1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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I Corinthians 1:1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Sosthenes a brother,

Paul called to be an apostle. St. Paul had preached to the Corinthians, and had remained a long time with them, to instruct and confirm them in the faith. During his absence, the faithful of Corinth were divided into several parties, on occasion of some new teachers, who had come amongst them. (Calmet) --- It was to heal the wounds caused by these divisions, that the present epistle was written. (St. Thomas Aquinas; Haydock) --- And Sosthenes. There are various conjectures made concerning the person St. Paul here mentions. Some are of opinion that this Sosthenes is the same mentioned, Acts 18:17. who was beaten before the tribunal of Gallio, proconsul of Achaia, when St. Paul was carried before that magistrate. Eusebius says, that Sosthenes was one of the 72 disciples, and a different person from the one mentioned in Acts. Estius takes him to be St. Paul's secretary. The common opinion is, that he was a great sufferer for the faith at Corinth, and St. Paul here mentions him as a man worthy their imitation. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 1:2 To the church of God that is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that invoke the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, in every place of theirs and ours;

In every place of theirs and ours. Inasmuch as among Christians in all places there ought to be such an union in faith, and conformity of discipline, as if they were all in one place. (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:3 Grace to you, and peace from God, our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

I Corinthians 1:4 I give thanks to my God always for you, for the grace of God, that is given you in Christ Jesus:

That is given you in, or by Christ Jesus.{ Ver. 4. In Christo Jesu, en christo Iesou. St. Chrysostom, om. b. ora pos pollakou to en, anti tou di ou, estin.|} Where we may take notice with St. Chrysostom for the understanding of other places, that in, is many times put for by or through.
I Corinthians 1:5 That in all things you are made rich in him, in all speaking, and in all knowledge:

Rich in him in all knowledge. The apostles never addressed any epistle, except to persons who had been previously converted to the faith. Nor is it reasonable to expect, that infidel and pagan nations, merely by reading the inspired writings, will be able, by the light that is in them, to elicit from the said book the truths of religion. Would they not be tempted to worship the wily serpent, that succeeded in deceiving Eve? and how will they know that this serpent is the devil? (Haydock)
I Corinthians 1:6 As the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you:

As the testimony of Christ, what Christ testified and taught was confirmed in you, that is, your faith in Christ hath been confirmed by those graces and gifts which you received from the Holy Ghost at your baptism, and when by imposition of hands you were confirmed by me, or some other bishop. (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:7 So that nothing is wanting to you in any grace, waiting for the manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ,

I Corinthians 1:8 Who also will confirm you unto the end without crime, in the day of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

I Corinthians 1:9 *God is faithful: by whom you are called unto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord.

1 Thessalonians 5:24.
I Corinthians 1:10 Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you: but that you be perfect in the same mind, and in the same judgment.

etc. That there is no schisms....contentions, etc. To hinder these, was the chief design of this letter; one saying, I am of Paul, etc. each party bragging of their master by whom they had been baptized, and made Christians. I am of Apollo, the eloquent preacher, and I of Cephas, the head of the apostles, and of the whole Church; whilst others, the only party not to be blamed, contented themselves with saying, and I am of Christ. --- Is Christ divided? Is not your salvation, is not your justification in baptism, and all gifts from him? (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:11 For it hath been signified unto me, my brethren, of you, by them who are of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.

Of Chloe. It is worthy our observation, that St. Paul does not here mention any one person in particular, lest he might expose any one to the resentment of the rest, but mentions only in general terms the house of Chloe. (St. Chrysostom; Theophylactus)
I Corinthians 1:12 Now this I say, that every one of you saith: I indeed am of Paul: and I am *of Apollo: and I of Cephas: and I of Christ.

Acts 18:24.
Chloe was a Christian woman of Corinth. Apollo is the person mentioned, Acts 18:24. etc. Cephas is St. Peter, so called in the Syriac tongue. (Bible de Vence)
I Corinthians 1:13 Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? or were you baptized in the name of Paul?

Was Paul crucified for you? Though says St. Augustine brothers may die for brothers, yet the blood of no martyr is shed for the remission of a brother's sin. See also St. Leo the Great, serm. xii. de pass. Dom.
I Corinthians 1:14 I give God thanks, that I baptized none of you, *but Crispus and Caius:

Acts 18:8.
I give God thanks that I baptized none of you, but, etc. It is strange that Quakers should from hence pretend, that St. Paul condemned baptism, when he only tells them, he is glad they were baptized by some other, rather than by him, lest they should say, they were baptized in his name, or think that baptism had a greater virtue, when given by a minister of greater sanctity; whereas it is Christ only, who is the chief minister, who gives grace in baptism, and in the other sacraments. This makes him say, was Paul crucified for you, etc. He tells them the occasion why he baptized few, because he was sent chiefly to preach and to be their apostle, whereas other inferior ministers were employed in baptizing. (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:15 Lest any should say that you were baptized in my name.

I Corinthians 1:16 And I baptized also the household of Stephanus: besides, I know not whether I baptized any other.

I Corinthians 1:17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: *not in wisdom of speech, lest the cross of Christ should be made void.

2 Peter 1:16.; 1 Corinthians 2:1.; 1 Corinthians 4:13.
etc. Not to baptize. That is, the first and principal intent, in my vocation to the apostleship, was to preach the gospel, before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel. (Acts 1 Corinthians 9:15.) To baptize is common to all, but to preach is peculiarly the function of an apostle. (Estius; Menochius; Grotius) --- I was sent to preach the gospel, not with wisdom of speech, and as he says in the next chapter, (ver. 13.) not in the persuasive words of human wisdom, etc. The Spirit of God, which guided the thoughts and pen of St. Paul, and the other sacred writers, inspired them to deliver the gospel-truths with great simplicity, without the ornaments of an artificial human eloquence, lest the cross of Christ should be made void, lest the conversion of the world might be attributed to any human means, and not to the power of God, and of Christ crucified. (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:18 For the word of the cross, to them indeed that perish, is foolishness; but to them who are saved, that is, to us, *it is the power of God.

Romans 1:16.
For the word of the cross. That is, the preaching that the Son of God, both God and man, died nailed to an infamous cross, is folly, is looked upon as ridiculous and incredible, by all obstinate unbelievers that perish: but it is received as the work of God, and an effect of his divine power, by such as are saved. (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:19 For it is written: *I will destroy the wisdom of the wise: and the prudence of the prudent I will reject.

Isaias 29:14.
\f + \fr 1:19-20\ft I will destroy the wisdom of the wise. I will confound the false and mistaken wisdom of the great and wise philosophers, of the learned doctors or scribes, of the curious searchers of the secrets of nature. --- Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world, by the means he hath made use of to convert, and save the world, particularly by sending his only Son to die upon a cross? the preaching of which seems a folly, etc. only they who are called, believe Christ, though crucified, to be the power and wisdom of God. (Witham)
I Corinthians 1:20 *Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?

Isaias 33:18.
I Corinthians 1:21 For seeing that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God: it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.

For seeing that in the wisdom of God, etc. That is, by the works of the divine wisdom, by the visible creatures of this world, and the effects of his providence, the world had not wisdom, or was not wise enough, to know and worship God, as they might, and ought to have done: it pleased God to shew his power by the foolishness of preaching, by sending illiterate men to preach a God crucified, which to human wisdom seems a folly, and to save men by this belief. (Witham) --- The gospel, which I announce to you, though it appears folly to the vain philosopher, is the wisdom of God; and whilst it exhibits the picture of a crucified God, and teaches us the mortification of our senses, promises a happiness in the next life, not to be found in this. (Vat. Grot. Tir. Just. [Vatable?; Grotius?; Tirinus?; St. Justin Martyr?])
I Corinthians 1:22 For both the Jews require signs, and the Greeks seek after wisdom:

\f + \fr 1:22-25\ft The Jews, in the mean time, ask for miracles, such as God formerly wrought in their favour, and the Greeks, or the Gentiles, to be converted, expect from us, what they would look upon as the highest points of human wisdom and knowledge; for that which appeareth the foolishness of God, is wiser than men, and able to confound the highest human wisdom; and that which appeareth weakness of God, is stronger than men, who cannot hinder God from converting the world, by means and methods, that seem so disproportioned to this his design. (Witham) --- Foolishness. That is to say, what appears foolish to the world in the ways of God, is indeed more wise: and what appears weakness, is indeed above all the strength and comprehension of man. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 1:23 But we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Gentiles, foolishness:

I Corinthians 1:24 But to them that are called, both Jews, and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.

I Corinthians 1:25 For the foolishness of God, is wiser than men: and the weakness of God, is stronger than men.

I Corinthians 1:26 For see your vocation, brethren, that not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble:

\f + \fr 1:26-28\ft Vocation, is here used for the called, as Romans 3:30. circumcision for the circumcised, (Romans 11:7.) election for the elected. (Bible de Vence) --- Consider your manner of being called; not many, hitherto, of those who have believed, or of those who have preached the gospel, are wise according to the flesh, or as to worldly wisdom; and in the esteem of men, not many mighty, not many noble. God hath chosen such as are looked upon as illiterate, without power, without riches, without human wisdom, to confound the great and wise men: He hath chosen the things that are not, that is, says St. Chrysostom, men reputed as nothing, of no consideration, to confound, to destroy, to make subject to him, and to the gospel, men who had the greatest worldly advantages, that no flesh, no men how great, wise, rich, or powerful soever, might glory in his sight, or attribute their call, and their salvation to their own merits. --- From him you are in Christ Jesus brought to believe in him, who is made to us wisdom, acknowledged to be the wisdom of his eternal Father, by whom we have been justified, sanctified, redeemed. We have nothing of ourselves to boast of, and can only glory in the Lord. (Witham) --- And the mean things. In the beginning of Christianity, it was frequently objected to the Christians, that they had none but men of the basest extraction. The emperor Julian likewise made the Catholics the same reproach. (Grotius) --- But this objection was not founded; for we find many persons of consideration mentioned in the Scriptures, who had embraced Christianity. Witness, ver. 1. of this 1 Corinthians, Sosthenes, the head of the synagogue at Corinth, and some in the very palace of Caesar.
I Corinthians 1:27 But the foolish things of the world hath God chosen, that he may confound the wise: and the weak things of the world hath God chosen, that he may confound the strong:

I Corinthians 1:28 And the mean things of the world, and the things that are contemptible, hath God chosen, and things that are not, that he might destroy the things that are:

I Corinthians 1:29 That no flesh should glory in his sight.

Glory in his sight. God wished it to be known, that the establishment of his Church was not the work of human wisdom or power, but of the omnipotent power of his divinity. (Calmet) We may here admire, (ver. 1.) the happiness of those who, like St. Paul, are called to the sacred ministry, not through human respects, nor by any influence of parents, but by the vocation of heaven. --- Ver. 2. We have here the model and origin of all future pastoral letters. --- Ver. 3. etc. he gives thanks to God for past favours, and prays for a continuation of graces and blessings. --- Ver. 10. He begs that there be no schisms found among them, but that unanimity of sentiment and disposition may reign among them, certain and unequivocal marks of truth. --- Ver. 12. etc. He shews that both pastors and flocks should look up to God, as the only source of truth and grace; that it is a crying injustice to withdraw any share of our heart and confidence from God, to fix it on any thing that is not God; as it is to attach ourselves to the ministers of truth, and not to the Truth itself. Therefore, concludes St. Paul, though the Jews call for miracles, and the Gentiles lean upon worldly wisdom, Christians must seek their strength and success in the weakness of the cross, and their glory in the ignominy of Christ crucified, to whom alone be all the honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
I Corinthians 1:30 But of him you are in Christ Jesus, who is made to us wisdom from God, *and justice, and sanctification, and redemption:

Jeremias 25:5.
I Corinthians 1:31 That, as it is written: *He that glorieth, may glory in the Lord.

Jeremias 9:23-24.; 2 Corinthians 10:17.
I Corinthians 2:0 His preaching was not in loftiness of words: but in spirit and power. And the wisdom he taught was not to be understood by the worldly wise, or sensual man, but only by the spiritual man.

I Corinthians 2:1 And I, brethren, when I came to you, *came not in loftiness of speech or of wisdom, declaring to you the testimony of Christ.

1 Corinthians 1:17.
I Corinthians 2:2 For I judged not myself to know any thing among you, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified.

I Corinthians 2:3 *And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling:

Acts 18:3.
In weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling. We must not think, says St. Chrysostom, that this made the virtue of St. Paul less commendable. It is natural to every man to fear persecutions and torments. We admire the apostle, who amidst these fears, was always ready to expose himself, was always fighting, and always victorious. (Witham) --- During the stay I made with you at Corinth, I saw myself daily exposed to injuries, affronts, and persecutions. I had then the opportunity of practising the lessons which our expiring Redeemer delivered to us from the wood on which he died, and the daily contradictions I met with obliged me to think of other things than fine discourses, and elegant harangues. (Theophylactus)
I Corinthians 2:4 *And my speech, and my preaching was not in the persuasive words of human wisdom, but in the shewing of the spirit and power:

2 Peter 1:16.
In the shewing of the spirit and power, etc. The gifts of the Holy Ghost bestowed on those that believed, and the miracles which God wrought by his apostles, were the means God made use of to convert the world, which were of much greater force than human eloquence. (Witham)
I Corinthians 2:5 That your faith might not stand on the wisdom of men, but on the power of God.

That your faith, etc. Had we employed the subtleties, the reasonings, and eloquence of men, some might perhaps be induced to believe that you had been seduced by artifice. But none can reasonably say so; your faith is founded on the force and evidence of truth, and upon the virtue and power of the Holy Ghost, who has bestowed upon you both the light of knowledge, and the fire of love. (Theod.)
I Corinthians 2:6 Howbeit, we speak wisdom among the perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, neither of the princes of this world, who are destroyed:

etc. Wisdom among the perfect. That is, when we first came amongst you, you were incapable of understanding the great mysteries of our religion: we therefore preached to you Christ crucified; (Calmet) but to the true perfect disciples of Christ we reveal the most sacred mysteries. (St. Chrysostom) --- By wisdom, here seems to be understood a more sublime doctrine concerning the most abstruse mysteries of faith, which the ignorant could not understand. To the same purpose he tells them in the next chapter and in the 5th chapter to the Hebrews, that milk is the proper food of little children, not solid meat, which is proper for those that are perfect. --- Yet we speak not the wisdom of this world, nor of the great men, and princes of this world, because the doctrine of the Christian faith, which we preached, is not esteemed wisdom, but folly by them, who pretend to worldly wisdom. --- We speak then in a mystery, or after a mysterious manner, according to the capacity of those that hear us, the great wisdom of God, which hidden, and not understood by the wise men of this world, God hath manifested by the incarnation of his Son, and by our redemption; which mystery, and which wisdom, none of the princes of this world knew, that is, the devils, according to the common interpretation; or Pilate, Herod, Caiphas, etc. according to St. Chrysostom, or they would never have crucified, nor have permitted others to crucify, the Lord of glory, Jesus Christ, who by his divine person is truly the Lord of glory. See St. Augustine, lib. 1:de Trin. 1 Corinthians 12. etc. He may also be called the Lord of glory, because of that glory, which from eternity he predestinated, and decreed to give his elect; and of which it is written, that the eye hath not seen, etc. (Witham)
I Corinthians 2:7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, which is hidden, which God predestinated before the world, unto our glory,

I Corinthians 2:8 Which none of the princes of this world knew: for if they had known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory.

It appears from the gospel, that they suspected Jesus might be the Son of God; but the major part of interpreters judge from this text, that they had not a certain knowledge. (Bible de Vence)
I Corinthians 2:9 But as it is written: *That eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love him:

Isaias 64:4.
I Corinthians 2:10 But to us God hath revealed by his Spirit. For the Spirit searcheth all things, even the profound things of God.

But to us God hath revealed them by his Spirit; these mysteries, and secrets of the divine wisdom. --- For the Spirit searcheth all things: the divine Spirit, the Holy Ghost, searcheth all things, and none but this Spirit of God, that is, this Spirit, which is God, knoweth the things that are of God, as none but the spirit that is in man, knoweth the things of man, knoweth his thoughts and interior affections. But by the Spirit of God, we may understand the spirit of grace, of knowledge, of prophecy, which God hath given to his faithful, and particularly to his apostles, to raise them to a higher knowledge of the divine mysteries. (Witham)
I Corinthians 2:11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, but the spirit of a man that is in him? So the things also that are of God no man knoweth, but the Spirit of God.

For what man? As the secrets of man's heart are known only to himself, so the mysteries of the divinity are known only to the Spirit, who is God, and who proceedeth from the Father and the Son. (Theophylactus)
I Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received not the spirit of this world, but the Spirit that is of God, that we may know the things that are given us from God:

I Corinthians 2:13 *Which things also we speak, not in the learned words of human wisdom, but in the doctrine of the Spirit, comparing spiritual things with spiritual.

1 Corinthians 1:17.; 1 Corinthians 2:1-4.; 2 Peter 1:16.
Which mysteries and divine truths, we apostles (even when we speak to the more perfect sort of men) deliver not in the learned words of human wisdom, not in the fine language, studied periods and sentences arranged by the art of rhetoric, but in the doctrine of the Spirit, that is, as the Spirit of God within us teacheth us for the good of those that hear us. --- Comparing spiritual things with spiritual, that is, treating of spiritual things with persons that are more spiritual and more perfect, adapting our discourses to the capacity of those we speak to. Others will have the sense to be: we compare spiritual things with spiritual things, that is, we treat of such matters after a spiritual manner, with proofs and examples out of the revealed Scriptures, etc. (Witham) --- St. Paul seems in this place to answer an objection that might be brought against him. If, as you say, you are gifted with a knowledge of mysteries, who do you not reveal those mysteries to us? To this he seems to answer, because to spiritual persons, we impart spiritual knowledge. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 2:14 But the sensual man perceiveth not the things that are of the Spirit of God: for it is foolishness to him, and he cannot understand: because it is spiritually examined.

\f + \fr 2:14-15\ft But the sensual man, etc. They who are led away by sensual pleasures, do not even perceive or understand spiritual things; they seem foolish to them, and a folly to seek after them; because such things must be spiritually examined, that is, examined by the Spirit of God, which they have not. --- But the spiritual man judgeth all things, passeth a right judgment, not only of the things of this life, as carnal men can do, but even of spiritual things, which concern his eternal salvation. --- And he himself is judged by no one, that is, by no one, who is not spiritual, or who is not taught by the Spirit of God, to pass a right judgment: the sense also may be, that he cannot be justly blamed or condemned by any worldly man, who knows not how to judge of such spiritual things. (Witham) --- The sensual man is either he who is taken up with sensual pleasures, with carnal and worldly affections: or he who measureth divine mysteries by natural reason, sense, and human wisdom only. Now such a man has little or no notion of the things of God. Whereas the spiritual man, in the mysteries of religion, takes not human sense for his guide; but submits his judgment to the decisions of the Church, which he is commanded to hear and obey. For Christ hath promised to remain to the end of the world with his Church, and to direct her in all things by the Spirit of truth. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 2:15 But the spiritual man judgeth all things: and he himself is judged of no one.

I Corinthians 2:16 *For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that we may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ.

Wisdom 9:13.; Isaias 40:13.; Romans 11:34.
For who among the sensual men of the world, hath known the mind of the Lord, so as to be able to instruct him, or them, whom he guides by his spirit. --- But we, whom he has chosen to be his apostles, have the mind of Christ; having been taught and instructed by the Spirit of Christ. Some enthusiasts and fanatics pretend from this passage of St. Paul, that they being led and inspired by the spirit, can be judged by no one in matters of faith and religion. They pervert and wrest the words of St. Paul, as they do also other Scriptures, to their own perdition. (2 Peter 3:16.) First, because no one knows by his pretended private spirit, that he is truly such a spiritual man, who has the Spirit of God in him: and many have too much reason to know by their sensual carnal lives, that they have it not. Secondly, St. Paul here speaks only of spiritual men in opposition to sensual men, and only says that they who are spiritual, have the spirit of discretion to judge what things are spiritual, and what are not; and that none can judge rightly of these matters, but they who are spiritual, guided by the Spirit. Thirdly, as to controversies about religion, the proper spiritual judges appointed by our Saviour, Christ, are the bishops, whom he has appointed to govern his Church, with an entire submission of every man's private judgment, and private spirit, to the judgment of the Catholic Church, which he has commanded us to hear and obey, with which he has promised to remain to the end of the world, and to direct her in all things by the spirit of truth. (Witham)
I Corinthians 3:0 They must not contend about their teachers, who are but God's ministers, and accountable to him. Their works shall be tried by fire.

