1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Tobit 1:1 Tobias, of the tribe and city of Nephthali, (which is in the upper parts of Galilee, above Naason, beyond the way that leadeth to the west, having on the right hand the city of Sephet)

Tobias, "good God," (Tirinus) is styled Tobis, by the ancient Latin version and St. Ambrose, and Tobit by the Greek and Syriac. These copies and the Hebrew give a genealogy which does not agree. (Calmet) --- Grabe's edition, "The book of the words (or transactions) of Tobit, Son of Tobiel, son of Ananiel, son of Adouel, (manuscript has Nave) son of Galael, (manuscript, Gamael) of the seed of Asiel, of the tribe of Nephthali, (2) who was made captive in the days of Enemessar, king of the Assyrians, from Thisbe, (manuscript, Thibe) which is on the right properly (manuscript, of Kudis; Haydock) or Cades, capital (Calmet) of Nephthali in Galilee, above Aser. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and of justice all the days of my life." (Haydock) --- Nehemias and the prophets frequently speak of themselves in the first person. The truth of the history is the same. (Du Hamel) --- Beyond, or behind; (post; Haydock) as the Hebrews speak with reference to a man turned towards the east. Hence this way would be on the west, and Sephet on the north.
Tobit 1:2 *When he was made captive in the days of Salmanasar, king of the Assyrians, even in his captivity, forsook not the way of truth,

4 Kings 17:3.; 4 Kings 18:9.;
Year of the World 3283, Year before Christ 721. Salmanasar. When Osee was conquered, in the year of the world 3283. See 4 Kings 17:6. --- Truth. His constancy in the observance of the true religion was so much the more wonderful, as he was rich, and lived among the wicked. (Calmet)
Tobit 1:3 But every day gave all he could get to his brethren, his fellow-captives, that were of his kindred.

Kindred. Greek adds, "who went along with me....to Ninive."
Tobit 1:4 And when he was younger than any of the tribe of Nephthali, yet did he no childish thing in his work.

Younger. "Very young," (Haydock) or the youngest of those who administered their own affairs. The parents of Tobias were deceased. (Calmet) --- Greek, "when I was young in my country, in the land of Israel, all the tribe," etc.
Tobit 1:5 Moreover, when all went to the golden calves, *which Jeroboam, king of Israel, had made, he alone fled the company of all,

3 Kings 12:28.
All, or the greatest part; (Haydock) for some still feared God; (chap. 2:2.; Worthington) and the Greek of Tobias 5:14 or 19 informs us that Ananias and Jonathan accompanied Tobias. (Haydock) --- Greek is more diffuse. (Calmet) --- (4) "All the tribe of Nephthali, of my father, departed from the house of Jerusalem, which city had been chosen from all the tribes of Israel, for all the tribes to offer sacrifice; and the temple of the tabernacle of the most High was sanctified, and was built for ever; (5) and all the tribes, apostatizing together, sacrificed to Baal, to the heifer; (Comp. ed., to the power of Baal) and the house of Nephthali, of my father, likewise. (6) And I alone went frequently to Jerusalem, at the feasts" (Haydock) of the Passover, ete. (Menochius) --- The other versions are nearly similar. (Calmet) --- But we cannot specify all these variations. (Haydock) --- The number has induced some to conclude, not improbably, that there were two originals; (Tirinus) the Syriac by the elder, and the Chaldee by the younger Tobias. (Justiniani.) --- But this is destitute of proof. (Calmet)
Tobit 1:6 And went to Jerusalem, to the temple of the Lord, and there adored the Lord God of Israel, offering faithfully all his first-fruits, and his tithes.

Tobit 1:7 So that in the third year he gave all his tithes to the proselytes, and strangers.

Strangers. See Deuteronomy 14:28., (Menochius) Leviticus 27:30. (Calmet) --- Greek, "And the third I gave to whom it belonged, as Debbora, my father's mother, ordered me, as I was left an orphan by my father; (9) and when I was," etc. (Haydock)
Tobit 1:8 These, and such like things did he observed when but a boy, according to the law of God.

Tobit 1:9 But when he was a man, he took to wife, Anna, of his own tribe, and had a son by her, whom he called after his own name,

Man. The Jews married young: but the time was not fixed. (Calmet) --- After. Greek, "Tobias." They always style the father Tobit. (Haydock)
Tobit 1:10 And from his infancy he taught him to fear God, and to abstain from all sin.

Tobit 1:11 And when, by the captivity, he, with his wife, and his son, and all his tribe, was come to the city of Ninive,

Ninive, called Ninus by Pliny, etc. (Menochius) --- It was so large, as easily to receive a whole tribe, which was sold for slaves. (Calmet)
Tobit 1:12 (When all ate of the meats of the Gentiles) he kept his soul, and never was defiled with their meats.

Meats, such as had been immolated to idols, (Menochius) or were forbidden to the Jews. (Calmet)
Tobit 1:13 And because he was mindful of the Lord with all his heart, God gave him favour in the sight of Salmanasar, the king.

Tobit 1:14 And he gave him leave to go whithersoever he would, with liberty to do whatever he had a mind.

And he. Greek, "I was his marketter," (Haydock) to provide provisions for the palace. "He set me over all he had, till the day of his death." (Munster.) --- But this Hebrew author has probably exaggerated the matter, to make Tobias appear as great as he could. These editions add no more, continuing, (15) "And I went into Media, and I deposited with Gabael, or Gabelus," etc.
Tobit 1:15 He, therefore, went to all that were in captivity, and gave them wholesome admonitions.

Tobit 1:16 And when he was come to Rages, a city of the Medes, and had ten talents of silver of that with which he had been honoured by the king:

Rages means "rupture," by frequent earthquakes, and was (Menochius; Calmet) the residence of the Parthian kings, in spring, (Athen. 12:2.) in the mountain, separating their country from Media. --- Honoured for his salary. (Calmet)
Tobit 1:17 And when amongst a great multitude of his kindred, he saw Gabelus in want, who was one of his tribe, taking a note of his hand, he gave him the aforesaid sum of money.

