over unto us first, we shall not be able to withstand him: for he will certainly prevail over us.

I Maccabees 5:41 But if he be afraid to pass over, and camp on the other side of the river, we will pass over to them and shall prevail against him.

Afraid. He interpreted the delay in this sense, which was very precarious, (Haydock) as nothing could be more superstitious. Jonathan begged for a similar proof of God's favour. But Timotheus consulted only himself, 1 Kings 14:9. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 5:42 Now when Judas came near the torrent of water, he set the scribes of the people by the torrent, and commanded them, saying: Suffer no man to stay behind: but let all come to the battle.

Scribes; tribunes, who kept a register of the soldiers. (Menochius) --- They were officers of great power.
I Maccabees 5:43 And he passed over to them first, and all the people after him, and all the heathens were discomfited before them, and they threw away their weapons, and fled to the temple that was in Carnaim.

I Maccabees 5:44 And he took that city, and the temple he burnt with fire, with all things that were therein: and Carnaim was subdued, and could not stand against the face of Judas.

Temple of Atergata, or Astarte. Judas slew 55,000. Timotheus was spared, 2 Machabees 12:20, 26.
I Maccabees 5:45 And Judas gathered together all the Israelites that were in the land of Galaad, from the least even to the greatest, and their wives and children, and an army exceeding great, to come into the land of Juda.

I Maccabees 5:46 And they came as far as Ephron: now this was a great city, situate in the way, strongly fortified, and there was no means to turn from it on the right hand or on the left, but the way was through the midst of it.

Ephron, beyond the Jordan [River]. The situation is unknown. With regard to the right which Judas had to treat it with such severity, see Numbers 20:18., and Judges 8:5. (Calmet) --- It probably belonged to God's people, and was unjustly detained. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 5:47 And they that were in the city, shut themselves in, and stopped up the gates with stones: and Judas sent to them with peaceable words,

I Maccabees 5:48 Saying: Let us pass through your land, to go into our country: and no man shall hurt you; we will only pass through on foot. But they would not open to them.

I Maccabees 5:49 Then Judas commanded proclamation to be made in the camp, that they should make an assault, every man in the place where he was.

I Maccabees 5:50 And the men of the army drew near, and he assaulted that city all the day, and all the night; and the city was delivered into his hands:

I Maccabees 5:51 And they slew every male with the edge of the sword; and he razed the city, and took the spoils thereof, and passed through all the city over them that were slain.

I Maccabees 5:52 Then they passed over the Jordan to the great plain that is over-against Bethsan.

Plain, extending beyond Jezrahel.
I Maccabees 5:53 And Judas gathered together the hindmost, and he exhorted the people, all the way through, till they came into the land of Juda.

Hindmost: the place of danger. (Calmet) --- A good general takes care of the weakest, and exhorts all to behave valiantly. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 5:54 And they went up to Mount Sion with joy and gladness, and offered holocausts, because not one of them was slain, till they had returned in peace.

Not one. The 12,000 who defeated the Madianites, were preserved by God in like manner, Numbers 31:49. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 5:55 Now in the days that Judas and Jonathan were in the land of Galaad, *and Simon, his brother, in Galilee, before Ptolemais,

Year of the World 3841, Year before Christ 163.
I Maccabees 5:56 Joseph, the son of Zacharias, and Azarias, captain of the soldiers, heard of the good success, and the battles that were fought,

And Azarias. These two are known only for their disobedience and misconduct. In holy wars, God does not favour those who are actuated by base motives, ver. 18, 60. (Calmet) --- Men who depend on themselves, and who are not properly authorized, receive not assistance from above; so these failed, as they were not chosen like those who were to save Israel, (Worthington) of the family of the Machabees. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 5:57 And he said: Let us also get us a name, and let us go fight against the Gentiles that are round about us.

I Maccabees 5:58 And he gave charge to them that were in his army, and they went towards Jamnia.

Jamnia, a maritime city of the Philistines near Joppe. Gorgias, an experienced warrior, had retired thither, 1 Machabees 4:5., and 2 Machabees 8:9. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 5:59 And Gorgias and his men went out of the city, to give them battle.

I Maccabees 5:60 And Joseph and Azarias were put to flight, and were pursued unto the borders of Judea: and there fell on that day, of the people of Israel, about two thousand men, and there was a great overthrow of the people:

I Maccabees 5:61 Because they did not hearken to Judas and his brethren, thinking that they should do manfully.

I Maccabees 5:62 But they were not of the seed of those men by whom salvation was brought to Israel.

Israel. The late Rev. Robert Bannister applied this to Protestant writers of sermons, to dissuade young divines from applying to such authors as Tillotson, etc. It may also shew the reason why heretics succeed so ill in their foreign missions. (Haydock) --- They know how to pervert Catholics, not how to convert infidels. (Tertullian)
I Maccabees 5:63 And the men of Juda were magnified exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and of all the nations where their name was heard.

Men. Greek, "man, Judas, and his brethren were," etc. (Haydock) --- See a similar expression [in] Exodus 14:3., respecting Moses.
I Maccabees 5:64 And people assembled to them with joyful acclamations.

I Maccabees 5:65 Then Judas and his brethren went forth and attacked the children of Esau, *in the land towards the south, and he took Chebron and her towns: and he burnt the walls thereof, and the towers all round it.

Year of the World 3841. Chebron, or Hebron, which the Idumeans had seized. Judas retook it after he had defeated Gorgias, 2 Machabees 12:32.
I Maccabees 5:66 And he removed his camp to go into the land of the aliens, and he went through Samaria.

Aliens; Philistines, ver. 68. --- Samaria. This seems too remote. Some substitute Saraia; (Jos.[Josue?] 15:35.) others Maresa, (2 Machabees 12:35.) Marissa, (Jos.[Josephus?]) the same as Ressa, Numbers 33:21.
I Maccabees 5:67 In that day some priests fell in battle, while desiring to do manfully they went out unadvisedly to fight.

Desiring. They were only too brave. This quality was not incompatible with the priesthood. Greek Alexandrian has, "while he (Judas) was desiring," etc. Others have, "priests of the cities, while they," etc. The Roman edition agrees with us, (Calmet) and Grabe prints accordingly. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 5:68 And Judas turned to Azotus, into the land of the strangers, and he threw down their altars, and he burnt the statues of their gods with fire: and he took the spoils of the cities, and returned into the land of Juda.

I Maccabees 6:0 The fruitless repentance and death of Antiochus. His son comes against Judas with a formidable army. He besieges Sion: but at last makes peace with the Jews.

I Maccabees 6:1 Now *king Antiochus was going through the higher countries, and he heard that the city of Elymais, in Persia, was greatly renowned, and abounding in silver and gold,

Year of the World 3840, Year before Christ 164. Higher, beyond the Euphrates [River], 1 Machabees 3:30, 37. (Calmet) --- The city. Greek Alexandrian, etc., "a city in Elymais," etc. The Roman copy, Syriac, Josephus, style the place Elymais, where the temple was. (Calmet) --- Profane authors agree that this temple was very rich, and that Epiphanes attempted to plunder it. (St. Jerome, in Daniel xi.) --- Nanea. Venus or Diana was the deity there adored, whom the king pretended he would marry, 2 Machabees 1:13., and 9:2. (Calmet) --- The account of the death of Epiphanes is given to ver. 16., and 2 Machabees ix. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 6:2 And that there was in it a temple, exceeding rich; and coverings of gold, and breastplates, and shields, which king Alexander, son of Philip, the Macedonian, that reigned first in Greece, had left there.

I Maccabees 6:3 So he came, and sought to take the city and to pillage it; but he was not able, because the design was known to them that were in the city.

I Maccabees 6:4 And they rose up against him in battle, and he fled away from thence, and departed with great sadness, and returned towards Babylonia.

Battle. It is not known whether Elymais belonged to the king. Strabo (16) observes it was very jealous of its liberty, which it maintained against the Persians and the successors of Alexander [the Great]. (Calmet) --- Babylonia. At last he returned towards the country of Babylon. But before he arrived, the news of his generals' bad success in Judea filled him with vexation, and brought on desperate diseases, ver. 8., and 2 Machabees 9:5. (Worthington) --- He intended to pass by the country or city of Babylon, but was prevented by illness on the mountains which divide it from Persia.
I Maccabees 6:5 And whilst he was in Persia, there came one that told him, how the armies that were in the land of Juda were put to flight:

Persia, at Ecbatana. He expired at Tabis, having fallen from his chariot, etc., 2 Machabees ix. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 6:6 And that Lysias went with a very great power, and was put to flight before the face of the Jews, and that they were grown strong by the armour, and power, and store of spoils, which they had gotten out of the camps which they had destroyed:

I Maccabees 6:7 And that they had thrown down the abomination which he had set up upon the altar in Jerusalem, and that they had compassed about the sanctuary with high walls as before, and Bethsura also, his city.

I Maccabees 6:8 And it came to pass, when the king heard these words, that he was struck with fear, and exceedingly moved: and he laid himself down upon his bed, and fell sick for grief, because it had not fallen out to him as he imagined.

I Maccabees 6:9 And he remained there many days: for great grief came more and more upon him, and he made account that he should die.

I Maccabees 6:10 And he called for all his friends, and said to them: Sleep is gone from my eyes, and I am fallen away, and my heart is cast down for anxiety:

I Maccabees 6:11 And I said in my heart: Into what tribulation am I come, and into what floods of sorrow, wherein now I am: I that was pleasant and beloved in my power!

I Maccabees 6:12 But now I remember the evils that I did in Jerusalem, from whence also I took away all the spoils of gold, and of silver, that were in it, and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judea without cause.

Evils. All this repentance was fictitious, 2 Machabees ix. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 6:13 I know, therefore, that for this cause these evils have found me: and behold I perish with great grief in a strange land.

I Maccabees 6:14 Then he called Philip, one of his friends, and he made him regent over all his kingdom.

Friends, educated with him. He appointed him regent instead of Lysias. (Calmet) --- His son Eupator was only nine years old. (Appian.) --- He made him appear and be recognized by the army. Eupator means one "born of a good father." (Calmet)
I Maccabees 6:15 And he gave him the crown, and his robe, and his ring, that he should go to Antiochus, his son, and should bring him up for the kingdom.

I Maccabees 6:16 So king Antiochus died there in the year one hundred and forty-nine.*

Year of the World 3841. Nine. He began his persecution the year [of the kingdom of the Greeks?] 143, so that it lasted six years and almost four months, or 2300 days, (Daniel 8:14.) during which time Judas purified the temple, some months before the death of Epiphanes. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 6:17 And Lysias understood that the king was dead, and he set up Antiochus, his son, to reign, whom he brought up young: and he called his name Eupator.

I Maccabees 6:18 Now they that were in the castle, had shut up the Israelites round about the holy places: and they were continually seeking their hurt, and to strengthen the Gentiles.

I Maccabees 6:19 And Judas purposed to destroy them: and he called together all the people, to besiege them.

I Maccabees 6:20 *And they came together, and besieged them in the year one hundred and fifty, and they made battering slings and engines.

Year of the World 3841. Fifty. How then was peace made in [the year of the kingdom of the Greeks?] 148, as we read [in] 2 Machabees 11:21.? Usher ([the year of the world] 3841) supposes the era was reckoned according to the Chaldean custom, which defers it six months. Basnage (II. 1.) rather thins that the letter is placed out of its proper order, and should occur at the beginning of Eupator's reign. See 2 Machabees 10. --- Slings, or to thrown stones, etc., ballistas. (Haydock) --- The Greek and Josephus rather indicate terraces, or towers where the machines were placed.
I Maccabees 6:21 And some of the besieged got out: and some wicked men of Israel joined themselves unto them.

I Maccabees 6:22 And they went to the king, and said: How long dost thou delay to execute the judgment, and to revenge our brethren?

I Maccabees 6:23 We determined to serve thy father, and to do according to his orders, and obey his edicts:

I Maccabees 6:24 And for this they of our nation are alienated from us, and have slain as many of us as they could find, and have spoiled our inheritances.

I Maccabees 6:25 Neither have they put forth their hand against us only, but also against all our borders.

I Maccabees 6:26 And behold they have approached this day to the castle of Jerusalem to take it, and they have fortified the stronghold of Bethsura:

I Maccabees 6:27 And unless thou speedily prevent them, they will do greater things than these, and thou shalt not be able to subdue them.

I Maccabees 6:28 Now when the king heard this, he was angry: and he called together all his friends, and the captains of his army, and them that were over the horsemen.

I Maccabees 6:29 There came also to him from other realms, and from the islands of the sea, hired troops.

I Maccabees 6:30 And the number of his army was an hundred thousand footmen, and twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants trained to battle.

Hundred. The 2 Machabees 11:2., specifies 80,000. But it speaks of a subsequent action.
I Maccabees 6:31 And they went through Idumea, and approached to Bethsura, and fought many days, and they made engines: but they sallied forth, and burnt them with fire, and fought manfully.

Idumea. The passes on the north were probably occupied. --- Bethsura lay to the south of Jerusalem. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 6:32 And Judas departed from the castle, and removed the camp to Bethzacharam, over-against the king's camp.

Bethzacharam, a defile (Josephus) between the city and Bethsura. Judas abandoned the siege of the castle on Sion. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 6:33 And the king rose before it was light, and made his troops march on fiercely towards the way of Bethzacharam: and the armies made themselves ready for the battle, and they sounded the trumpets:

I Maccabees 6:34 And they shewed the elephants the blood of grapes, and mulberries, to provoke them to fight.

Blood of grapes, or wine, (Deuteronomy 32:14.) and the juice of mulberries incite elephants to fight, as the smell of some sorts of blood causes dogs to hunt. (Vales. Phil. lxxxii.) (Worthington) --- This might be done to accustom the elephants to the sight of blood. (Calmet) --- White colours irritate them most, as red do bulls. (Plutarch, de Fort. Alex.) --- Sometimes wine and spirits were given them to drink, when they were to trample on criminals: but it was only shewn them when going to battle, as by drinking they lose their strength. (Elian, Hist. 2:40., and 13:8., and 3 Machabees 5:30.)
I Maccabees 6:35 And they distributed the beasts by the legions: and there stood by every elephant a thousand men in coats of mail, and with helmets of brass on their heads: and five hundred horsemen set in order were chosen for every beast.

I Maccabees 6:36 These, before the time wheresoever the beast was, they were there: and withersoever it went, they went, and they departed not from it.

I Maccabees 6:37 And upon the beast, there were strong wooden towers, which covered every one of them: and engines upon them: and upon every one thirty-two valiant men, who fought from above: and an Indian to rule the beast.

Thirty-two. Bochart looks upon this and other such accounts as fabulous. He does not determine how many might fight in these towers; but allows that there must have been above two or three, as some would correct the Greek text, "two or three strong men fighting with darts upon them." An elephant has been known to carry above 5000 pounds, and thirty-two men would weigh no more than 4800. Pliny ([Natural History?] 8:7.) observes that sixty people have been seen upon an elephant. Eupator probably had his from India, where they are larger than in Africa. A person of that country was deemed fittest to manage them.
I Maccabees 6:38 And the rest of the horsemen he placed on this side and on that side, at the two wings, with trumpets to stir up the army, and to hasten them forward that stood thick together in the legions thereof.

Trumpets. It would seem as if the infantry had none. Yet this does not appear probable. The Greek reads in a different manner. Some copies have "to stir up and enclose them in the defiles," which seems useless; or "to keep them together in the phalanxes," (Alexandrian manuscript; Calmet) as the Vulgate has read. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 6:39 Now when the sun shone upon the shields of gold, and of brass, the mountains glittered therewith, and they shone like lamps of fire.

Gold. The Argyraspides of Alexander [the Great] had "shields of silver." His successors might surpass this magnificence; or the officers might have golden and the soldiers brazen bucklers.
I Maccabees 6:40 And part of the king's army was distinguished by the high mountains, and the other part by the low places: and they marched on warily and orderly.

I Maccabees 6:41 And all the inhabitants of the land were moved at the noise of their multitude, and the marching of the company, and the rattling of the armour, for the army was exceeding great and strong.

I Maccabees 6:42 And Judas and his army drew near for battle: and there fell of the king's army six hundred men.

Six, etc., before the exploit of Eleazer. Others fell afterwards, 2 Machabees 11:11., specifies 11,000 foot, and 600 horse. Josephus says 1000 of the vanguard.
I Maccabees 6:43 And Eleazar, the son of Saura, saw one of the beasts harnessed with the king's harness: and it was higher than the other beasts; and it seemed to him that the king was on it:

Saura. Greek, "Avaron," (Calmet) Alexandrian, "the Sauaran." (Haydock) --- He is styled Abaron, (chap. 2:5.) the brother of Judas. (Calmet) (Josephus) (Sa) (Menochius) --- Arabic says "his servant." This feat is attributed to Judas, (2 Machabees 13:15.) as he was general, and approved of, or "commanded" Eleazar to act thus, according to Ben. Gorion, (III. 20.) and the Arabic. --- Harness, for greater security. The skin is very hard, except under the belly. (Calmet) --- Elephants in the army of Antiochus the great, or rather "the coward," were richly adorned. (Flor. 2:8.) --- Porus, king of India, rode on one covered with gold. (Curtius viii.)
I Maccabees 6:44 And he exposed himself to deliver his people, and to get himself an everlasting name.

Name. This motive has made some condemn the exploit. But surely a person may seek to acquire fame, even by exposing himself to danger. Eleazar might well hope that the beast would not fall so suddenly. The other motive specified is truly noble and virtuous, and we cannot condemn this hero without stronger proofs. St. Gregory (Mor. 19:13.) represents him as a figure of the proud: but he might not therefore be one of the number, (Calmet) no more than Esau, who was a type of the reprobate, Malachias 1:3. (Haydock) --- St. Ambrose (Off. 1:40.) highly commends the fortitude of this soldier exposing himself to the danger of death for religion. (Worthington) --- This is the general sentiment. See Serarius; Menochius; Tirinus; and Grotius, jure. 3:4. a. 18.
I Maccabees 6:45 And he ran up to it boldly in the midst of the legion, killing on the right hand, and on the left, and they fell by him on this side and that side.

I Maccabees 6:46 And he went between the feet of the elephant, and put himself under it: and slew it, and it fell to the ground upon him, and he died there.

Under it. The rhinoceros attacks the elephant in that most vulnerable part. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 8:20.)
I Maccabees 6:47 Then they seeing the strength of the king and the fierceness of his army, turned away from them.