I Corinthians 3:1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual, but as unto carnal. As to little ones in Christ,

I Corinthians 3:2 I gave you milk to drink, not meat: for you were not able as yet: but neither indeed are you now able: for you are yet carnal.

I Corinthians 3:3 For, whereas, there is among you envying and contention; are you not carnal, and walk according to man?

And walk according to man? As carnal and sensual men, as long as there are jealousies and divisions among you. (Witham)
I Corinthians 3:4 For while one saith, I indeed am of Paul: and another, I am of Apollo: are you not men? What then is Apollo, and what is Paul?

I Corinthians 3:5 The ministers of him whom you have believed: and to every one as the Lord hath given.

I Corinthians 3:6 I have planted, Apollo watered: but God gave the increase.

I Corinthians 3:7 Therefore neither he that planteth is any thing, nor he that watereth: but God who giveth the increase.

\f + \fr 3:7-8\ft That planteth you by your first conversion. Apollo watered you by preaching the same truths. --- He that planteth and watered, are one, aim at one and the same end. (Witham) --- According to his own labour. God does not recompense his servants according to the success of their labours, because their success depends upon him alone; but he recompenses them according to their sufferings and diligence in his service; for, whilst he crowns the labour of his apostles with success, he crowns his own work. (St. Chrysostom) --- This text most evidently proves that good works proceeding from grace are meritorious, and that the rewards in heaven are different, according as God sees just to appropriate them. The Greek word here employed is misthos, (merces) or wages. See 1 Timothy 5:18; Apocalypse 22:12; Matthew 16:27. It is by our union with Jesus Christ that our actions, of themselves without value or merit, become gold, silver, and precious stones. (Haydock)
I Corinthians 3:8 Now he who planteth, and he who watereth, are one. *And every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour.

Psalm 61:13.; Matthew 16:27.; Romans 2:6.; Galatians 6:5.
I Corinthians 3:9 For we are God's coadjutors: you are God's husbandry; you are God's building.

We are God's coadjutors, labouring in his service, as he hath employed us. --- You are God's husbandry, the soil, where virtues are to be planted. You are God's building, the edifice, the house, or even the temple of God; we are employed as builders under God. (Witham)
I Corinthians 3:10 According to the grace of God, that is given to me, as a wise architect, I have laid the foundation: and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.

I have laid the foundation well, as a wise architect, not of myself, but according to the grace of God, and the gifts he bestowed upon me: and another, or several others, build upon it, continue the building. --- But let every man take heed how he buildeth, and that it be always upon the same foundation, which is Christ Jesus, his faith, and his doctrine. (Witham)
I Corinthians 3:11 For no one can lay another foundation but that which is laid: which is Christ Jesus.

I Corinthians 3:12 Now if any man build upon this foundation, gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble:

\f + \fr 3:12-15\ft Now if any man build, etc. This is a hard place, says St. Augustine, lib. de fid. et Oper. ch. XVI. tom. 6. p. 180. The interpreters are divided, as to the explication and application of this metaphorical comparison, contained in these four verses. St. Paul speaks of a building, where it is evident, says St. Augustine, that the foundation is Christ, or the faith of Christ, and his faith working by charity. The difficulties are 1. Who are the builders. 2. What is meant by gold, silver, precious stones, and what by wood, hay, stubble. 3. What is meant by the day of the Lord. 4. What by fire, how every one's work shall be tried, and how some shall be saved by fire. As to the first, by the builders, as St. Paul had before called himself the first architect, who had laid the foundation of the faith of Christ among the Corinthians, interpreters commonly understand those doctors and preachers who there succeeded St. Paul: but as it is also said, that every man's works shall be made manifest, St. Augustine and others understand not the preachers only, but all the faithful. As to the second difficulty, if by the builders we understand the preachers of the gospel, then by gold, silver, etc., is to be understood, good, sound, and profitable doctrine; and by wood, hay, stubble, a mixture of vain knowledge, empty flourishes, unprofitable discourses; but if all the faithful are builders, they whose actions are pure, lay gold upon the foundation; but if their actions are mixed with imperfections, venial failings, and lesser sins, these are represented by wood, hay, stubble, etc. 3. By the day of the Lord, is commonly understood either the day of general judgment, or the particular judgment, when every one is judged at his death, which sentence shall be confirmed again at the last day. 4. As to fire, which is mentioned thrice, if we consider what St. Paul says here of fire, he seems to use it in different significations, as he many times does other words. First, he tells us, (ver. 13.) that the day of the Lord...shall be revealed; or, as it is in the Greek, is revealed in, or by fire; where, by fire, is commonly understood the just and severe judgments of God, represented by the metaphor of fire. Secondly, he tells us in the same verse, that fire shall try every one's work, of what sort it is. This may be again taken for the examining and trying fire of God's judgments: and may be applied to the builders, whether preachers only or all the faithful. Thirdly, he tells us, (ver. 14. and 15.) that some men's works abide the fire of God's judgments, they deserve no punishment, they are like pure gold, which receives no prejudice from the fire: but some men's works burn, the superstructure, which they built upon the faith of Christ, besides gold, silver, precious stones, had also a mixture of wood, hay, stubble, which could not stand the trial of fire, which met with combustible matter, that deserved to be burnt. Every such man shall suffer a loss, when his works are burnt, but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire. Here the apostle speaks of fire in a more ample signification: of a fire which shall not only try, and examine, but also burn, and punish the builders, who notwithstanding shall also, after a time, escape from the fire, and be saved by fire, and in the day of the Lord, that is, after life (for the time of this life is the day of men). Divers of the ancient fathers, as well as later interpreters, from these words, prove the Catholic doctrine of a purgatory, that is, that many Christians, who die guilty, not of heinous or mortal sins, but of lesser, and what are called venial sins, or to whom a temporal punishment for the sins they have committed, still remains due, before they can be admitted to a reward in heaven, (into which nothing defiled or unclean can enter) must suffer some punishments for a time, in some place, which is called Purgatory, and in such a manner, as is agreeable to the divine justice, before their reward in heaven. These words of the apostle, the Latin Fathers in the Council of Florence{ Ver. 15. In the Council of Florence, which began at Ferrara an. [in the year] 1438. The Greeks at the very first declared they admitted a third place, where souls were punished for a time, which they called a place of darkness and sorrow. See Labb. tom. xiii. Con. p. 20. Graeci fatentur paenam temporaneam, quod peccatis obnoxiorum animae in locum abeunt tenebricosum, in locum maeroris, in quo, ad tempus, versantur in moerore et paenis, eis topon skoteinon, kai topon lupes, kai lupountai merikos. --- Again, Haec est inter eos differentia: Graeci poenam, maerorem, et poenae locum asserunt, Itali paenam, purgationemque per ignem. See again p. 491. Sess. 25. where the Greeks say of such souls, that they are in a middle state, medias autem esse in loco tormentorum, sed sive ignis sit, sive caligo, sive turbo, sive quid aliud, non contendimus. See also the definition of the Council, p. 515., where it is only defined, eorum animas poenis purgatoriis post mortem purgari, et ut a poenis hujusmodi releventur, prodesse vivorum suffragia, which was the doctrine both of the Greek and Latin Church. See on this place of St. Paul, Bellarmine, lib. i. de Purgatorio, 1 Corinthians 5; Salmeron disp. 6. in lib. ad Corint.; Estius; a Lapide; etc.|} brought against the Greeks to prove purgatory, to which the Greeks (who did not deny a purgatory, or a third place, where souls guilty of lesser sins were to suffer for a time) made answer, that these words of St. Paul were expounded by St. Chrysostom and some of their Greek Fathers (which is true) of the wicked in hell, who are said to be saved by fire, inasmuch as they always subsist and continue in those flames, and are not destroyed by them: but this interpretation, as the Latin bishops replied, is not agreeable to the style of the holy Scriptures, in which, to be saved, both in the Greek and Latin, is expressed the salvation and happiness of souls in heaven. It may not be amiss to take notice that the Greeks, before they met with the Latins at Ferrara, of Florence, did not deny the Catholic doctrine of purgatory. They admitted a third place, where souls guilty of lesser sins, suffered for a time, till cleansed from such sins: they allowed that the souls there detained from the vision of God, might be assisted by the prayers of the faithful: they called this purgatory a place of darkness, of sorrow, of punishments, and pains, but they did not allow there a true and material fire, which the Council did not judge necessary to decide and define against them, as appears in the definition of the Council. (Conc. Labb tom. xiii. p. 515.) (Witham) --- The fire of which St. Paul here speaks, is the fire of purgatory, according to the Fathers, and all Catholic divines. (Calmet) --- St. Augustine, expounding Psalm xxxvii. ver. 1., gives the proper distinction between this fire of purgatory and that of hell: both are punishments, one temporary, the other eternal; the latter to punish us in God's justice, the former to amend us in his mercy.
I Corinthians 3:13 Every man's work shall be manifest: for the day of the Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire: and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is.

I Corinthians 3:14 If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon: he shall receive a reward.

I Corinthians 3:15 If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire.

I Corinthians 3:16 Know you not that you are the temple of God, and that the spirit of God dwelleth in you?

\f + \fr 3:16-17\ft Know you not. After the apostle had described the builders who are employed in the spiritual edifice, he then proceeds to speak of the duties of those who are the living temples of Christ. As for you, may brethren, who are the temples of God, preserve yourselves in purity of faith, and innocence of morals. Fly from those false apostles who seek your ruin, and remain steadfast in that faith which you have received from us; (Calmet) that is, the one, holy, Catholic and apostolic faith. What a happiness for the faithful minister to assist in erecting and ornamenting the living temples of God; but what punishment must await the unfaithful minister, who by his own neglect and bad example, helps to ruin and destroy the temples God himself had entrusted to his care! (Haydock) --- The Spirit of God dwelleth in you, having received the grace of God at your conversion: you are the holy temple of God: But if any one violate, or profane the temple of God, either by false doctrine, or by any grievous offence, he destroys the spiritual edifice, that was built in his soul upon the faith and grace of God. He cannot be said to be built any longer upon the same foundation: and therefore God will destroy such persons: they shall not be saved even by fire, or temporal punishments, but shall be excluded for ever from heaven, and condemned to eternal punishments. (Witham)
I Corinthians 3:17 But if any man violate the temple of God: him shall God destroy. *For the temple of God is holy, which you are.

1 Corinthians 6:19.; 2 Corinthians 6:16.
I Corinthians 3:18 Let no man deceive himself: if any man among you seem to be wise in this world, let him become a fool that he may be wise.

\f + \fr 3:18-21\ft Let no man deceive himself. He next precautions them against themselves, and admonishes them to be upon their guard against curiosity, presumption, and self-love, and tells them to undervalue all other sciences, when put in competition with the science of salvation, the knowledge of the gospel. It hence appears, that some of the Corinthians were renowned for that human eloquence which the world so much esteems, and accordingly the apostle discovers to them the danger to which they are exposing themselves, by pursuing their present line of conduct. (Calmet) --- If any man among you seem to be wise in this world. He hints at some new teachers among them, (not at Apollo) who to gain the esteem of men, had introduced errors from profane philosophy, or the false principles of human wisdom, which, as he had told them before, was folly in the sight of God. He therefore tells such persons, that to become truly wise, they must become fools, by returning to the simplicity of the gospel-doctrine. (Witham) --- Let no man. That is, let no man say, I am for Paul, I am for Apollo. This language will introduce into the Church of God those various sects that existed amongst the philosophers, who were distinguished by the title of Platonics, Stoics, Peripatetic, and so on. (Grotius)
I Corinthians 3:19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written: *I will catch the wise in their own craftiness.

Job 5:13.
I Corinthians 3:20 And again: *The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.

Psalm 93:11.
I Corinthians 3:21 Let no man, therefore, glory in men.

I Corinthians 3:22 For all things are yours, whether it be Paul, or Apollo, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come: for all are yours:

\f + \fr 3:22-23\ft All things are yours. Are ordained for your good. For this end, I, Apollo, and Cephas have been sent to promote your salvation. The world and all things in it are allowed you, are yours, that by making good use of them, you may save your souls: that death may be to you a passage to a happy eternity, that the things to come may be your eternal reward. --- You are Christ's, you belong to him who hath redeemed you, and sanctified you by his grace: and Christ is God's, Christ as man, who being the Son of God, was made also man, and sent to make known the glory of God, his divine perfections of mercy, justice, etc.
I Corinthians 3:23 And you are Christ's; and Christ is God's.

I Corinthians 4:0 God's ministers are not to be judged. He reprehends their boasting of their preachers: and describes the treatment the apostles ever where met with..

I Corinthians 4:1 Let *a man so look upon us as the ministers of Christ, and the dispensers of the mysteries of God.

2 Corinthians 6:4.
Mysteries of God. That is, the dogmas of faith, revealed by the Almighty. (Estius)
I Corinthians 4:2 Here now it is required among the dispensers, that a man be found faithful.

I Corinthians 4:3 But as to me, it is a thing of the least account to be judged by you, or by man's judgment: for neither do I judge myself.

Or by human judgment. Literally, by human day. The sense, says St. Jerome, is, by any human judgment, or by men, whose judgment is in the day, or time of this life: but God judges in his day, after this life, and chiefly at the last day of judgment. --- Neither do I judge myself, so as to look upon myself absolutely certain of the state of my soul, or that I am for certain justified, though I am not conscious to myself of any thing, because I am to be judged by an omniscient God, the great searcher of hearts, who perhaps may discover faults, which I, partial to myself, overlook. Now if St. Paul durst not say, he was justified, what presumption is it for others to pretend to an absolute certainty, that they are just in the sight of God! (Witham)
I Corinthians 4:4 For I am not conscious to myself of any thing: yet hereby I am not justified: but he that judgeth me is the Lord.

For I am not conscious. This great apostle of the Gentiles, though conscious to himself of no breach of duty, still does not dare to call himself just. How different is the conduct of this apostle, from those wicked impostors, who teach, that a man is justified by believing himself so. (Estius) --- If this privileged apostle was afraid to from any judgment of his own heart and thoughts, whether they were pure or not, but left the trial thereof to the day of judgment, the day of his death, how presumptuous are they, who dare to pronounce on their election and predestination!
I Corinthians 4:5 Therefore judge not before the time: until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise from God.

Judge not, etc. He gives them an admonition against rash and false judgments, and hints at those among them, who said, this man is better, this man is greater than such a one, etc. See St. Chrysostom. (Witham)
I Corinthians 4:6 But these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollo, for your sakes: that in us you may learn, that one be not puffed up against the other for another, above that which is written.

These things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself, and to Apollo. Literally, these things have I transfigured in me and Apollo, that is, I have represented the divisions and disputes among you, as if it were by your contending, whether I, or Apollo, or Cephas were the best preachers, without naming those, as I might do, who are the true causes of these divisions, by striving who should be thought men of the greatest and brightest parts. --- That in us, and by our example, who have no such proud disputes, you might learn that one be not puffed up against the other, and above that which is written, against the admonitions given in the holy Scriptures of being humble: or against what I have now written to you, that we must strive for nothing, but to be the faithful ministers of God, and not seek the esteem of men. (Witham) --- It is the opinion of St. Thomas Aquinas and likewise of Estius, that St. Paul, Apollo, and Cephas were not the real causes of the divisions that existed amongst the new converts at Corinth, but that in making use of these names, he wished to teach them, that if it was unlawful to keep up these divisions even for the sake of the apostles, how far should they be from doing any thing of this kind for those whose authority was much less in the Church. But Calmet is of opinion, that the divisions amongst the Corinthians were certainly on account of Paul, Apollo, Cephas, and perhaps some others, whose names are not mentioned.
I Corinthians 4:7 For who distinguisheth thee? And what hast thou that thou hast not received? And if thou hast received, why dost thou glory as if thou hadst not received?

For who distinguisheth, or hath distinguished thee from another? He speaks particularly to those proud, vain preachers: if thou hast greater talents than another man, who hath given them to thee, or to any one, but God, who is the giver, and the author of every gift and perfection? This is not only true of the gift of preaching, but of all gifts and graces; so that St. Augustine makes use of it in several places against the Pelagians, to shew that it is by grace only, that one man is preferred before another, and not by, or for his own merits. (Witham)
I Corinthians 4:8 Now you are satiated, now you are become rich: you reign without us: and I would to God you did reign, that we also might reign with you.

Now you are satiated, etc. You great, vain preachers, you are rich in every kind, blessed with all gifts, etc. You reign over the minds of the people, without us, you stand not in need of our assistance. And I would to God you did reign, that we also might reign with you. I wish your reigning and governing the people were well grounded on virtue and truth, that we might be sharers of the like happiness. St. Chrysostom takes notice, that St. Paul speaks thus, meaning the contrary, by the figure called irony: and so also St. Chrysostom understands the two following verses, as if St. Paul only represented what those vain preachers said with contempt of him, as if he were only an apostle of an inferior rank, not one of the chief, nor of the twelve. And when he says, we are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wise: it is certain the apostles were not fools, nor these preachers whom he blames, wise, especially in Christ. But though the apostle partly use this figure of irony, intermixing it in his discourse, yet he also represents the condition of all true apostles, and preachers of Christ crucified, whose persons and doctrine were slighted, ridiculed, and laughed at by men that were wise only with worldly wisdom, especially by profane libertines, and atheistical men, that make a jest of all revealed religion. To go about preaching in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, in want, under afflictions and persecutions, is what they think is to be miserable: they despise such men as the out-cast, the dross,{ Ver. 8. Tanquam purgamenta, omnium peripsema, os perikatharmata, Sordes, quisquiliae, panton peripsema, Scobes, ramentum. See Mr. Legh, Crit. Sacra.|} and the dregs of mankind. (See the Greek text.) (Witham) --- He speaks to the Corinthians, who forgetting their first fervour, and the Christian modesty which St. Paul had taught them, both by word and example, were endeavouring to distinguish themselves by the reputation and honour of the apostle, who had converted them, by their antiquity of faith, and by other things more frivolous. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 4:9 For I think that God hath set forth us apostles the last, as men condemned to death: because we are made a spectacle to the world, and to Angels, and to men.

Made a spectacle. It is evident from the writings of St. Paul, and from innumerable other records, that the apostles were made a spectacle to the world and to men; but how, some one may perhaps ask, were they made a spectacle to angels? St. Chrysostom, Theod. [Theodoret?], and many others think, that the apostle is here speaking of the good angels, who behold with pleasure the labours and afflictions of the saints, knowing that it will prove a source of glory; but Estius, Vat. [Vatable?], and some others, are of opinion, that the wicked angels are here spoken of, who rejoice at the persecutions of God's servants, and wish to revenge themselves for the destruction of their empire.
I Corinthians 4:10 We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wise in Christ: we are weak, but you are strong; you are honourable, but we without honour.

I Corinthians 4:11 Even unto this hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no fixed abode;

I Corinthians 4:12 *And we labour, working with our own hands: we are reviled, and we bless: we are persecuted, and we suffer it.

Acts 20:34.; 1 Thessalonians 2:9.; 2 Thessalonians 3:8.
I Corinthians 4:13 We are slandered, and we intreat: we are made as the refuse of this world, the off-scouring of all even till now.

I Corinthians 4:14 I write not these things to confound you: but I admonish you as my dearest children:

\f + \fr 4:14-17\ft I write not. St. Paul here insinuates to the Corinthians, that they ought to blush with shame for neglecting the apostles, who had suffered so many hardships for them, to follow after teachers void of honour, and to glory in being called the disciples of such men. (Estius) --- I admonish you as my dearest children, of what is for your good, and I may take this liberty, as being your spiritual father in Christ, by whom you were first made Christians. Be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ: follow the doctrine of Christ, which I follow, and taught you. Timothy, my beloved son in the Lord, whom I send to you, will put you in mind of what I teach, and of what I practise. (Witham)
I Corinthians 4:15 For if you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet not many fathers. For in Christ Jesus I have begotten you by the gospel:

I Corinthians 4:16 Wherefore, I beseech you, be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ.

I Corinthians 4:17 For this cause have I sent to you Timothy, who is my dearest son, and faithful in the Lord: who will put you in mind of my ways, which are in Christ Jesus, as I teach every where in every church.

I Corinthians 4:18 Some are so puffed up, as though I would not come to you.

etc. Some of those new doctors and preachers are so puffed up, that they pretend I dare not come to you any more, nor defend myself: he may also mean the man that lived in incest, his companions and his flatterers. --- But I will come to you shortly, and then I shall use my authority in taking notice of their vain talk, they shall find and experience that power, which God hath given me by the gifts of the Holy Ghost, and of working miracles. (Witham) --- But I will come. The good effect which this letter produced amongst the Corinthians retarded his intended journey, so that he did not go to Corinth till one or two years after this letter was written. He wrote his second epistle to the same before he paid them a visit, to apply a soothing remedy to their minds and hearts, sorely afflicted with his charitably severe corrections contained in this his first epistle. (Haydock) --- What will you; or what disposition shall I find in you? let it not be necessary for me to use the chastising rod by excommunications, and other spiritual arms, but be so reformed before I come, that I may come to you in the spirit of mildness, as I wish to do. (Witham)
I Corinthians 4:19 But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will: and I will know, not the speech of them who are puffed up, but the power.