Money. People might formerly make use of what was merely deposited in their hands. (Ulpian.) --- The old Latin version has, "I committed to him ten talents in gold."
Tobit 1:18 But after a long time, Salmanasar, the king, being dead, *when Sennacherib, his son, who reigned in his place, had a hatred for the children of Israel:

Year of the World 3287. Time. Salmanasar reigned fourteen years; seven after the captivity, which to people in distress would appear long. (Calmet) --- Greek, "And after Enemessar was dead, Sennacherib, his son, reigned in his stead; and his ways ceased, (or his high roads were stopped) and I could no longer go into Media." (Haydock) --- We find nothing in history to confirm this stoppage: (Calmet) but it might be in consequence of the wars. (Houbigant) See the preface. (Haydock) --- Israel. This hatred was augmented, after the unfortunate expedition into Palestine. (Calmet) (Menochius) (4 Kings 19:35.)
Tobit 1:19 Tobias daily went among all his kindren, and comforted them, and distributed to every one as he was able, out of his goods:

Goods, under Sennacherib; though he was now deprived of his place. (Calmet) --- Greek, Syriac, and Hebrew insinuate, that this happened under his predecessor. (Haydock)
Tobit 1:20 He fed the hungry, and gave clothes to the naked, and was careful to bury the dead, and they that were slain.

Slain, by order or connivance of Sennacherib. (Menochius) --- Tobias buried the dead, out of charity, and the belief of a future resurrection. Hence arises the respect for tombs and the relics of the saints. (Calmet) --- The pagans imagined that the souls could not rest till their bodies were interred. (Homer, Virgil vii., etc.) (Calmet)
Tobit 1:21 *And when **king Sennacherib was come back, fleeing from Judea, by reason of the slaughter that God had made about him for his blasphemy, and being angry, slew many of the children of Israel, Tobias buried their bodies.

4 Kings 19:35.; Ecclesiasticus 48:24.; 2 Machabees 8:19.
Year of the World 3294.
Tobit 1:22 But when it was told the king, he commanded him to be slain, and took away all his substance.

Tobit 1:23 But Tobias fleeing naked away with his son, and with his wife, lay concealed; for many loved him.

Loved him, even of the Assyrians. The Jews were not able to afford him shelter. (Menochius)
Tobit 1:24 *But after forty-five days, the king was killed by his own sons.

4 Kings 19:37.; 2 Paralipomenon 32:21.; Isaias 37:38.
Forty. Arabic, twenty-five; Greek and Syriac, fifty; other Greek copies, fifty-five days. Fagius says Tobias was hidden nineteen days. It seems, therefore, we should date these forty-five days from the return of Sennacherib. --- Sons. See 4 Kings 19:37., and Isaias 37:38. (Calmet) --- Greek adds, "and they fled to the mountains of Ararat, and Sacherdoc, (our Assaraddon) his son, reigned in his stead; and he appointed Achiachar Anael, the son of my brother, over all the accounts of his kingdom, and over all his government. And Achiachar petitioned for me; and I came to Ninive. But Achiachar was cup-bearer, (Alexandrian manuscript, receiver of wine) and keeper of the ring, and governor and keeper of accounts; and Sacherdonosos gave him the second place. But he was my nephew. And when I returned to my house, and my wife Anna, and my son Tobias, were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost," etc. (Haydock) --- This seems contrary to ver. 23. Yet the Hebrew copies agree in this particular, and mention the dignity of Akikar. But we may judge what credit these additions deserve. (Calmet) --- They merit some attention, as they may be original. See Preface. (Haydock)
Tobit 1:25 And Tobias returned to his house, and all his substance was restored to him.

Tobit 2:0 Tobias leaveth his dinner to bury the dead: he loseth his sight by God's permission, for manifestation of his patience.

Tobit 2:1 But after this, when there was a festival of the Lord, and a good dinner was prepared in Tobias's house,

House. The law authorized such feasts, Deuteronomy 12:12, and 14:28. Tobias complied with it, by inviting also the poor servants of God. Greek, "I lay down to eat." This custom prevailed in the East. (Calmet)
Tobit 2:2 He said to his son: Go, and bring some of our tribe, that fear God, to feast with us.

Tribe. Greek, "brethren indigent, and who remembers God." (Haydock) --- All had not given way to idolatry. (Worthington)
Tobit 2:3 And when he had gone, returning, he told him, that one of the children of Israel lay slain in the street. And he forthwith leaped up from his place at the table, and left his dinner, and came fasting to the body:

Street. Asarhaddon did not protect the Israelites, which renders the elevation of Akikar to the highest dignities suspicious. (Calmet) --- But the king and his minister might not be able to prevent all murders. (Haydock) --- Fasting. The ancients seldom eat anything before noon. Greek, "Before I had tasted, I leaped up and took him to a house, till the sun should be set," (Haydock) to prevent any danger from the Assyrians. (Menochius) --- lf he did not employ another, he must have eaten alone, being rendered unclean. This seems to have been the case; and hence he did not enter his own house, but lay down by the wall. (Calmet) --- Greek and Hebrew mention, that he washed himself before he eat. (Haydock)
Tobit 2:4 And taking it up, carried it privately to his house, that after the sun was down, he might bury him cautiously.

Tobit 2:5 And when he had hid the body, he ate bread with mourning and fear,

Tobit 2:6 Remembering the word which the Lord spoke by *Amos, the prophet: Your festival days shall be turned into lamentation and mourning.

Amos 8:10.; 1 Machabees 1:41.
Tobit 2:7 So when the sun was down, he went and buried him.

Tobit 2:8 Now all his neighbours blamed him, saying: Once already commandment was given for thee to be slain because of this matter, and thou didst scarce escape the sentence of death, and dost thou again bury the dead?

Tobit 2:9 *But Tobias fearing God more than the king, carried off the bodies of them that were slain, and hid them in his house, and at midnight buried them.

Tobias 1:21.
But. This version is not in Greek or Hebrew. (Calmet) --- True zeal is not repressed by fear, as charity expels it, 1 John 4:(Worthington)
Tobit 2:10 Now it happened one day, that being wearied with burying, he came to his house, and cast himself down by the wall, and slept.

Now. Greek, "And that very night I was." --- He came. Greek, "I lay myself down, being defiled, beside the wall of the court, and my face was uncovered." (Haydock) --- The touching the dead rendered a person unclean, Numbers 19:11.
Tobit 2:11 And as he was sleeping, hot dung, out of a swallow's nest, fell upon his eyes, and he was made blind.*

Year of the World 3295. Swallow's. Greek denotes "sparrows," or any other small birds: strouthia. (Serarius) --- Eyes. Greek observes that they were "opened." Hebrew, "by chance." Yet "hares, and many men, sleep with their eyes open," (Pliny XI 37.) as was here the case. (St. Athanasius, Synops.) --- lf not, the dung might insinuate itself by rubbing. It is extremely caustic. (Vales. 42.; Aldrov.17.; etc.) --- The blindness of Tobias was only a suspension of sight. (Calmet) --- Blind. Greek, "white specks or skins came upon my eyes, and I went to the physicians, but they afforded me no relief. But Achiachar fed me (Haydock) till I (or he) went to Elymais;" Hebrew of Fagius, "into Germany." (Calmet) --- Almniim. (Haydock)
Tobit 2:12 Now this trial the Lord, therefore, permitted to happen to him, that an example might be given to posterity of his patience, as also of holy Job.