Them. Judas thought proper to retire to the temple, which alone was fortified, and in his power. The citadel of Sion held for the king, and the city was defenceless. Only what lay to the north of Bethsura was then called Judea. The Idumeans occupied the rest. Eupator blockaded the temple, and besieged Bethsura, which he took, ver. 41. This siege is related more at length, 2 Machabees 12:19. It cost the king a great deal. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 6:48 But the king's army went up against them to Jerusalem: and the king's army pitched their tents against Judea and Mount Sion.

I Maccabees 6:49 And he made peace with them that were in Bethsura: and they came forth out of the city, because they had no victuals, being shut up there, for it was the year of rest to the land.

I Maccabees 6:50 *And the king took Bethsura: and he placed there a garrison to keep it.

Year of the World 3841.
I Maccabees 6:51 And he turned his army against the sanctuary for many days: and he set up there battering slings, and engines, and instruments to cast fire, and engines to cast stones and javelins, and pieces to shoot arrows, and slings.

Battering slings. Literally, balistas. (Haydock) See ver. 20. --- Fire, or the long javelin, falarica, mentioned by Livy xxi. Incita sulcatum tremula secat aera flamma. (Silius.) --- Pieces. Literally, "scorpions," (Haydock) a sort of pointed dart, (Calmet) filled with poison, virus qua figit effundit. (Tertullian, scorp.)
I Maccabees 6:52 And they also made engines against their engines, and they fought for many days.

I Maccabees 6:53 But there were no victuals in the city, because it was the seventh year: and such as had staid in Judea of them that came from among the nations, had eaten the residue of all that which had been stored up.

I Maccabees 6:54 And there remained in the holy places but a few, for the famine had prevailed over them: and they were dispersed every man to his own place.

I Maccabees 6:55 *Now Lysias heard that Philip, whom king Antiochus while he lived had appointed to bring up his son, Antiochus, and to reign,

1 Machabees 6:15.
King. Lysias had thus been displaced, ver. 14. (Calmet) --- Providence permitted that he should seek his own interest, and thus deliver Judas from the most imminent danger.
I Maccabees 6:56 Was returned from Persia, and Media, with the army that went with him, and that he sought to take upon him the affairs of the kingdom:

I Maccabees 6:57 Wherefore he made haste to go, and say to the king and to the captains of the army: We decay daily, and our provision of victuals is small, and the place that we lay siege to is strong, and it lieth upon us to take order for the affairs of the kingdom.

I Maccabees 6:58 Now, therefore, let us come to an agreement with these men, and make peace with them and with all their nation.

Come. Literally, "give our right hands," (Haydock) the sign of the most inviolable engagements among the Persians. (Josephus, Antiquities xvii. ultra.[last chapter.])
I Maccabees 6:59 And let us covenant with them, that they may live according to their own laws, as before. For because of our despising their laws, they have been provoked, and have done all these things.

Before, by leave of Cyrus, Alex.[Alexander the Great], etc. --- Despising. Greek, "abolished." They had made the attempt.
I Maccabees 6:60 And the proposal was acceptable in the sight of the king, and of the princes: and he sent to them to make peace: and they accepted of it.

I Maccabees 6:61 And the king and the princes swore to them: and they came out of the strong hold.

I Maccabees 6:62 Then the king entered into Mount Sion, and saw the strength of the place: and he quickly broke the oath that he had taken, and gave commandment to throw down the wall round about.

Oath. Eupator was not above ten years old, (ver. 14, 20.) so that Lysias must bear the greatest blame. He seems to have prepossessed the king against Philip, the regent. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 6:63 And he departed in haste, and returned to Antioch, where he found Philip master of the city: and he fought against him, and took the city.

City, and slew Philip. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:15.) (Calmet) --- Read 2 Machabees 13:1. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 7:0 Demetrius is made king, and sends Bacchides and Alcimus, the priest, into Judea, and after them Nicanor, who is slain by Judas, with all his army.

I Maccabees 7:1 In* the hundred and fifty-first year, Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, departed from the city of Rome, and came up with few men into a city of the sea coast, and reigned there.

Year of the World 3842, Year before Christ 162. Rome. He had been a hostage instead of Epiphanes, who usurped his throne, 1 Machabees 1:11. After the death of the latter, the senate sent three legates to administer the kingdom, during the minority of Eupator. One of them was slain. The king and Lysias sent to exculpate themselves, but received no satisfactory answer. Demetrius thought this a proper opportunity for regaining the throne. He consulted the historian, Polybius, who advised him to depart privately. He, however, addressed the senate for leave, and being refused, fled with eight attendants to Tripoli, and thence to Apamea. His rivals durst not attack him, as he pretended to be sent by the Romans. The army of Eupator seized their king and Lysias, and put them to death. (Polybius cxiv., and cxxii.; Josephus; Calmet) --- Seleucus and Epiphanes were brothers; and of course Demetrius was cousin to Eupator, (Worthington) and the lawful heir of Seleucus. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 7:2 And it came to pass, as he entered into the house of the kingdom of his fathers, that the army seized upon Antiochus, and Lysias, to bring them unto him.

I Maccabees 7:3 And when he knew it, he said: Let me not see their face.

I Maccabees 7:4 So the army slew them. And Demetrius sat upon the throne of his kingdom:

I Maccabees 7:5 And there came to him the wicked and ungodly men of Israel: and Alcimus was at the head of them, who desired to be made high priest.

Alcimus. He occupied the place of Menalaus, and would be high priest, but that office was held by the Machabees. (Worthington) --- Eupator had slain Menalaus, as being too turbulent. Onias IV ought to have been recognized; (Calmet) but he fled into Egypt, and there built a temple. Lysias advised the king to select one from a family of less power. Alcimus was such, though of the posterity of Aaron, ver. 14. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:5., and 13:6., and 20:8.) --- He had fallen under Epiphanes, and the Jews would not receive him.
I Maccabees 7:6 And they accused the people to the king, saying: Judas and his brethren have destroyed all thy friends, and he hath driven us out of our land.

Thy friends, and the apostates, who obeyed the decree of the king's uncle. This was true, and the glory of Judas. See 2 Machabees 14:3. (Calmet) --- They gained the king's favour by presents, and falsely accused Judas and the people. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 7:7 Now, therefore, send some man whom thou trustest, and let him go, and see all the havock he hath made amongst us, and in the king's lands: and let him punish all his friends and their helpers.

I Maccabees 7:8 Then the king chose Bacchides, one of his friends, that ruled beyond the great river in the kingdom, and was faithful to the king: and he sent him,

River, as governor of Mesopotamia, (Josephus; Usher; Calmet) instead of Heraclides and Timarchus, who had abused their power. Hence Demetrius obtained the title of Soter, or "saviour." (Appian.) --- Faithful. The chief man under the king. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 7:9 To see the havoc that Judas had made: and the wicked Alcimus he made high priest, and commanded him to take revenge upon the children of Israel.

I Maccabees 7:10 And they arose, and came with a great army into the land of Juda: and they sent messengers, and spoke to Judas and his brethren with peaceable words, deceitfully.

I Maccabees 7:11 But they gave no heed to their words: for they saw that they were come with a great army.

I Maccabees 7:12 Then there assembled to Alcimus and Bacchides a company of the scribes, to require things that are just:

Scribes. They were both civil and military officers. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 7:13 And first the Assideans, that were among the children of Israel, and they sought peace of them.

Assideans. These were first consulted, as being most learned and pious, 1 Machabees 2:42. (Worthington) --- They held no office. (Calmet) --- Alcimus deceived them, and cruelly murdered 60, (Worthington) some scribes.
I Maccabees 7:14 For they said: One that is a priest of the seed of Aaron is come, he will not deceive us.

I Maccabees 7:15 And he spoke to them peaceably: and he swore to them, saying: We will do you no harm, nor your friends.

I Maccabees 7:16 And they believed him. And he took threescore of them, and slew them in one day, according to the word that is written:

I Maccabees 7:17 *The flesh of thy saints, and the blood of them they have shed round about Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them.

Psalm 78:1., 2. and 3.
Them. The Psalm lxxviii. alludes to the Assideans, (ver. 2.) and is explained by many, as relating to this massacre.
I Maccabees 7:18 Then fear and trembling fell upon all the people: for they said: There is no truth, nor justice among them: for they have broken the covenant, and the oath which they made.

I Maccabees 7:19 And Bacchides removed the camp from Jerusalem, and pitched in Bethzecha: and he sent, and took many of them that were fled away from him, and some of the people he killed, and threw them into a great pit.

Bethzecha. Greek, "Beseth," or Bethsetta, near the great plain. Hence Bacchides intended to return.
I Maccabees 7:20 Then he committed the country to Alcimus, and left with him troops to help him. So Bacchides went away to the king.

I Maccabees 7:21 But Alcimus did what he could to maintain his chief priesthood.

I Maccabees 7:22 And they that disturbed the people resorted to him, and they got the land of Juda into their power, and did much hurt in Israel.

I Maccabees 7:23 And Judas saw all the evils that Alcimus, and they that were with him, did to the children of Israel, much more than the Gentiles.

I Maccabees 7:24 And he went out into all the coasts of Judea round about, and took vengeance upon the men that had revolted, and they ceased to go forth any more into the country.

I Maccabees 7:25 And Alcimus saw that Judas and they that were with him, prevailed: and he knew that he could not stand against them, and he went back to the king, and accused them of many crimes.

Crimes. He made the king some presents, of what he had probably stolen from the temple, and after waiting for some time in silence, began to accuse the people, 2 Machabees xiv. (Calmet) --- See what is there related to ver. 12.
I Maccabees 7:26 *And the king sent Nicanor, one of his principal lords, who was a great enemy to Israel: and he commanded him to destroy the people.

2 Machabees 15:1.
Enemy. He was one of the most terrible: yet Judas at last slew him, ver. 43., and 2 Machabees 15:28. (Worthington) --- Nicanor was high in the king's favour, and had fled with him from Rome. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:17.) --- He first sent three ambassadors to Judas, in answer to what Simon had proposed; and peace was concluded. Alcimus hereupon accused Nicanor, and the king sent him an order to seize Judas. While he was endeavouring to comply, Judas escaped. He was again much exposed; (ver. 29.) and therefore collected his army, and fought near Jerusalem, 2 Machabees 14:15. (Usher, year of the world 3842.) (Calmet)
I Maccabees 7:27 And *Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a great army, and he sent to Judas and to his brethren deceitfully, with friendly words,

Year of the World 3843.
I Maccabees 7:28 Saying: Let there be no fighting between me and you: I will come with a few men to see your faces with peace.

I Maccabees 7:29 And he came to Judas, and they saluted one another peaceably: and the enemies were prepared to take away Judas by force.

I Maccabees 7:30 And the thing was known to Judas that he was come to him with deceit: and he was much afraid of him, and would not see his face any more.

I Maccabees 7:31 And Nicanor knew that his counsel was discovered: and he went out to fight against Judas, near Capharsalama.

Capharsalama, "the field of peace," concluded perhaps with Eupator, (chap. 6:62.; Haydock) near Jerusalem.
I Maccabees 7:32 And there fell of Nicanor's army almost five thousand men, and they fled into the city of David.

Thousand. Some Greek copies have "hundred." Others think that these were Jews: but the contrary seems to be the case, though Judas was again (chap. 6:47.) forced to retreat to the temple, which he left shortly after, 2 Machabees 14:31.
I Maccabees 7:33 And after this Nicanor went up into Mount Sion: and some of the priests and the people came out to salute him peaceably, and to shew him the holocausts that were offered for the king.

King. The Jews observed the laudable custom of praying for their rulers, as Christians do, 1 Machabees 12:11., and Baruch 1:10., and 1 Timothy 2:1. (Calmet) --- Sacrificamus pro salute Imperatoris sed Deo nostro et ipsius. (Tertullian, ad Scap. ii.)
I Maccabees 7:34 But he mocked them and despised them, and abused them: and he spoke proudly,

Abused. Literally, "polluted them," or grated their ears (Haydock) with his "blasphemies." (Josephus) --- On such occasions, the Jews stopped their ears, Acts 7:56. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 7:35 And swore in anger, saying: Unless Judas and his army be delivered into my hands, as soon as ever I return in peace, I will burn this house. And he went out in a great rage.

I Maccabees 7:36 And the priests went in, and stood before the face of the altar and the temple: and weeping, they said:

I Maccabees 7:37 Thou, O Lord, hast chosen this house for thy name to be called upon therein, that it might be a house of prayer and supplication for thy people.

I Maccabees 7:38 Be avenged of this man, and his army, and let them fall by the sword: remember their blasphemies, and suffer them not to continue any longer.

Longer. Read 2 Machabees 14:11. The last battle with Nicanor is described, 1 Machabees 15., and here, ver. 39. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 7:39 Then Nicanor went out from Jerusalem, and encamped near to Bethoron: and an army of Syria joined him.

I Maccabees 7:40 But Judas pitched in Adarsa with three thousand men: and Judas prayed, and said:

Adarsa, in Ephraim, four miles from the lower Bethoron.
I Maccabees 7:41 *O Lord, when they that were sent by king Sennacherib blasphemed thee, an angel went out, and slew of them a hundred and eighty-five thousand:

4 Kings 19:35.; Tobias 1:21.; Ecclesiasticus 48:24.; Isaias 37:36.; 2 Machabees 8:19.
Sennacherib. Some copies omit this name.
I Maccabees 7:42 Even so destroy this army in our sight to-day, and let the rest know that he hath spoken ill against thy sanctuary: and judge thou him according to his wickedness.

I Maccabees 7:43 And the armies joined battle on the thirteenth day of the month, Adar: and the army of Nicanor was defeated, and he himself was first slain in the battle.

I Maccabees 7:44 And when his army saw that Nicanor was slain, they threw away their weapons, and fled:

I Maccabees 7:45 And they pursued after them one day's journey from Adazer, even till ye come to Gazara, and they sounded the trumpets after them with signals.

Gazara, distant a day's journey from Adarsa, ver. 40., and 1 Machabees 5:8. --- Signals, to admonish all. Greek, "with the trumpets for signals," used for that purpose by the priests.
I Maccabees 7:46 And they went forth out of all the towns of Judea round about, and they pushed them with the horns, and they turned again to them, and they were all slain with the sword, and there was not left of them so much as one.

Horns, like bulls, (Calmet) or they surrounded them with the wings of the army. (Grotius) (Judith 15:6.)
I Maccabees 7:47 And they took the spoils of them for a booty, and they cut off Nicanor's head, and his right hand, which he had proudly stretched out, and they brought it, and hung it up over-against Jerusalem.

Jerusalem, and the temple, without the walls. His tongue was given to the birds, 2 Machabees 15:33. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 7:48 And the people rejoiced exceedingly, and they spent that day with great joy.

I Maccabees 7:49 And he ordained that this day should be kept every year, being the thirteenth of the month of Adar.

Thirteenth. The day before the feast of Purim, (Haydock) or "lots." It was observed in the time of Josephus. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 7:50 And the land of Juda was quiet for a short time.

Time. While Judas settles religious matters, Demetrius prepares for war. Read 2 Machabees 15:1. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 8:0 Judas hears of the great character of the Romans: he makes a league with them.

I Maccabees 8:1 Now Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they are powerful and strong, and willingly agree to all things that are requested of them: and that whosoever have come to them, they have made amity with them, and that they are mighty in power.

Romans. Many historians, Livy, Plutarch, etc., record the same. (Worthington) --- Things. Greek, "people who join them." (Haydock) --- They comply with their just requests. (Menochius) --- The Scripture speaks of the fine times of the republic, and gives this temporal reward to the virtues of the Romans, which they so greatly sought, and to which alone they were entitled. (Calmet) --- "Hitherto, says Florus, the Roman people was beautiful, noble, pious, holy, and magnificent." The Jews, first among the eastern nations, employed their friendship to secure their liberty. Facile tunc Romanis de alieno largientibus, Just. xxxvi.
I Maccabees 8:2 And they heard of their battles, and their noble acts which they had done in Galatia, *how they conquered them, and brought them under tribute:

Year of the World 3816, Year before Christ 188. They heard, etc. What is here set down of the history and character of the ancient Romans, is not an assertion, or affirmation of the sacred writer; but only a relation of what Judas had heard of them. (Challoner) --- Fame generally magnifies. --- Galatia, over which Volso triumphed. (Livy xxxviii.) (Calmet) --- The Gauls near Narbonne were then tributary to the Romans. (Harduin.)
I Maccabees 8:3 And how great things they had done in the land of Spain, and that they had brought under their power the mines of silver and of gold that are there, and had gotten possession of all the place by their counsel and patience:

Mines, for which Spain was most famous. (Pliny 3:3.) (Strabo iii.) --- The place, or every place in the world. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 8:4 And had conquered places that were very far off from them, and kings that came against them from the ends of the earth, and had overthrown them with great slaughter: and the rest pay them tribute every year.

Earth, little known to the Jews, like Syphax, etc.
I Maccabees 8:5 And that they had defeated in battle Philip and Perses, the king of the Ceteans, and the rest that had borne arms against them, and had conquered them:

Ceteans. That is, the Macedonians. (Challoner) --- Flaminius subdued the former, and P. Emilius the latter.
I Maccabees 8:6 And how Antiochus, the great king of Asia, who went to fight against them, having a hundred and twenty elephants, with horsemen, and chariots, and a very great army, was routed by them:*

Year of the World 3815, Year before Christ 189. Twenty. Livy mentions only fifty-four. Florus allows that elephants were on both sides of the army, consisting of 300,000 foot. Appian admits but 70,000 men. (Calmet) --- Polybius (5.) asserts that Antiochus had 102 elephants against Ptolemy. In this war he might well have 120. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 8:7 And how they took him alive, and appointed to him, that both he and they that should reign after him, should pay a great tribute, and that he should give hostages, and that which was agreed upon,

Alive. He was forced to submit to conditions, as hard as if he had been prisoner. (Calmet) --- He was present with the ambassabors at Lysimachia, to see the conditions put in execution. (Polyd. xvii.) --- Tribute. He had to pay all the expenses of the war, 15,000 talents of Eubea, 350 to Eumenes, and 127 for wheat. Twenty hostages were required to be exchanged every three years. --- Upon. Greek, "the division," (Calmet) or all Europe, and from Halys as far as Mount Taurus. All his elephants at Apamea, and his ships of war, were also ceded. (Livy xxxviii.)
I Maccabees 8:8 And the country of the Indians, and of the Medes, and of the Lydians, some of their best provinces: and those which they had taken from them, they gave to king Eumenes.