I Corinthians 4:20 For the kingdom of God is not in speech, but in power.

I Corinthians 4:21 What will you? shall I come to you with a rod; or in charity, and in the spirit of meekness?

I Corinthians 5:0 He excommunicates the incestuous adulterer, and admonishes them to purge out the old leaven.

I Corinthians 5:1 It is heard for certain that there is fornication among you, *and such fornication, as the like is not among the heathens: that some one hath his father's wife.

Leviticus 18:7-8. and 20:11.
As the like is not among the heathens. This seems to have been the crime of incest, that he took the wife of his father yet living. See 2 Corinthians 7:12. (Witham) --- St. Chrysostom, Theod.[Theodoret?], etc., think, that this incestuous person was one of the chiefs of the schism which then reigned in Corinth. This man, say they, was a great orator, with whose eloquence the Corinthians were enchanted, and therefore dissembled a knowledge of his crime, public as it was. The apostle having proved to them the vanity of all human learning, in the preceding chapter, now attacks the incestuous man, and exposes to their view the enormity of his crime. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 5:2 And you are puffed up: and have not rather mourned, that he might be taken away from among you, who hath done this deed.

You are puffed up, seem to be unconcerned, to take pride in it, instead of having the man separated from you. (Witham)
I Corinthians 5:3 *I indeed absent in body, but present in spirit, have already judged, as though I were present, him that hath so done,

Colossians 2:5.
etc. Have already judged, decreed, and do decree, being present in spirit with you, and with your congregation. --- In the name....with the power of our Lord Jesus, to deliver such a one to Satan by a sentence of excommunication, depriving him of the sacraments, the prayers, and communion, and even of the conversation of the rest of the faithful. It is likely in those times, such excommunicated persons were delivered over to Satan, so as to be corporally tormented by the devil. But most divines are of opinion that this man was delivered over to the devil, to strike a terror into others. See St. Chrysostom, hom. xv. and this is said to be done for the destruction, or punishment of the flesh, that the spirit, or soul, may be saved. (Witham) --- It is the opinion of most of the Greek fathers, that this man was either really possessed by the devil, or at least struck with such a complaint as a mortification, and humiliation to his body, whilst it served to purify his soul. We have seen from many instances in holy Scripture, that it was not unusual, in the origin of Christianity, for persons who had fallen into crimes of this nature, to be punished with death, some grievous sickness, or by being possessed by the devil. But most divines are of opinion that this man was delivered over to the devil, so as to be separated from the communion of the Church. (St. Ambrose; Estius; Just.[St. Justin Martyr?]; Menochius)
I Corinthians 5:4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, you being gathered together and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus,

I Corinthians 5:5 To deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

I Corinthians 5:6 Your glorying is not good. *Know you not that a little leaven corrupteth the whole mass?

Galatians 5:9.
\f + \fr 5:6-8\ft Your glorying is not good, when you suffer such a scandal among you: you have little reason to boast of your masters, or even of the gifts and graces you received. A little leaven corrupteth the whole mass; a public scandal, when not punished, is of dangerous consequence. --- Purge out the old leaven. He alludes to the precept given to the Jews of having no leaven in their houses during the seven days of the Paschal feast. For our Pasch, that is Paschal lamb, Christ is sacrificed: and Christians, says St. Chrysostom, must keep this feast continually, by always abstaining from the leaven of sin. (Witham)
I Corinthians 5:7 Purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new paste, as you are unleavened. For Christ, our Pasch, is sacrificed.

I Corinthians 5:8 Therefore let us feast, not with the old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

I Corinthians 5:9 I wrote to you in an epistle, not to keep company with fornicators.

etc. I wrote to you in an epistle. If he does not mean what he has said already in this epistle, it must have been in some other, which he had written to them before, (as some conjecture) and which is not now extant. --- Now to keep company with fornicators, nor with such like public scandalous sinners, not so much as to eat with them. But you must take notice, that I mean, when they are brethren, or Christians, not when they are infidels, for this cannot be avoided, especially by those who are to labour to convert them. This admonition of the apostle, shews us how much such persons are to blame, who by their carriage encourage, applaud, and are delighted with wicked company. Them who are without the pale and fold of the Church, the apostle leaves to the great judge of the living and the dead. (Witham)
I Corinthians 5:10 I mean not with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or the extortioners, or the servers of idols: otherwise you must needs go out of this world.

I Corinthians 5:11 But now I have written to you, not to keep company: if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or a server of idols, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such a one not so much as to eat.

I Corinthians 5:12 For what have I to do to judge them that are without ? Do not you judge them that are within?

To judge them that are without. Those who are said by the apostle to be without, are those who have never been converted to the faith, and therefore are not within the jurisdiction of the Church.
I Corinthians 5:13 For them that are without, God will judge. Put away the evil one from among yourselves.

Take away. This passage is differently understood by commentators. By some it is understood thus: expel the evil one from among you, that is, the incestuous man. (Estius) --- By others, it is understood to be spoken in a general sense, meaning, take away the evil of sin from among you. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 6:0 He blames them for going to law before unbelievers. Of sins that exclude from the kingdom of heaven. The evil of fornication.

I Corinthians 6:1 Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints?

Go to law before the unjust. St. Paul here dissuades the new Christians from carrying their differences and causes about their temporal concerns before judges who were infidels, especially seeing the saints and the elect shall one day judge, that is, condemn all the wicked, and even the apostate angels, by approving the sentence which Christ shall pronounce against them at the day of judgment. (Witham) --- It was not unusual in the primitive ages, and even under Christian emperors, for the Catholics to refer their disputes to the bishop, and to abide by his decision, as Possidius informs us, in the life of St. Augustine. (Estius)
I Corinthians 6:2 Know you not that the saints shall judge this world? And if the world shall be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters?

I Corinthians 6:3 Know you not that we shall judge angels? how much more things of this world?

Judge angels? That is, the wicked angels, the devils. (St. Thomas Aquinas)
I Corinthians 6:4 If therefore you have judgments about the things of this world: set them to judge, who are the most despised in the church.

\f + \fr 6:4-7\ft Set them to judge, who are the most despised in the Church. Rather make choice of Christians of lesser parts and talents, than have recourse to infidels, who will be scandalized at the injuries and injustice done by Christians to each other. Besides you cannot but have some wise men among you to decide such matters. (Witham) --- St. Paul does not here mean to tell the Corinthians that they must choose the most despised and the most ignorant, but he wishes to inform them that if there were none but men of this description in the Church, it would still be much more preferable to appoint these judges than to go to law before idolatrous judges. (Estius) --- It is plainly a fault,{ Ver. 7. Omnino delictum est, ettema, a diminutive, from etton, minus, a failing, a weakness, a fault.|} weakness in you to run to such heathen judges: you should rather bear, and put up with the injuries done to you. --- A fault. Law-suits can hardly ever be without a fault, on one side or the other; and oftentimes on both sides. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 6:5 I speak to your shame. Is it so that there is not among you any wise man that is able to judge between his brethren?

I Corinthians 6:6 But brother goeth to law with brother: and that before unbelievers?

I Corinthians 6:7 *Already indeed there is plainly a fault among you, that you have law-suits one with another. Why do you not rather take the injury? why do you not rather suffer fraud?

Matthew 5:39.; Luke 6:29.; Romans 12:17.; 1 Thessalonians 4:6.
I Corinthians 6:8 But you do wrong and defraud: and that to your brethren.

\f + \fr 6:8-11\ft Defraud....your brethren. That is, you still make yourselves much more guilty by the injustices done to one another: for the unjust, and all they who are guilty of such crimes as I have mentioned, shall not possess the kingdom of God. And some of you were guilty of part of them, which have been washed off by your conversion, and your baptism, when you were justified. (Witham) --- And such some of you were. It is probable that this was added by the apostle, to soften his preceding words, lest he might seem to accuse all the Corinthians of each of these sins, and he likewise adds, such indeed you were, but now you are washed, etc. etc. (Estius; St. Thomas Aquinas)
I Corinthians 6:9 Know you not that the unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers,

I Corinthians 6:10 Nor the effeminate, nor sodomites, nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor railers, nor extortioners, shall possess the kingdom of God.

I Corinthians 6:11 And such some of you were: but you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the spirit of our God.

I Corinthians 6:12 All things are lawful to me, but all things are not expedient. All things are lawful to me, but I will not be brought under the power of any.

All things are lawful to me. We cannot take the words in the obvious sense, St. Paul having just before declared, that unjust dealers, fornicators, drunkards, shall not possess the kingdom of God. Some expound the words, as if he said, I have free-will and liberty to do what I will. Others think that the apostle speaks not of all things in general, but with this or the like limitation, all things that are indifferent of their own nature, or all things that are not forbidden by the law of God, and this seems agreeable enough to what he had said of going to judges that were infidels, which, though not a thing unlawful in itself, was not expedient. It may also be connected with what follows of meats, to signify that in the new law any meats may be eaten; (see 1 Corinthians 8.) but it may be expedient to abstain, when it would be a scandal to the weak. --- But I will not be brought under the power of any. It does not appear by the Latin or Greek text, whether the construction be under the power of any person or of any thing. There are divers interpretations; the most probable seems to be, that these words are again to be taken as connected with what went before, and with what follows, to wit, that though it be not unlawful in itself to go before judges that are infidels, or to eat any kind of meats, yet I will not permit my love of money, nor my sensual appetite, to make me a slave to such passions, so as to do things that are not convenient, much less to do things unlawful. (Witham) --- All things are lawful, etc. That is, all indifferent things are indeed lawful, inasmuch as they are not prohibited; but oftentimes they are not expedient; as in the case of law-suits, etc. And much less would it be expedient to be enslaved by an irregular affection to any thing, how indifferent soever. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 6:13 The meat for the belly, and the belly for the meats: but God shall destroy both it and them: but the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body.

etc. Meat for the belly. That is, meat is necessary for the support of nature, though this or that kind of meat be indifferent: and we ought to reflect, that God in a short time will destroy both the meats, and the appetite of eating, and the body shall shortly die, but it shall rise again. --- Know you not that your bodies are the members of Christ....and the temple of the Holy Ghost. Man consists of soul and body; by baptism he is made a member of that same mystical body, the Church, of which Christ is the head: In baptism both the soul and body are consecrated to God: they are made the temple of the Holy Ghost, inasmuch as the spirit and grace of God inhabits in men, who are sanctified. Christ redeemed both our souls and bodies, both which he designs to sanctify, and to glorify hereafter in heaven; so that we must look upon both body and soul as belonging to Christ, and not as our own. --- Shall I, then, taking the members of Christ, make them the members of an harlot, by a shameful and unlawful commerce? --- Fly fornication. Such sins are chiefly to be avoided by flight, and by avoiding the occasions and temptations. Other sins are not committed by such an injury done to the body, but by an abuse of something else, that is different from the body, but by fornication and sins of uncleanness, the body itself is defiled and dishonoured, whereas the body ought to be considered as if it were not our own, being redeemed by our Saviour Christ, consecrated to him, with an expectation of a happy resurrection, and of being glorified in heaven. Endeavour, therefore, to glorify God in your body, by employing it in his service, and bear him in your body by being obedient to his will. (Witham) --- We know and we believe that we carry about Jesus Christ in our bodies, but it is the shame and condemnation of a Christian to live as if he neither knew or believed it. If fornication is a great crime in a pagan, in a Christian it is a species of sacrilege, accompanied with injustice and ingratitude. Whoever yields to impurity, converts his body into the temple of Satan, glorifies and carries him about, tearing away the members of Jesus Christ, to make them the members of a harlot.
I Corinthians 6:14 Now God hath both raised up the Lord, and will raise us up also by his power.

I Corinthians 6:15 Know you not, that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I, then, taking the members of Christ, make them the members of a harlot? God forbid.

I Corinthians 6:16 Or know you not, that he who adheres to a harlot, is made one body? *For they shall be (saith he) two in one flesh.

Genesis 2:24.; Matthew 19:5.; Mark 10:8.; Ephesians 5:31.
I Corinthians 6:17 But he who adheres to the Lord is one spirit.

I Corinthians 6:18 Fly fornication. Every sin that a man doth, is without the body: but he that committeth fornication, sinneth against his own body.

I Corinthians 6:19 Or know you not, *that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

1 Corinthians 3:17.; 2 Corinthians 6:16.
I Corinthians 6:20 *For you are bought with a great price. Glorify and bear God in your body.

1 Corinthians 7:23.; 1 Peter 1:18.
I Corinthians 7:0 Lessons relating to marriage and celibacy. Virginity is preferable to a married state.

I Corinthians 7:1 Now concerning the things whereof you wrote to me: It is good for a man not to touch a woman:

Now concerning. The heads of the Church of Corinth had written to St. Paul, desiring to know whether he thought it more expedient to marry or not. This was a question which the sages of antiquity had frequently taken into consideration. To this question St. Paul here delivers his opinion. (Calmet) --- Others, with greater probability, suppose the chief question proposed to St. Paul was, whether they were not bound, upon their conversion, to abstain from their infidel wives. (St. Jerome, cont. Jovin. ch. IV.; St. Chrysostom, on this location, hom. xix.) --- To this he answers in ver. 12. and 13. --- It is good. That is, according to the style of the Scriptures, it is better, if we consider the advantage of every particular, etc. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:2 But because of fornication let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.

etc. But because of fornication, let every man have, and live with his own wife,{ Ver. 2. Suam uxorem, suam virum. eautou gunaika, ton idion andra.|} and not leave her, nor dismiss her. Take notice, that St. Paul speaks these words to those that are already married, and speaks not of the unmarried till the 8th verse. He does not then here exhort every one to marry, but admonishes married persons to live together, and not to refuse the marriage duty, which neither the husband nor the wife can do without mutual consent, because of the marriage engagement. Yet he advises them to abstain sometimes from what they may lawfully do, that they may give themselves to prayer,{ Ver. 5. Ut vacetis orationi, ina scholazete te proseuche. St. Chrysostom, ouk eipen aplos proseuchesthe.|} and as it is added in the common Greek copies, to fasting. St. Chrysostom observes, that the words of St. Paul, are not only, that they may pray, (which no day must be omitted) but that they may give themselves to prayer, that is, may be better disposed and prepared for prayer, contemplation, and for receiving the holy Sacrament, as we find the priests even of the ancient law, were to abstain from their wives, when they were employed in the functions of their ministry. But such kind of advice is not relished by all that pretend to be reformers. And return together again....yet I speak this by way of indulgence, of what is allowed to married persons, and not commanded them, unless when one of the married couple is not willing to abstain. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:3 *Let the husband render the debt to his wife: and the wife also in like manner to the husband.

1 Peter 3:7.
I Corinthians 7:4 The wife hath not power over her own body; but the husband. And in like manner the husband also hath not power over his own body; but the wife.

I Corinthians 7:5 Defraud not one another, unless, perhaps, by consent, for a time, that you may give yourselves to prayer: and return together again, lest Satan tempt you for your incontinency.

I Corinthians 7:6 But I speak this by indulgence, not by commandment.

By indulgence. That is, by a condescension to your weakness. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 7:7 For I would that all men were even as myself: but every one hath his proper gift from God; one after this manner, and another after that.

\f + \fr 7:7-8\ft I would, or I could wish you all were even as myself, and as it is said in the next verse, to continue unmarried as I do. From hence it is evident, that St. Paul was not then married, who according to the opinion of the ancient fathers, was never married. But when the apostle says, I would this as to you all, he only signifies what could be wished for, the particular good of every one considered as a particular person, but what cannot be hoped for, considering the state of mankind in general, and the temptations, and frailty of men. --- But every one hath his proper gift from God, so that some prudently embrace a single life, and also make a religious vow of always living so, as it has been practised by a great number both of men and women in all ages, ever since Christ's time. Others have not this more perfect gift: they find themselves not disposed to lead, or vow a single life, they marry lawfully: it is better to marry than to burn, or be burnt by violent temptations of concupiscence, by which they do not contain themselves from disorders of that kind. It is against both the Latin and Greek text to translate, they cannot contain themselves, as in the Protestant and Mr. N....'s translation. Dr. Wells, in his paraphrase, gives the sense of this place in these words: The inconveniences of marriage are to be undergone, rather than such sinful imaginations, or practises, as arise from the flames of an ungovernable lust. They therefore that are unmarried or widows, (to whom St. Paul speaks in these two verses) may have recourse to marriage as a remedy. But let it be observed, that when St. Paul allows of marriage, he speaks not of those who have already made a vow of living always a single life. Vows made to God must be kept. (Psalm 75:12.; Ecclesiastes 5:3.) And St. Paul expressly says of such persons, who have made a vow of perpetual continency, and afterwards marry, that they incur damnation, because they violate their first faith, or vow made to God. See 1 Timothy 5:12. This saying, therefore, it is better to marry than to burn, cannot justify the sacrilegious marriages of priests, or of any others who were under such vows. There are other remedies which they are bound to make use of, and by which they may obtain the gift of continency and chastity. They must ask this gift by fervent prayers to God, who gives a good spirit to them that ask it. (Luke 11:15.[13.?]) They must join fasting, alms, and the practice of self-denials, so often recommended in the gospel. See the annotations on Matthew xix. The like remedies, and no others, must they use, who being already in wedlock, are under such violent temptations, that they are continually in danger of violating, or do violate the chastity of the marriage-bed. For example, when married persons are divorced from bed and board, when long absent from one another, when sick and disabled, when one has an inveterate aversion to the other: they cannot marry another, but they can, and must use other remedies. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:8 But I say to the unmarried, and to the widows: it is good for them if they so continue, even as I.

I Corinthians 7:9 But if they do not contain themselves, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn.

If they do not contain. This is spoken of such as are free; and not of such as by vow have given their first faith to God; to whom, if they will use proper means to obtain it, God will never refuse the gift of continency. Some translators have corrupted this text, by rendering it, if they cannot contain. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 7:10 But to them that are married, not I but the Lord commandeth, *that the wife depart not from her husband:

Matthew 5:32.; Matthew 19:9.; Mark 10:9.; Luke 16:18.
But to them that are married, etc. He tells these persons, that they ought not to part, or if a separation for weighty reasons can be allowed, neither party can marry another. (Witham) --- That the wife. Jesus Christ has expressly declared, that in one case only a divorce may be allowable, and that is in the case of adultery. (Estius)
I Corinthians 7:11 And if she depart, that she remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband. And let not the husband put away his wife.

I Corinthians 7:12 For to the rest I speak, not the Lord. If any brother have a wife that believeth not, and she consent to dwell with him; let him not put her away.

\f + \fr 7:12-17\ft For to the rest, etc. This was a case entirely new, which the wisdom of the apostle regulates according to the laws of charity. Tertullian thinks that some of the faithful, who had been converted from paganism, did not esteem it lawful to live any longer with their wives, who were yet buried in the superstitions of idolatry, which scruples St. Paul answers, guided as he was, by the particular lights of the Holy Ghost. (Calmet) --- Not the Lord. That is, it is the command of the Lord, for such even as are separated, not to marry to another, but when I advised the unmarried not to marry, this is a counsel, or advice, not a divine precept, which doctrine he repeats again before the end of this chapter, ver. 25, 28, and 39. --- If any brother have a wife that believeth not, etc. St. Paul speaks of two that were joined by a contract of marriage, when both of them were infidels, and that one of them is converted to the Christian faith: we do not read of any precept that Christ gave, as to those marriages, but the apostle seems to order by his apostolical authority, that they continue as man and wife, unless the party that remains still an infidel, will needs depart; then, says the apostle, let such an one depart. There is also another case, to wit, when the man or woman remaining an infidel, will not live without continual injuries and blasphemies against God and the Catholic religion, so that there can be no peace on that account betwixt them. In these two cases, according to the canons of the Church, it is looked upon as no marriage, so that the party converted may marry another. And this seems grounded on the reason, which the apostle here gave, that God hath called us in peace. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:13 And if any woman have a husband that believeth not; and he consent to dwell with her; let her not put away her husband.

I Corinthians 7:14 For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the believing wife; and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the believing husband: otherwise your children should be unclean; but now they are holy.