Now. This is omitted in Greek and Hebrew as far as ver. 19. St. Ambrose says beautifully, that Tobias "was more grieved that he could yield no assistance to others, than for the loss of his sight."
Tobit 2:13 For, whereas, he had always feared God from his infancy, and kept his commandments; he repined not against God, because the evil of blindness had befallen him,

Tobit 2:14 But continued immoveable in the fear of God, giving thanks to God all the days of his life.

Tobit 2:15 For as the kings insulted over holy Job, so his relations and kinsmen mocked at his life, saying:

Kings. So Job's three friends are here called, because they were princes in their respective territories, (Challoner) like the petty kings of Palestine, in the days of Abraham and of Josue. They are styled kings in the Greek version of Job. (Calmet) --- Relations, (parentes.) His father and mother were dead. (Worthington)
Tobit 2:16 Where is thy hope, for which thou gavest alms, and buriedst the dead?

Tobit 2:17 But Tobias rebuked them, saying: Speak not so:

Tobit 2:18 For we are the children of saints, and look for that life which God will give to those that never change their faith from him.

Saints; Abraham, etc. Thus Mathathias encouraged his children; (1 Machabees 2:50.) and no argument can be more forcible. Dice puer virtutem ex me, verumque laborem Sis memor, et te animo repetentem exempla tuorum Et pater Aeneas et avunculus excitet Hector. -----Virgil, Aeneid xii. --- Life eternal. These grand truths were more developed, as the Messias was nearer at hand.
Tobit 2:19 Now Anna, his wife, went daily to weaving work, and she brought home what she could get for their living by the labour of her hands.

Work. This was usually the employment of women. The great charities of Tobias, physicians, etc., had reduced him to poverty.
Tobit 2:20 Whereby it came to pass, that she received a young kid, and brought it home:

Kid, which had not left off sucking. Greek adds, that this was given besides the usual wages. (Menochius)
Tobit 2:21 And when her husband heard it bleating, he said: *Take heed, lest perhaps it be stolen, restore ye it to its owners; for it is not lawful for us either to eat or to touch any thing that cometh by theft.

Deuteronomy 22:1.
Theft. He was the master of the family, and knew that there was no money in the house, so that he was not guilty of rash judgment, (Menochius) though his wife might naturally be offended.
Tobit 2:22 *At these words, his wife being angry, answered: It is evident thy hope is come to nothing, and thy alms now appear.

Job 22:9.
At. Greek, "but she said: It was given to me in addition to my wages. Yet I did not give credit to her, and I ordered her to restore it to its owners; and I blushed for her. But she replied: Where are thy alms-deeds and thy just works? Behold, all things are known with thee. Then, through grief, I wept," etc. (Haydock) --- Hope in God, who nevertheless leaves us in distress. (Menochius) --- She indirectly finds fault with Providence, which increases the grief of Tobias; or, at least, she insinuates that he must have been a hypocrite, as the friends of Job unjustly argued, from his being afflicted. (Haydock)
Tobit 2:23 And with these, and other such like words, she upbraided him.

Tobit 3:0 The prayer of Tobias, and of Sara, in their several afflictions, are heard by God, and the angel Raphael is sent to relieve them.

Tobit 3:1 Then Tobias sighed, and began to pray with tears,

Then, retiring, ver. 25. --- Tears. He manifests no degree of impatience. (Calmet)
Tobit 3:2 Saying: Thou art just, O Lord, and all thy judgments are just, and all thy ways are mercy, and truth, and judgment:

Judgment. Even in punishing, God remembers mercy, (Haydock) and never fails to perform what he has promised.
Tobit 3:3 And now, O Lord, think of me, and take not revenge of my sins, neither remember my offences, nor those of my parents.

Parents, so as to punish me on their account. (Menochius) --- The Scripture frequently seems to indicate that this is the case; (Exodus 20:5.) and the Church still prays, Remember not, O Lord, our offences, nor those of our parents. (Calmet) --- But children are only punished when they imitate the wicked conduct of their ancestors: they may be afflicted, though innocent, as their virtue will thus be tried, and shine more gloriously. (Haydock) --- The pagans, being convinced that God can be guilty of no injustice, and perceiving that people who appeared to be free from sin were yet unhappy, concluded that they were explaining the sins committed in another world. (Plotin. 2:13.; Origen, prin. iii.) (Calmet) --- This might arise from a confused notion of original sin. (Pascal's Thoughts.) (Haydock)
Tobit 3:4 *For we have not obeyed thy commandments, therefore are we delivered to spoil and to captivity, and death, and are made a fable, and a reproach to all nations, amongst which thou hast scattered us.

Deuteronomy 28:15.
Tobit 3:5 And now, O Lord, great are thy judgments, because we have not done according to thy precepts, and have not walked sincerely before thee:

Tobit 3:6 And now, O Lord, do with me according to thy will, and command my spirit to be received in peace: for it is better for me to die, than to live.

Peace. Greek, "that I may be dissolved, and return to the earth; (literally, become earth) because it is more advantageous for me to die than to live, since I have heard false reproaches, and am much grieved. Command that I may be freed from this necessity, to go to my eternal place." (Haydock)
Tobit 3:7 Now it happened on the same day, that Sara, daughter of Raguel, in Rages, a city of the Medes, received a reproach from one of her father's servant-maids,

Rages. In the Greek it is Ecbatana which was also called Rages. For there were two cities in Media of the name of Rages: Raguel dwelt in one of them and Gabelus in the other. (Challoner; Menochius) --- Profane authors mention a Rages in the vicinity of Ecbatana. (Diod. Bib. 19.) --- It may here denote the province. (Worthington)
Tobit 3:8 Because she had been given to seven husbands, and a devil named Asmodeus had killed them, at their first going in unto her.

Asmodeus, "the fire of Media." Hebrew, "king of the devils," of that country, exciting people to lust, (Menochius; Serarius, q. 8.) and destroying them. (Worthington) --- Unto her. Greek and Hebrew intimate, when they first entered the nuptial chamber, Tobias 6:14.
Tobit 3:9 So when she reproved the maid for her fault, she answered her, saying: May we never see son, or daughter of thee upon the earth, thou murderer of thy husbands.