Indians. So the Ionians and Carians might be styled, from the Indus [River] or Kalbit, which flows through their country. The Midaei dwelt in those regions. (Harduin.) --- Some think the Ionians and Mysians should be put for the Indians and Medes, (Grotius) as they were given up to Eumenes. (Livy) --- Yet the name of Indian was very vague, and denoted the Ethiopians, Arabs, etc. (Calmet) --- Eumedes. King of Pergamus. (Challoner)
I Maccabees 8:9 And that they who were in Greece, had a mind to go and to destroy them: and they had knowledge thereof.

Greece, in league with Antiochus, (Grotius) or the Etolians, whom Glabrio conquered, may be meant. (Salien)
I Maccabees 8:10 And they sent a general against them, and fought with them, and many of them were slain, and they carried away their wives, and their children captives, and spoiled them, and took possession of their land, and threw down their walls, and brought them to be their servants unto this day.

I Maccabees 8:11 And the other kingdoms, and islands, that at any time had resisted them, they had destroyed and brought under their power.

I Maccabees 8:12 But with their friends, and such as relied upon them, they kept amity, and had conquered kingdoms that were near, and that were far off: for all that heard their name, were afraid of them.

I Maccabees 8:13 That whom they had a mind to help to a kingdom, those reigned: and whom they would, they deposed from the kingdom: and they were greatly exalted.

Reigned, like Masinissa, Prusias, Eumenes, Eupator, and Phiolmetor.
I Maccabees 8:14 And none of all these wore a crown, or was clothed in purple, to be magnified thereby.

Crown, after the expulsion of the Tarquins.
I Maccabees 8:15 And that they made themselves a senate house, and consulted daily three hundred and twenty men, that sat in council always for the people, that they might do the things that were right:

Twenty. These latter were people in office, the two consuls, pretors, and questors, the four ediles, and ten tribunes. After Sylla the number of senators was augmented from 300 to 1000. (Alex. Genial 4:11.) (Calmet)
I Maccabees 8:16 And that they committed their government to one man every year, to rule over all their country, and they all obey one, and there is no envy, nor jealousy amongst them.

To one man. There were two consuls; but one only ruled at one time, each in his day. (Challoner) --- Of this we have an example in the battle of Cannae. The first of the consuls wore the ornaments. (Livy) --- It would have been more dreadful to have two than one ruler. (Worthington) --- One of them governed at home; the other in the armies, and this latter alone was known to the Jews. They might also be falsely informed that a dictator was chosen every year. This was only done on great emergencies. (Calmet) --- No envy, etc. So Judas had heard; and it was so far true, with regard to the ancient Romans: that as yet no envy or jealousy had divided them into such open factions and civil wars, as they afterwards experienced in the time of Marius and Sylla, etc. (Challoner) --- Before they seemed all bent on promoting the public good. (Sallust, Catiline)
I Maccabees 8:17 So Judas chose Eupolemus, the son of John, the son of Jacob, and Jason, the son of Eleazar, and he sent them to Rome to make a league of amity and confederacy with them.

I Maccabees 8:18 And that they might take off from them the yoke of the Grecians, for they saw that they oppressed the kingdom of Israel with servitude.

I Maccabees 8:19 And they went to Rome, a very long journey, and they entered into the senate house, and said:

I Maccabees 8:20 Judas Machabeus, and his brethren, and the people of the Jews, have sent us to you to make alliance and peace with you, and that we may be registered your confederates and friends.

I Maccabees 8:21 And the proposal was pleasing in their sight.

Sight. The Romans expected they should soon be at war with Demetrius, and had heard of the exploits of Judas.
I Maccabees 8:22 And this is the copy of the writing that they wrote back again, graven in tables of brass, and sent to Jerusalem, that it might be with them there for a memorial of the peace, and alliance.

I Maccabees 8:23 Good success be to the Romans, and to the people of the Jews by sea, and by land, for ever: and far be the sword and enemy from them.

I Maccabees 8:24 But if there come first any war upon the Romans, or any of their confederates, in all their dominions:

I Maccabees 8:25 The nation of the Jews shall help them according as the time shall direct, with all their heart:

I Maccabees 8:26 Neither shall they give them, whilst they are fighting, or furnish them with wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed good to the Romans: and they shall obey their orders, without taking any thing of them.

Shall they. The Jews and Romans shall pay their own forces. (Tirinus) (Menochius) --- Grotius explains it, as if the former were to give no aid to the enemies of Rome.
I Maccabees 8:27 In like manner also if war shall come first upon the nation of the Jews, the Romans shall help them with all their heart, according as the time shall permit them:

I Maccabees 8:28 And there shall not be given to them that come to their aid, either wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed good to the Romans: and they shall observe their orders without deceit.

To them. Grotius adds, "to the enemies and to them," etc., which is the sense of the Syriac and Arabic and the most natural.
I Maccabees 8:29 According to these articles did the Romans covenant with the people of the Jews.

I Maccabees 8:30 And if after this, one party or the other shall have a mind to add to these articles, or take away anything, they may do it at their pleasure: and whatsoever they shall add, or take away, shall be ratified.

I Maccabees 8:31 Moreover, concerning the evils that Demetrius, the king, hath done against them, we have written to him, saying: Why hast thou made thy yoke heavy upon our friends and allies, the Jews?

Jews. He and his predecessors had abused their power. Yet Rupert and Peter of Blois (ep. 146.) disapprove of the Jews having recourse to the Romans: they might flee away. It is not lawful to take arms against the sovereign. God had, however, sufficiently evinced by miracles that the conduct of the Machabees was pleasing to him, 2 Machabees 15:12. (Calmet) --- The Jews were not properly subjects, though tributary to foreign kings, whose design was to exterminate them, 1 Machabees 3:39. Self-preservation dictated that they should call in the aid of others. (Haydock) --- To die for religion was a great blessing. (Calmet) --- But God would not have his people thus entirely destroyed. The obligations of rulers and of the people are reciprocal. All nations have asserted their right to seek redress under oppression. Yet few have been treated so ill as the Jews. Few have acted with equal zeal and justice. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 8:32 If, therefore, they come again to us complaining of thee, we will do them justice, and will make war against thee by sea and land.

I Maccabees 9:0 Bacchides is sent again into Judea: Judas fights against him with eight hundred men and is slain. Jonathan succeeds him, and revenges the murder of his brother John. He fights against Bacchides. Alcimus dies miserably. Bacchides besieges Bethbessen. He is forced to raise the siege and leave the country.

I Maccabees 9:1 In *the mean time, when Demetrius heard that Nicanor and his army were fallen in battle, he sent again Bacchides and Alcimus into Judea; and the right wing of his army with them.

Year of the World 3843, Year before Christ 161. Time. About a year after Nicanor's death, (chap. 7:50., and 2 Machabees 15:38.; Worthington) or in the same year, the year [of the world] 3843; (Calmet) so that the Romans had not time to send Judas assistance. (Haydock) --- Josephus ([Antiquities?] 12:17.) erroneously supposes that Alcimus was dead, and Judas his successor, while Simon was the civil ruler and general. He[Josephus] elsewhere (B.[Antiquities?] 20:8.) asserts that Jonathas was next high priest to Alcimus, who certainly officiated after the death of Judas, ver. 54. --- Bacchides had been already in Judea, 1 Machabees 7:8. Now the right wing, composed of the best troops, and usually commanded by the prince when he was present, is entrusted to him.
I Maccabees 9:2 And they took the road that leadeth to Galgal, and they camped in Masaloth, which is in Arbella: and they made themselves masters of it, and slew many people.

Galgal....in Arbella, or to Galilee, in the flat country, Araboth, 1 Machabees 5:23. --- Masaloth, or Masal, was in the tribe of Aser, Josue xvi.[xxi.?] 30. --- St. Jerome speaks of Arbela, nine miles from Legion. See Osee 10:14.
I Maccabees 9:3 In the first month of the hundred and fifty-second year they brought the army to Jerusalem:

I Maccabees 9:4 And they arose and went to Berea, with twenty thousand men, and two thousand horsemen.

Berea, or Beroth, in Benjamin, not far from Laisa, or Lesen, (Josue 18:25.) where Judas was encamped, (Calmet) with 3000 (Gorion) ; Josephus says 1000; Rufin translates 2000.
I Maccabees 9:5 Now Judas had pitched his tents in Laisa, and three thousand chosen men with him:

I Maccabees 9:6 And they saw the multitude of the army that they were many, and they were seized with great fear: and many withdrew themselves out of the camp, and there remained of them no more than eight hundred men.

I Maccabees 9:7 And Judas saw that his army slipt away, and the battle pressed upon him, and his heart was cast down: because he had not time to gather them together, and he was discouraged.

Down. The strongest are not free from the first emotions of trouble; but trusting in God, they are assured either of a temporal or eternal victory. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 9:8 Then he said to them that remained: Let us arise, and go against our enemies, if we may be able to fight against them.

I Maccabees 9:9 But they dissuaded him, saying: We shall not be able, but let us save our lives now, and return to our brethren, and then we will fight against them: for we are but few.

I Maccabees 9:10 Then Judas said: God forbid we should do this thing, and flee away from them: but if our time be come, let us die manfully for our brethren, and let us not stain our glory.

Stain. Literally, "bring a crime." (Haydock) --- He seems to have thought God required him now to fight, and he was convinced that he could save by means of a few, which excuses him from rashness. The Church adopts his words, (Dom. 3:Oct. Mat.) and St. Ambrose (Of. 1:41.) highly extols his bravery, in "prefering death before slavery and shame."
I Maccabees 9:11 And the army removed out of the camp, and they stood over-against them: and the horsemen were divided into two troops, and the slingers, and the archers, went before the army, and they that were in the front were all men of valour.

I Maccabees 9:12 And Bacchides was in the right wing, and the legion drew near on two sides, and they sounded the trumpets:

Legion. So the Vulgate commonly renders Greek "phalanx," (Calmet) a compact body of 8000 men, used by the Macedonians. The Roman legion consisted of 6726, (Veget.) or 6666. The two phalanxes were in each wing supported by cavalry, which endeavoured to surround Judas.
I Maccabees 9:13 And they also that were on Judas' side, even they also cried out, and the earth shook at the noise of the armies: and the battle was fought from morning even unto the evening.

I Maccabees 9:14 And Judas perceived that the stronger part of the army of Bacchides was on the right side, and all the stout of heart came together with him:

I Maccabees 9:15 And the right wing was discomfited by them, and he pursued them even to the mount of Azotus.

Azotus. Not belonging to the Philistines, but some place unknown, which Josephus styles Asa.
I Maccabees 9:16 And they that were in the left wing saw that the right wing was discomfited, and they followed after Judas, and them that were with him, at their back:

I Maccabees 9:17 And the battle was hard fought, and there fell many wounded of the one side and of the other.

I Maccabees 9:18 And Judas was slain, and the rest fled away.

Slain. Gorionides relates that the sight of Judas made Bacchides flee towards Azotus. He lost 15,000, when the rest of the army came upon Judas now fatigued; and as Bacchides returned to the charge, the hero fell upon heaps of the slain. Thus died this great man who saved Israel, ver. 21. (Calmet) --- Gloriosiorem triumphis mortem invenit. The most mighty in the sight of men may fall; but the fortitude of Judas, proved by former heroic actions and by success, was now rendered perfect by this most glorious death. (St. Ambrose, Of. 1:41.) (Worthington) --- Never was there a more accomplished and virtuous champion. He had all the qualities of a holy priest and a valiant soldier, as well as of a religious prince, always bent on promoting the glory of his people, 1 Machabees 3:3. He was an admirable copy of Jesus Christ, the great original of all the saints. In the most dismal times he was chosen to save religion and the people. Almost alone, and wandering from place to place, he gains the most signal victories, forms a league with Gentiles, purifies the temple, acts both as high priest and as prince of the nation, and at last gives his life for his brethren. Thus Christ by his life and death unites all in one Church, and procures the remission of sin. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 9:19 And Jonathan and Simon took Judas, their brother, and buried him in the sepulchre of their fathers, in the city of Modin.

Modin. Their remains were seen there long after. (Eusebius) --- It is wonderful that they should be shewn at Antioch. (St. Jerome, loc.) --- But these were the relics of the seven brothers, 2 Machabees 7:1. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 9:20 And all the people of Israel bewailed him with great lamentation, and they mourned for him many days,

I Maccabees 9:21 And said: How is the mighty man fallen, that saved the people of Israel!

I Maccabees 9:22 But the rest of the words of the wars of Judas, and of the noble acts that he did, and of his greatness, are not written: for they were very many.

Many. Thus only some of our Saviour's actions are recorded, for the same reason, John 21:25.
I Maccabees 9:23 And it came to pass, after the death of Judas, that the wicked began to put forth their heads in all the confines of Israel, and all the workers of iniquity rose up.

I Maccabees 9:24 In those days there was a very great famine, and they and all their country yielded to Bacchides.

All. Josephus says, "Many." We find some (Calmet) joining Jonathan, ver. 28. (Haydock) --- When the people are without a ruler, they fall, Proverbs 11:14. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 9:25 And Bacchides chose the wicked men, and made them lords of the country:

I Maccabees 9:26 And they sought out, and made diligent search after the friends of Judas, and brought them to Bacchides, and he took vengeance of them, and abused them.

Abused them, and "afterwards slew them all." (Josephus, Antiquities 13:1.)
I Maccabees 9:27 And there was a great tribulation in Israel, the like whereof was not since the time that there was no prophet seen in Israel.

No prophet since the days of Malachi, (Calmet) or the return from captivity. (Josephus)
I Maccabees 9:28 And all the friends of Judas came together, and said to Jonathan:

Jonathan, or (Haydock) Jonathas, was the third general captain of this family, and succeeded Judas in the pontificate, though Alcimus still usurped the dignity (chap. 9:9.) as in the lifetime of Judas. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 9:29 Since thy brother, Judas, died, there is not a man like him to go forth against our enemies, Bacchides, and them that are the enemies of our nation.

I Maccabees 9:30 Now, therefore, we have chosen thee this day to be our prince, and captain, in his stead, to fight our battles.

I Maccabees 9:31 So Jonathan took upon him the government at that time, and rose up in the place of Judas, his brother.

I Maccabees 9:32 And Bacchides had knowledge of it, and sought to kill him.

I Maccabees 9:33 And Jonathan, and Simon, his brother, knew it, and all that were with them: and they fled into the desert of Thecua, and they pitched by the water of the lake Asphar,

Thecua, seven miles south of Bethlehem. (St. Jerome, pref. in Amos.) --- Asphar, or "asphaltite lake" (Gorion) of Sodom; so called on account of the bitumen, or asphalte. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 9:34 And Bacchides understood it, and he came himself with all his army, over the Jordan, on the sabbath day.

Sabbath, out of contempt, like Nicanor; (2 Machabees xv.) or thinking that the Jews would not then fight. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 9:35 And Jonathan sent his brother, a captain of the people, to desire the Nabutheans, his friends, that they would lend them their equipage, which was copious.

Lend. Some copies read, "to entrust unto them." They wished not to be embarrassed with useless baggage. It all fell into the hands of Jambri, (Calmet) who slew John. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 9:36 And the children of Jambri came forth out of Madaba, and took John, and all that he had, and went away with them.

I Maccabees 9:37 After this it was told Jonathan, and Simon, his brother, that the children of Jambri made a great marriage, and were bringing the bride out of Madaba, the daughter of one of the great princes of Chanaan, with great pomp.

Madaba. Greek, "Nadabath." Josephus, "Gabatha." It seems, as the sons of Jamri lived at Madaba, the spouse would not be conducted out of that place, (Calmet) unless they might reside sometimes in the country. (Haydock) --- Chanaan, or "Arabia." (Josephus) --- Chanaan denotes any infidel. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 9:38 And they remembered the blood of John, their brother: and they went up, and hid themselves under the covert of the mountain.

I Maccabees 9:39 And they lifted up their eyes, and saw: and behold a tumult, and great preparation: and the bridegroom came forth, and his friends, and his brethren, to meet them with timbrels, and musical instruments, and many weapons.

I Maccabees 9:40 And they rose up against them from the place where they lay in ambush, and slew them, and there fell many wounded, and the rest fled into the mountains, and they took all their spoils:

I Maccabees 9:41 And the marriage was turned into mourning, and the noise of their musical instruments into lamentation.

I Maccabees 9:42 And they took revenge for the blood of their brother: and they returned to the bank of the Jordan.

Revenge. To punish faults with moderation and justice, is a virtue. Children and subjects are sometimes exposed to temporal chastisements, for the faults of their parents or leaders; yet this is for their own advancement in piety, or in punishment for the share they have had in the crime, or to prevent them from imitating it. (St. Thomas Aquinas, [Summa Theologiae] 2:2. q. 108.) (Worthington)
I Maccabees 9:43 And Bacchides heard it, and he came on the sabbath day even to the bank of the Jordan, with a great power.

I Maccabees 9:44 And Jonathan said to his company: Let us arise, and fight against our enemies: for it is not now as yesterday, and the day before.

Before, when we were in the desert of Thecua, and could decline fighting; (Menochius) or, notwithstanding the sabbath, we must engage, 1 Machabees 2:41.
I Maccabees 9:45 And behold the battle is before us, and the water of the Jordan on this side and on that side, and banks, and marshes, and woods: and there is no place for us to turn aside.

I Maccabees 9:46 *Now, therefore, cry ye to heaven, that ye may be delivered from the hand of your enemies. And they joined battle.

2 Paralipomenon 20:3.
I Maccabees 9:47 And Jonathan stretched forth his hand to strike Bacchides, but he turned away from him backwards.

I Maccabees 9:48 And Jonathan, and they that were with him, leapt into the Jordan, and swam over the Jordan to them.

To them. Jonathas swam to another place on the same side, otherwise there would have been no battle. (Worthington) --- But this had taken place, when a thousand were slain; though Bacchides fled from Jonathan, ver. 47, 49. (Haydock) --- The Greek and Josephus seem more full: (Calmet) "Swam over, and they (the enemies) did not cross the Jordan after them." (Haydock) --- Bacchides did not pursue the Jews. (Menochius) --- Protestant marginal note quotes Josephus, ([Antiquities?] 13:1.) who says two thousand were slain. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 9:49 And there fell of Bacchides' side that day a thousand men: and they returned to Jerusalem,

I Maccabees 9:50 And they built strong cities in Judea, the fortress that was in Jericho, and in Ammaus, and in Bethoron, and in Bethel, and Thamnata, and Phara, and Thopo, with high walls, and gates, and bars.