\f + \fr 7:14-16\ft Is sanctified. The meaning is not that the faith of the husband, or the wife is of itself sufficient to put the unbelieving party, or their children, in the state of grace and salvation: but that it is very often an occasion of their sanctification, by bringing them to the true faith. (Challoner) --- Sanctification which has different significations, cannot here signify that an infidel is truly and properly sanctified, or justified, by being married to a faithful believer; therefore we can only understand an improper sanctification, so that such an infidel, though not yet converted, need not be looked upon as unclean, but in the dispositions of being converted, especially living peaceably together, and consenting that their children be baptized, by which they are truly sanctified. --- How knowest thou, O wife? etc. These words seem to give the reason, why they may part, when they cannot live peaceably, and when there is little prospect that the party that is an infidel will be converted. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:15 But if the unbeliever depart, let him depart. For a brother or sister is not under servitude in such cases: but God hath called us in peace.

I Corinthians 7:16 For how knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband? Or how knowest thou, O man, whether thou shalt save thy wife?

I Corinthians 7:17 But as the Lord hath distributed to every one, as God hath called every one, so let him walk: and so I teach in all churches.

etc. But{ Ver. 17. Nisi, etc. ei me, it bears the sense here of but.|} as the Lord hath distributed,...and called every one, etc. St. Paul proceeds to other points of discipline, that persons converted may remain and continue in the same employments, and lawful state of life as before, that it is nothing to the purpose, whether before his conversion he was a circumcised Jew, or an uncircumcised Gentile, circumcision being no longer of obligation in the new law. If any one that is converted was a bond-man, or a slave, let him not be concerned at this, but use it rather,{ Ver. 21. Magis utere, mallon chresai. St. Chrysostom says, touteti mallon douleue.|} which many interpret, let him rather endeavour to be made free, though St. Chrysostom and others understand, let him rather remain content with his servile condition. Perhaps it was an admonition to those new converts, who might imagine that their Christian liberty exempted them from being servant of men. However, he gives them this great comfort, that such an one is the Lord's free-man, that is, whoever is a Christian, and in the grace of God; but he adds, let him not be a slave to men, that is, not follow their sinful ways, nor consent to any thing that is criminal. (Witham) --- All consists in doing the will of God, by loving him with our whole heart; without this, all is illusion. To attach ourselves to exterior practices contrary to the order of God, is the superstition of circumcision; to despise what comes from God, is the pride of uncircumcision.
I Corinthians 7:18 Is any man called, being circumcised? let him not procure uncircumcision. Is any man called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised.

I Corinthians 7:19 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing: but the observance of the commandments of God.

I Corinthians 7:20 *Let every man abide in the same calling in which he was called.

Ephesians 4:1.
I Corinthians 7:21 Art thou called, being a bond-man? care not for it: but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather.

I Corinthians 7:22 For he that is called in the Lord, being a bond-man, is the freeman of the Lord. Likewise he that is called, being free, is the bond-man of Christ.

I Corinthians 7:23 *You are bought with a price, be not made the bond-slaves of men.

1 Corinthians 6:20.; 1 Peter 1:18.
With a price. Viz. with the price of the precious blood of Christ. (Estius) --- Him only should we serve, for whatever draws us from this allegiance, is perfect servitude, such as the love of any person or thing out of God.
I Corinthians 7:24 Brethren, let every man wherein he was called, therein abide with God.

I Corinthians 7:25 Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment of the Lord: but I give counsel, as having obtained mercy of the Lord, to be faithful.

\f + \fr 7:25-28\ft Now concerning virgins, etc. He turns his discourse again to the unmarried, who (if they have made no vow) may lawfully marry, though he is far from commanding every one to marry, as when he says, seek not a wife. And such shall have tribulation of the flesh, cares, troubles, vexations in the state of marriage, but I spare you, I leave you to your liberty of marrying, or not marrying, and will not discourage you be setting forth the crosses of a married life. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:26 I think, therefore, that this is good for the present necessity, that it is good for a man so to be.

I Corinthians 7:27 Art thou bound to a wife? seek not to be loosed. Art thou loosed from a wife? seek not a wife.

I Corinthians 7:28 But if thou take a wife, thou hast not sinned. And if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned: nevertheless, such shall have tribulation of the flesh. But I spare you.

I Corinthians 7:29 This, therefore, I say, brethren: the time is short: it remaineth, that they also who have wives, be as if they had none:

The time is short, etc. Incomparable instructions to the end of this chapter, which are not obscure. (Witham)
I Corinthians 7:30 And they who weep, as though they wept not: and they who rejoice, as if they rejoiced not: and they who buy, as if they possessed not:

And they who weep. In this passage the apostle teaches us, in the midst of our greatest afflictions not to suffer ourselves to be overwhelmed with grief, but to recollect that the time of this life is short, and that temporary pains will be recompensed with the never-fading joys of eternity. (Estius)
I Corinthians 7:31 And they who use this world, as if they used it not: for the figure of this world passeth away.

I Corinthians 7:32 But I would have you to be without solicitude. He that is without a wife, is solicitous for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please God.

I Corinthians 7:33 But he that is with a wife, is solicitous for the things of the world, how he may please his wife: and he is divided.

It is far easier to give our whole heart and application without any the least reserve to God, than to divide them without injustice.
I Corinthians 7:34 And the unmarried woman and the virgin thinketh on the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and in spirit. But she that is married thinketh on the things of the world, how she may please her husband.

I Corinthians 7:35 And this I speak for your profit: not to cast a snare upon you, but for that which is decent, and which may give you power to attend upon the Lord, without impediment.

I Corinthians 7:36 But if any man think that he seemeth dishonoured with regard to his virgin, for that she is above the age, and it must be so: let him do what he will: he sinneth not, if she marry.

Let him do what he will, he sinneth not, etc. The meaning is not as libertines would have it, that persons may do what they will, and not sin; provided they afterwards marry: but that the father with regard to the giving his virgin in marriage, may do as he pleaseth: and that it will be no sin to him if she marry. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 7:37 For he that hath determined being steadfast in his heart, having no necessity, but having power of his own will; and hath judged this in his heart, to keep his virgin, doth well.

I Corinthians 7:38 Therefore, both he that giveth his virgin in marriage, doth well: and he that giveth her not, doth better.

etc. He that giveth her not, doth better. And more blessed shall she be, if she so remains, according to my counsel. It is very strange if any one, who reads this chapter without prejudices, does not clearly see, that St. Paul advises, and prefers the state of virginity to that of a married life. --- I think that I also have the spirit of God. He puts them in mind, by this modest way of speaking, of what they cannot doubt of, as to so great an apostle. (Witham) --- It is worthy our notice, that St. Paul on every occasion avoids the least appearance of vanity, and frequently when delivering his own opinion, gives us only a hint, hoping that we shall supply the rest. Of this apostle's modesty in this particular, we have many instances in his writings, as in ver. 26. "I think, therefore, that this is good;" and likewise in 1 Corinthians 4:ver. 9. "For I think that God." (Estius)
I Corinthians 7:39 *A woman is bound by the law as long as her husband liveth: but if her husband die, she is at liberty: let her marry whom she will: only in the Lord:

Romans 7:2.
I Corinthians 7:40 But more blessed shall she be, if she so remain, according to my counsel: and I think that I also have the spirit of God.

I Corinthians 8:0 Though an idol be nothing, yet things offered up to idols are not to be eaten, for fear of scandal.

I Corinthians 8:1 Now concerning those things that are sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up; but charity edifieth.

Now concerning those things. It appears from this whole passage that the Corinthians had, in a former letter, consulted this apostle, upon the subject of eating meats offered to idols. It was not unusual to reserve some part of the sacrifice of which they made a supper, either in their own family, with their friends, or sometimes even in the temple. Some of the Christians of Corinth attended without scruple at these sorts of feasts, and eat of the meats offered to idols; whilst others, on the contrary, took scandal at this conduct, and thought it a tacit approbation of idolatry. St. Paul being consulted upon this difficulty, gives them his advice in this chapter. (Calmet) --- We know that we all have knowledge about it. That is, all we, who are sufficiently instructed, have knowledge enough to be convinced, that idols are nothing in themselves, nor the meats offered to them better nor worse upon that account. (Witham) --- Knowledge puffeth up, etc. Knowledge, without charity and humility, serveth only to puff persons up. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 8:2 And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he hath not yet known, as he ought to know.

I Corinthians 8:3 But if any man love God, the same is known by him.

I Corinthians 8:4 But as for the meats that are offered in sacrifice to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no God but one.

An idol is nothing. The apostle seems to allude in this place to the Greek signification of this word, eidolon, signifying a false representation; as for instance in ghosts, which are said to appear sometimes at night. Umbroe tenues, simulacra luce carentium. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 8:5 For although there be that are called gods, either in heaven or on earth (for there are many gods, and many lords);

Many gods, etc. Reputed for such among the heathens. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 8:6 Yet to us there is but one God, the Father; of whom are all things, and we unto him: and one Lord Jesus Christ: by whom are all things, and we by him.

To us there is but one God, the Father; of whom all things, and we unto him. Of or from the Father are all things, even the eternal Son and the Holy Ghost, though they are one and the same God with the Father. --- And one Lord Jesus Christ: by whom are all things, and we by him. All things were created by the Son of God, the eternal and uncreated wisdom of the Father, from whom he proceeds from eternity, and also by the Holy Ghost, all creatures being equally the work of the three divine persons. The Arians and Socinians pretend from this place, that only the Father is truly and properly God. The Catholics answer, that he is called the God, of whom all, because from him always proceeded, do proceed, and shall always proceed the Son and the Holy Ghost, though one and the same God in nature, substance, etc. And that when he is called the one God, by these words are excluded the false gods of the heathens, not the Son, and the Holy Ghost, who are but one God with the Father. St. Chrysostom also here observes, (hom. xx.) that if the two other persons are excluded, because the Father is called one God, by the same way of reasoning it would follow, that because Jesus Christ is called the one Lord, neither the Holy Ghost, nor even the Father, are the one Lord, whereas the Scriptures many times express the divine majesty, as well by the word Lord as by the word God. (Witham)
I Corinthians 8:7 But the knowledge is not in all. For some until this present with a conscience of the idol, eat as a thing sacrificed to an idol: and their conscience, being weak, is defiled.

But knowledge is not in every one, etc. The new converts, who had been Jews, thought that things which had been offered to idols were defiled, unclean, and could not be lawfully eaten: they who had been Gentiles looked upon them as victims offered to idols, in which there was some virtue of enchantment, etc. Their weak consciences judged they could not be lawfully eaten: and when they were induced to eat them by the example of others, it was still against their consciences. The infidels also might sometimes think that the Christians, in eating such things, honoured their idols; in such cases, they who were better instructed, were to abstain, not to give offence to weak consciences, and lest they should make them sin. And a weak brother shall perish, for whom Christ died; where we may learn, that Christ died also for those that shall perish, and not only for the predestinate. (Witham)
I Corinthians 8:8 But meat doth not commend us to God. For neither, if we eat, shall we have the more: nor, if we eat not, shall we have the less.

\f + \fr 8:8-9\ft Meat doth not commend us to God. It is an admonition to those, who because they knew that meats offered to idols were not worse, would not abstain, even when this scandalized the weak brethren: he tells them that eating or not eating of them, does not make them more acceptable to God, nor puts them to any inconvenience, since they may get other meats: therefore they ought not to make use of their liberty, when it proves a stumbling-block to the weak, and makes them sin. (Witham)
I Corinthians 8:9 But take heed, lest perhaps this your liberty become a stumbling-block to the weak.

I Corinthians 8:10 For if a man see him that hath knowledge, sit at meat in the idol's temple; shall not his conscience, being weak, be emboldened to eat those things which are sacrificed to idols ?

In the idol's temple.{ Ver. 10. In idolio, en eidoleio. Though the Greek word may sometimes be used to signify the temple itself of idols, yet it may in general signify a place, or thing some ways belong to idols. See Estius, P. Alemain, etc.|} It does not seem likely that any Christians would go to eat with idolaters in their very temples, of things offered to their idols: so that we may rather understand any place where infidels and Christians eat together, and where it happened that some meats were brought which had been first offered to idols, which the well-instructed Christians regarded not, nor asked any questions about, but the weak scrupled to eat them. (Witham) --- Shall not his conscience. The meaning of St. Paul's words is this: Will not your weak brother, who is not endowed with so great a knowledge as you, be induced, from your example, to eat these meats offered to idols, believing that he will derive therefrom some benefit. (Estius)
I Corinthians 8:11 *And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?

Romans 14:15.
I Corinthians 8:12 Now when you sin thus against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ.

I Corinthians 8:13 *Wherefore, if meat scandalize my brother, I will never eat flesh, lest I should scandalize my brother.

Romans 14:21.
If meat scandalize. That is, if my eating cause my brother to sin. (Challoner) --- Can we put any meat, or life itself, in competition with a soul, and the blood of Christ, which has been shed for that soul, when we know the value of each!
I Corinthians 9:0 The apostle did not make use of his power, of being maintained at the charges of those to whom he preached, that he might give no hindrance to the gospel. Of running in the race, and striving for the mastery.

I Corinthians 9:1 Am not I free? Am not I an apostle? Have not I seen Christ Jesus, our Lord? Are not you my work in the Lord?

etc. Am not I free? The apostle in this place wishes to teach the Corinthians, how careful and solicitous they should be not to give cause for scandal to their neighbour, and how anxious for his spiritual welfare, informing them, that as he refused to take even what he had a just right to, as a minister of the altar, that is, to live by the altar, so they must do in like manner, abstaining even from things lawful, for the good of religion. (Estius) --- Am not I an apostle? etc. St. Paul here, to the 20th verse, answers those reflections, which the new preachers at Corinth made against him and Barnabas, as if they were only an inferior kind of apostles. To this he answers, that he had seen Jesus Christ, who appeared to him. He tells the Corinthians, that they at least, ought to respect him as their apostle, who had converted them. He tells them, that when any persons ask about his apostleship, he has this to say for himself, that he not only laboured as an apostle in converting them, but also laboured without taking of them what might supply him and his companions with necessaries, as to meat and drink. He insists upon this particular circumstance, to shew he did not preach Christ for gain-sake; and at the same time brings seven or eight proofs to shew that he, and all who preach the gospel, have a power and a right to be maintained with necessaries by them to whom they preach. 1. He had a title to be supplied with necessaries, as being an apostle. 2. And by them, as being their apostle. 3. By the example of a soldier, who has a right to be paid: of a husbandman, who has a right to partake of the fruit of his labours: of a shepherd, nourished by the milk of the flock. (ver. 7.) 4. He brings the example of those who threshed, or trode out the corn by oxen, as it was formerly the custom, that the threshers, nay even the oxen, when treading out the corn, were not to be muzzled according to the Scripture, (Deuteronomy xxv.) but were to eat, and to be fed with the corn or straw; much more men that labour, are to be fed with the fruit of their labours. (ver. 8. 9. 10.) 5. Nothing is more reasonable than to supply those with corporal and temporal things, who labour to procure spiritual and eternal blessings for others. (ver. 11.) 6. They who preached to the Corinthians after St. Paul, were maintained by them; had not he and Barnabas as much right as they? (ver. 12.) 7. He shews it by the examples of the ministers and priests in the law of Moses, who had a share of the sacrifices and victims offered, and who, serving the altar, lived by the altar. (ver. 13.) 8. He brings the authority of our Saviour, Christ, who said to his apostles, (Matthew 10:10.) that a labourer is worthy of his meat, or of his reward, as it is said, Luke 10:7. But St. Paul puts them in mind, (ver. 15.) that he did not make use of his right, as to any of these things: that he does not write in this manner, to get or have any thing of them hereafter: nay, he makes warm protestations, says St. Chrysostom,{ Ver. 1. St. Chrysostom, om kb, p. 382. meta sphodrotatos arneitai.|} that he will take nothing of them; that he will preach without putting others to any cost; (ver. 18.) that he will accept of nothing, lest thereby he put any obstacle to the gospel, or gave any person occasion to say he preached for gain. He tells them, it is better for him to die, than, by taking any thing of them, to make void this, which he has to glory in, and to justify himself against his backbiting adversaries: the sense is, that he is willing to spend his life as well as his labours among them, sooner than in these circumstances receive any temporal reward from them. Yet when the circumstances were different, he received of the Philippians (Philippians 4:15.) enough to supply him in his necessities. He also tells them here, that he does not pretend to glory of boast for having preached: this being a necessary duty. --- For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward. The sense seems to be, if I do this office cheerfully, and with a right intention to please God only, I shall have a copious reward prepared for such a labourer: if unwillingly, and imperfectly, and not with a pure intention, I cannot expect such a reward; though still a dispensing of it is entrusted to me; that is, it is always my duty to preach. Others, by willingly, understand the doing of it in so perfect a manner, as not to receive any thing, and unwillingly, when they would scarce do it, at least so zealously, unless they received what would maintain them. (Witham)
I Corinthians 9:2 And if I be not an apostle to others, but yet to you I am. For you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord.

I Corinthians 9:3 My defence with them that examine me is this.

I Corinthians 9:4 Have we not power to eat and to drink?

I Corinthians 9:5 Have we not power to bring about a woman, a sister, as well as the rest of the apostles, and the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?

It appears certain, from the testimony of the fathers, that St. Paul was not in the state of wedlock. St. Jerome informs us that the apostle is here speaking of such holy women who, according to the Jewish custom, supplied their teachers with the necessaries of life, as we see was done to Christ himself. It is evident from ancient records that this was a very prevalent custom in Judea, and therefore a cause of no scandal; but to the Gentiles this custom was unknown, and therefore lest it might prove a cause of scandal to any, St. Paul did not allow any woman to follow him as a companion. Tertullian denies, with St. Augustine and St. Jerome, that St. Paul is here speaking of his wife. (Estius; Calmet) --- A woman, a sister.{ Ver. 5. Mulierem sororem, adelphen gunaika. Sororem mulierem, where Estius brings examples to shew that it is the same sense and construction, whether we read mulierem sororem, or sororem mulierem. Tertullian, the most ancient of the Latin fathers, read: mulieres circumducendi, not uxores. De pudicitia, ch. XIV. p. 566. Ed. Rig. and lib. de monogam. ch. VIII. p. 519. he first says, Petrum solum invenio maritum. And on this place, non uxores demonstrat ab Apostolis circumductas....sed simpliciter mulieres, quae, illos eodem instituto, quo et Dominum comitantes, ministrabant. St. Jerome, Ubi de mulieribus sororibus infertur, perspicuum est, non uxores debere intelligi, sed eas, ut diximus, quae de sua substantia ministrabant. St. Augustine, Hoc quidam non intelligentes, non sororem mulierem, sed uxorem interpretati sunt, fefellit illos verbi graeci ambiguitas....quanquam hoc ita posuerit, ut falli non debuerint, quia nequè mulierem tantummodo ait, sed sororem mulierem, neque ducendi, sed circumducendi: verum alios Interpretes non fefellit haec ambiguitas, et mulierem, non uxorem interpretati sunt.|} Some erroneous translators have corrupted this text, by rendering it, a sister, a wife; whereas it is certain, St. Paul had no wife, (chap. 7:7-8.) and that he only speaks of such devout women, as according to the custom of the Jewish nation, waited upon the preachers of the gospel, and supplied them with necessaries. (Challoner) --- And to what end could he talk of burthening the Corinthians with providing for his wife, when he himself clearly affirmeth that he was single? (Chap. 7:5:7. and 8.) This all the Greek fathers affirm, with St. Augustine, do op. Monach. ch. IV.; St. Jerome, adv. Jovin. ch. XIV. etc. etc. [Also see annotations on ver. 25, below]
I Corinthians 9:6 Or I only and Barnabas, have we not power to do this?

I Corinthians 9:7 Who serveth as a soldier at any time, at his own charges? Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? Who feedeth the flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock?

I Corinthians 9:8 Speak I these things according to man? Or doth not the law also say these things?

I Corinthians 9:9 For it is written in the law of Moses, *Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen?

Deuteronomy 25:4.; 1 Timothy 5:18.
I Corinthians 9:10 Or doth he say this indeed for our sakes? For these things are written for our sakes: that he that ploweth should plow in hope: and he that thresheth, in hope to receive fruit.

I Corinthians 9:11 *If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter if we reap your carnal things?

Romans 15:27.
Is it a great matter? The apostle is here speaking of what he had given to the Corinthians, and what he had received from them; and this he does under the comparison of the sower and the reaper. Can any of you think it hard that we receive some part of your temporal goods, when we have bestowed upon you spiritual: nevertheless, we have not used this power, but we bear all things, etc. (ver. 12.) (Estius)
I Corinthians 9:12 If others be partakers of this power over you: why not we rather? Nevertheless, we have not used this power: but we bear all things, lest we should give any hindrance to the gospel of Christ.