Murder. Greek, "Dost thou not understand that thou hast suffocated thy husbands. Thou hast already had seven husbands, and hast not received the name of any of them. Why dost thou strike us on their account? If they be dead, go along with them. May we," etc. (Haydock)
Tobit 3:10 Wilt thou kill me also, as thou hast already killed seven husbands? At these words she went into an upper chamber of her house: and for three days and three nights did neither eat, nor drink:

At. Greek And Hebrew, "Hearing these things she was much grieved, so as to be unable to breath; (Haydock; oste apagxasthai) or, on the point of strangling herself." (Grotius) (Calmet) --- But this interpretation is groundless, (Houbigant) and very injurious to Sara. (Haydock) --- She could not entertain the thought without sin. Yet the Jews had very relaxed notions on this head, Judges 16:30., and 1Kings 31:4. God approved of the conduct of Sara. (Calmet) --- Greek continues, "and she said, I am the only daughter of my father. If I do this thing, (as the servants suggested) it will be a disgrace for him....and she prayed before the window; and said, Blessed," ver. 13. (Haydock) --- There is no mention of the three days. Hebrew and Syriac also omit ver. 16 to 24. (Calmet)
Tobit 3:11 But continuing in prayer, with tears besought God, that he would deliver her from this reproach.

Tobit 3:12 And it came to pass on the third day, when she was making an end of her prayer, blessing the Lord,

Tobit 3:13 She said: Blessed is thy name, O God of our fathers: who when thou hast been angry, wilt shew mercy, and in the time of tribulation forgivest the sins of them that call upon thee.

Name. Greek, "Blessed art thou O Lord, my God, and blessed the name of thy glory, holy and glorious for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever." (Haydock) --- As she prayed for a long time, the Vulgate gives some sentences; and the Greek and Hebrew others. (Serarius; Salien) (Menochius)
Tobit 3:14 To thee, O Lord, I turn my face, to thee I direct my eyes.

Tobit 3:15 I beg, O Lord, that thou loose me from the bond of this reproach, or else take me away from the earth.

Earth. Holy men have thus desired to die, as was the case with Moses, Elias, Job, and St. Paul provided God was willing. (Menochius)
Tobit 3:16 Thou knowest, O Lord, that I never coveted a husband, and have kept my soul clean from all lust.

Coveted, through impure love. Greek, "I am pure from all the sin of a man, and I have not defiled my name, nor the name of my father, in the land of our captivity. I am an only child, " etc. (Haydock) --- Lust: a very high encomium; which Sara mentions without vanity, placing her confidence in God. (Menochius) (Proverbs 20:9.)
Tobit 3:17 Never have I joined myself with them that play: neither have I made myself partaker with them that walk in lightness.

Play, lasciviously, (Menochius) or dance. (Hugo.) (Exodus 32:1.)
Tobit 3:18 But a husband I consented to take, with thy fear, not with my lust.

Tobit 3:19 And either I was unworthy of them, or they, perhaps, were not worthy of me: because, perhaps, thou hast kept me for another man.

Tobit 3:20 For thy counsel is not in man's power.

Tobit 3:21 But this every one is sure of that worshippeth thee, that his life, if it be under trial, shall be crowned: and if it be under tribulation, it shall be delivered: and if it be under correction, it shall be allowed to come to thy mercy.

Crowned. James 1:12. --- Delivered from falling, (Menochius) and in due time from affliction. (Haydock)
Tobit 3:22 For thou art not delighted in our being lost: because, after a storm thou makest a calm, and after tears and weeping thou pourest in joyfulness.

Tobit 3:23 Be thy name, O God of Israel, blessed for ever.

Tobit 3:24 At that time the prayers of them both were heard in the sight of the glory of the most high God:

Tobit 3:25 And the holy angel of the Lord, Raphael, was sent to heal them both, whose prayers at one time were rehearsed in the sight of the Lord.

Raphael, "the medicine of God." He is invoked not only for health, but also in journeys. (Calmet) --- Both. Greek and Hebrew of Fagius add, "Tobit, by taking away the white film, and to give Sara....for a wife to Tobias....and to bind Asmodeus, the wicked devil; because Tobias was to have her. At the same hour, Tobit returning entered his own house, and Sara....descended from her upper room." (Haydock) --- Lord, by the angel, Acts 10., and Apocalypse 5. (Worthington)
Tobit 4:0 Tobias thinking he shall die, giveth his son godly admonitions: and telleth him of money he had lent to a friend.

Tobit 4:1 Therefore, *when Tobias thought that his prayer was heard that he might die, he called to him Tobias, his son,

Year of the World 3299. When. Greek and Hebrew and the old Vulgate, (Calmet) "That very day Tobit remembered the money which he had deposited with Gabael....and said within himself, I begged for death; why do I not call Tobias, my son, that I may declare it to him before I die? And calling him, he said: Son, if I die, bury me, and despise not thy mother." (Haydock) --- He gives him fourteen instructions, in imitation of Moses and David, 3 Kings 2:(Worthington)
Tobit 4:2 And said to him: Hear, my son, the words of my mouth, and lay them as a fountain in thy heart.

Tobit 4:3 When God shall take my soul, thou shalt bury my body: *and thou shalt honour thy mother all the days of her life:

Exodus 20:12.; Ecclesiasticus 7:29.
Life. St. Augustine (Conf. 10:34) cries out, "O Light, which Tobias had in view, when these corporal eyes being closed, he taught his son the way of life."
Tobit 4:4 For thou must be mindful what and how great perils she suffered for thee in her womb.

Tobit 4:5 And when she also shall have ended the time of her life, bury her by me.

By me. Greek adds, "in the same sepulchre," like the patriarchs. Pope Leo decreed: statuimus unumquemque in sepulchro suorum majorum jacere.
Tobit 4:6 And all the days of thy life have God in thy mind: and take heed thou never consent to sin, nor transgress the commandments of the Lord, our God.

Tobit 4:7 *Give alms out of thy substance, and turn not away thy face from any poor person: for so it shall come to pass, that the face of the Lord shall not be turned from thee.

Proverbs 3:9.; Ecclesiasticus 4:1.; Ecclesiasticus 14:13.; Luke 14:13.
Substance. Be not liberal of another’s property. Greek adds, "and let not thy eye be envious, when thou givest alms." Do it generously. (Calmet) --- The same doctrine of the reward of good works, occurs [in] Daniel 4:24. (Worthington)
Tobit 4:8 *According to thy ability be merciful.

Ecclesiasticus 35:12.
Tobit 4:9 If thou have much, give abundantly: if thou have little, take care even so to bestow willingly a little.