Thopo, or Taphua. The two last were in Ephraim.
I Maccabees 9:51 And he placed garrisons in them, that they might wage war against Israel:

I Maccabees 9:52 And he fortified the city of Bethsura, and Gazara, and the castle, and set garrisons in them, and provisions of victuals:

I Maccabees 9:53 And he took the sons of the chief men of the country for hostages, and put them in the castle in Jerusalem in custody.

Castle, on the highest part of Sion, ver. 52., and 1 Machabees 1:35. --- Custody, without doing them any farther injury. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 9:54 *Now in the year one hundred and fifty-three, the second month, Alcimus commanded the walls of the inner court of the sanctuary to be thrown down, and the works of the prophets to be destroyed: and he began to be destroyed: and he began to destroy.

Year of the World 3844, Year before Christ 160. Alcimus. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 12:17.) confesses that Judas was high priest. But he mistakes when he says he succeeded Alcimus, who it hence appears survived him a year, (ver. 3, 18.) and was only an usurper. He should therefore be corrected by this book, rather than it should be rejected because it differs from him, or any such authors.(Worthington; ver. 1, 28.) (Haydock) --- Walls, before the most holy place, (Josephus; Lyranus) or between the priests and people, (Salien; Menochius) or which separated the Jews from the Gentiles, as if to remove all distinction. (Grotius) --- It is probable that he removed the wall which went round the inner temple and the altar of holocausts, (Calmet) which Alexander restored. (Josephus, Antiquities 13:21.) --- Prophets. Aggeus and Zacharias had been as it were the architects and directors of the temple. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 9:55 At that time Alcimus was struck: and his works were hindered, and his mouth was stopped, and he was taken with a palsy, so that he could no more speak a word, nor give order concerning his house.

House. He could not make his will.
I Maccabees 9:56 And Alcimus died at that time in great torment.

I Maccabees 9:57 And Bacchides saw that Alcimus was dead: and he returned to the king, and the land was quiet for two years.

I Maccabees 9:58 *And all the wicked held a council, saying: Behold Jonathan, and they that are with him, dwell at ease and without fear: now, therefore, let us bring Bacchides hither, and he shall take them all in one night.

Year of the World 3846, Year before Christ 158.
I Maccabees 9:59 So they went, and gave him counsel.

I Maccabees 9:60 And he arose to come with a great army: and he sent secretly letters to his adherents that were in Judea, to seize upon Jonathan, and them that were with him: but they could not, for their design was known to them.

I Maccabees 9:61 And he apprehended of the men of the country, that were the principal authors of the mischief, fifty men, and he slew them.

He. Jonathas slew those who had given information.
I Maccabees 9:62 And Jonathan, and Simon, and they that were with him retired into Bethbessen, which is in the desert: and he repaired the breaches thereof, and they fortified it.

Bethbessen, in the desert of Jericho, (Menochius) the same with Bethagla. Josephus, "Bethalaga."
I Maccabees 9:63 And when Bacchides knew it, he gathered together all his multitude: and sent word to them that were of Judea.

I Maccabees 9:64 And he came, and camped above Bethbessen, and fought against it many days, and made engines.

I Maccabees 9:65 But Jonathan left his brother, Simon, in the city, and went forth into the country: and came with a number of men,

I Maccabees 9:66 And struck Odares, and his brethren, and the children of Phaseron, in their tents, and he began to slay, and to increase in forces.

Odares, people of the country who adhered to Bacchides. --- Increase, or shew himself in the field with a large army, (Calmet) or to penetrate the army of the enemy. (Syriac; Josephus; Grotius)
I Maccabees 9:67 But Simon, and they that were with him, sallied out of the city, and burnt the engines,

I Maccabees 9:68 And they fought against Bacchides, and he was discomfited by them: and they afflicted him exceedingly, for his counsel, and his enterprise was in vain.

I Maccabees 9:69 And he was angry with the wicked men that had given him counsel to come into their country, and he slew many of them: and he purposed to return with the rest into their country.

Slew. Evil counsel is prejudicial to the giver. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 9:70 And Jonathan had knowledge of it, and he sent ambassadors to him to make peace with him, and to restore to him the prisoners.

I Maccabees 9:71 And he accepted it willingly, and did according to his words, and swore that he would do him no harm all the days of his life.

I Maccabees 9:72 And he restored to him the prisoners which he before had taken out of the land of Juda: and he returned, and went away into his own country, and he came no more into their borders.

I Maccabees 9:73 So the sword ceased from Israel: and Jonathan dwelt in Machmas, and Jonathan began there to judge the people, and he destroyed the wicked out of Israel.

Machmas. The capital of Sion was still in the hands of the enemy. Jonathas made good use of the alliance with the Romans, and began to lay the foundations of the national independence, and to act like the ancient judges. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:0 Alexander Bales sets himself up for king: both he and Demetrius seek to make Jonathan their friend. Alexander kills Demetrius in battle, and honours Jonathan. His victory over Apollonius.

I Maccabees 10:1 Now *in the hundred and sixtieth year, Alexander, the son of Antiochus, surnamed the Illustrious, came up and took Ptolemais, and they received him, and he reigned there.

Year of the World 3851, Year before Christ 153. Illustrious. He falsely asserted that he was the son of Epiphanes, being of very mean birth. (Just. xxxv.) (Worthington) --- Others say that he was illegitimate, and styled Ballas after his mother Bala, though the name in Syriac may denote "a worthless person." In his medals he styles himself Deopator E├║ergetes, as if "God were his father," and himself "beneficent." (Calmet) (Usher, the year [of the world] 3851.) --- At any rate the Romans and Egyptians acknowledged him, being glad to find a rival for Demetrius, who was become odious likewise to the Jews and Syrians. Heraclides had been deprived of his government (Calmet) by the king, (chap. 7:8.) and in revenge (Haydock) took Alexander, and Laodicea, daughter of Epiphanes, to Rome, where he gained over many of the senators, who agreed to help them to recover the kingdom. Heraclides then levied forces at Ephesus, and Ptolemais was delivered up to Alexander, whence he wrote to Jonathan. Nothing contributed more than these divisions to secure the liberty of the Jews.
I Maccabees 10:2 And king Demetrius heard of it, and gathered together an exceeding great army, and went forth against him to fight.

I Maccabees 10:3 And Demetrius sent a letter to Jonathan, with peaceable words, to magnify him.

Magnify, "extol," or grant him fresh dignities. Soter wished to gain over Janathas, to prevent his rival from receiving supplies from Egypt. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:4 For he said: Let us first make a peace with him, before he make one with Alexander against us.

I Maccabees 10:5 For he will remember all the evils that we have done against him, and against his brother, and against his nation.

I Maccabees 10:6 And he gave him authority to gather together an army, and to make arms, and that he should be his confederate: and the hostages that were in the castle, he commanded to be delivered to him.

I Maccabees 10:7 And Jonathan came to Jerusalem, and read the letters in the hearing of all the people, and of them that were in the castle.

I Maccabees 10:8 And they were struck with great fear, because they heard that the king had given him authority to gather together an army.

Fear. The Syrians in the castle would fear, while the Jews would rejoice, and particularly the hostages, 1 Machabees 9:53. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 10:9 And the hostages were delivered to Jonathan, and he restored them to their parents.

I Maccabees 10:10 And Jonathan dwelt in Jerusalem, and began to build, and to repair the city.

I Maccabees 10:11 And he ordered workmen to build the walls, and Mount Sion round about with square stones for fortification: and so they did.

Did. The wall built by Judas had been demolished, 1 Machabees 4:60., and 6:62.
I Maccabees 10:12 And the strangers that were in the strong holds, which Bacchides had built, fled away.

I Maccabees 10:13 And every man left his place, and departed into his own country:

I Maccabees 10:14 Only in Bethsura there remained some of them, that had forsaken the law, and the commandments of God: for this was a place of refuge for them.

I Maccabees 10:15 And king Alexander heard of the promises that Demetrius had made Jonathan: and they told him of the battles, and the worthy acts that he and his brethren had done, and the labours that they had endured.

I Maccabees 10:16 And he said: Shall we find such another man? now, therefore, we will make him our friend and our confederate.

I Maccabees 10:17 So he wrote a letter, and sent it to him according to these words, saying:

I Maccabees 10:18 King Alexander to his brother, Jonathan, greeting.

Brother; the style used between kings, (3 Kings 9:13.) governors, (2 Machabees 11:1.) and friends. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:19 We have heard of thee, that thou art a man of great power, and fit to be our friend:

I Maccabees 10:20 Now, therefore, we make thee this day high priest of thy nation, and that thou be called the king's friend, (and he sent him a purple robe, and a crown of gold) and that thou be of one mind with us in our affairs, and keep friendship with us.

Make. The king could not make him high priest, as he was that already: but he acknowledges the title. (Worthington) --- Crown: both the badges of kings, or granted by them, ver. 62., and Daniel 5:29.
I Maccabees 10:21 Then Jonathan put on the holy vestment in the seventh month, in the year one hundred and threescore, at the feast day of the tabernacles: and he gathered together an army, and made a great number of arms.

Vestment, at the feast of tabernacles, the year [of the world] 3852, seven years after the death of Alcimus, and nine since Judas fell. It is not clear from Josephus, ([Antiquities?] 13:5., and 20:7.) whether the people chose him high priest, or they rather pressed him to accept the king's offer. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:22 And Demetrius heard these words, and was exceeding sorry, and said:

I Maccabees 10:23 What is this that we have done, that Alexander hath prevented us to gain the friendship of the Jews, to strengthen himself?

Prevented, by sending presents. Demetrius had sent a letter and liberated the hostages, whom Jonathas might justly receive without declaring for the king. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 10:24 I also will write to them words of request, and offer dignities, and gifts: that they may be with me to aid me.

I Maccabees 10:25 And he wrote to them in these words: King Demetrius to the nation of the Jews, greeting.

Jews. He perhaps wished to set them at variance with Jonathan, to whom alone Alexander had addressed his letter. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 10:26 Whereas you have kept covenant with us, and have continued in our friendship, and have not joined with our enemies, we have heard of it, and are glad.

Heard. He scruples not to tell a lie, for he had been informed of the contrary, ver. 22. (Worthington) --- "He prudently chose rather to appear to find them innocent, than to make them so," (Grotius) by granting them pardon.
I Maccabees 10:27 Wherefore now continue still to keep fidelity towards us, and we will reward you with good things, for what you have done in our behalf.

I Maccabees 10:28 And we will remit to you many charges, and will give you gifts.

I Maccabees 10:29 And now I free you, and all the Jews, from tributes, and I release you from the customs of salt, and remit the crowns, and the thirds of the seed:

Salt, of which there were pits in the country, 1 Machabees 11:35. --- Crowns. Antiochus the great had before granted this exemption to the ministers of the temple. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:3.) (Calmet) --- The Jews, after its ruin, used to present such to their patriarchs. But the Roman emperors claimed them. (Grotius)
I Maccabees 10:30 And the half of the fruit of trees, which is my share, I leave to you from this day forward, so that it shall not be taken of the land of Juda, and of the three cities that are added thereto out of Samaria and Galilee, from this day forth, and for ever:

Cities, or cantons. Greek, "nomes," specified [in] 1 Machabees 11:34.
I Maccabees 10:31 And let Jerusalem be holy and free, with the borders thereof: and let the tenths, and tributes be for itself.

Free; "an asylum" (Josephus) without any foreign troops, like Delphi. (Grotius) --- Tyre was also "a sacred asylum." (Vaillant, the year [of the kingdom of the Greeks] 174.)
I Maccabees 10:32 I yield up also the power of the castle that is in Jerusalem, and I give it to the high priest, to place therein such men as he shall choose, to keep it.

Castle. Yet Jonathas was afterwards forced to besiege it. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:33 And every soul of the Jews that hath been carried captive from the land of Juda in all my kingdom, I set at liberty freely, that all be discharged from tributes, even of their cattle.

Cattle, so that they shall not be forced to work for the public. (Josephus)
I Maccabees 10:34 And I will that all the feasts, and the sabbaths, and the new moons, and the days appointed, and three days before the solemn day, and three days after the solemn day, be all days of immunity and freedom, for all the Jews that are in my kingdom:

Appointed "of lots," Judith, the dedication, etc. These days were privileged, that the people might go to the temple without being molested, and carry what they would free of all taxes.
I Maccabees 10:35 And no man shall have power to do any thing against them, or to molest any of them, in any cause.

I Maccabees 10:36 And let there be enrolled in the king's army to the number of thirty thousand of the Jews: and allowance shall be made them, as is due to all the king's forces, and certain of them shall be appointed to be in the fortresses of the great king:

Let. This is not required, but a proof of confidence. (Calmet) --- Great king. He assumes the titles of the Persian monarchs. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 10:37 And some of them shall be set over the affairs of the kingdom, that are of trust, and let the governors be taken from among themselves, and let them walk in their own laws, as the king hath commanded in the land of Juda.

Trust, to guard the king, (Josephus) or be in the treasury. (Tirinus) --- Laws. He revokes the impious edicts of Epiphanes.
I Maccabees 10:38 And the three cities that are added to Judea, out of the country of Samaria, let them be accounted with Judea: that they may be under one, and obey no other authority but that of the high priest:

I Maccabees 10:39 Ptolemais, and the confines thereof, I give as a free gift to the holy places, that are in Jerusalem, for the necessary charges of the holy things.

Ptolemais. This was not a great present, as it was in the hands of his rival. But he wished the Jews to retake it.
I Maccabees 10:40 And I give every year fifteen thousand sickles of silver out of the king's accounts, of what belongs to me:

I Maccabees 10:41 And all that is above, which they that were over the affairs the years before, had not paid, from this time they shall give it to the works of the house.

Above. He was not in a condition to force the payment of these arrears, and is liberal of what he does not possess. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:42 Moreover, the five thousand sickles of silver, which they received from the account of the holy places, every year, shall also belong to the priests that execute the ministry.

They: former kings. (Haydock) --- Bagoses exacted fifty drachmas for every lamb, before the daily sacrifice could be offered. (Josephus, Antiquities 11:7.)
I Maccabees 10:43 And whosoever shall flee into the temple that is in Jerusalem, and in all the borders thereof, being indebted to the king for any matter, let them be set at liberty, and all that they have in my kingdom, let them have it free.

Free. Their persons and goods are protected in this asylum. Even the king's debtors are not excluded. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:44 For the building also, or repairing the works of the holy places, the charges shall be given out of the king's revenues:

I Maccabees 10:45 For the building also of the walls of Jerusalem, and the fortifying thereof round about, the charges shall be given out of the king's account, as also for the building of the walls in Judea.

I Maccabees 10:46 Now when Jonathan and the people heard these words, *they gave no credit to them, nor received them: because they remembered the great evil that he had done in Israel, for he had afflicted them exceedingly.

1 Machabees 7:12.
No credit. Thus would all prudent people judge. (Worthington) --- Alexander had moreover made the first offers, and was supported by the Romans. The Jews had not to examine his title, which was admitted by many in Syria.
I Maccabees 10:47 And their inclinations were towards Alexander, because he had been the chief promoter of peace in their regard, and him they always helped.

I Maccabees 10:48 *And king Alexander gathered together a great army, and moved his camp near to Demetrius.

Year of the World 3854, Year before Christ 150.
I Maccabees 10:49 And the two kings joined battle, and the army of Demetrius fled away, and Alexander pursued after him, and pressed them close.

I Maccabees 10:50 And the battle was hard fought, till the sun went down: and Demetrius was slain that day.

Day. The year [of the world] 3853. (Calmet) --- The left wing proved stronger. But the right, where Demetrius fought in person, was forced to yield; and the king plunging with horse into a bog, was pierced with arrows, fighting bravely. He had reigned twelve years, and fell a victim to the surrounding kings, whom he had not conciliated. (Josephus, Antiquities xxxv., etc.)
I Maccabees 10:51 And Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee, king of Egypt, with words to this effect, saying:

Ptolemee, surnamed Philometor, (Challoner) by whose aid Alexander had obtained the victory. (Calmet) --- This Philometor decided in favour of the Jews against the Samaritans, because the succession of priests was preserved among the former. (Josephus, Antiquities 13:6.) --- Our Saviour also judged their cause preferable, John 4:22. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 10:52 Forasmuch as I am returned into my kingdom, and am set in the throne of my ancestors, and have gotten the dominion, and have overthrown Demetrius, and possessed our country,

I Maccabees 10:53 And have joined battle with him, and both he and his army have been destroyed by us, and we are placed in the throne of his kingdom:

I Maccabees 10:54 Now, therefore, let us make friendship one with another: and give me now thy daughter to wife, and I will be thy son-in-law, and I will give both thee and her gifts worthy of thee.

I Maccabees 10:55 And king Ptolemee answered, saying: Happy is the day wherein thou didst return to the land of thy fathers, and sattest in the throne of their kingdom.

I Maccabees 10:56 And now I will do to thee as thou hast written: but meet me at Ptolemais, that we may see one another, and I may give her to thee as thou hast said.

I Maccabees 10:57 So Ptolemee went out of Egypt, with Cleopatra, his daughter, and he came to Ptolemais, in the hundred and sixty-second year.*

Year of the World 3854.
I Maccabees 10:58 And king Alexander met him, and he gave him his daughter, Cleopatra: and he celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais with great glory, after the manner of kings.

I Maccabees 10:59 And king Alexander wrote to Jonathan, that he should come and meet him.

I Maccabees 10:60 And he went honourably to Ptolemais, and he met there the two kings, and he gave them much silver, and gold, and presents: and he found favour in their sight.

I Maccabees 10:61 And some pestilent men of Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled themselves against him, to accuse him: and the king gave no heed to them.

Pestilent. So the impious are styled, Psalm 1:1., etc. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 10:62 And he commanded that Jonathan's garments should be taken off, and that he should be clothed with purple: and they did so. And the king made him sit by himself.

I Maccabees 10:63 And he said to his princes: Go out with him into the midst of the city, and make proclamation, that no man complain against him of any matter, and that no man trouble him for any manner of cause.

I Maccabees 10:64 So when his accusers saw his glory proclaimed, and him clothed with purple, they all fled away.

Away. When calumniators see the innocent honoured, they are afraid to persecute them. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 10:65 And the king magnified him, and enrolled him amongst his chief friends, and made him governor, and partaker of his dominion.

Dominion. General of his armies, (Vatable) or in Judea. (Sacy.) (Menochius)
I Maccabees 10:66 And Jonathan returned into Jerusalem with peace and joy.

I Maccabees 10:67 In the year one hundred and sixty-five, *Demetrius, the son of Demetrius, came from Crete into the land of his fathers.