I Corinthians 9:13 *Know you not, that they who work in the holy place, eat the things that are of the holy place: and they who serve the altar, partake with the altar?

Deuteronomy 18:1.
I Corinthians 9:14 So also the Lord ordained, that they who preach the gospel, should live by the gospel.

I Corinthians 9:15 But I have used none of these things. Neither have I written these things, that they should be so done to me: for it is good for me to die, rather than that any one should make void my glory.

I Corinthians 9:16 For if I preach the gospel, it is no glory to me: for a necessity lieth upon me: for wo is unto me, if I preach not the gospel.

It is no glory. That is, I have nothing to glory of. (Challoner) --- If I preach the gospel through compulsion, fear, or mere necessity, having no other means of maintenance, I must not look for a reward in heaven; but now doing it through charity and freely, I shall have my reward from God; and the more abundant the charity, the greater the reward. (St. Augustine, de Op. Mor. 1:5.)
I Corinthians 9:17 For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward: but if against my will, a dispensation is committed to me.

But if against my will. That is, if I do not do it with alacrity and zeal, but instigated by the sole motive of punishment, woe unto me, as he says in the preceding verse, if I am instigated by this motive alone; still the dispensation of the gospel is entrusted to me, and I must comply with that obligation, either with the zeal and alacrity of a son, or for fear of punishment, as a slave. (Estius)
I Corinthians 9:18 What is my reward then? That preaching the gospel, I may deliver the gospel without charge, that I abuse not my power in the gospel.

I Corinthians 9:19 For whereas I was free as to all, I made myself the servant of all: that I might gain the more.

Free as to all. That is, whereas I was under no obligation to any man, yet I made myself the servant of all, etc. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 9:20 And I became to the Jews as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews.

I became to the Jews as a Jew. That is, upon occasions, not to hinder their conversion, I practised the ceremonies of their law; though I am not under their law, which is no longer obligatory, but only under the new law of Christ. (Witham)
I Corinthians 9:21 To them that are under the law, as if I were under the law, (whereas I myself was not under the law) that I might gain them that were under the law. To them that were without the law, as if I were without the law, (whereas I was not without the law of God, but was in the law of Christ) that I might gain them that were without the law.

To them that were without the law. That is, to the Gentiles, who never were under the law of Moses. (Witham)
I Corinthians 9:22 To the weak I became weak, that I might gain the weak. I became all things to all men, that I might save all.

I Corinthians 9:23 And I do all things for the gospel's sake: that I may be made partaker thereof.

How convincing is this and many similar texts against those who deny the merit of good works, and who would not have men to act with a view to any recompense, though rewards and recompenses are very frequently mentioned in holy writ. (Haydock)
I Corinthians 9:24 Know you not that they who run in the race, all run indeed, but one receiveth the prize? So run that you may obtain.

Know you not? Nothing is more famous in the annals of history than the public games in Greece: it is to these the apostle is here alluding. (Calmet) --- All run indeed, etc. He brings the examples of runners and wrestlers for a prize in the Grecian games, where only one could gain the prize. It is true in our case many obtain the crown for which we strive, but every one is in danger of losing it, and so must use all his endeavours to obtain it. (Witham)
I Corinthians 9:25 And every one that striveth for the mastery refraineth himself from all things: and they indeed that they may receive a corruptible crown: but we an incorruptible one.

He refraineth himself, etc. Curbs his inclinations, abstains from debauchery, or any thing that may weaken him, or hinder him from gaining this corruptible crown, how much more ought we to practise self-denials for an eternal crown? In the fifth verse, where we translate, a woman, a sister, or a sister, a woman: the Protestant translation has a sister, a wife. We have reason to reject this translation, since it is evident by this epistle, that St. Paul at least then had not a wife, 1 Corinthians 7:7-8. And the ancient interpreters expressly examined and rejected this translation. See St. Jerome against Jovian. lib. 1:tom. 4. part 2. p. 167. edit. Ben.; St. Augustine, lib. de opere Monach. tom. vi. 1 Corinthians 4. p. 478. Nov. edit. The Greek word, as every one knows, signifies either a woman or a wife. Nor doth any thing here determine it to signify a wife. He speaks of a woman, or of women that were sisters, that is, Christians; so that a sister expounds what kind of woman it was. Dr. Hammond puts in the margin a sister-woman, as it were to correct the Protestant translation. (Witham)
I Corinthians 9:26 I, therefore, so run, not as at an uncertainty: I so fight, not as one beating the air:

I Corinthians 9:27 But I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection: lest, perhaps, when I have preached to others, I myself should become reprobate.

I chastise, etc. Here St. Paul shews the necessity of self-denial and mortification to subdue the flesh, and its inordinate desires. (Challoner) --- Not even the labours of an apostle are exemptions from voluntary mortification and penance.
I Corinthians 10:0 By the example of the Israelites he shews that we are not to build too much upon favours received; but avoid their sins; and fly from the service of idols, and from things offered to devils.

I Corinthians 10:1 For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were all *under the cloud, and all passed through the **sea:

Exodus 13:21.; Numbers 9:21. --- ** Exodus 14:22.
\f + \fr 10:1-2\ft Our Fathers, the Jews, were all under the cloud. He means, when God conducted the camp of the Israelites, in the day-time by a cloud, and in the night by a pillar of fire. (Exodus 13:21.) (Witham) --- In Moses. Under the conduct of Moses they received baptism in figure, by passing under the cloud and through the sea: and they partook of the body and blood of Christ in figure, by eating of the manna, (called here a spiritual food, because it was a figure of the true bread which comes down from heaven) and drinking the water miraculously brought out of the rock, called here a spiritual rock; because it was also a figure of Christ. (Challoner) --- Were baptized in the cloud, and in the sea, figuratively, these being figures of baptism in the new law. As Moses, who delivered them from the slavery of Egypt, was a figure of Christ, who came to deliver mankind from the slavery of sin. (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:2 And all in Moses were baptized, in the cloud, and in the sea:

I Corinthians 10:3 *And they all eat the same spiritual food:

Exodus 16:15.
\f + \fr 10:3-4\ft All eat the same spiritual food, to wit, the manna, which seemed to come from heaven, and was a figure of the eucharist, the spiritual food of our souls. --- All drank the same spiritual drink, and....rock that followed them, by which is understood the stream of water, that came miraculously out of the rock struck by Moses, and which is said to have followed them, because it ran plentifully through their camp. --- And the rock was Christ, a figure of Christ; for all these things (ver. 11.) happened to them in figure. (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:4 *And all drank the same spiritual drink: (and they drank of the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ.)

Exodus xvii .6.; Numbers 20:11.
I Corinthians 10:5 But with most of them God was not well pleased: *for they were overthrown in the desert.

Numbers 26:64-65.
God was not well pleased, etc. Of 600,000, only Josue and Caleb entered the land of promise; the rest were destroyed, and perished in the wilderness. Their punishment ought to be an admonition to all to avoid such sins of idolatry, fornication, murmuring, etc.
I Corinthians 10:6 Now these things were done in a figure of us, that we should not covet evil things, *as they also coveted.

Psalm 105:14.
In a figure of us. That is, this was done and written to teach us, what we may expect, if we imitate the murmurs, infidelities, ingratitude, and disobedience of the Hebrew people. Unless we renounce our irregular desires, unless we mortify our passions, baptism and communion will prove our greater condemnation. The greatest graces are but subjects of alarm, unless our life correspond with them.
I Corinthians 10:7 Neither become ye idolaters, as some of them: as it is written: *The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.

Exodus 32:6.
I Corinthians 10:8 Neither let us commit fornication, *as some of them committed fornication, and there fell in one day three and twenty thousand.

Numbers 21:5-6.
I Corinthians 10:9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them tempted, and perished by serpents.

As some of them tempted Christ. This cannot but be understood of Christ, as God. (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:10 *Neither do you murmur, as some of them murmured, and were destroyed by the destroyer.

Numbers 11:1.; Numbers 14:1.
I Corinthians 10:11 Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written for our correction, upon whom the ends of the world are come.

Upon whom the ends of the world are come. The last age of the world, which St. John calls the last hour. (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:12 Wherefore let him that thinketh himself to stand, take heed lest he fall.

Take heed lest he fall. This regards the doctors and teachers in the new Church of Corinth; who, relying upon their own learning, did not think themselves weak, and presuming too much upon their own strength, exposed themselves to the danger of falling. See St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine, de dono. Persev. --- Self-diffidence is the foundation of our strength. We prevent many dangerous falls when we keep close to the earth by humility.
I Corinthians 10:13 Let no temptation take hold on you, but such as is human: and God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: but will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it.

Let no temptation { Ver. 13. Tentatio vos non apprehendat. In almost all Greek copies, non apprehendit in praeterito, ouk eilephen. Which reading is also in divers ancient Latin interpreters, as if he puts them in mind that hitherto they had not suffered any great temptations or persecutions. Faciet cum tentatione proventum, is not the saem as progressum, or utilitatem, by the Greek, but that they should escape out of it. sun to peirasme kai ten ekbasin.|} take hold on you. Or, no temptation hath taken hold of you, or come upon you as yet, but what is human, or incident to man. (Challoner) --- The sense of these words is obscure: we may expound them by way of prayer, let no temptation, but such as are of human frailty, and not hard to be overcome, happen to you. See the Greek text. --- Will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it. The literal signification of the Latin, compared with the Greek is, that God will bring you off, and make you escape out of those dangers, when you are tempted. (Witham) --- The most violent temptations are occasions of merit and triumph to such as are in the hands of God; whilst the lightest are snares and a deep abyss to such as are in their own hands.
I Corinthians 10:14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from the service of idols.

There are various kinds of idolatry. It is the perfection of Angels never to err: it is a human imperfection to fall into error, but a diabolical crime, so to love our error, as to divide the Church by schism, or leave it by heresy: this love of self is the most dangerous idolatry.
I Corinthians 10:15 I speak as to wise men: judge ye yourselves what I say.

I Corinthians 10:16 The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord?

The chalice of benediction,{ Ver. 16. Calix benedictionis cui, (or as it is in the Greek) quem benedicimus. See St. Chrysostom, hom. xxiv. No Catholic now-a-days can declare his faith of the real presence in clearer terms than St. Chrysostom hath in this, and other places: oti touto en to poterio on, ekeino esti, to apo tes pleuras reusan, etc. He calls the eucharist, thusian, a sacrifice.|} etc. Which the priests bless or consecrate, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, (so called because of the outward appearance of bread) is it not the partaking or communion of the body of the Lord? See St. Chrysostom here, hom. xxiv. p. 396. and p. 400. See also the Annotations, Matthew 26:26. (Witham) --- Here the apostle puts them in mind of the partaking of the body and blood of Christ in the sacred mysteries, and becoming thereby one mystical body with Christ. From whence he infers, (ver. 21.) that they who are made partakers with Christ, by the eucharistic sacrifice, and sacrament, must not be made partakers with devils, by eating of the meats sacrificed to them. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 10:17 For we being many, are one bread, one body, all who partake of one bread.

We being many, are one bread. Or, as it may be rendered, agreeably both to the Latin and Greek, because the bread is one, all we, being many, are one body, who partake of that one bread. For it is by our communicating with Christ and with one another, in this blessed Sacrament, that we are formed into one mystical body; and made, as it were, one bread, compounded of many grains of corn, closely united together. (Challoner) --- From the sacrament of the real body of Christ in the eucharist, he passeth to the effect of this sacrament, which is to unite all those who partake of it, as members of the same mystical body of Christ, which is his Church: and from hence he presently draws this consequence, that such as are members of that body, of which Christ is the head, cannot have any communication with idolaters, or with those that offer sacrifices to idols and devils. (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:18 Behold Israel, according to the flesh; are not they, who eat of the sacrifices, partakers of the altar?

Behold Israel, according to the flesh. That is, the people that were the offspring of Israel or Jacob. Are not these they who offered sacrifices to the true God, and eat of the sacrifices, which were offered on his altars, and by offering to him such sacrifices, acknowledged him to be their God, and the only true God: and so you, if you partake, and eat of the sacrifices of idolaters, and of what they tell you was offered to their idols, you seem at least, to join with them in acknowledging, and paying a reverence to their idols, which are devils: and you cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table of devils. --- Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? that is, how dare we provoke our Lord, who is a jealous God, and will admit of no rival, by partaking of sacrifices offered to false gods? how dare we thus contemn his power, as if we were stronger than he, or that he could not punish us? (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:19 What then? Do I say, that what is offered in sacrifice to idols, is any thing? Or that the idol is any thing?

What then? do I say, etc. He puts this objection, as if it were contradictory to what he had taught before, (chap. 8:4.) that an idol is nothing, etc. but he answers this objection by saying that all things, that is, all meats are lawful in themselves, but not always expedient, nor edifying, when they give scandal to weak brethren, or when the infidels themselves think that such as eat things offered to idols, join with them in honouring their idols. (Witham) --- The meaning of this passage is: whilst I advise you to abstain from eating of any thing consecrated to idols, I do not advise you as supposing that these offerings have any power in themselves to defile your souls, in the same manner as by eating of the body and blood of Christ we receive strength to overcome our spiritual enemies. St. Paul here anticipates an objection that might be made by some to whom he was writing. (Estius)
I Corinthians 10:20 But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God. And I would not that you should be made partakers with devils: you cannot drink the chalice of the Lord, and the chalice of devils:

I Corinthians 10:21 You cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table of devils.

In all this discourse, a comparison is instituted between the Christian host and oblation, its effects, conditions and properties, with the altars, hosts, sacrifices and immolations of the Jews and Gentiles; which the apostle could not have done, had there not been a proper sacrifice in the Christian worship. The holy Fathers teach the same with the ancient Councils. This in the council of Nice: The lamb of God laid upon the altar. Conc. Ephes., The unbloody service of the sacrifice. In St. Cyril of Alexandria, in Conc. Ephes., Anath. 11, The quickening holy sacrifice; the unbloody host and victim. Tertullian, de coron. milit., The propitiatory sacrifice both for the living and the dead. This Melchisedech did most singularly prefigure in his mystical oblation of bread and wine; this also according to the prophecy of Malachias, shall continue from the rising to the setting sun, a perpetual substitute for all the Jewish sacrifices; and this, in plain terms, is called the Mass, by St. Augustine, Serm. CCLI. 91.; Conc. Cartha. II. C. 3. 4. C. 84. Milevit. 12.; St. Leo, ep. 81. 88. 1 Corinthians 2.; St. Gregory, lib. 2:ep. 9. 92. etc. etc. See next chapter ver. 24.
I Corinthians 10:22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he? *All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient.

1 Corinthians 6:12.
I Corinthians 10:23 All things are lawful for me, but all things do not edify.

All things are lawful. This is the same sentiment he has expressed in 1 Corinthians 6:12. and in 1 Corinthians 8:8-9. wherein he teaches us, that on some occasions it is necessary to abstain even from things in themselves lawful, as in the case of meats consecrated to idols. (Calmet) --- Two excellent rules that can serve as guides on these occasions, are the edification of the Church, and the spiritual good of our neighbour. Without the aid of these guides, we go astray ourselves and decoy others, in doing what the letter of the law permits, but what the spirit of the law, charity, forbids.
I Corinthians 10:24 Let no man seek his own, but that which is another's.

I Corinthians 10:25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, eat: asking no question, for conscience sake.

I Corinthians 10:26 *The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.

Psalm 23:1.; Ecclesiasticus 17:31.
I Corinthians 10:27 If any of the unbelievers invite you, and you be willing to go; eat of any thing that is set before you, asking no question, for conscience sake.

Eat of any thing, etc. Here at length St. Paul prescribes them a rule by which they were to govern themselves, as to meats that they met with. Buy and eat any thing sold in the market, or of any thing that you meet with at the table of infidels, when they invite you, for all are the Lord's creatures, and may be taken with thanksgiving, as we ought to take whatsoever we eat. --- But if any man say, this hath been sacrificed to idols, do not eat of it for his sake, etc. And why must they not then eat of it? because either he is an infidel that says it: and then by saying so, he may mean that they who eat it, ought to eat it in honour of their gods. Or if a weak brother says so, he thereby signifies, that his conscience judges it not lawful to be eaten; so that in one case, you seem to consent that things are to be taken in honour of idols: in the other, you give offence to your weak brother: and I would have you to be without offence, both to Jews and Gentiles; and not to think it enough that you can eat such things with thanksgiving. It may be asked here why the apostle should not absolutely forbid them ever to eat any thing offered to idols, as this seems a thing absolutely forbidden in the council of Jerusalem? (Acts 15:23.) To this some answer, that the apostle here expounds the true sense of that decree, which was only to be understood, when eating such meats gave scandal. Others say, the prohibition was only for a short time, and now was out of date. Others take notice, that the prohibition was not general, nor for all places, but only for the new converted Gentiles that were at Antioch, or in Syria and Cilicia, as specified in the decree. (Witham)
I Corinthians 10:28 But if any man say: This hath been sacrificed to idols: do not eat of it for his sake that told it, and for conscience sake.

I Corinthians 10:29 Conscience, I say, not thy own, but the other's. For why is my liberty judged by another man's conscience?

For why is my liberty? The meaning of this passage is, that though we ought, on some occasions, to abstain from things in themselves lawful, yet, that on other occasions we are by no means obliged to it, particularly when our brother is not thoroughly instructed on that head. (Theophylactus)
I Corinthians 10:30 If I partake with thanksgiving, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?

I Corinthians 10:31 *Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do; do all things for the glory of God.

Colossians 3:17.
I Corinthians 10:32 Give no offence to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:

I Corinthians 10:33 As I also please all men in all things, not seeking that which is profitable to myself, but to many; that they may be saved.

I Corinthians 11:0 Women must have a covering over their heads. He blameth the abuses of their charity feasts; and upon that occasion, treats of the blessed sacrament.

I Corinthians 11:1 Be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ.

In this chapter are three instructions: 1. That women must have a veil on their heads at public prayers, to ver. 17. --- 2ndly, he corrects the abuses in their banquets of charity, called Agape, to ver. 23. --- 3rdly, he teaches that in the sacrament of the holy Eucharist, is the body and blood of Christ. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:2 Now I praise you, brethren, that in all things you are mindful of me: and keep my ordinances as I delivered them to you.

I praise you. That is, a great many of you. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:3 But I would have you know *that the head of every man is Christ: and the head of the woman is the man: and the head of Christ, is God.

Ephesians 5:23.
The head of the woman is the man, etc. To have the head covered at public meetings, is, according to St. Paul, a mark of subjection: The man was created to be head over the woman, who was made subject to the man, being made of him, of his rib, and the woman made for him, not he for the woman. The man in a special manner, is the image of God, not only by his immortal soul, in which sense also the woman was made to God's image, and likeness, but inasmuch as God gave him a power over all creatures, and so he is called, the glory of God. For these reasons, as well as from a received custom, St. Paul tells every woman, that in prayer or prophesying in public meetings, she must have her head veiled, and covered in testimony of her subjection to man, her head, otherwise she dishonours herself, and her head. This is what he tells her, (ver. 10.) that she ought to have a power over her head,{ Ver. 3. Debet mulier potestatem habere super caput suum, exousian, but some Greek copies have peribolaion, cinctorium, velum.|} that is, to have a veil or covering, as a mark of man's power over her: and because of the angels, that is, out of a respect to the angels there present. Some understand the priests and ministers of God, called angels, particularly in the Apocalypse. St. Paul adds, that nature{ Ver. 3. Nec ipsa natura docet vos. I do not find an interrogation in the Latin copies, as it is marked in the Greek, oude didaskei umas. The rest of the text seems to be better connected, if we read it with an interrogation.|} having given to women long hair, designed it to be as a natural veil. In fine, he appeals to them, to be judges, whether it be not unbecoming in women to pray without a veil. But he will have men to be uncovered, and not to bear such a mark of subjection, as a veil is, by which a man would dishonour his head, that is, himself, and Christ, who is his head, and who appointed him, when he created him, to be head over the woman. He looks upon it as a dishonour and a disgrace for men to nourish their hair, as women should do. He also calls God the head of Christ, that is, of Christ, as man. Lest he should seem to lessen the condition of women more than necessary, he adds, that the propagation of mankind now depends on the woman, as well as on the man, seeing every man is by the woman. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:4 Every man praying or prophesying with his head covered, disgraceth his head.

Praying or prophesying. By prophesying, in this place is meant, reading publicly in the Church, or singing, or explaining some part of the Scripture. To have the head covered, or uncovered, is in itself a thing very indifferent. Amongst the Greeks it was the custom always to sacrifice to their idols with heads uncovered; amongst the Romans, the opposite was the fashion, and among the Jews, as well formerly as at present, they always appear in their synagogues with heads covered. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 11:5 But every woman praying or prophesying with her head not covered, disgraceth her head: for it is all one as if she were shaven.