Little. God regards the affections more than the gift. (Calmet)
Tobit 4:10 For thus thou storest up to thyself a good reward for the day of necessity.

Tobit 4:11 *For alms deliver from all sin, and from death, and will not suffer the soul to go into darkness.

Ecclesiasticus 29:15.
Sin, provided faith, etc., be not wanting. (Menochius) --- When the Scripture seems to attribute salvation to one virtue, to faith, repentance, etc., it always presupposes that the heart is free from all mortal guilt. (Haydock) --- Alms deeds may procure a fresh supply of graces. (Menochius) --- Darkness, or hell, which is thus represented, Matthew 8:12., and 22:13., and Ephesians 6:12.
Tobit 4:12 Alms shall be a great confidence before the most high God, to all them that give it.

Give it, with true charity, 1 Corinthians 13:3. (Calmet)
Tobit 4:13 *Take heed to keep thyself, my son, from all fornication, and beside thy wife never endure to know a crime.

1 Thessalonians 4:3.
Crime, or any commerce with another. (Haydock) --- Greek and Hebrew add, conformable to the law, (Exodus 34:16.) "And take not a strange woman, who may not be of thy father's tribe, as we are the sons of the prophets, Noe, etc. ....All these married from among their brethren, and were blessed in their children, and their seed shall inherit the land." (Haydock)
Tobit 4:14 Never suffer pride to reign in thy mind, or in thy words: *for from it all perdition took its beginning.

Genesis 3:5.
Perdition of the angels, of Adam, etc. (Calmet) (Genesis 3:5.) (Menochius)
Tobit 4:15 *If any man hath done any work for thee, immediately pay him his hire, and let not the wages of thy hired servant stay with thee at all.

Leviticus 19:13.; Deuteronomy 24:14.
At all, after sunset, Deuteronomy 24:14.
Tobit 4:16 *See thou never do to another what thou wouldst hate to have done to thee by another.

Matthew 7:12.; Luke 6:31.
Another. Behold the grand maxim of fraternal charity, Matthew 8:12. Alex. Severus was so much pleased with it, that he had it often repeated by a herald, and inscribed on public edifices. What thou wouldst not have done to thee, do not thou to another. (Lamprid.) --- Greek and Hebrew add a caution against drunkenness and drunken companions. Fagius has another against revenge; and the old Vulgate, "give not way to wickedness."
Tobit 4:17 *Eat thy bread with the hungry and the needy, and with thy garments cover the naked.

Luke 14:13.
Eat. Greek, "give." --- Naked. Greek adds, "give in alms all thy superfluities, and let not thy eye repine," etc., as ver. 7. (Haydock)
Tobit 4:18 Lay out thy bread, and thy wine, upon the burial of a just man, and do not eat and drink thereof with the wicked.

Burial, or sepulchre. See Baruch 6:26.; Ecclesiasticus 7:37., and 30:18. The Jews followed this custom, which was common to the pagans, but from very different motives. The latter supposed that the souls fed on such meats. The Jews, and afterwards Christians, did it to feed the indigent, that they might pray for the deceased. These feasts were sometimes abused, and on that account forbidden by St. Ambrose, to whose authority St. Monica submitted. (St. Augustine, Conf. 6:3.) See Constitutions Apostolic 8:24. (Calmet) --- Just man, who may be supposed to have died in God's peace. (Haydock) --- It is of no service to pray and give alms for the damned. --- Wicked, so as to encourage their evil conduct. (Menochius) --- Works of mercy extend to the dead. (Worthington)
Tobit 4:19 Seek counsel always of a wise man.

Tobit 4:20 Bless God at all times: and desire of him to direct thy ways, and that all thy counsels may abide in him.

Abide. Greek, "prosper," (Menochius) or "be directed. For every nation has not counsel: but this same Lord bestows all good things. And whensoever he will, he humbles, as he pleases. And now, my son, remember my commands, and let them not be effaced from thy heart. Now, also, I make known unto thee the ten talents of silver, which I deposited with Gabael," etc. (Haydock)
Tobit 4:21 I tell thee also, my son, that I lent ten talents of silver, while thou wast yet a child, to Gabelus, in Rages, a city of the Medes, and I have a note of his hand with me:

And 1:The Greek, etc., take no notice of this, (Calmet) nor of the following verse. (Haydock) --- The virtuous dispose of their temporal effects by will, etc. (Worthington)
Tobit 4:22 Now, therefore, inquire how thou mayst go to him, and receive of him the aforesaid sum of money, and restore to him the note of his hand.

Tobit 4:23 Fear not, my son: we lead indeed a poor life, *but we shall have many good things if we fear God, and depart from all sin, and do that which is good.

Romans 8:17.
We lead. Greek, "if we grow poor. Thou hast much if thou fear,"etc.
Tobit 5:0 Young Tobias seeking a guide for his journey, the angel Raphael, in shape of a man, undertaketh this office.

Tobit 5:1 Then Tobias answered his father, and said: I will do all things, father, which thou hast commanded me.

Tobit 5:2 But how I shall get this money, I cannot tell: he knoweth not me, and I know not him: what token shall I give him? nor did I ever know the way which leadeth thither.

I cannot. Greek, "as I know him not; and he gave him the handwriting, and said to him: Seek," etc. (Haydock) --- The Greek, etc., had not before noticed this token. (Calmet) --- Hitherto Tobit had spoken in the first person. (Haydock)
Tobit 5:3 Then his father answered him, and said: I have a note of his hand with me, which when thou shalt shew him, he will presently pay it.

Tobit 5:4 But go now, and seek thee out some faithful man, to go with thee for his hire: that thou mayst receive it, while I yet live.

Tobit 5:5 Then Tobias going forth, found a beautiful young man, standing girded, and as it were ready to walk.

Beautiful; resplendent with celestial majesty. (Calmet) --- Greek, "he found Raphael, who was an angel, and he knew it not, and said to him: Canst thou go with me to Rages, of Media, and art thou acquainted with the places?" (Haydock) --- This angel prefigured Jesus Christ, who took indeed our human nature. (Ven. Bede) (Worthington)
Tobit 5:6 And not knowing that he was an angel of God, he saluted him, and said: From whence art thou, good young man?

Tobit 5:7 But he answered: Of the children of Israel. And Tobias said to him: Knowest thou the way that leadeth to the country of the Medes?

Israel. This is not in Greek, etc. But the old Vulgate has, "Raphael answered, of the children of Israel, thy brethren, I am come hither for work," (Haydock) or employment. (Calmet)
Tobit 5:8 And he answered: I know it: and I have often walked through all the ways thereof, and I have abode with Gabelus, our brother, who dwelleth at Rages, a city of the Medes, which is situate in the mount of Ecbatana.