Year of the World 3856, Year before Christ 148. Son. The king had sent his two sons, this Nicator and Sidetes, to Cnidus, that they might be out of danger. The eldest being informed that Alexander had given himself up to debauchery, put himself at the head of an army which Lasthenes of Crete had raised.
I Maccabees 10:68 And king Alexander heard of it, and was much troubled, and returned to Antioch.

I Maccabees 10:69 And king Demetrius made Apollonius his general, who was governor of Coelosyria: and he gathered together a great army, and came to Jamnia: and he sent to Jonathan, the high priest,

Apollonius, who had deserted Alexander, the year [of the world] 3856, though appointed governor of Coelosyria by him.
I Maccabees 10:70 Saying: Thou alone standest against us, and I am laughed at and reproached, because thou shewest thy power against us in the mountains.

Mountains. I seem to be fighting with them. Come out, and shew your valour.
I Maccabees 10:71 Now, therefore, if thou trustest in thy forces, come down to us into the plain, and there let us try one another: for with me is the strength of war.

I Maccabees 10:72 Ask, and learn who I am, and the rest that help me, who also say that your foot cannot stand before our face, for thy fathers have twice been put to flight in their own land:

Twice. He alludes perhaps to the defeat of Azarias, and to that where Judas was slain. (Calmet) --- This captain had also twice thought proper to retreat, 1 Machabees 6:47., and 7:32. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 10:73 And now how wilt thou be able to abide the horsemen, and so great an army in the plain, where there is no stone, nor rock, nor place to flee to?

I Maccabees 10:74 Now when Jonathan heard the words of Apollonius, he was moved in his mind: and he chose ten thousand men, and went out of Jerusalem, and Simon, his brother, met him to help him.

I Maccabees 10:75 And they pitched their tents near Joppe, but they shut him out of the city: because a garrison of Apollonius was in Joppe, and he laid siege to it.

I Maccabees 10:76 And they that were in the city being affrighted, opened the gates to him: so Jonathan took Joppe.

I Maccabees 10:77 And Apollonius heard of it, and he took three thousand horsemen, and a great army.

Army. Josephus says eight thousand foot, etc.
I Maccabees 10:78 And he went to Azotus, as one that was making a journey, and immediately he went forth into the plain: because he had a great number of horsemen, and he trusted in them. And Jonathan followed after him to Azotus, and they joined battle.

I Maccabees 10:79 And Apollonius left privately in the camp a thousand horsemen behind them.

I Maccabees 10:80 And Jonathan knew that there was an ambush behind him, and they surrounded his army, and cast darts at the people from morning till evening.

Army. Literally, "camp," which the Vulgate puts for an army chiefly of foot. Josephus intimates that Jonathas drew up his forces in the shape "of a tile," or phalanx, and ordered them to face about on every side. (Calmet) the enemy could only throw darts, but could not penetrate. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 10:81 But the people stood still, as Jonathan had commanded them: and so their horses were fatigued.

Fatigued. In the evening, Simon seeing the enemy's cavalry tired, fell upon the infantry.
I Maccabees 10:82 Then Simon drew forth his army, and attacked the legion: for the horsemen were wearied: and they were discomfited by him, and fled.

I Maccabees 10:83 And they that were scattered about the plain, fled into Azotus, and went into Bethdagon, their idol's temple, there to save themselves.

And. Et qui seems to be mistaken for equi, "the horsemen," as the Greek, Syriac, and Josephus read. --- Bethdagon, "the house of Dagon." --- Temple. This is the sense of the Greek. (Calmet) --- Vulgate has literally, "their idols." See Judges 16:23. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 10:84 But Jonathan set fire to Azotus, and the cities that were around it, and took the spoils of them, and the temple of Dagon: and all them that were fled into it, he burnt with fire.

I Maccabees 10:85 So they that were slain by the sword, with them that were burnt, were almost eight thousand men.

I Maccabees 10:86 And Jonathan removed his army from thence, and camped against Ascalon: and they went out of the city to meet him with great honour.

I Maccabees 10:87 And Jonathan returned into Jerusalem with his people, having many spoils.

I Maccabees 10:88 And it came to pass, when Alexander, the king, heard these words, that he honoured Jonathan yet more.

I Maccabees 10:89 And he sent him a buckle of gold, as the custom is, to be given to such as are of the royal blood. And he gave him Accaron, and all the borders thereof, in possession.

Buckle, to be worn on the shoulder. (St. Isidore) --- This honour was very extraordinary, 2 Machabees 11:35. (Alex. Genial. 2:29.) --- Blood. Literally, "relations of kings." (Haydock) --- The highest officers of the court of Persia bore this title, 1 Machabees 11:31., Esther 16:11. (Xenophon, Cyr. viii.)
I Maccabees 11:0 Ptolemee invades the kingdom of Alexander: the latter is slain: and the former dies soon after. Demetrius honours Jonathan, and is rescued by the Jews from his own subjects, in Antioch. Antiochus the younger favours Jonathan. His exploits in divers places.

I Maccabees 11:1 And *the king of Egypt gathered together an army, like the sand that lieth upon the sea shore, and many ships: and he sought to get the kingdom of Alexander by deceit, and join it to his own kingdom.

Year of the World 3858, Year before Christ 146. Shore. By this hyperbole, used in Scripture, we are given to understand that the army was greater than could be easily numbered or conceived. (Worthington) --- Philometor had assisted Alexander, with a treacherous design of seizing the kingdom when it should be weakened. (Haydock) --- He had given him his daughter for the same purpose; and now, when Demetrius asserted his claims, he pretended that he would defend his son-in-law, and was thus admitted into all the towns. At Ptolemais he declared his real design, still pretending that Alexander had laid snares for him. While the latter was raising forces in Cilicia, he took Antioch, where he placed two diadems on his head; slew the cruel Ammonius, who had chiefly irritated the people against his master; gave the wife of Alexander to Demetrius; and, in conjunction with him, went to attack Alexander near the river oenoparas. Here he received some mortal wounds; though Alexander was routed, and soon after slain in Arabia. (Livy lii.) (Usher, the year [of the world] 3858.)
I Maccabees 11:2 And he went out into Syria with peaceable words, and they opened to him the cities, and met him: for king Alexander had ordered them to go forth to meet him, because he was his father-in-law.

I Maccabees 11:3 Now when Ptolemee entered into the cities, he put garrisons of soldiers in every city.

I Maccabees 11:4 And when he came near to Azotus, they shewed him the temple of Dagon that was burnt with fire, and Azotus, and the suburbs thereof, that were destroyed, and the bodies that were cast abroad, and the graves of them that were slain in the battle, which they had made near the way.

Way. This was done to irritate him against Jonathas, but he had now something else to do.
I Maccabees 11:5 And they told the king that Jonathan had done these things, to make him odious: but the king held his peace.

I Maccabees 11:6 And Jonathan came to meet the king at Joppe with glory, and they saluted one another, and they lodged there.

I Maccabees 11:7 And Jonathan went with the king as far as the river, called Eleutherus: and he returned into Jerusalem.

Eleutherus, about eighty leagues. Some place this river between Tyre and Sidon, but it ran to the north of Libanus, 1 Machabees 12:24. (Pliny, etc.)
I Maccabees 11:8 And king Ptolemee got the dominion of the cities by the sea side, even to Seleucia, and he devised evil designs against Alexander.

Seleucia. Literally, of the cities to Seleucia, on the sea shore," (Haydock) at the mouth of the Orontes, (Calmet) or Belus. (Ptolemy)
I Maccabees 11:9 And he sent ambassadors to Demetrius, saying: Come, let us make a league between us, and I will give thee my daughter whom Alexander hath, and thou shalt reign in the kingdom of thy father.

Hath. To what meanness will not ambition stoop! These kings made light of adultery; and Cleopatra was still more dissolute, and married a third. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:10 For I repent that I have given him my daughter: for he hath sought to kill me.

Kill me. Josephus thinks this was true: but it seems only a pretext.
I Maccabees 11:11 And he slandered him, because he coveted his kingdom,

I Maccabees 11:12 And he took away his daughter, and gave her to Demetrius, and alienated himself from Alexander, and his enmities were made manifest.

I Maccabees 11:13 And Ptolemee entered into Antioch, and set two crowns upon his head, that of Egypt, and that of Asia.

Antioch. The whole province rebelled on account of the cruelties of Ammonius, who put on women's clothes, but could not escape. Philometor was proclaimed king, yet besought the people to forget the injuries of Soter, and receive his son, as for his part he was content with Egypt. (Just. xxxv.) (Josephus) (Calmet) --- Perhaps he saw that the time was not come for his annexing Syria to his dominions, though that was his real and primary intention. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:14 Now king Alexander was in Cilicia at that time: because they that were in those places had rebelled.

Places of Syria, (Calmet) and the parts adjoining to Cilicia, (Haydock) which always continued faithful. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:15 And when Alexander heard of it,* he came to give him battle: and king Ptolemee brought forth his army, and met him with a strong power, and put him to flight.

Year of the World 3859, Year before Christ 145.
I Maccabees 11:16 And Alexander fled into Arabia, there to be protected: and king Ptolemee was exalted.

I Maccabees 11:17 And Zabdiel, the Arabian, took off Alexander's head, and sent it to Ptolemee.

Zabdiel, "God's dowry," or Diocles, "the glory of God," (Haydock) prince of Arabia. (Diodorus xxxii.) --- Only five accompanied Alexander. His generals sought to make their peace with his rival, and slew him. (Usher) --- Exalted. Alas! to become the victim of death in the space of a week! (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:18 And king Ptolemee died the third day after: and they that were in the strong holds were destroyed by them that were within the camp.

After. He had been mortally wounded in the battle, and remained insensible four days. When the head of Alexander was brought, he came to himself; but died three days after, while the physicians were trepanning him. --- Camp. The Egyptians loudly complained of this ingratitude of Demetrius. (Josephus) (Calmet) --- Perhaps he saw through the perfidy of Philometor, who had designed to keep the kingdom. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:19 And Demetrius reigned in the hundred and sixty-seventh year.*

Year of the World 3859.
I Maccabees 11:20 In those days Jonathan gathered together them that were in Judea, to take the castle that was in Jerusalem: and they made many engines of war against it.

Castle. Soter's offers had not been accepted, 1 Machabees 10:22. Jonathan thought himself independent of his son. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:21 Then some wicked men that hated their own nation, went away to king Demetrius, and told him that Jonathan was besieging the castle.

Nations, by their actions. They wished to be free from the restraint of the law. (Haydock) --- When pastors seek to extirpate sin, the wicked represent this to princes as dangerous to the state. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 11:22 And when he heard it, he was angry: and forthwith he came to Ptolemais, and wrote to Jonathan, that he should not besiege the castle, but should come to him in haste, and speak to him.

I Maccabees 11:23 But when Jonathan heard this, he bade them besiege it still: and he chose some of the ancients of Israel, and of the priests, and put himself in danger.

Priests. These would testify that what he said in his defence was true. (Menochius) --- Zealous men will not cease to repress wickedness, as God's word is not tied, 2 Timothy 2:9. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 11:24 And he took gold, and silver, and raiment, and many other presents, and went to the king to Ptolemais, and he found favour in his sight.

I Maccabees 11:25 And certain wicked men of his nation made complaints against him.

I Maccabees 11:26 And the king treated him as his predecessor had done before: and he exalted him in the sight of all his friends.

I Maccabees 11:27 And he confirmed him in the high priesthood, and all the honours he had before, and he made him the chief of his friends.

Friends. Greek, "he set him at the head of his first friends," (Haydock) treating him with the greatest distinction. (Calmet) --- Wise kings will always esteem zealous ministers, knowing that their fidelity to God is an assurance that they will also be faithful to their sovereign. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 11:28 And Jonathan requested of the king that he would make Judea free from tribute, and the three governments, and Samaria, and the confines thereof: and he promised him three hundred talents.

Governments, (toparchias) or "principalities." These had already been given, and are now enriched with immunities, like the rest of Judea and Samaria. (Worthington) --- The latter was not one of the governments, but they were taken from that country and from Galilee. Jonathas redeems all taxes.
I Maccabees 11:29 And the king consented: and he wrote letters to Jonathan of all these things, to this effect.

I Maccabees 11:30 King Demetrius to his brother, Jonathan, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting.

I Maccabees 11:31 We send you here a copy of the letter which we have written to Lasthenes, our parent, concerning you, that you might know it. 32 King Demetrius to Lasthenes, his parent, greeting.

Parent. Lasthenes had procured him troops, and was made prime minister. But abusing his power, threw his master into many difficulties. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:33 We have determined to do good to the nation of the Jews, who are our friends, and keep the things that are just with us, for their good will which they bear towards us.

I Maccabees 11:34 We have ratified, therefore, unto them all the borders of Judea, and the three cities, Apherema, Lyda, and Ramatha, which are added to Judea, out of Samaria, and all their confines, to be set apart to all them that sacrifice in Jerusalem, instead of the payments which the king received of them every year, and for the fruits of the land, and of the trees.

Apherema. This city is specified in Greek. (Haydock) --- Syriac styles it Aphrem: probably a town of Ephraim; (John 11:54.) perhaps Ephra, where Gedeon was born, Judges 6:11. --- Lyda, or Diospolis. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:35 And as for other things that belonged to us of the tithes, and of the tributes, from this time we discharge them of them: the saltpans also, and the crowns that were presented to us.

Of them. He remits only the arrears, (Grotius) or all future claims, which are given up to the priests. (Haydock) --- Pans, or "lakes." Some would substitute (Calmet) timas, "dues," but without necessity. (Haydock) --- The lake of Sodom furnished salt of a sharper and more digestive nature than the other. (Galien 4:19.) See 1 Machabees 10:29.
I Maccabees 11:36 We give all to them, and nothing hereof shall be revoked from this time forth and for ever.

I Maccabees 11:37 Now, therefore, see that thou make a copy of these things, and let it be given to Jonathan, and set upon the holy mountain, in a conspicuous place.

I Maccabees 11:38 *And king Demetrius, seeing that the land was quiet before him, and nothing resisted him, sent away all his forces, every man to his own place, except the foreign army, which he had drawn together from the islands of the nations: so all the troops of his fathers hated him.

Year of the World 3860, Year before Christ 144. Nations, particularly Crete. This most pernicious counsel was probably given by Lasthenes. (Calmet) --- All people dislike foreigners to be trusted more than natural born subjects. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:39 Now there was one Tryphon, who had been of Alexander's party before: who seeing that all the army murmured against Demetrius, went to Emalchuel, the Arabian, who brought up Antiochus, the son of Alexander:

Tryphon, styled Diodotus before he mounted the throne. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:40 And he pressed him much to deliver him to him, that he might be king in his father's place: and he told him all that Demetrius had done, and how his soldiers hated him. And he remained there many days.

I Maccabees 11:41 And Jonathan sent to king Demetrius, desiring that he would cast out them that were in the castle in Jerusalem, and those that were in the strong holds: because they fought against Israel.

I Maccabees 11:42 And Demetrius sent to Jonathan, saying: I will not only do this for thee, and for thy people, but I will greatly honour thee, and thy nation, when opportunity shall serve.

I Maccabees 11:43 Now, therefore, thou shalt do well if thou send me men to help me: for all my army is gone from me.

I Maccabees 11:44 And Jonathan sent him three thousand valiant men to Antioch: and they came to the king, and the king was very glad of their coming.

I Maccabees 11:45 And they that were of the city assembled themselves together, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand men, and would have killed the king.

I Maccabees 11:46 And the king fled into the palace: and they of the city kept the passages of the city, and began to fight.

Fight. The king attempted to disarm the citizens of Antioch; but they revolted, and would have slain him in his palace, (Diodorus, Valesii.) had not the Jews in the country, and those sent by Jonathas, come to his aid. He did not, however, give them a suitable reward. (Calmet) --- Three thousand faithful slew 100,000 infidels; (Worthington) or they were joined by others who were already in the king's army, (Haydock) or in the neighbourhood, (Calmet) as well as by the rest of the foreign troops, though the Jews were the most active and numerous. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:47 And the king called the Jews to his assistance: and they came to him all at once, and they all dispersed themselves through the city.

I Maccabees 11:48 And they slew in that day a hundred thousand men, and they set fire to the city, and got many spoils that day, and delivered the king.

I Maccabees 11:49 And they that were of the city saw that the Jews had got the city as they would: and they were discouraged in their mind, and cried to the king, making supplication, and saying:

I Maccabees 11:50 Grant us peace, and let the Jews cease from assaulting us, and the city.

I Maccabees 11:51 And they threw down their arms, and made peace, and the Jews were glorified in the sight of the king, and in the sight of all that were in his realm, and were renowned throughout the kingdom, and returned to Jerusalem with many spoils.

I Maccabees 11:52 So king Demetrius sat in the throne of his kingdom: and the land was quiet before him.

I Maccabees 11:53 And he falsified all whatsoever he had said, and alienated himself from Jonathan, and did not reward him according to the benefits he had received from him, but gave him great trouble.

I Maccabees 11:54 And after this Tryphon returned, and with him Antiochus, the young boy, who was made king, and put on the diadem.

Diadem, the year [of the world] 3860. (Calmet) --- He took the title of Theos Epiphanes, "God appearing;" and that of Nicephorus, "the victorious," when he took Antioch. (Diodorus, Excerp. Vales, p. 346.; Vaillant)
I Maccabees 11:55 And there assembled unto him all the bands which Demetrius had sent away, and they fought against Demetrius, who turned his back and fled.

I Maccabees 11:56 And Tryphon took the elephants, and made himself master of Antioch.

Elephants. Literally, "beasts;" theria. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:57 And young Antiochus wrote to Jonathan, saying: I confirm thee in the high priesthood, and I appoint thee ruler over the four cities, and to be one of the king's friends.

Four. The three specified, (ver. 34.) and probably Ptolemais, 1 Machabees 10:39.
I Maccabees 11:58 And he sent him vessels of gold for his service, and he gave him leave to drink in gold, and to be clothed in purple, and to wear a golden buckle:

In gold. Kings alone had or granted this privilege, (Calmet) as well as to wear purple or a chain of gold, (Worthington) or buckle, 1 Machabees 10:89. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:59 And he made his brother, Simon, governor from the borders of Tyre even to the confines of Egypt.

Tyre. Eupator had given only as far as Ptolemais, 2 Machabees 13:24. This Antiochus gave the two brothers, the highest marks of esteem, making them governors of Phenicia and of Palestine.
I Maccabees 11:60 Then Jonathan went forth, and passed through the cities beyond the river: and all the forces of Syria gathered themselves to him to help him, and he came to Ascalon, and they met him honourably out of the city.