I Corinthians 11:6 For if a woman be not covered, let her be shorn. But if it be a shame to a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her cover her head.

I Corinthians 11:7 The man, indeed, ought not to cover his head: because he is the *image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of the man.

Genesis 1:26.
I Corinthians 11:8 For the man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man.

I Corinthians 11:9 *For the man was not created for the woman, but the woman for the man.

Genesis 2:23.
I Corinthians 11:10 Therefore ought the woman to have a power over her head, because of the Angels.

A power: That is, a veil or covering, as a sign that she is under the power of her husband: and this, the apostle adds, because of the angels, who are present in the assemblies of the faithful. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 11:11 But yet neither is the man without the woman, nor the woman without the man, in the Lord.

I Corinthians 11:12 For as the woman is of the man, so also is the man by the woman: but all things of God.

I Corinthians 11:13 Judge you yourselves: doth it become a woman, to pray to God uncovered?

I Corinthians 11:14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, that a man, indeed, if he nourish his hair, it is a shame to him:

I Corinthians 11:15 But if a woman nourish her hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering.

I Corinthians 11:16 But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the church of God.

If any man seem to be contentious about this matter, or any other, we have no such custom, nor hath the Church; that is, says St. Chrysostom, to have such quarrels and divisions. Or, as others understand it, we have no such custom for women to be in the Church uncovered. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:17 Now this I ordain: not praising you, that you come together not for the better, but for the worse.

Now this I ordain, etc. St. Paul found that several abuses had crept in among the Corinthians at their Church meetings, where before the holy mysteries (though St. Chrysostom thinks after them) they used to have those charitable suppers, called the Agape. For as our Saviour eat first a common supper with his apostles, before he instituted the holy sacrament, so the Christians in many places brought meats with them, and eat a supper together, in token of that friendship and union, which they had with all their brethren, before they began to celebrate the holy mysteries. It is this supper, which according to the common interpretation St. Paul here (ver. 20.) calls the Lord's supper,{ Ver. 17. Jam non est dominicam coenam manducare, kuriakon deipnon. This expression is used no where else in the New Testament, and it is much more probable, that by it St. Paul signifies those charitable [Agape] suppers, which the Christians had together, in imitation of Christ's supper with his disciples before he instituted the holy mysteries, which was after supper, as St. Paul here says, ver. 25. and St. Luke xxii. The sacrament of the Lord's body and blood has been called the Eucharist, even from the first ages[centuries] of the Christian religion, as appears by the epistles of St. Ignatius, by St. Irenaeus, Tertullian, etc. The late pretended reformers found it called by this name in the Catholic Church. Why then should they, who pretend to nothing but Scripture, affect to give it no name but the Lord's supper, when these words in the Scripture signify a different supper?|} (though St. Augustine and some others by the Lord's supper, understand the holy sacrament itself of Christ's body and blood.) The apostle tells them, he hears there are divisions among them at their meetings, which he says will happen, as there must be also heresies, which God permits, that they who are approved, may be made manifest, that is, that on such occasions, the just may shew their fidelity and constancy in their duty to God. The apostle tells them, that it is not now to eat the Lord's supper, that is, there were such abuses among them, that it was not now to imitate the supper, which Christ made with his apostles, or, according to the exposition of St. Augustine, this was not becoming persons, who, before the end of their meetings, were to partake of the divine mysteries. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:18 For first of all I hear, that when you come together in the church, there are divisions among you, and in part I believe it.

I Corinthians 11:19 For there must be also heresies: that they also, who are reproved, may be made manifest among you.

There must be also heresies: By reason of the pride and perversity of man's heart; not by God's will or appointment; who nevertheless draws good out of this evil, manifesting, by that occasion, who are the good and firm Christians, and making their faith more remarkable. (Challoner) --- Not that God hath directly so appointed, as necessary: this originates in man's malice, and his sole pride, and great abuse of free-will. The providence of God draweth good out of evil, but wo to the man, says the Scripture, by whom scandal cometh, such as sects and heresies. Hence St. Augustine, ch. VIII. de vera relig. says: "Let us use heretics not so as to approve their errors, but to make us more wary and vigilant, and more strenuous in defending Catholic doctrine against their deceits."
I Corinthians 11:20 When you come together therefore into one place, it is not now to eat the Lord's supper.

The Lord's supper. So the apostle here calls the charity [Agape] feasts observed by the primitive Christians; and reprehends the abuses of the Corinthians on these occasions: which were the more criminal, because these feasts were accompanied with the celebrating the eucharistic sacrifice and sacrament. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 11:21 For every one taketh before his own supper to eat. And one indeed is hungry, and another is drunk.

Every one taketh before his own supper to eat. The sense seems to be, that he took and brought with him, what he designed to eat with others, and give at that supper: but as soon as some were met (without staying for others, as he orders them, ver. 33., when he again speaks of these suppers) the rich placing themselves together, began this supper, and did not take with them their poor brethren, who had brought nothing, or had nothing to bring; by this means, one indeed is hungry, and another is drunk, that is, had at least drunk plentifully, while the poor had nothing but shame, and confusion. By this means of eating and drinking without temperance and moderation, they were by no means disposed to receive afterwards the holy Eucharist. He tells such persons that committed these disorders, that if they be so hungry that they cannot fast, they should eat (ver. 34.) before they come from home. We find these Agape forbidden to be made in the Churches, in the 28th canon of the council of Laodicea, a little before the general council of Nice. In St. Chrysostom's time, and from the first ages[centuries], every one received the sacrament of the holy eucharist fasting, as it is probable this was one of the things which St. Paul gave orders about, (ver. 34.) when he came to Corinth. We must not imagine, that because Christ instituted the holy sacrament, and gave it to his apostles after he had supped with them, that the apostles, or the pastors of the Church, their successors, could not order it to be received fasting, and kneeling, for greater reverence and devotion. See St. Augustine on this same subject, in his letter to Januarius, liv. tom. 2. part 2. p. 126. Nov. edit. He says, that though it is evident the apostles did not receive the body and blood of Christ fasting, yet we must not on that account calumniate, or blame the universal Church, in which it is received only by those who are fasting. He says, it is most insolent madness to dispute against what is a custom in the universal Church. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:22 What, have you not houses to eat and to drink in? Or despise ye the church of God, and put them to shame that have not? What shall I say to you? Do I praise you? In this I praise you not.

I Corinthians 11:23 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus, the night in which he was betrayed, took bread,

I have received of the Lord. That is, by revelation from Christ, as well as from others, who were present with him, that which also I delivered to you by word of mouth, etc. Here he speaks of the holy sacrament itself, of the words of consecration, as the evangelists had done, and of the real presence of Christ's body and blood. --- Which shall be delivered for you. In the common Greek copies, which is broken for you, to wit, on the cross. --- You shall shew the death of the Lord. As often as you receive, it shall be with a devout and grateful remembrance of his sufferings and death for your sake. He puts every one in mind, that whosoever shall eat this bread, (ver. 27.) so called from the outward appearances, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall, by such a sacrilege, be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord. And (ver. 29.) that he eateth, and drinketh judgment, or condemnation to himself, not discerning the difference betwixt celestial food and other meats, and not considering it to be truly the body of the Lord. See St. Chrysostom, hom. xxvii. If the words of our Saviour, this is my body, etc. were to be understood in a metaphorical and figurative sense only, is it probable that St. Paul, writing twenty-four years afterwards, to the new converted Gentiles at Corinth, would have used words, which full as clearly express a true and real presence of Christ's body in the eucharist, without one word to signify that this was to be understood in a figurative sense only? (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:24 And giving thanks, broke, and said: *Take ye, and eat: this is my body, which shall be delivered for you: do this for the commemoration of me.

Matthew 26:26.; Mark 14:22.; Luke 22:19.
Juvenius, a native of Spain, and a priest, who flourished under Constantine the Great, about the year 329, has left us the life of Christ in hexameter verse, where speaking of the institution of the eucharist, he says, "Christ taught his disciples, that he delivered to them his own body;" and when he gave them the chalice, "he taught them that he had distributed to them his blood: and said, this blood remits the sins of the people: drink this, it is mine." (Bibl. Max. P. P. T. 4:p. 74) Discipulos docuit proprium se tradere corpus, Edocuitque suum se divisisse cruorem. Atque ait: Hic sanguis populi delicta remittit: Hunc potate meum.
I Corinthians 11:25 In like manner also the chalice, after he had supped, saying: This chalice is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as often as you shall drink it for the commemoration of me.

I Corinthians 11:26 For as often as you shall eat this bread, and drink the chalice, you shall shew the death of the Lord until he come.

I Corinthians 11:27 *Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord.

John 6:59.
Or drink. Here erroneous translators corrupted the text, by putting and drink (contrary to the original, e pine ) instead of or drink. --- Guilty of the body, etc. not discerning the body, etc. This demonstrates the real presence of the body and blood of Christ, even to the unworthy communicant; who otherwise could not be guilty of the body and blood of Christ, or justly condemned for not discerning the Lord's body. (Challoner) --- The real presence in the sacrament is also proved by the enormity of the crime, in its profanation. See St. Chrysostom, hom. de non contem. ec. and hom. lx. and lxi. ad pop. Antioch. where he shews that the unworthy receiver imitates the Jews in crucifying Jesus, and trampling under foot his sacred blood. Hence the dreadful punishments we read of in verses 27 and 30.
I Corinthians 11:28 *But let a man prove himself: and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of the chalice.

2 Corinthians 13:5.
Drink of the chalice. This is not said by way of command, but by way of allowance, viz. where and when it is agreeable to the practice and discipline of the Church. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 11:29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the body of the Lord.

I Corinthians 11:30 Therefore are there many infirm and weak among you, and many sleep.

\f + \fr 11:30-32\ft Therefore in punishment of the sin of receiving unworthily, many are infirm, visited with infirmities, even that bring death, which is meant by those words, many sleep. But it is a mercy of God, when he only punishes by sickness, or a corporal death, and does not permit us to perish for ever, or be condemned with this wicked world. To avoid this, let a man prove himself, examine the state of his conscience, especially before he receives the holy sacrament, confess his sins, and be absolved by those to whom Christ left the power of forgiving sins in his name, and by his authority. If we judge ourselves in this manner, we shall not be judged, that is, condemned. (Witham)
I Corinthians 11:31 But if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged.

I Corinthians 11:32 But whilst we are judged, we are chastised by the Lord; that we may not be condemned with this world.

I Corinthians 11:33 Wherefore, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another.

I Corinthians 11:34 If any man be hungry, let him eat at home: that you come not together unto judgment. And the rest I will set in order, when I come.

I Corinthians 12:0 Of the diversity of spiritual gifts. The members of the mystical body, like those of the natural body, must mutually cherish one another.

I Corinthians 12:1 Now concerning spiritual things, brethren, I would not have you to be ignorant.

Concerning spiritual things. In the apostle's time, the Christians in the sacraments of baptism and confirmation, many times received those graces and gifts of the Holy Ghost, by which some of them prophesied, others wrought miracles, and cured diseases, others spoke tongues, and different languages: now some among the Corinthians made not a right use of these gifts, especially they who had the gift of tongues, and made use of it through vanity, rather than for the profit of others. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:2 You know that, when you were heathens, you went to dumb idols, according as you were led.

You went to dumb idols. He speaks to the Gentiles before their conversion, to put them in mind, how much happier they are by receiving the faith of Christ, and such graces and favours from God. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:3 Wherefore I give you to understand, *that no man, speaking by the Spirit of God, saith anathema to Jesus. And no man can say, the Lord Jesus, but by the Holy Ghost.

Mark 9:38.
No man, speaking by the Spirit of God, etc. He tells them, if they see a person moved in an extraordinary manner, and say anathema, curse, or speak ill of Jesus, such an one cannot be moved by a good spirit. And no man can say, the Lord Jesus, that is, praise Christ as he ought, but by a good spirit. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:4 Now there are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit:

\f + \fr 12:4-7\ft There are diversities of graces. Literally, divisions of graces; but all from the same spirit, from the same Lord, from the same God: and all these gifts are designed, and to be made use of for the profit of the faithful. (Witham) --- St. Justin Martyr, St. Irenaeus, and Origen bear testimony, that these special gifts of the Holy Ghost were not unusual in their time. St. Paul, in order to curb the vanity of such as seemed to be a little puffed up with the gifts they had received, and likewise to comfort those who had received no such spiritual and extraordinary favours, wishes to teach both parties, that the same Holy Spirit distributes these graces according as t hey are more conducive to the welfare of his Church, and the glory of God. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 12:5 And there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord.

I Corinthians 12:6 And there are diversities of operations, but the same God, who worketh all in all.

I Corinthians 12:7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man unto profit.

I Corinthians 12:8 To one indeed, by the Spirit, is given the word of wisdom: and to another, the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit.

etc. Word of wisdom, which differs from that of knowledge, inasmuch as wisdom is a more eminent and sublime knowledge. These are numbered among the gifts of the Holy Ghost. (Isaias 11.) --- To another faith, by which, says St. Chrysostom,{ Ver. 9. Fides, pistis, upon which word St. Chrysostom, om. kth. p. 433. pistin ou tauten legon, ten ton dogmaton, alla ten semeion.|} is not here meant a belief of revealed truths, but an humble confidence of working miracles, grounded on faith, and on the power and goodness of God. --- The same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will; by which words, they that valued themselves on the gifts of prophesying, and speaking tongues, are put in mind, that all these were purely the gifts of God, to whom alone the honour is due. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:9 To another, faith in the same Spirit: to another, the grace of healing in one Spirit:

I Corinthians 12:10 To another, the working of miracles: to another, prophecy: to another, the discerning of spirits: to another, divers kinds of tongues: to another, interpretation of speeches.

I Corinthians 12:11 *But all these things one and the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will.

Romans 12:3-6.; Ephesians 4:7.
I Corinthians 12:12 For as the body is one, and hath many members: and all the members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are one body: so also is Christ.

etc. As the body is one, etc. From this comparison of the mystical body of Christ, that is, of his Church, to a man's natural body, he brings excellent instructions. 1. That as all members and parts, make up the same body, so also is Christ; that is, so it is in the Church of Christ, which is his mystical body. 2. As all the parts of man's body are enlivened by the same soul, so all in the Church have their life from the same Spirit of God in baptism, and in the sacraments instituted by our Saviour, Christ; in which we are made to drink of the same spirit. 3. As all the members, that have such different offices and functions, do but constitute one complete body, so is it in the Church of Christ. 4. As those that seem the less considerable parts of the human body, are no less necessary for the subsistence and harmony of the whole, and stand in need of one another, (for example, the head stands in need of the feet) so in the Church, etc. 5. He takes notice, that in a natural body, the less honourable, the baser, and as they are called, the uncomely parts, are clothed with greater care and decency, Literally, have a more abundant honour bestowed upon them, so in the mystical body, no less, but even a greater care is to be taken of the weaker, and more infirm members, of the poor, the weak, the ignorant; and in the spirit of charity and love, that there may be no divisions or schisms, but a brotherly union: that if one suffer, another compassionate and assist him, etc. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:13 For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free: and in one Spirit we have all been made to drink.

I Corinthians 12:14 For the body also is not one member, but many.

I Corinthians 12:15 If the foot should say, because I am not the hand, I am not of the body: is it, therefore, not of the body?

If the foot, etc. By this comparison St. Paul teaches the Corinthians, that as all cannot exercise the same functions in the Church, so no one should be envious of his brother; but that by their mutual charity, co-operation, union of hearts, and faith, they should compose one body, of which Christ is the head. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 12:16 And if the ear should say, because I am not the eye, I am not of the body: is it, therefore, not of the body?

I Corinthians 12:17 If the whole body were the eye: where would be the hearing? If the whole were hearing: where would be the smelling?

I Corinthians 12:18 But now God hath set the members, every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him.

I Corinthians 12:19 And if they all were one member, where would be the body?

I Corinthians 12:20 But now there are many members, indeed, yet one body.

I Corinthians 12:21 And the eye cannot say to the hand: I need not thy help: nor again the head to the feet: I have no need of you.

I Corinthians 12:22 Yea, much more those that seem to be the more feeble members of the body, are more necessary:

I Corinthians 12:23 And such as we think to be the less honourable members of the body, upon these we bestow more abundant honour: and those that are our uncomely parts, have more abundant comeliness.

I Corinthians 12:24 But our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, giving the more abundant honour to that which wanted it,

Cicero, in his 1st liber de Off. speaking of the human body, says, Natura quae formam nostram atque figuram, in qua esset species honesta, eam posuit in promptu; quae partes autem corporis ad naturae necessitatem datae, aspectum essent deformem habiturae atque turpem, eas contexit atque abdidit. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 12:25 That there might be no schism in the body; but the members might be mutually careful one for another.

I Corinthians 12:26 And if one member suffer any thing, all the members suffer with it: or if one member glory, all the members rejoice with it.

I Corinthians 12:27 Now you are the body of Christ, and members of member.

Members of member.{ Ver. 27. Et membra de membro. Some Greek copies, kai mele ek melous, but in most Greek manuscripts, kai mele ek merous. St. Chrysostom, om. kb. p. 448. e ekklesia e par emin, meros esti tes pantachou keimenes ekklesias.|} The sense seems to be, you are members of the particular Church of Corinth, which is only a part or member of the whole body of the Christian Catholic Church. This is agreeable to the common reading in the Greek, where it is said, you are members of a part. See St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxii. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:28 *And God indeed hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles; then the graces of healing, helps, governments, kinds of tongues, interpretations of speeches.

Ephesians 4:11.
First apostles, etc. Here he sets down these gifts or graces in their order of dignity. 1. The apostles, blessed above others with all kinds of graces. 2. Prophets, who had the gift of interpreting of prophecies, and of knowing things to come. 3. Doctors, or teachers of the gospel, preferred before those who had the gift of miracles, or of healing the infirm, and before the gifts of tongues, which they valued and esteemed so much, which he reckons in a manner in the last place, except that of interpreting, which is wanting in the present Greek copies. But as interpreting is found in all the Greek manuscripts (ver. 30.) we have reason to prefer the reading of the Latin Vulgate. (Witham)
I Corinthians 12:29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers?

I Corinthians 12:30 Are all workers of miracles? Have all the grace of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret?

I Corinthians 12:31 But be zealous for the better gifts. And I shew to you a yet more excellent way.

Be zealous for the better gifts: which are to be more or less esteemed, as they are accompanied with charity, as he is going to shew in the next chapter. (Witham)
I Corinthians 13:0 Charity is to be preferred before all other gifts.

The apostle here shews the necessity of the great virtue of charity, that is, of the love of God, and of our neighbour. (Witham)
I Corinthians 13:1 If I speak with the tongues of men, and of Angels, and have not charity, I am become a sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

A tinkling cymbal. Which may give notice, and be beneficial to others, but not to itself. (Witham) --- Without charity, both towards every individual, and especially towards the common body of the Church, none of the aforesaid gifts will be available. (Bristow)
I Corinthians 13:2 And if I should have prophecy, and should know all mysteries, and all knowledge: and if I should have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.

\f + \fr 13:2-3\ft These prove that faith without good works, and especially charity for God and our neighbour, cannot avail to eternal life; faith and charity are both essentially necessary. Hence St. Augustine declares, that where there is not true faith, there cannot be justice; because the just man liveth by faith: and where charity is not, there can be no justice, which if they had, they would never tear in pieces the body of Christ, which is the Church. (De fid. ad Pet. ch. XXXIX.)
I Corinthians 13:3 And if I should distribute all my goods to feed the poor, and if I should deliver my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.

I Corinthians 13:4 Charity is patient, is kind: charity envieth not, dealeth not perversely, is not puffed up,

Charity....dealeth not perversely.{ Ver. 4. Non agit perperam, ou perpereuetai. St. Chrysostom says, toutesti ou propeteuetai, non est praeceps, aut temeraria.|} The Greek word here seems taken from the Latin. St. Chrysostom expounds it, is not rash, but acteth prudently and considerately. Others, it is not light or inconstant. Others, it braggeth, or vaunteth not, as in the Protestant translation. (Witham)
I Corinthians 13:5 Is not ambitious, seeketh not her own, is not provoked to anger, thinketh no evil,

Is not ambitious;{ Ver. 5. Non est ambitiosa. Some Greek copies, philotimei. In the ordinary Greek, and in St. Chrysostom, ouk achemonei. It is not ashamed to undergo any disgrace for God, or our neighbour's sake.|} which is also the sense of some Greek copies, but in others, and in St. Chrysostom, it signifies, it is not ashamed of any one. (Witham)
I Corinthians 13:6 Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth with the truth:

I Corinthians 13:7 Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.