Often. Greek, "lodged with Gabael, our brother, and Tobias," etc.
Tobit 5:9 And Tobias said to him: Stay for me, I beseech thee, till I tell these same things to my father.

Tobit 5:10 Then Tobias going in, told all these things to his father. Upon which his father being in admiration, desired that he would come in unto him.

Tobit 5:11 So going in, he saluted him, and said: Joy be to thee always.

He saluted. Greek, "they saluted each other," (Haydock) --- The rest till ver. 16, is omitted also in Syriac and Fagius. But the Hebrew of Munster nearly agrees with the Vulgate. (Calmet)
Tobit 5:12 And Tobias said: What manner of joy shall be to me, who sit in darkness, and see not the light of heaven?

Tobit 5:13 And the young man said to him: Be of good courage, thy cure from God is at hand.

Tobit 5:14 And Tobias said to him: Canst thou conduct my son to Gabelus, at Rages, a city of the Medes? and when thou shalt return, I will pay thee thy hire.

Tobit 5:15 And the angel said to him: I will conduct him thither, and bring him back to thee.

Tobit 5:16 And Tobias said to him: I pray thee, tell me, of what family, or what tribe art thou?

Tobit 5:17 And Raphael, the angel, answered: Dost thou seek the family of him thou hirest, or the hired servant himself, to go with thy son?

Tobit 5:18 But lest I should make thee uneasy, I am Azarias, the son of the great Ananias.

But lest. Greek Comp., "and Tobit said, brother, I wish to know thy race and thy name. But he replied, I am of the race of Azarias, and of Ananias, who is also thy brother." Whitaker would have this to be a lie. (Haydock) --- But the apparitions of angels are not to be examined by the ordinary rules of life. They take the name of God without scruple, as they acted in his name, Genesis 31:11. (Calmet; Menochius; Tirinus) --- Azarias. The angel took the form of Azarias; and therefore might call himself by the name of the man whom he personated. Azarias, in Hebrew, signifies the help of God; and Ananias, the grace of God. (Challoner) --- Tobias had not inquired whether he was a man or an angel, as Houbigant answers the objection of Prideaux. (Haydock) --- The "help and medicine of God" nearly correspond. (Worthington)
Tobit 5:19 And Tobias answered: Thou art of a great family. But I pray thee be not angry that I desired to know thy family.

Thy family. Greek, Syriac, etc., add, "Thou art my brother, of a noble and good race. For I know Ananias and Jonathan, sons of the great Semei, as we went together to Jerusalem to adore, carrying the first-born, and tithes of the produce; and they did not join in the error of their brethren. Thou art of a great stock, brother. But tell me what reward I shall give thee? A drachm a day, and what may be requisite for thee and for my son. And I will give more than the hire if you return in health. And they agreed; and he said to Tobias, Be in readiness for the journey, and may you be directed: and his son prepared the requisites for the journey," etc. (Haydock)
Tobit 5:20 And the angel said to him: I will lead thy son safe, and bring him to thee again safe.

Tobit 5:21 And Tobias answering, said: May you have a good journey, and God be with you in your way, and his angel accompany you.

Tobit 5:22 Then all things being ready, that were to be carried in their journey, Tobias bid his father and his mother farewell, and they set out both together.

Then all. It was not easy to procure provisions on the road. --- Together. Greek and Syriac add, (Calmet) "and the dog of the child with them."
Tobit 5:23 *And when they were departed, his mother began to weep, and to say: Thou hast taken the staff of our old age, and sent him away from us.

Tobias 10:4.
Tobit 5:24 I wish the money for which thou hast sent him, had never been.

Tobit 5:25 For our poverty was sufficient for us, that we might account it as riches, that we saw our son.

Tobit 5:26 And Tobias said to her: Weep not, our son will arrive thither safe, and will return safe to us, and thy eyes shall see him.

Tobit 5:27 For I believe that the good angel of God doth accompany him, and doth order all things well that are done about him, so that he shall return to us with joy.

Angel. This was the persuasion of the ancient Hebrews, approved by the gospel, Matthew 18:10. Some of the fathers also believed that each person had an evil angel tempting him to sin. (Origen, St. Gregory Nyssa, Vit. Mosis.; Cassian, col. 8:17. (Calmet) --- But this opinion is discarded. (Haydock)
Tobit 5:28 At these words his mother ceased weeping, and held her peace.

Tobit 6:0 By the angel's advice, young Tobias taketh hold on a fish that assaulteth him. Reserveth the heart, the gall, and the liver, for medicines. They lodge at the house of Raguel, whose daughter, Sara, Tobias is to marry; she had before been married to seven husbands, who were all slain by a devil.

Tobit 6:1 And *Tobias went forward, and the dog followed him, and he lodged the first night by the river of Tigris.

Year of the World 3299. Dog. Greek and Hebrew specify this circumstance, (chap. 5:22.) but not here. Those who attack the authority of this book, infer that such a trifle would not be noticed by the Holy Spirit, Tobias 11:9. Yet Homer mentions the fawning of the dog upon Ulysses, after he had been 20 years from home; and the gravest historians record instances of the fidelity of dogs. (Calmet) --- Night, or stage, mansione, (Haydock) at a caravansera, or house where travellers might stop all night, and sometimes, though seldom, might be supplied with necessaries. Herodotus (V. 52.) mentions several in the kingdom of Persia. (Calmet)
Tobit 6:2 And he went out to wash his feet, and behold a monstrous fish came up to devour him.

Feet. Greek, "to bathe." --- Fish. The learned are of opinion that this was the fish which Pliny calls callyonymus, ([Natural History?] L. XXII. ch. 7.) the gall of which is of sovereign virtue to remove white specks that grow over the eyes. (Challoner) --- Other fishes have the like virtue; and as the aforesaid has no scales, and is not above a foot long, it could not be lawfully eaten by the Israelites, nor could it suffice for ten days' provision, ver. 6. (Leviticus 11:10.) Others, therefore, prefer (Calmet) the sea-calf, (Brado) the hippopotamus, (Grotius) the crocodile, (Denis the Carthusian) whale, (Theophylactus) sturgeon, or silurus. (Bochart, Anim. 4:15.) --- But there are great difficulties with respect to all these; and Fran. George adopts the sentiment of the Rabbins in favour of the pike, which seems the least objectionable, as it has scales, gills, and cannot live long out of water, ver. 4. It grows to a great size in the Tigris, and its gall is good for the eyes. (Calmet)
Tobit 6:3 And Tobias being afraid of him, cried out with a loud voice, saying: Sir, he cometh upon me.