River Jordan. He was then joined by the Syrian forces, and established the power of Antiochus as far as Damascus. Then he proceeded by the sea shore, and took Gaza. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:61 And he went from thence to Gaza: and they that were in Gaza shut him out: and he besieged it, and burnt all the suburbs round about, and took the spoils.

I Maccabees 11:62 And the men of Gaza made supplication to Jonathan, and he gave them the right hand: and he took their sons for hostages, and sent them to Jerusalem: and he went through the country as far as Damascus.

Hand, or made peace by this usual ceremony. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 11:63 And Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come treacherously to Cades, which is in Galilee, with a great army, purposing to remove him from the affairs of the kingdom.

Treacherously is not specified in Greek. --- Cades, a strong city in Galilee.
I Maccabees 11:64 And he went against them: but left his brother, Simon, in the country.

I Maccabees 11:65 And Simon encamped against Bethsura, and assaulted it many days, and shut them up.

I Maccabees 11:66 And they desired him to make peace, and he granted it them: and he cast them out from thence, and took the city, and placed a garrison in it.

I Maccabees 11:67 And Jonathan, and his army, encamped by the water of Genesar, and before it was light they were ready in the plain of Asor.

Asor, near lake Semechon, Josue 11:1. Greek, "Nasor," erroneously. (Calmet) --- The n is superfluous. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 11:68 And behold the army of the strangers met him in the plain, and they laid an ambush for him in the mountains: but he went out against them.

I Maccabees 11:69 And they that lay in ambush arose out of their places, and joined battle.

I Maccabees 11:70 And all that were on Jonathan's side fled, and none was left of them, but Mathathias, the son of Absalom, and Judas, the son of Calphi, chief captain of the army.

Army. Greek, "captains of the army of the forces." (Haydock) --- Only these two captains remained; but there were some soldiers. Josephus says about fifty. Three men would hardly have made a fresh attack, ver. 72. (Worthington) --- Yet feats equally incredible have been performed by Samson and by some of the Romans. (Haydock) --- The little band of fifty-three entirely defeated the enemy. (Calmet) --- The two captains and their men alone stood firm.
I Maccabees 11:71 And Jonathan rent his garments, and cast earth upon his head, and prayed.

I Maccabees 11:72 And Jonathan turned again to them to battle, and he put them to flight, and they fought.

Fought. Greek, "fled." (Menochius) --- Three thousand. Josephus says two thousand were slain. (Antiquities 13:9.) (Calmet)
I Maccabees 11:73 And they of his part that fled saw this, and they turned again to him, and they all with him pursued the enemies, even to Cades, to their own camp, and they came even thither.

I Maccabees 11:74 And there fell of the aliens in that day three thousand men: and Jonathan returned to Jerusalem.

I Maccabees 12:0 Jonathan renews his league with the Romans and Lacedemonians. The forces of Demetrius flee away from him. He is deceived, and made prisoner by Tryphon.

I Maccabees 12:1 And *Jonathan saw that the time served him, and he chose certain men, and sent them to Rome, to confirm and to renew the amity with them:

Year of the World 3860. Served, Syria being so much divided. Hence Jonathas sent to the two most famous republics of the world, and probably to the Jews beyond the Euphrates [River], to the Nabutheans, etc., ver. 2. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:2 And he sent letters to the Spartans, and to other places, according to the same form.

Spartans. The city was also called Lacedemon and Theramne. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 12:3 And they went to Rome, and entered into the senate house, and said: Jonathan, the high priest, and the nation of the Jews, have sent us to renew the amity, and alliance as it was before.

I Maccabees 12:4 And they gave them letters to their governors in every place, to conduct them into the land of Juda with peace.

I Maccabees 12:5 And this is a copy of the letters which Jonathan wrote to the Spartans:

I Maccabees 12:6 Jonathan, the high priest, and the ancients of the nation, and the priests, and the rest of the people of the Jews, to the Spartans, their brethren, greeting.

People. The Jewish state then greatly resembled those of Rome and of Sparta. The high priest and senate ruled, yet not without the participation of the people. --- Brethren, proceeding from the same stock. This was the received opinion in both countries, though without foundation, that we can discover. (Calmet, Diss.) --- The proofs might be known to those who were more concerned. (Haydock) --- The Spartans, whom Josephus, etc., style Lacedemonians, sprung from Abraham, (ver. 21.) and were long ago in league with the Jews. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 12:7 There were letters sent long ago *to Onias, the high priest, from Arius, who reigned then among you, to signify that you are our brethren, as the copy here underwritten doth specify.

Year of the World 3817, Year before Christ 187. Onias the third, between the years [of the world] 3805 and 3829. --- Arius. Greek and Syriac erroneously write, Darius. See ver. 20. (Josephus, Antiquities 12:5.)
I Maccabees 12:8 And Onias received the ambassador with honour: and received the letters, wherein there was mention made of the alliance, and amity.

I Maccabees 12:9 We, though we needed none of these things, having for our comfort the holy books that are in our hands,

Things; the letters of Arius, as the sacred books testified the same. (Greek; Josephus; Grotius) --- This sense appears to be the most natural; or we are not interested in making the present application.
I Maccabees 12:10 Chose rather to send to you to renew the brotherhood and friendship, lest we should become strangers to you altogether: for there is a long time passed since you sent to us.

I Maccabees 12:11 We, therefore, at all times without ceasing, both in our festivals, and other days wherein it is convenient, remember you in the sacrifices that we offer, and in our observances, as it is meet and becoming to remember brethren.

Observances. Greek, Syriac, "supplications." The Vulgate had probably at first, obsecrationibus. The Jews prayed for their allies, etc., to beg for their temporal prosperity, and for their conversion, 1 Machabees 7:33.
I Maccabees 12:12 And we rejoice at your glory.

I Maccabees 12:13 But we have had many troubles and wars on every side; and the kings that are round about us, have fought against us.

Kings. Ever since the time of Onias, wars had been waged against Epiphanes, Eupator, Soter, and Nicator. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:14 But we would not be troublesome to you, nor the rest of our allies and friends, in these wars.

I Maccabees 12:15 For we have had help from heaven, and we have been delivered, and our enemies are humbled.

I Maccabees 12:16 We have chosen, therefore Numenius, the son of Antiochus, and Antipater, the son of Jason, and have sent them to the Romans, to renew with them the former amity and alliance.

I Maccabees 12:17 And we have commanded them to go also to you, and to salute you, and to deliver you our letters, concerning the renewing of our brotherhood.

I Maccabees 12:18 And now you shall do well to give us an answer hereto.

I Maccabees 12:19 And this is the copy of the letter which he had sent to Onias:

Letter. Arius wrote before Onias, though the letter be placed later. (Worthington) --- Josephus give it rather in different words. The answer to Jonathan was sent to Simon, the year [of the world] 3861., 1 Machabees 14:22. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:20 Arius, king of the Spartans, to Onias, the high priest, greeting.

I Maccabees 12:21 It is found in writing concerning the Spartans, and the Jews, that they are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham. 22 And now since this is come to our knowledge, you do well to write to us of your prosperity.

Spartans. They had probably some old genealogies. (Jos.[Josephus?, Antiquities?] 12:5., and 13:9.) (Worthington) --- Yet they might not be true. Few nations can ascertain their origin; and most run into fabulous accounts, if we except the Jews. (Calmet) See ver. 6. (Haydock) (Salien, the year [of the world] 3821.) --- There is nothing certain. (Rep. Heb. 1:2.) (Menochius)
I Maccabees 12:23 And we also have written back to you, That our cattle, and our possessions, are yours: and yours, ours. We, therefore, have commanded that these things should be told you.

Back. It would hence appear that the Jews wrote first which does not seem to be the case from Josephus, etc. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:24 Now Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come again with a greater army than before to fight against him.

Demetrius. He resided at Laodicea, feasting, (Diodorus) while his generals attempted to detach Jonathas from Antiochus, but without success. They fled at his approach beyond the river Eleutherus, from which Laodicea was not remote. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:25 So he went out from Jerusalem, and met them in the land of Amath: for he gave them no time to enter into his country.

I Maccabees 12:26 And he sent spies into their camp, and they came back, and brought him word that they designed to come upon them in the night.

I Maccabees 12:27 And when the sun was set, Jonathan commanded his men to watch, and to be in arms all night long ready to fight, and he set sentinels round about the camp.

I Maccabees 12:28 And the enemies heard that Jonathan and his men were ready for battle: and they were struck with fear and dread in their heart: and they kindled fires in their camp.

I Maccabees 12:29 But Jonathan, and they that were with him, knew it not till the morning: for they saw the lights burning.

Burning. They had been left to conceal the flight. (Menochius) --- Grabe supplies, "and they departed," at the end of ver. 28. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 12:30 And Jonathan pursued after them, but overtook them not: for they had passed the river Eleutherus.

I Maccabees 12:31 And Jonathan turned upon the Arabians, that are called Zabadeans: and he defeated them, and took the spoils of them.

Zabadeans. No nation of this name is known; whence most people read "Nabatheans," after Josephus. They had been allies of the Jews, but perhaps took part with Demetrius. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:32 And he went forward, and came to Damascus, and passed through all that country.

I Maccabees 12:33 Simon also went forth, and came as far as Ascalon, and the neighbouring fortresses, and he turned aside to Joppe, and took possession of it,

Of it, as it was designing to revolt. Jonathas had possession before, 1 Machabees 10:73. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 12:34 (For he heard that they designed to deliver the hold to them that took part with Demetrius) and he put a garrison there to keep it.

I Maccabees 12:35 *And Jonathan came back, and called together the ancients of the people; and he took a resolution with them to build fortresses in Judea,

Year of the World 3860.
I Maccabees 12:36 And to build up walls in Jerusalem, and raise a mount between the castle and the city, to separate it from the city, that so it might have no communication, and that they might neither buy nor sell.

Mount. Literally, "height," (Haydock) or wall, to prevent the garrison from receiving supplies. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:37 And they came together to build up the city: for the wall that was upon the brook, towards the east, was broken down, and he repaired that which is called Caphetetha:

For. Greek, "he approached," which Grabe substitutes instead of "was fallen down." (Haydock)
I Maccabees 12:38 And Simon built Adiada, in Sephela, and fortified it, and set up gates and bars.

Adiada, or Addus, (chap. 13:13.) in the plain west of the mountains of Juda. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:39 *Now when Tryphon had conceived a design to make himself king of Asia, and to take the crown, and to stretch out his hand against king Antiochus:

Year of the World 3861. Tryphon. In a moral sense, Tryphon represents the practice of the devil, who seeks first to deceive pastors. For, as St. Gregory (hom. xxxviii.) teaches, if the pastor's life be corrupt, his doctrine will be contemned. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 12:40 Fearing lest Jonathan would not suffer him, but would fight against him: he sought to seize upon him, and to kill him. So he rose up and came to Bethsan.

Bethsan, or Scythopolis, below the lake of Genesareth. Tryphon was not content with governing under the young Antiochus. He was afraid lest Jonathas should oppose his measures, (Calmet) knowing that he was a man of probity, to whom the king had shewn favour.
I Maccabees 12:41 And Jonathan went out to meet him with forty thousand men chosen for battle, and came to Bethsan.

I Maccabees 12:42 Now when Tryphon saw that Jonathan came with a great army, he durst not stretch forth his hand against him.

I Maccabees 12:43 But received him with honour, and commended him to all his friends, and gave him presents: and he commanded his troops to obey him, as himself.

I Maccabees 12:44 And he said to Jonathan: Why hast thou troubled all the people, whereas we have no war?

I Maccabees 12:45 Now, therefore, send them back to their own houses: and choose thee a few men that may be with thee, and come with me to Ptolemais, and I will deliver it to thee, and the rest of the strong holds, and the army, and all that have any charge, and I will return and go away: for this is the cause of my coming.

I Maccabees 12:46 And Jonathan believed him, and did as he said: and sent away his army, and they departed into the land of Juda:

I Maccabees 12:47 But he kept with him three thousand men: of whom he sent two thousand into Galilee, and one thousand went with him.

I Maccabees 12:48 Now as soon as Jonathan entered into Ptolemais, they of Ptolemais shut the gates of the city, and took him: and all them that came in with him they slew with the sword.

I Maccabees 12:49 Then Tryphon sent an army and horsemen into Galilee, and into the great plain, to destroy all Jonathan's company.

Plain of Esdrelon, or Mageddo, (Menochius) styled also the vale of Jezrahel, and perhaps Arboth, 1 Machabees 5:23, and 9:2.
I Maccabees 12:50 But they, when they understood that Jonathan, and all that were with him, were taken and slain, encouraged one another, and went out ready for battle.

Slain. So it was reported, though falsely. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 12:51 Then they that had come after them, seeing that they stood for their lives, returned back.

I Maccabees 12:52 Whereupon they all came peaceably into the land of Juda. And they bewailed Jonathan, and them that had been with him, exceedingly: and Israel mourned with great lamentation.

I Maccabees 12:53 Then all the heathens that were round about them, sought to destroy them. For they said:

I Maccabees 12:54 They have no prince, nor any to help them: now, therefore, let us make war upon them, and take away the memory of them from amongst men.

I Maccabees 13:0 Simon is made captain general in the room of his brother. Jonathan is slain by Tryphon. Simon is favoured by Demetrius: he taketh Gaza, and the castle of Jerusalem.

I Maccabees 13:1 Now Simon heard that Tryphon was gathering together a very great army to invade the land of Juda, and to destroy it.

Simon, the fourth high priest and prince of this family, who was judged by his father to be the most prudent, 1 Machabees 2:65. He endeavoured to defend the nation. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 13:2 And seeing that the people was in dread, and in fear, he went up to Jerusalem, and assembled the people,

I Maccabees 13:3 And exhorted them, saying: You know what great battles I and my brethren, and the house of my father, have fought for the laws, and the sanctuary, and the distresses that we have seen:

I Maccabees 13:4 By reason whereof all my brethren have lost their lives for Israel's sake, and I am left alone.

I Maccabees 13:5 And now far be it from me to spare my life in any time of trouble: for I am not better than my brethren.

I Maccabees 13:6 I will avenge then my nation and the sanctuary, and our children, and wives: for all the heathens are gathered together to destroy us out of mere malice.

I Maccabees 13:7 And the spirit of the people was enkindled as soon as they heard these words:

I Maccabees 13:8 And they answered with a loud voice, saying: Thou art our leader in the place of Judas, and Jonathan, thy brother:

I Maccabees 13:9 Fight thou our battles, and we will do whatsoever thou shalt say to us.

I Maccabees 13:10 So gathering together all the men of war, he made haste to finish all the walls of Jerusalem, and he fortified it round about.

I Maccabees 13:11 And he sent Jonathan, the son of Absalom, and with him a new army, into Joppe, and he cast out them that were in it, and himself remained there.

Jonathan, his friend, (Josephus) brother of Mathathias, mentioned [in] 1 Machabees 11:70.
I Maccabees 13:12 And Tryphon removed from Ptolemais with a great army, to invade the land of Juda, and Jonathan was with him in custody.

Custody: tied to a soldier, like St. Paul, Acts 18:16.
I Maccabees 13:13 But Simon pitched in Addus, over-against the plain.

Plain; Sephala, (chap. 12:38.) above Eleutheropolis, by which road Jerusalem was most easily attacked, 1 Machabees 6:31. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 13:14 And when Tryphon understood that Simon was risen up in the place of his brother, Jonathan, and that he meant to join battle with him, he sent messengers to him,

I Maccabees 13:15 Saying: We have detained thy brother, Jonathan, for the money that he owed in the king's account, by reason of the affairs which he had the management of.

I Maccabees 13:16 But now send a hundred talents of silver, and his two sons for hostages, that when he is set at liberty he may not revolt from us, and we will release him.

I Maccabees 13:17 Now Simon knew that he spoke deceitfully to him; nevertheless, he ordered the money, and the children to be sent: lest he should bring upon himself a great hatred of the people of Israel, who might have said:

I Maccabees 13:18 Because he sent not the money, and the children, therefore is he lost.

I Maccabees 13:19 So he sent the children, and the hundred talents: and he lied, and did not let Jonathan go.

Talents. If he had refused, he might have been suspected of avarice or of ambition. (Menochius) --- Jonathan would most probably have been slain, and the people would have revolted. (St. Thomas Aquinas) (Worthington)
I Maccabees 13:20 And after this, Tryphon entered within the country, to destroy it: and they went about by the way that leadeth to Ador: and Simon and his army marched to every place whithersoever they went.

Ador, called Adoraim, (2 Paralipomenon 2:9.) near Marissa; or perhaps Eder, a southern city of Juda, may be meant. Tryphon attempted in vain to cross the mountains. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 13:21 And they that were in the castle, sent messengers to Tryphon, that he should make haste to come through the desert, and send them victuals.

I Maccabees 13:22 And Tryphon made ready all his horsemen to come that night: but there fell a very great snow, and he came not into the country of Galaad.

But. Greek, "and that very night there was very much snow; and he came not on account of the snow; and he rose, and went into," etc. (Haydock) --- He gave this out, or intended to go, but went back along the Jordan [River].
I Maccabees 13:23 And when he approached to Bascama, he slew Jonathan and his sons there.

Bascama; perhaps Besech, 1 Kings 11:8. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 13:24 And Tryphon returned, and went into his own country.

I Maccabees 13:25 And Simon sent, and took the bones of Jonathan, his brother, and buried them in Modin, the city of his fathers.

I Maccabees 13:26 And all Israel bewailed him with great lamentation: and they mourned for him many days.

I Maccabees 13:27 And Simon built over the sepulchre of his father and of his brethren, a building lofty to the sight, of polished stone, behind and before:

I Maccabees 13:28 And he set up seven pyramids, one against another, for his father and his mother, and his four brethren:

Pyramids. In such the kings of Egypt were buried. (Lucan 8:998.) --- Simon enclosed the pyramids with porticoes, supported by pillars all of one piece of marble. Josephus and St. Jerome saw the sepulchres. (Calmet) --- One was probably designed by Simon for himself. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 13:29 And round about these he set great pillars; and upon the pillars, arms, for a perpetual memory; and by the arms, ships carved, which might be seen by all that sailed on the sea.

Arms, to denote their victories or solicitude for the people's welfare both by sea and land. The Machabees had repaired the port of Joppe, by which they traded with the Mediterranean, 1 Machabees 10:75., and 14:5. Trophies of arms, in reality or in sculpture, were commonly placed on the tombs of great generals, Ezechiel 32:27. (Virgil) (Calmet) -- Simon promoted not vain but true glory, exciting others to imitate the virtuous. (Worthington) --- The humble desire honour in God; proud men will be honoured more than God. (St. Augustine, contra Secund. xvii.) --- How many epitaphs record the ambition and vices of men! Those which praise real virtues extend the glory of God, who is the author of them all. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 13:30 This is the sepulchre that he made in Modin, even unto this day.