I Corinthians 13:8 Charity never faileth; whether prophecies shall be made void, or tongues shall cease, or knowledge shall be destroyed.

Prophecies and tongues last no longer than this life. --- Knowledge shall be destroyed, that is, that imperfect knowledge we have in this world. For now we know only in part, we only see, as it were, through a glass, and imperfectly. --- Faith, which is of things that appear not, and hope, which is of things that we enjoy not, will cease in heaven, but charity, the greater, or greatest even of these three, will remain, and be increased in heaven. (Witham)
I Corinthians 13:9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part.

I Corinthians 13:10 But when that which is perfect shall come, that which is in part shall be done away.

St. Augustine proves from this text, that the saints in heaven have a more perfect knowledge of what passes here below, than when they sojourned on earth. (De Civit. Dei. lib. xxii. 1 Corinthians 29.)
I Corinthians 13:11 When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child. But when I became a man, I put away the things of a child.

When I was a child. I, like you, formerly judged of the goodness and excellency of these spiritual gifts by the advantages the procured; but after the Almighty had bestowed upon me his particular light, my opinion was far otherwise. Prophecy, and the gifts of languages are certainly very estimable gifts, yet charity is much more excellent. (Calmet) --- It is by charity we approach near to God, that we become his true image. Can we, then, wonder at the magnificent praises, glorious prerogatives, and surprising effects St. Paul gives to this all necessary virtue?
I Corinthians 13:12 We see now through a glass in an obscure manner: but then face to face. Now I know I part: but then I shall know even as I am known.

I Corinthians 13:13 And now there remain, faith, hope, charity, these three: but the greatest of these is charity.

I Corinthians 14:0 The gift of prophesying is to be preferred before that of speaking strange tongues.

St. Paul gives them further instructions how to make a right use of these gifts, of prophesying, of interpreting, and especially of speaking tongues. He is far from condemning the gift of speaking tongues, in proper circumstances, but only the indiscreet use, or the abuse of it. This is evident by the 5th verse, I would have you all to speak with tongues, but rather to prophesy. He blames those assemblies and meetings, (ver. 23.) when all present speak tongues together, by which means, the infidels that came thither, and ought to be instructed, understood nothing. He permits at their meetings two or three (ver. 27.) to speak tongues, provided some other interpret them. He also orders, that only two or three prophets speak at a meeting, and by turns, to avoid confusion, that those present may be edified, exhorted, and instructed. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:1 Follow after charity, be zealous for spiritual gifts: but rather that you may prophesy.

But rather that you may prophesy. That is, declare or expound the mysteries of faith. (Challoner) --- To prophesy, in its proper signification, is to foretell things to come: it sometimes is to expound the obscure places in other prophets; and sometimes it is to preach the word of God. Here it is chiefly taken in this last sense. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:2 For he that speaketh in a tongue, speaketh not to men, but to God: for no man heareth. But by the Spirit he speaketh mysteries.

He that speaketh in a tongue, which others at least understand not: nay, which sometimes, perhaps, by the 14th and 15th verse, he himself that spoke tongues, did not understand, can only be said to speak to God. In spirit he speaketh mysteries, edifies himself, because in his spirit he is piously and devoutly affected; but he must endeavour that the Church, or people present, may be also edified. Let him then pray for the other gift of interpreting, what he speaks, or let another interpret. (Witham) --- Not to men. Viz., so as to be heard, that is, so as to be understood by them. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:3 But he that prophesieth, speaketh to men unto edification, and exhortation and comfort.

I Corinthians 14:4 He that speaketh in a tongue, edifieth himself; but he that prophesieth, edifieth the church.

I Corinthians 14:5 And I would have you all to speak with tongues, but rather to prophesy. For greater is he that prophesieth than he that speaketh with tongues: unless, perhaps, he interpret, that the church may receive edification.

I Corinthians 14:6 But now, brethren, if I come to you, speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, unless I speak to you either in revelation, or in knowledge, or in prophecy, or in doctrine?

If I come to you, speaking with tongues in this manner, what shall I profit you, unless in revelation, etc. that is, unless I reveal, and expound to you the meaning, by some other gift, as in knowledge, in prophecy, in doctrine? To speak tongues only without interpreting, is no ways instructive. He that speaks to me, what I understand not, is no better than a barbarian to me, (so the Greeks called those that spoke not their language.) He amplifies this inconvenience of not being understood, by the example of instruments, pipes, harps, trumpets, which would not move persons to different affections, nor excite them to different actions, unless the sound, and manner they were played upon, were different; seek, then, and endeavour to make use of the gifts of the Spirit, to the edification of the Church, or of the hearers. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:7 Even things without life that give sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction of sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped?

I Corinthians 14:8 For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself for battle?

I Corinthians 14:9 So likewise you, unless you utter by the tongue plain speech, how shall it be known what is spoken? For you shall be speaking into the air.

I Corinthians 14:10 There are, for example, so many kinds of tongues in this world: and none is without a voice.

I Corinthians 14:11 If then I know not the power of the voice, I shall be to him, to whom I speak, a barbarian, and he that speaketh, a barbarian to me.

I Corinthians 14:12 So you also, forasmuch as you are zealous of spirits, seek to abound unto the edifying of the church.

Of spirits. Of spiritual gifts. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 14:13 And therefore he that speaketh in a tongue, pray that he may interpret.

Pray that he may interpret. In order that he may be rendered more useful to the Church, as the martyrs, who prayed for those particular gifts they saw would be most useful for themselves, or their neighbours. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 14:14 For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is without fruit.

If I pray in a tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is without fruit: it may signify without fruit, or profit to others, though some understand, as if by this gift of tongues, they sometimes spoke what they themselves did not understand. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, I will pray also with the understanding: I will sing with the spirit, I will sing also with the understanding:

I Corinthians 14:16 Else if thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that holdeth the place of the unlearned say Amen to thy blessing? because he knoweth not what thou sayest.

How shall he that holdeth the place of the unlearned (literally, an idiot) say Amen to thy blessing? When persons speak, or pray, and the ignorant have had no instruction concerning such prayers, they cannot know when to say Amen: and when infidels come into such meetings, where they hear many persons at once speaking many tongues, which are understood by no body, will they not be apt to say, you are mad? The like in a manner happened on the day of Pentecost, when the disciples having received this gift, and speaking with tongues, the people hearing them, cried out, they were drunk. (Acts 2:13.) Yet St. Chrysostom takes notice, that the fault and madness was in the hearers, not in those who spoke tongues. (hom. xxxvi.) (Witham) --- Amen. The unlearned not knowing that you are then blessing, will not be qualified to join with you by saying Amen to your blessing. The use or abuse of strange tongues, of which the apostle here speaks, does not regard the public liturgy of the Church, (in which strange tongues were never used) but certain conferences of the faithful, (ver. 26. etc.) in which, meeting together, they discovered to one another their various miraculous gifts of the Spirit, common in those primitive times; amongst which the apostle prefers that of prophesying before that of speaking strange tongues, because it was more to the public edification. Where also note, that the Latin, used in our liturgy, is so far from being a strange or unknown tongue, that it is perhaps the best known tongue in the world. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 14:17 For thou indeed givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.

I Corinthians 14:18 I thank my God, that I speak with all your tongues.

I Corinthians 14:19 But in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that I may instruct others also, than ten thousand words in a tongue.

But in the Church. The apostle here condemns the vanity of the Corinthians, who made a parade of their gift of tongues. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 14:20 Brethren, do not become children in sense, but in malice be children, and in sense be perfect.

\f + \fr 14:20-22\ft Tongues are for a sign, not to believers, but to unbelievers, according to what the law (under which he comprehends the prophet Isaias, 28:11.) said: In other tongues, and other lips, I will speak to this people: and neither so will they hear me. St. Paul here gives the sense, rather than the words of the prophet, and expounds them of what happened particularly on the day of Pentecost, when the miraculous gift of tongues was designed to strike the unbelieving people with admiration, and to bring them afterwards to the true faith: but when he adds, that tongues are not for the believers, and that prophecies are not for the unbelievers, he cannot mean that tongues, used with discretion, may not also be profitable to believers, or that prophecies and instructions may not also be profitable to unbelievers, as well as to the believers; for this would be to contradict what he teaches in this chapter, and particularly (ver. 24.) where he says, that by prophecy the infidel is convinced, etc. St. Paul, whose design in all this chapter is to regulate the meetings, that they may be conducted with greater edification, and for the instruction, both of the Christians and unbelievers, thanks God, that he has the gift of tongues more than they, but says, that in the Church, or at such Church-meetings, he had rather, for the common edification of others, speak five words, etc. than ten thousand words, etc. and so he concludes, (ver. 39.) be zealous to prophesy, and forbid not to speak with tongues. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:21 In the law it is written: *That in other tongues, and other lips, I will speak to this people: and neither so will they hear me, saith the Lord.

Isaias 28:11.
I Corinthians 14:22 Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to believers, but to unbelievers: but prophecies, not to unbelievers, but to believers.

I Corinthians 14:23 If, therefore, the whole church come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in unlearned persons, or unbelievers, will they not say that you are mad?

I Corinthians 14:24 But if all prophesy, and there come in one that believeth not, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all.

I Corinthians 14:25 The secrets of his heart are made manifest, and so, falling down on his face, he will adore God, affirming that God is among you indeed.

I Corinthians 14:26 How is it then, brethren? When you come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a revelation, hath a tongue, hath an interpretation: let all things be done unto edification.

When you come together, etc. St. Paul here settles the rules, which they are to observe in their meetings: one hath a psalm, the Spirit inspiring him with some psalm, or spiritual canticle, whereby to praise God: another hath the gift of doctrine, to instruct all there present: another the gift of tongues, which he will not have him to make use of, unless when there is one to interpret, that all things may be done in the most profitable manner unto edification. Two or three at a meeting may speak with tongues, if another interpret. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:27 If any speak with a tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and in course, and let one interpret.

I Corinthians 14:28 But if there be no interpreter, let him hold his peace in the church, and speak to himself and to God.

I Corinthians 14:29 And let the prophets speak, two or three: and let the rest judge.

\f + \fr 14:29-32\ft Two or three, who have the gift of prophecy, may speak by turns in one of these assemblies, and the rest of the prophet shall judge, whether he be truly inspired, and speak good doctrine. --- If any thing be revealed to another sitting by, let the former, who was standing and speaking, hold his peace, which they can do; for the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets, that is, they are not like men possessed with evil spirits, who have not power to desist, or to be silent; but these who are moved by an impulse of the holy Spirit, have it in their power either to speak or to be silent, as they judge convenient; for the true God is not the God of dissension and confusion, but the God of peace and order. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:30 But if any thing be revealed to another sitting, let the first hold his peace.

I Corinthians 14:31 For you may all prophesy one by one: that all may learn, and all may be exhorted:

I Corinthians 14:32 And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.

I Corinthians 14:33 For he is not the God of dissension, but of peace: as also I teach in all the churches of the saints.

I Corinthians 14:34 Let women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted to them to speak, but to be subject, *as also the law saith.

Genesis 3:16.
Let women be silent, and not speak at all in public Church-meetings: and if they would ask any thing, let them ask it at home. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:35 But if they would learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is a shame for a woman to speak in the church.

I Corinthians 14:36 Or did the word of God come out from you? Or came it only unto you?

\f + \fr 14:36-38\ft Did the word of God first come out from you? This he says, to check these new preachers, by putting them in mind, that they are not the first, nor the only Christians, and so must conform themselves to the discipline practised in other Churches, especially since, as their apostle, he hath delivered them the commandments of the Lord. And if any man know not, will not acknowledge, and follow these rules, he shall not be known; God will not know, nor approve his ways. The pretended reformers, from the expressions with which the apostle blames the abuse some new converts made of the gift of tongues, think they have found a plausible argument to reprehend Catholics, for using the same Latin tongue in the Mass, and in the public liturgy. They consider not, whether they have the same reasons to find fault with the present discipline of the Church, as St. Paul then had to blame the Corinthians: whether the circumstances be the same or different: they think it enough that Latin, which is used in the Mass, is a language not understood by a great many ignorant people, and therefore they can say with St. Paul, that an idiot, or an unlearned man, knows not when to say Amen to what he hears. Two things offer themselves here to the consideration of every man, who is disposed to judge impartially. 1. Whether the same reasons and motives now subsist for blaming the Catholics. 2ndly, whether the conveniences and inconveniences, duly examined, it be found more commendable to perform the public liturgy, in those, which are the most general languages, as in Latin or Greek, or to have all liturgies turned into as many tongues, as the ignorant people understand and speak in different places. As to the first, St. Paul does not absolutely forbid the use of this gift of tongues, that were not understood, even by any one (as hath been already observed). All that he blames is, that many, who valued themselves on this gift, spoke at the same time altogether strange tongues, which none understood, but those who had another gift of the Spirit, called the interpretation of speeches, on which account in these meetings there was nothing but confusion, without any profit, edification, or instruction, at a time, and in such circumstances, when instructions were absolutely necessary, both for the new converted Christians, and also for the infidels, who flocked thither as much as the Christians. The case is now quite different, when none but Catholics meet, (especially at the Mass) who have been instructed from their infancy, what they are to believe, as to the mysteries of faith, and what they ought to practise, as to the commandments, the sacraments, prayer, and other points, which they have in their catechisms, or which have been delivered to them by catechetical discourses and instructions. And if they have been happily converted, or are upon their conversion, they are always carefully instructed in the tongue which they understand, as to what they ought to believe, and in the duties of a Christian life. Besides this, all present are frequently instructed by sermons and exhortations, not only on Sundays and holidays, but daily in Advent and Lent, as it is the custom in Catholic countries. I know some of our adversaries have been persuaded, that we preach in Latin to the people; to be convinced of the contrary, let them come and hear us; it is the worst I wish them. As to the sacrifice of the Mass, which none but they who are priests, can offer for the people, of which also a great part, according to the institution of the Church, as the Council of Trent observes, (session 22. cap. 5.) is said with a low voice: it is not performed in Latin in the Western Church, or in Greek in the East, that the meaning of the words may be concealed, since the same Council has laid an express injunction upon all pastors, and upon all that have care of souls, that they frequently, and especially on Sundays, and holidays, expound to the people, what is contained in the Mass, to wit, the parts, and the ceremonies. See 22nd session, cap. 8.) And this command is again repeated, (session 24. cap. 7.) that they instruct the people in their mother tongue concerning the divine mysteries and sacraments. All that can read, may find the Mass translated into their own language, and the most ignorant are taught and instructed, that by the different parts are represented the death and sufferings of our Saviour, Christ: they are taught how to offer up at the same time their intention, their heart, and their prayers: to confess themselves sinners before God, as the priest does, how they ought to endeavour to praise, and adore Christ with the blessed spirits in heaven; how they ought to beg graces of God, by saying the Lord's prayer; how they ought, at the same time, at least in spirit and desire, to receive the holy sacrament of the eucharist, with a sincere repentance, with humility and devotion. Cannot all things, then, be done to edification, as St. Paul requires, though the words of the Mass, and public liturgy, be in a language which the ignorant do not understand, but which, of all others, is the most general! Now the second thing to be examined is, whether, all things duly considered, it be better to retain the public Church-offices in Latin, and in those ancient dead languages, as they are called, or to turn the liturgy into as many tongues, as are spoken in different places and countries! Our adversaries, by this new alteration which they have made, have gone against the judgment of all Christian Churches, both in the West and East, and in all parts of the world. For as Mons. Simon takes notice, in his Critics, all other Churches (the Protestant only excepted) have judged it expedient, to stick to the words and languages of their ancient liturgies, the Grecians to the ancient Greek, which now the ignorant among them do not understand; the like is to be said of the ancient Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, etc. And it is also observed, that the Israelites continued the reading of the law and the prophets, in the ancient Hebrew, which the common people of the Jews did not understand after their return from the Babylonian captivity. It is well known that Latin in this part of the world, is more generally spread and known, than any other language whatsoever. It is taught every where in all public schools. It is learnt, not only by the ministers of the Church, but by almost all gentlemen, and by persons of all conditions, the poorer sort only excepted. There is this great convenience, that the same priest can perform all the public Church-offices, in all places and kingdoms where he travels. All the faithful, whithersoever they have occasion to go, meet with the same Mass, and liturgy in the same words abroad, which they were accustomed to hear at home. The same uniformity is every where preserved without change or confusion. But according to the method introduced by the Protestants, the liturgy must be changed into as many different tongues, as there are countries and places, and in almost every century, as we see by experience, languages are liable and subject to considerable changes and alterations. From hence arises a danger of changes, as to the doctrine and belief of the faithful: errors and heresies are the consequences, that follow such frequent changes, especially, when by another false principle of the said reformers, every private man and woman has a right to expound the hard and obscure places of the holy Scriptures, which make up the chief and greatest part of all public liturgies in all Christian Churches. I might ask of the Protestants, whether the ignorant people at least, and idiots, as St. Paul calls them, understand the meaning of the Psalms, when they are sung in Hopkins's rhymes; though they may perhaps know when to say Amen, with the rest. Nor yet does every ignorant man know what the word itself, Amen, signifies, and therefore knows not what he answers. I cannot but here take notice of an unfair way of proceeding, even in the best Protestant translation, by sometimes adding in this chapter the word unknown, and sometimes omitting it. All Catholics are willing to allow, that by the gift of speaking tongues, St. Paul means tongues unknown, though the word unknown is not found so much as once, neither in the Latin, nor even so much as in any one Greek manuscript. The Protestant translators, for tongues, have put unknown tongues, in all the verses, where St. Paul blames the abuse of this gift; to wit, ver. 2. 4. 13. 14. 19. 27. but they make no such addition, where St. Paul either commends, or permits the speaking in tongues not understood, as ver. 5. where he says, I would have you to speak tongues; and ver. 29.[39.?], where he says, forbid not to speak tongues. It is evident, that there is the very same reason for the addition, or the omission equally in all these verses. Is this to translate faithfully? I would by no means judge rashly, even of any adversary; but it looks as if both the addition and omission was with a design of making this popular objection seem to be of greater force against this point of discipline, and practice of the Catholics, and indeed of all Christian Churches. (Witham)
I Corinthians 14:37 If any man seem to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him know the things that I write to you, that they are the commandments of the Lord.

I Corinthians 14:38 But if any man know not, he shall not be known.

I Corinthians 14:39 Wherefore, brethren, be zealous to prophesy: and forbid not to speak with tongues.

I Corinthians 14:40 But let all things be done decently, and according to order.

I Corinthians 15:0 Christ's resurrection and ours; the manner of our resurrection.

This chapter is addressed to some among the Corinthians who denied the resurrection: St. Paul, therefore, in order to cure this philosophical opinion, gives them his counsel and advice in this chapter; and lest he might be thought to preach up a new doctrine, in the beginning of his admonitions he informs them that he is preaching no other gospel than what he has always taught, and wherein they believe. (Estius)
I Corinthians 15:1 Now *I make known unto you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received, and wherein you stand,

Galatians 1:11.
I Corinthians 15:2 By which also you are saved: if you hold fast after what manner I preached to you, unless you have believed in vain.

I Corinthians 15:3 For I delivered to you first of all, which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins, *according to the Scriptures:

Isaias 53:5.
I Corinthians 15:4 *And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures:

Jonas 2:1.
I Corinthians 15:5 And that he was seen by Cephas, *and after that by the eleven.

John 20:19.
I Corinthians 15:6 Then he was seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep.

I Corinthians 15:7 After that, he was seen by James, then by all the apostles:

He was seen by James. The time is not mentioned in the gospels. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:8 And last of all, he was seen also by me, as by one born out of due time.

As by one born out of due time; not born at the ordinary term, meaning after Christ's ascension. He calls himself so out of humility, abortives being commonly imperfect and less than others. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:9 *For I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.

Acts 9:3.; Ephesians 3:8.
I Corinthians 15:10 But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace in me hath not been void, but I have laboured more abundantly than all they: yet not I, but the grace of God with me:

I have laboured more abundantly. He does not say better, or that he excelled them; and even as to his labours, he gives the honour to God: Not I, but the grace of God with me. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:11 For whether I, or they: so we preach, and so you have believed.

I Corinthians 15:12 Now if Christ be preached, that he arose again from the dead, how do some among you say, that there is no resurrection of the dead?

I Corinthians 15:13 But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen again.