And. This verse is not in Greek. Tobias and the fish were both in the water. (Calmet)
Tobit 6:4 And the angel said to him: Take him by the gill, and draw him to thee. And when he had done so, he drew him out upon the land, and he began to pant before his feet.

Take him. "It," would be as proper. --- Gill. Greek, "Seize the fish, and the boy got the better of the fish, and threw it upon the land." (Haydock) --- Hebrew also omits the gill and the panting, (Calmet) circumstances which would invalidate the opinions of many respecting the nature of this fish, ver. 2. (Haydock)
Tobit 6:5 Then the angel said to him: Take out the entrails of this fish, and lay up his heart, and his gall, and his liver, for thee: for these are necessary for useful medicines.

For thee. Greek, "carefully." (Haydock) --- The rest is omitted also in the Hebrew of Fagius. (Calmet)
Tobit 6:6 And when he had done so, he roasted the flesh thereof, and they took it with them in the way: the rest they salted, as much as might serve them, till they came to Rages, the city of the Medes.

Flesh. St. Paul uses the like expression, (1 Corinthians xv.) as well as Pliny, [Natural History?] 9:15. (Worthington) --- Took. Greek and Fagius, (Calmet) "eat, and both went on till they came near to Ecbatana." (Haydock) --- From Ninive to Rages would be 10 or 12 days' journey. (Calmet)
Tobit 6:7 Then Tobias asked the angel, and said to him: I beseech thee, brother Azarias, tell me what remedies are these things good for, which thou hast bid me keep of the fish?

Tell. Greek, "What is the heart, the liver, and the gall of the fish for?" (Haydock)
Tobit 6:8 And the angel, answering, said to him: If thou put a little piece of its heart upon coals, the smoke thereof driveth away all kind of devils, either from man or from woman, so that they come no more to them.

Its heart, etc. The liver, (ver. 19.) God was pleased to give to these things a virtue against those proud spirits, to make them, who affected to be like the Most High, subject to such mean corporeal creatures, as instruments of his power. (Challoner) --- God sometimes makes use of things as remedies which have, naturally, a different effect; as when Christ put clay on the eyes of the blind man, John ix. The things which the angel ordered were salutary, by God's appointment. (Worthington) --- They could not act directly upon a spirit: but they might upon the person troubled by one, as Saul was relieved by music. (Calmet, Diss.) --- The smoke was a sign of the devil's expulsion, and of the efficacy of prayer; or rather, God subjected the proud spirits to such weak elements. (Serarius, q. 3.) (Menochius) --- Greek, "and he said to him, respecting the heart and liver, if any demon or wicked spirit be troublesome, make these smoke before a man or a woman, and the person shall be troubled no longer.
Tobit 6:9 And the gall is good for anointing the eyes, in which there is a white speck, and they shall be cured.

Gall. This is generally allowed by physicians to be most excellent, particularly that of the callyonymus, and of the hyena, (Vales, Phil. 42.; Galen 10.; Menochius) and silurus, etc., so that one objection of the adversaries of this book falls to the ground. (Houbigant)
Tobit 6:10 And Tobias said to him: Where wilt thou that we lodge?

And. Greek, "But as they approached to Rages, the angel said to the young man: Brother, to-day we shall lodge with Raguel, and he is thy relation, and he has an only daughter, by name Sara: I will propose that she may be given to thee for a wife, because the inheritance belongs to thee, and thou art the only one of her kindred. The girl is beautiful and prudent. Now, therefore, give ear to me, and I will speak to her father, and when we return from Rages, we will celebrate the nuptials. For I know Raguel, that he will not give her to another man, comformably to the law of Moses, or he will incur death; because thou art entitled to the inheritance before any other. Then," etc., ver. 14. (Haydock) --- The law regulated the marriages of heiresses, (Numbers 36:6.) though not under pain of death. (Calmet)
Tobit 6:11 And the angel answering, said: Here is one whose name is Raguel, a near kinsman of thy tribe, and he hath a daughter named Sara, but he hath no son nor any other daughter beside her.

Tobit 6:12 *All his substance is due to thee, and thou must take her to wife.

Numbers 27:8.; Numbers 36:8.
Tobit 6:13 Ask her, therefore, of her father, and he will give her thee to wife.

Tobit 6:14 Then Tobias answered, and said: I hear that she hath been given to seven husbands, and they all died: moreover, I have heard, that a devil killed them.

Died. Greek, "were destroyed in the nuptial chamber, (numphe). And as I am my father’s only son, I fear lest, approaching to her, I should die like the former; because a demon is in love with her, which hurts no one but such as approach to her. Now, therefore, I fear lest I should die, and bring down the life of my father and mother upon me to their grave." (Haydock) --- If this text may be styled Scripture, it only records the opinion of Toby[Tobias]. (Calmet) or what he had "heard." (Haydock) --- Many grave authors have been of the same persuasion that devils could be enamoured with mortal beauties: (Calmet) talesque asseverant ut hoc negare impudentiae esse videatur. (St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] 15:23; Delrio, Magic. 2.) --- But this opinion is now almost entirely abandoned. Many who have testified such things, may have experienced only some diabolical illusions. The devil could not love the beauty, nor the virtue of Sara. But he was permitted by God to exercise his malice against those who would have gratified their impure desires. (Calmet) --- We may perhaps decide too peremptorily on the nature of devils, with which we are little acquainted. As they are susceptible of pride, anger, etc., why may they not also give way to some subtle kind of mental impurity? (Houbigant)
Tobit 6:15 Now I am afraid, lest the same thing should happen to me also: and whereas I am the only child of my parents, I should bring down their old age with sorrow to hell.

To hell. That is, to the place where the souls were kept below, before the coming of Christ; (Challoner) as the just had not yet access to heaven. See Genesis xxxvii. (Worthington) Greek adds, "and they have no other son to bury them."
Tobit 6:16 Then the angel, Raphael, said to him: Hear me, and I will shew thee who they are, over whom the devil can prevail.

Raphael. Greek, "said to him: Dost thou not remember that thy father ordered thee to take a wife of thy kindered? Now then hearken to me, brother; for she shall be thy wife. Mind not the devil. For this night she shall be given in marriage to thee; and if thou enter the nuptial chamber, thou shalt take the ashes of incense, and shalt place thereon some of the heart and liver," etc., ver. 19. (Haydock)
Tobit 6:17 For they who in such manner receive matrimony, as to shut out God from themselves, and from their mind, and to give themselves to their lust, as the horse and mule, which have not understanding, over them the devil hath power.