I Maccabees 13:31 But Tryphon, when he was upon a journey with the young king, Antiochus, treacherously slew him.

Slew him. He hired surgeons to cut him, pretending it was for the stone. (Epit. Liv. lv.; Just. xxxvi.) --- Antiochus was only ten years old, the year [of the world] 3861.
I Maccabees 13:32 And he reigned in his place, and put on the crown of Asia: and brought great evils upon the land.

Crown. The soldiers declared for him, in hopes of great rewards which he had promised. He assumed the name of Tryphon, "wearing a helmet," or "addicted to pleasure." His medals have always a helmet; and the tyrant styles himself, (Calmet) "king Tryphon, the autocrat," (Haydock) or generalissimo. He sent a golden statue of victory to Rome, but the senate inscribed the name of the young Antiochus upon it. The first conquest of Tryphon was Apamea, where he was born.
I Maccabees 13:33 And Simon built up the strong holds of Judea, fortifying them with high towers, and great walls, and gates and bars: and he stored up victuals in the fortresses.

I Maccabees 13:34 And Simon chose men, and sent to king Demetrius, to the end that he should grant an immunity to the land; for all that Tryphon did, was to spoil.

Demetrius, who still possessed a great part of Syria. Jonathas adhered to his competitor. But Simon preferred him before Tryphon, on condition that he granted the immunities which Soter had promised, 1 Machabees 10:29.
I Maccabees 13:35 And king Demetrius, in answer to this request, wrote a letter in this manner:

I Maccabees 13:36 King Demetrius to Simon, the high priest, and friend of kings, and to the ancients, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting:

I Maccabees 13:37 The golden crown, and the palm, which you sent, we have received: and we are ready to make a firm peace with you, and to write to the king's chief officers to release you the things that we have released.

Palm; bahem, "a precious chain." (Worthington) --- Greek bainen, which Grotius thinks is derived from bais, a palm branch. (Calmet) (John 12:13.) --- It was probably of gold, (Menochius) like that offered by Alcimus, 2 Machabees 14:4. Some suppose that a collar or garment, adorned with gold and representations of palm branches, may be meant; such as that which was presented by the Romans to Masinissa. (Livy 3:B. x.) --- Syriac translates, "a robe."
I Maccabees 13:38 For all that we have decreed in your favour, shall stand in force. The strong holds that you have built, shall be your own.

Force. He grants all Simon's requests, which he had offered to do at the beginning of his reign, 1 Machabees 11:37.
I Maccabees 13:39 And as for any oversight or fault committed unto this day, we forgive it: and the crown which you owed: and if any other thing were taxed in Jerusalem, now let it not be taxed.

Oversight. All sins in some sense proceed from ignorance.
I Maccabees 13:40 And if any of you be fit to be enrolled among ours, let them be enrolled, and let there be peace between us.

I Maccabees 13:41 *In the year one hundred and seventy, the yoke of the Gentiles was taken off from Israel.

Year of the World 3861, Year before Christ 143. Israel, the year [of the world] 3861, the year before Christ 143. (Calmet) --- Thus, after a hard struggle, the independence of the Jews was acknowledged. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 13:42 And the people of Israel began to write in the instruments, and public records, The first year under Simon, the high priest, the great captain, and prince of the Jews.

Public. Greek, "contracts." (Menochius) --- This became a new era. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 13:43 In those days Simon besieged Gaza, and camped round about it, and he made engines, and set them to the city, and he struck one tower, and took it.

Gaza. It had revolted, 1 Machabees 11:61. --- Engines. Greek, elepo leis, denoting engines of a great size, invented by Demetrius at the siege of Rhodes, who was thence styled "the city taker." (Calmet) --- Its top was covered with mortar, (Marcellin 23:9.) and the sides with raw hides and iron bars, so that fire or stones made no impression upon it, while people within moved it to batter the walls by means of wheels. When a breach was made, they jumped into the city, ver. 44. See Vitruvius 10:22.
I Maccabees 13:44 And they that were within the engine leaped into the city: and there was a great uproar in the city.

I Maccabees 13:45 And they that were in the city went up, with their wives and children, upon the wall, with their garments rent, and they cried with a loud voice, beseeching Simon to grant them peace.

I Maccabees 13:46 And they said: Deal not with us according to our evil deeds, but according to thy mercy.

I Maccabees 13:47 And Simon being moved, did not destroy them: but yet he cast them out of the city, and cleansed the houses wherein there had been idols, and then he entered into it with hymns, blessing the Lord:

Idols, of a domestic kind. The city had been assigned to Juda, and must be purified, Josue 15:47., and Deuteronomy 7:25. (Calmet) --- Mercy is most pleasing to God and men, provided justice and religion be not injured. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 13:48 And having cast out of it all uncleanness, he placed in it men that should observe the law: and he fortified it, and made it his habitation.

Habitation sometimes, to guard against Egypt.
I Maccabees 13:49 But they that were in the castle of Jerusalem were hindered from going out and coming into the country, and from buying and selling: and they were straitened with hunger, and many of them perished through famine.

I Maccabees 13:50 And they cried to Simon for peace, and he granted it to them: and he cast them out from thence, and cleansed the castle from uncleannesses.

Castle. It had been occupied by the Syrians, from the year [of the world] 3836 to 3861.
I Maccabees 13:51 *And they entered into it the three and twentieth day of the second month, in the year one hundred and seventy-one, with thanksgiving, and branches of palm-trees, and harps, and cymbals, and psalteries, and hymns, and canticles, because the great enemy was destroyed out of Israel.

Year of the World 3862, Year before Christ 142.
I Maccabees 13:52 And he ordained that these days should be kept every year with gladness.

Days; the octave, or the 23rd of the second month, annually. (Haydock) --- This was like one of the days appointed, 1 Machabees 10:34. The festival was observed perhaps only during his reign. Josephus takes no notice of it: but informs us (Calmet) that Simon reflecting on the miseries inflicted on the city by this castle, and fearing lest it should fall again into the hands of the enemy, advised the people to level it to the ground; which they did in the space of three years. (Antiquities 13:11.) They did not commence immediately, as Sidetes reclaimed it three years hence. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 13:53 And he fortified the mountain of the temple that was near the castle, and he dwelt there himself, and they that were with him.

Fortified. This work employed them six years. (Josephus)
I Maccabees 13:54 And Simon saw that John, his son, was a valiant man for war: and he made him captain of all the forces: and he dwelt in Gazara.

John. Hyrcan, who defended the country, (chap. 16.) (Worthington) and succeeded Simon. --- Gazara; perhaps Gadara, (Calmet) which the Jews seized, (Strabo XVI.) or Gaza. (Menochius)
I Maccabees 14:0 Demetrius is taken by the king of Persia. Judea flourishes under the government of Simon.

I Maccabees 14:1 In *the year one hundred and seventy-two, king Demetrius assembled his army, and went into Media to get him succours to fight against Tryphon.

Year of the World 3863, Year before Christ 141. Two. It is not easy to conceive why Josephus and Grotius place this expedition before the death of young Antiochus, 1 Machabees 13:31, 41. Demetrius was become contemptible, and had a mine to regain his reputation by attacking the Parthians, who had taken many provinces under the prudent conduct of Mithridates. The Greeks were impatient of this yoke. Many []ked[flocked?] to Demetrius, and he gained several victories; but after two years, was perfidiously taken by a general of the Parthians while treating of peace. Mithridates took him for a warning through the places which seemed favourable to him; but afterwards he sent him into Hyrcania, gave him his daughter in marriage, with the badges of royalty, and promises of restoring him to his kingdom. --- Tryphon. After the misfortune of Demetrius, he abandoned himself to his pleasures; and his adherents put themselves under Cleopatra, the wife of his rival, who resided at Seleucia, upon the Orontes. (Usher, the year [of the world] 3863.) (Just. xxxvi., and xxxviii.) (Calmet)
I Maccabees 14:2 And Arsaces, the king of Persia and Media, heard that Demetrius was entered within his borders, and he sent one of his princes to take him alive, and bring him to him.

Arsaces. This was the common title of the Parthians kings, after the founder of that powerful monarchy. (Just. xli.)
I Maccabees 14:3 And he went, and defeated the army of Demetrius: and took him, and brought him to Arsaces, and he put him into custody.

I Maccabees 14:4 And all the land of Juda was at rest all the days of Simon, and he sought the good of his nation: and his power, and his glory pleased them well all his days.

Days. Few princes have obtained such a character: for how shall they give content to all? (Calmet) --- Simon had governed two years in troubles, but henceforward enjoyed peace, till Sidetes disturbed it. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 14:5 And with all his glory he took Joppe for a haven, and made an entrance to the isles of the sea.

Sea, or to all places to which they went by water. The port was however very indifferent.
I Maccabees 14:6 And he enlarged the bounds of his nation, and made himself master of the country.

I Maccabees 14:7 And he gathered together a great number of captives, and had the dominion of Gazara, and of Bethsura, and of the castle: and took away all uncleanness out of it, and there was none that resisted him.

Captives, taken from the enemy; (Calmet) or he liberated many Jews. (Worthington) --- Gazara, or Gadara. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 14:8 And every man tilled his land with peace: and the land of Juda yielded her increase, and the trees of the fields their fruit.

I Maccabees 14:9 The ancient men sat all in the streets, and treated together of the good things of the land, and the young men put on them glory, and the robes of war.

Land. The judges (Haydock) strove to promote peace. --- Robes. Spoils which they had taken; (Calmet) or they were ever ready to defend the country, though peace now prevailed.
I Maccabees 14:10 And he provided victuals for the cities, and he appointed that they should be furnished with ammunition, so that the fame of his glory was renowned even to the end of the earth.

Ammunition: provisions and engines of war. (Calmet) --- Earth: Judea and the environs. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 14:11 He made peace in the land, and Israel rejoiced with great joy.

I Maccabees 14:12 And every man sat under his vine, and under his fig-tree: and there was none to make them afraid.

Fig-tree: a picture of perfect peace, 3 Kings 4:25.
I Maccabees 14:13 There was none left in the land to fight against them: kings were discomfited in those days.

I Maccabees 14:14 And he strengthened all those of his people that were brought low, and he sought the law, and took away every unjust and wicked man.

I Maccabees 14:15 He glorified the sanctuary, and multiplied the vessels of the holy places.

I Maccabees 14:16 And it was heard at Rome, and as far as Sparta, that Jonathan was dead: and they were very sorry.

I Maccabees 14:17 But when they heard that Simon, his brother, was made high priest in his place, and was possessed of all the country, and the cities therein:

I Maccabees 14:18 They wrote to him in tables of brass, to renew the friendship and alliance which they had made with Judas and with Jonathan, his brethren.

I Maccabees 14:19 And they were read before the assembly in Jerusalem. And this is the copy of the letters that the Spartans sent.

I Maccabees 14:20 The Princes, and the cities of the Spartans, to Simon, the high priest, and to the ancients, and the priests, and the rest of the people of the Jews, their brethren, greeting.

Princes. Cleomenes, the last king, died in Egypt, the year [of the world] 3784, and the tyrant Nabis perished long before this time. (Grotius) --- Cities. Many depended on Sparta, the metropolis. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 14:21 The ambassadors that were sent to our people, have told us of your glory, and honour, and joy: and we rejoice at their coming. 22 And we registered what was said by them in the councils of the people in this manner: Numenius, the son of Antiochus, and Antipater, the son of Jason, ambassadors of the Jews, came to us to renew the former friendship with us.

I Maccabees 14:23 And it pleased the people to receive the men honourably, and to put a copy of their words in the public records, to be a memorial to the people of the Spartans. And we have written a copy of them to Simon, the high priest.

Public. Literally, "in the distinct books of the people." Greek, "open for inspection;" apodedeigmenois. (Haydock) --- Patentibus seu publicis. (Vatable) --- The substance of the letter is here given.
I Maccabees 14:24 And after this Simon sent Numenius to Rome, with a great shield of gold, the weight of a thousand pounds, to confirm the league with them. And when the people of Rome had heard

Of Rome is not in Greek or Syriac, and it is allowed that the sequel seems rather to express the gratitude of the Jews to Simon. (Calmet) --- When peace was established, and friendship with the Romans and Lacedemonians renewed, the whole nation in gratitude to Simon, who now remained alone of all the sons of Mathathias, confirm him in the office of high priest for ever, or during his life; and decree that his progeny shall enjoy the same, ver. 41, 49. (Worthington) --- They should not be deposed, like Onias III., etc.
I Maccabees 14:25 These words, they said: What thanks shall we give to Simon, and his sons:

I Maccabees 14:26 For he hath restored his brethren, and hath driven away in fight the enemies of Israel from them: and they decreed him liberty, and registered it in tables of brass, and set it upon pillars in Mount Sion.

He. Greek, "He has established: (Syriac, "acted valiantly." Calmet) He, his brethren, and his father's house, and they have routed the," etc., as [in] 1 Machabees 16:2. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 14:27 And this is a copy of the writing. *The eighteenth day of the month Elul, in the year one hundred and seventy-two, being the third year under Simon, the high priest, at Asaramel,

Year of the World 3863, Year before Christ 141. Elul, the last of the civil year, the year [of the world] 3863. --- At. Literally, "in Asaramel," (Haydock) "the court of Mello," (Calmet) or "the prince of God," (Serarius) as if it were another Hebrew title of Simon. Protestants, "At Saramel." Marginal note, "or Jerusalem, peradventure,...or the common hall," etc. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 14:28 In a great assembly of the priests, and of the people, and the princes of the nation, and the ancients of the country, these things were notified: Forasmuch as there have often been wars in our country,

I Maccabees 14:29 And Simon, the son of Mathathias, of the children of Jarib, and his brethren, have put themselves in danger, and resisted the enemies of their nation, for the maintenance of their holy places, and the law: and have raised their nation to great glory.

I Maccabees 14:30 And Jonathan gathered together his nation, and was made their high priest, and he was laid to his people.

I Maccabees 14:31 And their enemies desired to tread down and destroy their country, and to stretch forth their hands against their holy places.

I Maccabees 14:32 Then Simon resisted and fought for his nation, and laid out much of his money, and armed the valiant men of his nation, and gave them wages.

I Maccabees 14:33 And he fortified the cities of Judea, and Bethsura, that lieth in the borders of Judea, where the armour of the enemies was before: and he placed there a garrison of Jews.

I Maccabees 14:34 And he fortified Joppe, which lieth by the sea: and Gazara, which bordereth upon Azotus, wherein the enemies dwelt before, and he placed Jews here: and furnished them with all things convenient for their reparation.

Gazara, or Gadara, 1 Machabees 13:51. --- Reparation. Literally, "correction." (Haydock) --- But correctionem would agree better with the Greek than correptionem.
I Maccabees 14:35 And the people seeing the acts of Simon, and to what glory he meant to bring his nation, made him their prince and high priest, because he had done all these things, and for the justice and faith which he kept to his nation, and for that he sought by all means to advance his people.

I Maccabees 14:36 And in his days things prospered in his hands, so that the heathens were taken away out of their country, and they also that were in the city of David, in Jerusalem, in the castle, out of which they issued forth, and profaned all places round about the sanctuary, and did much evil to purity.

Purify, (castitati.) Syriac, "the sanctuary." Grotius, divine "worship."
I Maccabees 14:37 And he placed therein Jews for the defence of the country, and of the city, and he raised up the walls of Jerusalem.

I Maccabees 14:38 And king Demetrius confirmed him in the high priesthood.

I Maccabees 14:39 According to these things he made him his friend, and glorified him with great glory.

Things. Greek joins this with the preceding verse. Some copies have, "all things." He confirmed him in all his rights.
I Maccabees 14:40 For he had heard that the Romans had called the Jews their friends, and confederates, and brethren, and that they had received Simon's ambassadors with honour:

I Maccabees 14:41 And that the Jews, and their priests, had consented that he should be their prince and high priest for ever, till there should arise a faithful prophet:

Prophet. This limitation was proper, as the people had chosen this family. The Jews expected the faithful prophet shortly, 1 Machabees 4:46., and Malachias 3:1., and Aggeus 2:7. God was pleased that none should appear for some time before that event. (Calmet) --- The high priesthood continued in this family till Herod began to sell it,---soon after which Christ appeared. (Worthington) --- The sceptre seemed to belong to Juda. Yet they consent to be governed by Levites, till God signify his will by some prophet. (Menochius) --- This consent of the nation, in which Juda was most powerful, shewed that the sceptre was not departed from his thigh. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 14:42 And that he should be chief over them, and that he should have the charge of the sanctuary, and that he should appoint rulers over their works, and over the country, and over the armour, and over the strong holds;

I Maccabees 14:43 And that he should have care of the holy places; and that he should be obeyed by all, and that all the writings in the country should be made in his name; and that he should be clothed with purple, and gold:

I Maccabees 14:44 And that it should not be lawful for any of the people, or of the priests, to disannul any of these things, or to gainsay his words, or to call together an assembly in the country without him: or to be clothed with purple, or to wear a buckle of gold.

I Maccabees 14:45 And whosoever shall do otherwise, or shall make void any of these things shall be punished.

I Maccabees 14:46 And it pleased all the people to establish Simon, and to do according to these words.

I Maccabees 14:47 And Simon accepted thereof, and was well pleased to execute the office of the high priesthood, and to be captain, and prince of the nation of the Jews, and of the priests, and to be chief over all.

I Maccabees 14:48 And they commanded that this writing should be put in tables of brass, and that they should be set up within the compass of the sanctuary, in a conspicuous place:

I Maccabees 14:49 And that a copy thereof should be put in the treasury, that Simon, and his sons, may have it.

I Maccabees 15:0 Antiochus, son of Demetrius, honours Simon. The Romans write to divers nations in favour of the Jews. Antiochus quarrels with Simon, and sends troops to annoy him.