\f + \fr 15:13-23\ft He brings many reasons to convince them of the resurrection. 1. If there be no resurrection for others, Christ is not risen again: but his resurrection (as he tells them ver. 4) was foretold in the Scriptures. 2. And if Christ be not risen again,...your faith is also in vain, this being one of the chief articles of your belief. 3. We shall be found guilty of lies and impostures; and yet we have confirmed this doctrine by many miracles. 4. It would follow that you are not freed from your sins; that is unless Christ, by his resurrection, has triumphed over sin and death. 5. Without a resurrection we Christians, who live under self-denials and persecutions, would be the most miserable of all men, neither happy in this world nor in the next, for the happiness of the soul requires also a happy resurrection of the body. 6. Christ is the first-fruits, and the first begotten of the dead, of those who have slept: and by his being the first-fruits, it must be supposed that others also will rise after him. 7. As death came by the first man, (Adam) so the second man (Christ) came to repair the death of men, both as to body and soul; and without Christ's resurrection, both the souls of men have remained dead in their original sins, and their bodies shall not rise again. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:14 And if Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.

I Corinthians 15:15 Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God: because we have given testimony against God, that he hath raised up Christ, whom he hath not raised up, if the dead rise not again.

I Corinthians 15:16 For if the dead rise not again, neither is Christ risen again.

I Corinthians 15:17 And if Christ be not risen again, your faith is vain, for you are yet in your sins.

I Corinthians 15:18 Then they also, who have slept in Christ, have perished.

I Corinthians 15:19 If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.

I Corinthians 15:20 But now Christ is risen from the dead, the first-fruits of them that sleep.

I Corinthians 15:21 *For by a man came death, and by a man the resurrection of the dead.

Colossians 1:18.; Apocalypse 1:5.
I Corinthians 15:22 And as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive.

I Corinthians 15:23 *But every one in his own order: the first-fruits, Christ; then they that are of Christ, who have believed in his coming.

1 Thessalonians 4:15.
I Corinthians 15:24 Afterwards the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God and the Father, when he shall have abolished all principality, and authority, and power.

etc. Afterwards the end; that is after the general resurrection of all, will be the end of the world. Then Christ shall deliver up his kingdom, as to this world, over all men, over the devil and his apostate angels, signified by principalities and powers; not but that Christ, both as God and man, shall reign for all eternity, not only over his elect but over all creatures, having triumphed by his resurrection over the enemy of mankind, the devil, over sin, and over death, which is as it were the last enemy of his elect. At the general resurrection, Christ will present these elect to his heavenly Father, as the fruits of his victory over sin and death; and though as man he came to suffer and die, and was also made subject to his eternal Father, yet being God as well as man, he is Lord of all, and will make his faithful servants partakers of his glory in his heavenly kingdom. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:25 For he must reign, *until he hath put all his enemies under his feet.

Psalm 109:6.; Hebrews 1:13.; Hebrews 10:13.
I Corinthians 15:26 And the enemy, death, shall be destroyed last: *For he hath put all things under his feet. And whereas he saith,

Psalm 8:8.; Hebrews 2:8.
I Corinthians 15:27 All things are put under him; undoubtedly, he is excepted, who put all things under him.

I Corinthians 15:28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him: then the Son also himself shall be subject to him who subjected all things to himself, that God may be all in all.

The Son also himself shall be subject to him. That is, the Son will be subject to the Father, according to his human nature, even after the general resurrection; and also the whole mystical body of Christ will be entirely subject to God, obeying him in every thing. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 15:29 Otherwise what shall they do, who are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not again at all? why are they then baptized for them?

Who are baptized for the dead.{ Ver. 29. Qui baptizantur pro mortuis, oi baptizomenoi uper ton nekron. See St. Chrysostom, om. m. p. 154. epi te pistei taute, etc.; see Tertullian, lib. de resurrec. carnis 1 Corinthians 48. and lib. v. contra Marcion. 1 Corinthians 10. and the notes of Rigaltius on these places. See St. Epiphanius, haer. viii. p. 114. epi taute te elpidi, etc.|} He still brings other proofs of the resurrection. This is a hard place, and the words are differently expounded. 1. Several late interpreters understand a metaphorical baptism, and that to be baptized for the dead, is to undertake self-denials, mortifications, and works of penance, in hopes of a happy resurrection; and this exposition agrees with what follows, of being exposed to dangers every hour, of dying daily, etc. But if this had been the apostle's meaning, he would rather have said, Who baptize themselves. Besides, this exposition is not so much as mentioned in any of the ancient interpreters. 2. Some think that St. Paul tells the Corinthians that they ought not to question the resurrection of the dead, who had a custom among them, if any one died without baptism, to baptize another that was living for him; and this they did, fancying that such a baptism would be profitable to the dead person, in order to a happy resurrection. Tertullian mentions this custom in one or two places, and also St. Chrysostom on this place. But it does not seem probable that St. Paul would bring any argument of the resurrection from a custom which he himself could not approve, nor was ever approved in the Church. 3. St. Chrysostom and the Greek interpreters, who generally follow him, expound these words, who are baptized for the dead, as if it were the same as to say, who receive baptism with hopes that they themselves, and all the dead, will rise again; and therefore make a profession, when they are baptized, that they believe the resurrection. So that St. Paul here brings this proof among others, that they who have been made Christians, and continue Christians, cannot call in question the resurrection, which they professed to believe in their creed at their baptism, the creed being always repeated before they were baptized. 4. Others, by being baptized for the dead, understand those who begged and called for baptism when they were in danger of death, and would by no means go out of this world without being baptized, hoping thereby to have a happy resurrection of their bodies; so that to be baptized for the dead is the same as on the account of the state of the dead, which they were entering into. See St. Epiphanius, haer. viii. p. 114. Edit Petavii. (Witham) Some think the apostle here alludes to a ceremony then in use: but others, more probably, to the prayers and penitential labours performed by the primitive Christians for the souls of the faithful departed: or to the baptism of afflictions and sufferings undergone for sinners spiritually dead. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 15:30 Why also are we in danger every hour?

I Corinthians 15:31 I die daily by your glory, brethren, which I have in Christ Jesus, our Lord:

By your glory.{ Ver. 31. Morior per vestram gloriam, ne ten umeteran kauchesin.|} He seems, especially by the Greek text, to call God to witness, and to protest by the reasons he has to glory or boast in their conversion, that his life is as it were a continual death. Other expound it, I die daily for your glory; or, that I may have reason to glory for the progress of the gospel. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:32 If (according to man) I fought with beasts at Ephesus, what doth it profit me if the dead rise not again? *Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die.

Wisdom 2:6.; Isaias 22:13.; Isaias 56:12.
With beasts at Ephesus. He seems to mean, with men as cruel and brutal as beasts: for there is not sufficient reason to think that at Ephesus he was exposed to beasts in the amphitheatre. (Witham) --- Interpreters are divided upon this passage. Calmet is of opinion that St. Paul was exposed in the amphitheatre at Ephesus, but was secured from all injury by the all-powerful hand of God: he produces the testimony of St. Chrysostom, Theo., St. Ambrose, St. Cyprian, and St. Hilary, all of whom understand this passage in the literal sense. Nicephorus cites a book, entitled The Travels of St. Paul, in confirmation of this fact, wherein (he informs us) there is a long account of this transaction. St. Jerome says, that St. Paul was condemned by the governor of Ephesus to be devoured by beasts. Estius seems to maintain the same opinion as Challoner. To inspirit us to combat, it is advisable to turn our eyes frequently to a future life. The brevity of the present is a principle common to the morality of Jesus Christ, and to that of Epicurus. But how contrary are the conclusions! Why should we not rather say: "Let us watch, and fast, and pray, and do penance, for to-morrow we die; and after that, judgment." --- Let us eat and drink, etc. That is, if we did not believe that we were to rise again from the dead, we might live like the impious and wicked, who have no belief in the resurrection. (Challoner)
I Corinthians 15:33 Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.

Evil communications (or discourses) corrupt good manners. He hints that this error against the resurrection, and the other faults into which they had fallen, were occasioned by the heathen philosophers and other vain teachers among them. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:34 Awake, ye just, and sin not. For some have not the knowledge of God: I speak it to your shame.

I Corinthians 15:35 But some one will say: How do the dead rise again? or with what manner of body shall they come?

\f + \fr 15:35-50\ft How do the dead rise again? He now answers the objections these new teachers made against the resurrection. St. Chrysostom reduces them to these two questions: how is it possible for them to rise? and in what manner, or with what qualities, will they rise? To shew the possibility, he brings the example of a grain of wheat, or of any seeds, which must be corrupted, and die as it were in the ground, and then is quite changed, comes up with a blade, a stalk, and an ear quite different from what it was when sown, and yet comes to be wheat again, or to be a tree that produces the same kind of fruit: so God can raise our bodies as he pleaseth. He also tells them that there are very different bodies, terrestrial, and celestial, some more, some less glorious, differing in beauty and other qualities, as God pleaseth. As the sun is brighter than the moon, and as one star is brighter than another, so shall it be at the general resurrection. But all the bodies of the elect shall be happily changed to a state of incorruption. (ver. 42.) Here the bodies even of the just are subject to corruption, to decay, liable to death, but they shall then rise to a state of incorruptibility and immortality: And so he answers the second question, that here every one's body is a weak, sensual, animal body, clogged with many imperfections, like that of Adam after he had sinned; but at the resurrection, the bodies of the saints shall be spiritual bodies, blessed with all the perfections and qualities of a glorified body, like to that of Christ after he was risen. --- St. Paul also, comparing the first man (Adam) with Christ, whom he calls the second or the last Adam, (ver. 45) says that the first Adam was made a living soul, (that is, a living animal, or a living creature, with a life and a body that required to be supported with corporal food) but that Christ was made a quickening Spirit: he means, that though he had a true mortal body by his nativity of his Virgin Mother, yet that by his resurrection he had a glorified body, immortal, that needed no corporal food, and that he would also give such spiritual and immortal bodies to those whom he should make partakers of his glory. --- But not first that which is spiritual, etc. (ver. 46) that is, both in Adam and in us, and even in Christ, the body was first mortal, which should afterwards be made spiritual and immortal by a happy resurrection. --- The first Adam (ver. 47) was of the earth, earthly, made of clay, and with such a body as could die, but the second man (Christ) was from heaven, heavenly: not that he took a body from heaven, as some ancient heretics pretended, but he was heavenly not only because he was the Son of God, but in this place he seems to be called heavenly even as to his body, after his resurrection, his body being then become spiritual and immortal. --- Such as is the earthly man, etc. (ver. 48) that is, as the first man, Adam, was earthly by his earthly and mortal body, so were we and all his posterity earthly; but such as the heavenly man, Christ, was heavenly, and rose with a heavenly and immortal body; so shall all those be heavenly, to whom he shall give a spiritual, a heavenly, and an immortal body at their happy resurrection. --- Therefore, (ver. 49) as we have borne the image of the earthly man, (that is, have been made mortal, and also by sin subject to the corrupt inclinations of this mortal body) so let us bear also the image of the heavenly one, by a new life imitating Christ, by which means we shall be glorified with him, both as to soul and body. --- Now this I say, and admonish you, brethren, (ver. 50) that flesh and blood cannot possess the kingdom of God; that is those that lead a sensual and carnal life, nor the corruption of sin, deserve the state of incorruption in glory. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:36 Senseless man, that which thou sowest, is not quickened, except it die first.

I Corinthians 15:37 And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not the body that shall be: but bare grain, as of wheat, or of some of the rest.

I Corinthians 15:38 But God giveth it a body as he will: and to every seed its proper body.

I Corinthians 15:39 All flesh is not the same flesh: but one is that of men, another of beasts, another of birds, another of fishes.

I Corinthians 15:40 And there are bodies celestial, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and that of the terrestrial another.

I Corinthians 15:41 One is the glory of the sun, another the glory of the moon, and another the glory of the stars. For star differeth from star in glory:

I Corinthians 15:42 So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it shall rise in incorruption.

I Corinthians 15:43 It is sown in dishonour, it shall rise in glory: It is sown in weakness, it shall rise in power:

I Corinthians 15:44 It is sown a natural body, it shall rise a spiritual body. If there be a natural body, there is also a spiritual body, as it is written:

I Corinthians 15:45 *The first man, Adam, was made into a living soul: the last Adam a quickening spirit.

Genesis 2:7.
I Corinthians 15:46 But not first that which is spiritual, but that which is natural: afterwards that which is spiritual.

I Corinthians 15:47 The first man was of the earth, earthly: the second man from heaven, heavenly.

I Corinthians 15:48 Such as is the earthly, such also are the earthly: and such as is the heavenly, such also are they that are heavenly.

I Corinthians 15:49 Therefore as we have borne the image of the earthly, let us bear also the image of the heavenly.

I Corinthians 15:50 Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot possess the kingdom of God: neither shall corruption possess incorruption.

I Corinthians 15:51 Behold I tell you a mystery: We shall all indeed rise again: but we shall not all be changed.

We shall all indeed rise again, but we shall not all be changed.{ Ver. 51. Omnes quidem resurgemus, sed non omnes immutabimur; and so some Greek manuscripts have, pantes anastesomen, but in most Greek copies we find, pantes men ou koimethesometha, pantes de allagesometha. See St. Jerome (Ep. ad Minervium Alexandrium, tom. iv. p. 207. et seq. Ed. Ben.) where he gives at large the different opinions and readings. See also his Epist. to Marcella, (tom. iv. p. 166) where he says: Deprehensi in corpore in iisdem corporibus occurrent ci (Christo).|} This is the reading of the Latin Vulgate, and of some Greek manuscripts, and the sense is, that all both good and bad shall rise, but only the elect to the happy change of a glorified body. The reading in most Greek copies at present is, we shall not all sleep, (that is, die) but we shall be all changed: so also read St. Chrysostom: and St. Jerome found it in many manuscripts from which divers, especially of the Greek interpreters, thought that such as should be found living at the day of judgment should not die, but the bodies of the elect (of whom St. Paul here speaks) should be changed to a happy state of immortality. This opinion, if it deserve not to be censured, is at least against the common persuasion of the faithful, who look upon it certain that all shall die before they come to judgment. Some expound the Greek only to signify, that all shall not sleep, that is shall not remain for any time in the grave, as others who die are accustomed to do. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall rise again incorruptible: and we shall be changed.

In a moment, etc. By the power of the Almighty all shall rise again in their bodies, either to a happy or a miserable resurrection. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption: and this mortal must put on immortality.

I Corinthians 15:54 And when this mortal hath put on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: *Death is swallowed up in victory.

Osee 13:14.; Hebrews 2:14.
Death is swallowed up in victory, in regard of the saints and the elect, so that it may be said, O death, where is thy victory? O death, where is thy sting? over which the saints shall triumph, and also over sin and hell. (Witham)
I Corinthians 15:55 O death, where is thy victory? O death, where is thy sting?

I Corinthians 15:56 Now the sting of death is sin: and the strength of sin is the law.

I Corinthians 15:57 *But thanks be to God, who hath given us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.

1 John 5:5.
I Corinthians 15:58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast and unmoveable: always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.

I Corinthians 16:0 Of collections of alms, admonitions, and salutations.

I Corinthians 16:1 Now concerning the collections that are made for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, so do you also.

St. Paul had been charged by the apostles at the council of Jerusalem, to collect alms from the faithful of other Churches, for their poor brethren in Palestine. The apostle acquitted himself of his commission with the greatest possible zeal, and he wishes in this chapter to excite the Corinthians to a like generous conduct with the Galatians: (Calmet) a pastoral ordinance this for alms-deeds, which should be prompt, free, and proportionate to our means. It is just to prefer the wants of the children of the Church to others, particularly in those places whence the light of faith has been received, Jerusalem and Rome.
I Corinthians 16:2 On the first day of the week let every one of you put apart with himself, laying up what it shall well please him: that when I come, the collections be not then to be made.

On the{ Ver. 2. Per unam, that is primam Sabbati, eis mian sabbaton. St. Chrysostom, om. m. toutesti kuriaken, p. 530.|} first day of the week, which is Sunday, and our sabbath, not the Jewish sabbath, as St. Chrysostom observes, so that before this time, the apostles had appointed the first day of the week for the worship of God. (Witham)
I Corinthians 16:3 And when I shall be with you: whomsoever you shall approve by letters, those will I send to carry your gift to Jerusalem.

I Corinthians 16:4 And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go with me.

I Corinthians 16:5 Now I will come to you, when I shall have passed through Macedonia. For I shall pass through Macedonia.

Now I will come. St. Paul came to Corinth a year after he had written this epistle. Titus, his favourite disciple, arrived at Corinth before St. Paul, and was received with the greatest marks of esteem: by him he sent his second epistle to the Corinthians. (Calmet)
I Corinthians 16:6 And with you, perhaps, I shall abide, or even spend the winter: that you may bring me on my journey whithersoever I shall go.

I Corinthians 16:7 For I will not see you now by the way; for I hope that I shall remain with you some time, if the Lord permit.

I Corinthians 16:8 But I will stay at Ephesus until Pentecost.

I Corinthians 16:9 For a door is opened to me, great and evident: and many adversaries.

A gate is opened to me, large and evident; that is, a fair and good occasion of labouring to convert many, where there are many adversaries. (Witham) --- The work of God is carried on by the power of the cross, and in the midst of contradictions and persecutions. If we suffer this to damp our courage, we forget that we are ministers of a crucified master, and ought to wear his livery.
I Corinthians 16:10 Now if Timothy come, see that he be with you without fear, for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do.

I Corinthians 16:11 Let no man, therefore, despise him, but conduct ye him on his way in peace: that he may come to me. For I look for him with the brethren.

I Corinthians 16:12 As to our brother, Apollo, I make known to you that I earnestly entreated him to come to you with the brethren: and indeed it was not his will at all to come at this time. But he will come when he shall have leisure.

As to our brother. St. Paul here makes an apology for sending Timothy to them, who was a young man, and not so renowned for eloquence and sanctity as Apollo, informing them that Apollo did not wish to come, perhaps on account of the commotions that were at Corinth on his account. (Estius)
I Corinthians 16:13 Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, do manfully, and be strengthened.

A Christian is a soldier, environed and attacked on all sides by enemies. It is his duty to guard against surprise. He should never abandon the post of faith, nor the fortress of the Church, unless he wish to fall an easy prey to his adversaries. He should fight with courage, and after each attack, carefully repair the breaches made by the enemy, that he may be in a condition to sustain fresh attacks by charity, which is the principle, the soul, the life, and heart of our every action.
I Corinthians 16:14 Let all your actions be done in charity.

I Corinthians 16:15 And I beseech you, brethren, you know the house of Stephanas, and of Fortunatus, and of Achaicus, that they are the first-fruits of Achaia, and have dedicated themselves to the ministry of the saints:

The first-fruits of Achaia; the first there converted. (Witham)
I Corinthians 16:16 That you also be subject to such, and to every one that worketh with us, and laboureth.

I Corinthians 16:17 And I rejoice in the presence of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus, for that which was wanting on your part, they have supplied.

Which was wanting on your part, they have supplied, by informing me, and giving me a full account of all. (Witham)
I Corinthians 16:18 For they have refreshed both my spirit and yours. Know them, therefore, that are such.

I Corinthians 16:19 The churches of Asia salute you, Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house: with whom I also lodge.

I Corinthians 16:20 All the brethren salute you. Salute one another with a holy kiss.

I Corinthians 16:21 The salutation of me, Paul, with my own hand.

I Corinthians 16:22 If any man love not our Lord, Jesus Christ, let him be anathema, Maran Atha.

Let him be anathema, accursed. Maran Atha,{ Ver. 22. Maran Atha, maran atha. St. Chrysostom, ti de esti maran atha; o kurios emon elthe, etc. St. Hierom[St. Jerome], Epist. ad Marcellam. tom. ii. p. 706, and de nominibus Hebraicis. tom. iv. p. 78.|} which, according to St. Jerome and St. Chrysostom, signify, the Lord is come already, and so is to be taken as an admonition to those who doubted of the resurrection, and is to put them in mind, that Christ, the Judge of the living and the dead, is come already. The Rabbinical writers tells us, there are three curses among the Jews called by different names: that the first was niddui, which implied an expulsion from the synagogue for a time; the second was greater, such being quite cut off from the common society, called Cherem; the third, Maran Atha, the Lord cometh, is coming, or is come, which was followed by exemplary judgments and punishments. Thus Mons. Hure, in his Bible Dictionary, Mr. Legh, in his Critica Sacra, and also Mr. Nary. But whether this is better grounded than many other Rabbinical stories, let others judge. (Witham)
I Corinthians 16:23 The grace of our Lord, Jesus Christ, be with you.

I Corinthians 16:24 My charity be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.

Happy, thrice happy the pastor, whose life, labours, zeal, and the testimony of his own conscience, embolden him to say with St. Paul, that he loves the flock of Jesus Christ, that he only loves them for Jesus Christ, and in Jesus Christ, by virtue of the Holy Spirit.