I Maccabees 15:1 And *king Antiochus, the son of Demetrius, sent letters from the isles of the sea to Simon, the priest, and prince of the nation of the Jews, and to all the people:

Year of the World 3864, Year before Christ 140. Demetrius. Soter, and brother of Nicator, (Calmet) now a captive. (Worthington) --- When the latter went beyond the Euphrates [River], he wandered for fear of Tryphon, till he found rest at Rhodes, where he heard of his brother's misfortune, and was invited by his wife to marry her. He therefore took the title of king, when he wrote to Simon form the isle of Rhodes. Soon after he landed (Calmet) at Seleucia, and married Cleopatra, who was indignant that her husband had taken to wife the daughter of Mithridates. (Just. xxxvi.) --- Tryphon's adherents flocked to him: exolescente favore recentis imperii. (Trog. xxxix.; Eusebius) --- Demetrius was styled Sidetes, either because he came from Side, in Pamphylia, or because he was fond of "hunting." Yet his medals have, "Euergetes." (Vaillant; Usher, the year [of the world] 3864.) (Calmet) --- Prince. Greek, "Ethnarch." (Haydock) --- Josephus often uses this title for an independent prince, beneath the dignity of a king. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 15:2 And the contents were these: King Antiochus to Simon, the high priest, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting.

And to. Greek properly adds, "and Ethnarch, and to," etc.
I Maccabees 15:3 Forasmuch as certain pestilent men have usurped the kingdom of our fathers, and my purpose is to challenge the kingdom, and to restore it to its former estate; and I have chosen a great army, and have built ships of war.

Pestilent; disturbers of the peace, (Haydock) like Alexander, Antiochus, and Tryphon.
I Maccabees 15:4 And I design to go through the country, that I may take revenge of them that have destroyed our country, and that have made many cities desolate in my realm.

I Maccabees 15:5 Now, therefore, I confirm unto thee all the oblations which all the kings before me remitted to thee, and what other gifts soever they remitted to thee:

Oblations, such as were presented to the Lord, or remittances. He is very liberal of what he could not get back.
I Maccabees 15:6 And I give thee leave to coin thy own money in thy country:

Money. He supposed that Simon would have his own image on it. But we find no human figure on the coins which he sent out during the first four years, but only vessels, trees, inscriptions, etc. Afterwards he seems to had desisted, either (as some suppose) because it was not conformable to the law, or because he found it brought no profit to the state.
I Maccabees 15:7 And let Jerusalem be holy and free, and all the armour that hath been made, and the fortresses which thou hast built, and which thou keepest in thy hands, let them remain to thee.

I Maccabees 15:8 And all that is due to the king, and what should be the king's hereafter, from this present and for ever, is forgiven thee.

I Maccabees 15:9 And when we shall have recovered our kingdom, we will glorify thee, and thy nation, and the temple, with great glory, so that your glory shall be made manifest in all the earth.

I Maccabees 15:10 In the year one hundred and seventy-four, *Antiochus entered into the land of his fathers, and all the forces assembled to him, so that few were left with Tryphon.

Year of the World 3865, Year before Christ 139.
I Maccabees 15:11 And king Antiochus pursued after him, and he fled along by the sea coast and came to Dora.

Dora, to the south of Carmel. Tryphon had first tried the fortune of a battle. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 15:12 For he perceived that evils were gathered together upon him, and his troops had forsaken him.

I Maccabees 15:13 And Antiochus camped above Dora with a hundred and twenty thousand men of war, and eight thousand horsemen:

I Maccabees 15:14 And he invested the city, and the ships drew near by sea: and they annoyed the city by land, and by sea, and suffered none to come in, or to go out.

I Maccabees 15:15 And Numenius, and they that had been with him, came from the city of Rome, having letters written to the kings, and countries, the contents whereof were these:

Numenius. He had been sent to Rome almost two years before, and now brought letters not only to the Jews, but to various kings and nations in their behalf. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 15:16 Lucius, the consul of the Romans, to king Ptolemee, greeting.

Lucius, Calvus, or Philus, (Drusius; Grotius) or Piso, (Usher; Sal.[Salien?]; Menochius) whose colleague, Lenas, went against Numantia. (Calmet) --- Ptolemee, surnamed Physcon, brother and successor of Philometor, (Challoner) in Egypt. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 15:17 The ambassadors of the Jews, our friends, came to us, to renew the former friendship and alliance, being sent from Simon, the high priest, and the people of the Jews.

I Maccabees 15:18 And they brought also a shield of gold of a thousand pounds.

I Maccabees 15:19 It hath seemed good therefore to us, to write to the kings and countries, that they should do them no harm, nor fight against them, their cities, or countries: and that they should give no aid to them that fight against them.

I Maccabees 15:20 And it hath seemed good to us to receive the shield of them.

I Maccabees 15:21 If, therefore, any pestilent men are fled out of their country to you, deliver them to Simon, the high priest, that he may punish them according to their law.

I Maccabees 15:22 These same things were written to king Demetrius, and to Attalus, and to Ariarathes, and to Arsaces,

Attalus, etc. Attalus was king of Pergamus, Ariarethes was king of Cappadocia, and Arsaces was king of the Parthians. (Challoner) --- Demetrius was prisoner of the latter.
I Maccabees 15:23 And to all the countries: and to Lampsacus, and to the Spartans, and to Delus, and Myndus, and Sicyon, and Caria, and Samus, and Pamphylia, and Lycia, and Alicarnassus, and Cos, and Side, and Aradus, and Rhodes, and Phaselis, and Gortyna, and Gnidus, and Cyprus, and Cyrene.

Lampsacus, in Mysia, a free city. --- Delus, an island of great trade after the fall of Carthage. --- Myndus, a port in Caria. --- Sicyon, another in Achaia. --- Samus, an independent and powerful island near Asia Minor. --- Pamphylia, in Cilicia, beyond Taurus. --- Lycia had been freed from the Rhodians, by the Romans. --- Alicarnassus, an ancient town of Caria, opposite to the isle of Coo. --- Side, in Pamphylia, ver. 1. Grotius conjectures we should read, "Sidon." --- Aradus, near the coasts of Syria. --- Rhodes, famous for its Colossus. --- Phaselis, a maritime town near Lycia. --- Gortyna, a city of Crete, which was then an independent island. --- Gnidus, an island near Rhodes. --- Cyrene, a province of Egypt. It must then have been partly free, and in alliance with Rome.
I Maccabees 15:24 And they wrote a copy thereof to Simon, the high priest, and to the people of the Jews.

Simon, that he might know what they had done for him, and to whom he might apply for aid.
I Maccabees 15:25 But king Antiochus moved his camp to Dora the second time, assaulting it continually, and making engines: and shut up Tryphon, that he could not go out.

Second. He had interrupted the siege, or made a fresh wall or attack.
I Maccabees 15:26 And Simon sent to him two thousand chosen men to aid him, silver also, and gold, and abundance of furniture.

I Maccabees 15:27 And he would not receive them, but broke all the covenant that he had made with him before, and alienated himself from him.

Not. Josephus seems to assert the contrary; observing that the king applied for aid, which was readily granted. Yet he soon forgot the favour, and sent Cendebeus against the Jews. He passes over the embassy of Athenobius, ver. 28.
I Maccabees 15:28 And he sent to him Athenobius, one of his friends, to treat with him, saying: You hold Joppe, and Gazara, and the castle that is in Jerusalem, which are cities of my kingdom:

Gazara. The edition of Basle properly read, "Gadara."
I Maccabees 15:29 Their borders you have wasted, and you have made great havock in the land, and have got the dominion of many places in my kingdom.

I Maccabees 15:30 Now, therefore, deliver up the cities that you have taken, and the tributes of the places whereof you have gotten the dominion without the borders of Judea.

Taken, such as Joppe, the three governments, etc. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 15:31 But if not, give me for them five hundred talents of silver, and for the havoc that you have made, and the tributes of the cities, other five hundred talents: or else we will come and fight against you.

I Maccabees 15:32 So Athenobius, the king's friend, came to Jerusalem, and saw the glory of Simon and his magnificence in gold, and silver, and his great equipage, and he was astonished, and told him the king's words.

I Maccabees 15:33 And Simon answered him, and said to him: We have neither taken other men's land, neither do we hold that which is other men's: but the inheritance of our fathers, which was for some time unjustly possessed by our enemies.

I Maccabees 15:34 But we having opportunity, claim the inheritance of our fathers.

I Maccabees 15:35 And as to thy complaints concerning Joppe and Gazara, they did great harm to the people, and to our country: yet for these we will give a hundred talents. And Athenobius answered him not a word.

Talents. Simon subdued these two towns, because they attacked his country; but as they did not otherwise belong to him, he paid (Worthington) or offered to pay something for them. (Haydock) --- Those of Joppe drowned two hundred Jews, 2 Machabees xii. What Gazara had done we know not. (Worthington)
I Maccabees 15:36 But returning in a rage to the king, made report to him of these words, and of the glory of Simon, and of all that he had seen, and the king was exceeding angry.

I Maccabees 15:37 And Tryphon fled away by ship to Orthosias.

Orthosias, in Phoenicia, opposite to Aradus. Hence he fled to Apamea, (Calmet) strewing silver in the way to stop his pursuers. (Front. 2:13.) --- The city was however besieged, and he slew himself, (Strabo xiv.) or was slain after a reign of five years. (Josephus) (Vaillant)
I Maccabees 15:38 And the king appointed Cendebeus captain of the sea coast, and gave him an army of footmen and horsemen.

Coast. This government was granted to Simon by young Antiochus, 1 Machabees 11:59.
I Maccabees 15:39 And he commanded him to march with his army towards Judea: and he commanded him to build up Gedor, and to fortify the gates of the city, and to war against the people. But the king himself pursued after Tryphon.

Gedor, near Jamnia. Greek, "Cedron," (Calmet) as also [in] ver. 40., formerly (Haydock) in the Vulgate. A city was here repaired on the river Cedron. (Worthington) --- Syriac, "Hebron." --- Fortify. Literally, "to block up." (Haydock) --- But this is the import of the Greek. (Calmet) --- Alexandrian manuscript, "to fortify cities." (Haydock) --- Gates, or defiles. (Grotius)
I Maccabees 15:40 And Cendebeus came to Jamnia, and began to provoke the people, and to ravage Judea, and to take the people prisoners, and to kill, and to build Gedor.

I Maccabees 15:41 And he placed there horsemen, and an army: that they might issue forth, and make incursions upon the ways of Judea, as the king had commanded him.

I Maccabees 16:0 The sons of Simon defeat the troops of Antiochus. Simon, with two of his sons, are treacherously murdered by Ptolemee his son-in-law.

I Maccabees 16:1 Then *John came up from Gazara, and told Simon, his father, what Cendebeus had done against their people.

Year of the World 3866, Year before Christ 138. John. He was afterwards surnamed Hircanus, and succeeded his father in both his dignities of high priest and prince. He conquered the Edomites, and obliged them to a conformity with the Jews in religion; and destroyed the schismatical temple of the Samaritans. (Challoner) --- He was the eldest son and successor of Simon. (Worthington) --- Gazara, the same with Gaza, (Menochius) or Gadara, where John resided. He came to announce the ravages of the enemy.
I Maccabees 16:2 And Simon called his two eldest sons, Judas and John, and said to them: I and my brethren, and my father's house, have fought against the enemies of Israel from our youth even to this day: and things have prospered so well in our hands, that we have delivered Israel oftentimes.

I Maccabees 16:3 And now I am old, but be you instead of me, and my brethren, and go out, and fight for our nation: and the help from heaven be with you.

Be you. Greek and Syriac, "you, by mercy of God, are of a proper age. Be you instead of me and my brother; (Jonathas, with whom Simon had governed. Calmet) and going out, fight valiantly for," etc. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 16:4 Then he chose out of the country twenty thousand fighting men, and horsemen, and they went forth against Cendebeus: and they rested in Modin.

Horsemen. This is the first time we find them in the army. Judas had only infantry, as more conformable to the law; (Deuteronomy xvii.; Tournemine) or he had not been able to procure any. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 16:5 And they arose in the morning, and went into the plain: and behold a very great army of footmen and horsemen came against them, and there was a running river between them.

I Maccabees 16:6 And he and his people pitched their camp over-against them, and he saw that the people were afraid to go over the river, so he went over first: then the men seeing him, passed over after him.

He, John. (Challoner) --- A leader must be ever ready to set his men a pattern, which they will be ashamed not to follow. (Haydock)
I Maccabees 16:7 And he divided the people, and set the horsemen in the midst of the footmen: but the horsemen of the enemies were very numerous.

I Maccabees 16:8 And they sounded the holy trumpets: and Cendebeus and his army were put to flight: and there fell many of them wounded, and the rest fled into the strong hold.

Holy. Roman edition expresses this word, (Calmet) which Grabe supplies. (Haydock) --- The priests sounded, (Calmet) and God fulfilled his promise of victory, Numbers 10:9. (Menochius) --- Hold: Gedor. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 16:9 At that time, Judas, John's brother, was wounded: but John pursued after them, till he came to Cedron, which he had built:

Cedron, otherwise called Gedor, the city that Cendebeus was fortifying. (Challoner) --- The same mistake, (Calmet) if it be one, (Haydock) is made in Greek, 1 Machabees 15:39.
I Maccabees 16:10 And they fled even to the towers that were in the fields of Azotus, and he burnt them with fire. And there fell of them two thousand men, and he returned into Judea in peace.

Towers of wood, (Calmet) erected for sentinels. (Grotius)
I Maccabees 16:11 Now Ptolemee, the son of Abobus, was appointed captain in the plain of Jericho, and he had abundance of silver and gold.

I Maccabees 16:12 For he was son-in-law of the high priest.

I Maccabees 16:13 And his heart was lifted up, and he designed to make himself master of the country, and he purposed treachery against Simon and his sons, to destroy them.

I Maccabees 16:14 Now Simon, as he was going through the cities that were in the country of Judea, and taking care for the good ordering of them, went down to Jericho, he and Mathathias and Judas, his sons, in the year *one hundred and seventy-seven, the eleventh month: the same is the month Sabath.

Year of the World 3869, Year before Christ 135. Sabath, now called Sebeth, corresponding to January and February. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 16:15 And the son of Abobus received them deceitfully into a little fortress, that is called Doch, which he had built: and he made them a great feast, and hid men there.

Doch or duk, (Haydock) in Syriac means "a watch tower." (Grotius) --- Josephus styles it Dagon. It was not far from Jericho, over which Ptolemee governed. He wished to rule over all the country, by calling in the Syrians. (Calmet)
I Maccabees 16:16 And when Simon and his sons had drunk plentifully, Ptolemee and his men rose up and took their weapons, and entered into the banqueting-place, and slew him, and his two sons, and some of his servants.

Plentifully. Literally, "were inebriated." But this expression often denotes no more than taking a moderate sufficiency, (Haydock) or making good cheer, (Genesis 43:34., and John 2:10.; Lyranus; Tirinus; Calmet) without any excess, Psalm 64:10. (St. Augustine, q. 144., Genesis) --- The first and last years of Simon were disturbed; the rest were spent in peace. He began [in] the year [of the kingdom of the Greeks] 170., 1 Machabees 13:41. (Worthington) --- Nothing can be added to the praise bestowed upon this great man, 1 Machabees 14:4., etc. Josephus (Calmet) and the author of 4 Machabees 1. (or xx.; Arabic; Haydock) give a fabulous account of the siege of Doch. (Antiquities 13:14., and Jewish Wars 1:2.) See Salien, the year [of the world] 3919., and Usher, [the year of the world] 3869.
I Maccabees 16:17 And he committed a great treachery in Israel, and rendered evil for good.

Treachery. Syriac, "crime." Greek also, "revolt." It seems that king Antiochus participated in this murder, and had promised the government of the country for a reward.
I Maccabees 16:18 And Ptolemee wrote these things and sent to the king that he should send him an army to aid him, and he would deliver him the country, and their cities, and tributes.

I Maccabees 16:19 *And he sent others to Gazara to kill John: and to the tribunes he sent letters to come to him, and that he would give them silver, and gold, and gifts.

Year of the World 3871, Year before Christ 133.
I Maccabees 16:20 And he sent others to take Jerusalem, and the mountain of the temple.

I Maccabees 16:21 Now one running before, told John in Gazara, that his father and his brethren were slain, and that he hath sent men to kill thee also.

I Maccabees 16:22 But when he heard it, he was exceedingly afraid: and he apprehended the men that came to kill him, and he put them to death: for he knew that they sought to make him away.

I Maccabees 16:23 And as concerning the rest of the acts of John, and his wars, and the worthy deeds, which he bravely achieved, and the building of the walls, which he made, and the things that he did:

I Maccabees 16:24 Behold, these are written in the book of the days of his priesthood, from the time he was made high priest after his father.

Father. Such annals were kept; and from these Josephus has collected his account of the latter times. (Calmet) --- Some think that the Fourth Book of Machabees contains an extract of the work here mentioned. (Six. Bib. i.) Read 2 Machabees 1:1. (Worthington) --- What is preserved in the seven middle chapters in the Arabic version is given by Calmet, who omits the 19 first and 32 last chapters. The whole has been published by Desprez. It differs in many points from Josephus, in the history of Hircan. The year [of the world] 3869, Sidetes besieges the new governor in Jerusalem, and after granting him a truce, during the octave of tabernacles, makes peace on very hard terms. Hircan takes money from the tomb of David, or rather from the secret treasures of the kings of Juda, and attends the king in his expedition into Persia, where Sidetes is slain, and the Macedonian yoke is entirely thrown off. (The year [of the world] 3874.) The pontiff obliges the Idumeans to receive circumcision the following year. In [the year of the world] 3877, he renews the alliance with the Romans. (4 Machabees iii.) Soon after, the Jews write to their brethren in Alexandria, 2 Machabees 1:10. In [the year of the world] 3894, Hircan undertakes the siege of Samaria, which his two sons continue. They defeat Antiochus of Cizicum, while Hircan puts Lathyrus to flight, and Samaria is razed to the ground. After a reign of twenty-nine years, Hircan dies. (The year [of the world] 3898.) (Eusebius, Dem. 8:2.) (Calmet) --- Aristobulus, Alexander, and Hircan, his children, succeed in order. Alexander Janneus, the son of the last, reigns prosperously, and his widow is afterwards regent for nine years. Her eldest son, Hircan, being opposed by Aristobulus, the interference of Pompey is desired. He takes the latter prisoner to Rome, the year 3955, when Augustus came into the world. --- Caesar being made dictator, liberated Aristobulus, who was now pontiff; but Pompey caused him, and Alexander, his son, to be slain. Antipater, who had adhered to Hircan, procures Phasael and Herod, his sons, to be made governors of Judea and Galilee. The latter married Mariamne, daughter of Hircan, and the last of the Asmonean family, whom he afterwards put to death. He wrests the kingdom from Aristobolus[Aristobulus?]; and having offended the people by some heathenish structures in compliment to Augustus, endeavours to please them by rebuilding the temple, the year [of the world] 3982. Not long after, Christ appeared; and thus we are brought to the more happy days of the gospel. (Haydock)