Mule, which are very libidinous, Psalm xiii. --- Power. Yet he is not always permitted to kill them, as God often allows them time for repentance, or suffers them to draw down heavier judgments. (Menochius) --- "The devils can do no more than God secretly permits;" (St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] 2:23.) and "God justly suffers the wicked to fall victims to their iniquitous appetites." (St. Gregory, mor. ii.)
Tobit 6:18 But thou, when thou shalt take her, go into the chamber, and for three days keep thyself continent from her, and give thyself to nothing else but to prayers with her.

Days. No morality could be more pure. The Christian Church has given similar counsels, in the Capitulars of France, and of Erard, archbishop of Tours, and in many rituals published in the 16th century. The council of Trent only advises people to approach to the sacraments of penance and the Holy Eucharist, three days at least before marriage. The Greeks, in their third council of Carthage, (canon 13) order the first night to be spent in continence.
Tobit 6:19 And on that night lay the liver of the fish on the fire, and the devil shall be driven away.

Lay. Greek adds, "some of the heart....and make it smoke, and the devil shall smell, and flee away, and shall not return for ever." (Haydock) --- This is contrary to reason, say our adversaries. But though devils be incorporeal, may they not be affected by certain bodies, as our souls are when our limbs are hurt? The angel chose this sort of usual exorcism, that those who were present might be convinced of the devil’s departure. As the devils abuse the works of the creation, it was convenient that they should be punished by them; as they submit to magical operations, they must feel the power of such exorcisms (Houbigant) as are authorized by God and his Church. (Haydock)
Tobit 6:20 But the second night thou shalt be admitted into the society of the holy patriarchs.

Society (copulatione.) He then obtained this blessing, though he knew not his wife till the fourth night. (Worthington) --- His marriage resembled that of the patriarchs. (Calmet) --- Greek, "But when thou shalt go to her, arise both, and cry to the merciful God, and he will save and have pity on you. Fear not, for she was prepared for thee from eternity; and thou shalt save her, and she shall go with thee; and I flatter myself that thou shalt have children of her. And as soon as Tobias heard this, he loved her, and his soul was much attached to her: and they arrived at Ecbatana." (Haydock) --- Some may wonder that Tobias did not ask for the consent of his parents. But the angel reminded him of his father’s injunctions, (Calmet) and spoke in such a manner, that he was convinced his counsel was from God. (Haydock)
Tobit 6:21 And the third night thou shalt obtain a blessing, that sound children may be born of you.

Tobit 6:22 And when the third night is past, thou shalt take the virgin, with the fear of the Lord, moved rather for love of children than for lust, that in the seed of Abraham thou mayst obtain a blessing in children.

Tobit 7:0 They are kindly entertained by Raguel. Tobias demandeth Sara to wife.

Tobit 7:1 And *they went into Raguel, and Raguel received them with joy.

Year of the World 3299. Joy; though as yet he only took them for Israelites. (Menochius) --- Greek, "And they came to the house of Raguel. But Sara met them, and saluted them, as they did her, and she introduced them into the house."
Tobit 7:2 And Raguel looking upon Tobias, said to Anna, his wife: How like is this young man to my cousin?

Anna. Greek and Hebrew, Edna, "pleasure." --- Cousin. Greek adds, "Tobit." (Haydock) --- It is not certain that they were cousin-germans. (Calmet)
Tobit 7:3 And when he had spoken these words, he said: Whence are ye, young men, our brethren?

Tobit 7:4 But they said: We are of the tribe of Nephthali, of the captivity of Ninive.

Tobit 7:5 And Raguel said to them: Do you know Tobias, my brother? And they said: We know him.

My. Greek, "our brother. But they replied: We know him. And he said: Is he well? But they answered: He is both alive and in health. And Tobias said; He is my father."
Tobit 7:6 And when he was speaking many good things of him, the angel said to Raguel: Tobias, concerning whom thou inquirest, is this young man's father.

Tobit 7:7 And Raguel went to him, and kissed him with tears, and weeping upon his neck, said: A blessing be upon thee, my son, because thou art the son of a good and most virtuous man.

Went. Greek, "leaped up." --- A. Greek, "my good....man. And hearing that Tobit had lost his sight, he was grieved, and wept."
Tobit 7:8 And Anna, his wife, and Sara, their daughter, wept.

Tobit 7:9 And after they had spoken, Raguel commanded a sheep to be killed, and a feast to be prepared. And when he desired them to sit down to dinner,

After. Greek, "and they gave them a cordial reception. And they slew (sacrificed) a ram of the flock, and placed much food before them," (Haydock) to shew their regard, Genesis 18:6. (Calmet) --- "But Tobias said, to Raphael: Brother Azarias, mention what thou saidst to me on the road, and let the affair come to perfection. And he explained the matter to Raguel. And Raguel said: Eat and drink, and be merry. It behoveth thee to have my child. Yet I will lay the truth before thee. I gave my child to seven husbands, and when they entered in to her, they died the very night. For the present, therefore, be merry. And Tobias said: I will taste nothing here, till you produce and place her before me. And Raguel said: Take care of her henceforth, according to judgment: (Haydock; or the law.; Calmet) you are brother and sister. May then the merciful God grant you the greatest prosperity. And he called Sara, his daughter, and she came to her father: then taking her by the hand, he gave her," ver. 15. (Haydock) --- St. Ambrose (Off. 3:14.) reads in the same manner, (Calmet) and commends the candour of Raguel in disclosing the truth, though it might have prevented his daughter from marrying; (Worthington) a case where people allow themselves (Calmet) too much liberty, in concealing defects. (Haydock)
Tobit 7:10 Tobias said: I will not eat nor drink here this day, unless thou first grant me my petition, and promise to give me Sara, thy daughter.

Tobit 7:11 Now when Raguel heard this, he was afraid, knowing what had happened to those seven husbands that went in unto her: and he began to fear, lest it might happen to him also in like manner: and as he was in suspense, and gave no answer to his petition,

Tobit 7:12 The angel said to him: Be not afraid to give her to this man, for to him who feareth God, is thy daughter due to be his wife: therefore another could not have her.

Tobit 7:13 Then Raguel said: I doubt not but God hath regarded my prayers and tears in his sight.

Tobit 7:14 And I believe he hath therefore made you come to me, that this maid might be married to one of her own kindred, *according to the law of Moses: and now doubt not but I will give her to thee.

Numbers 36:6.
Moses. It was not so much in force during the captivity, particularly as Raguel had only moveables; and therefore the seven former husbands had not been near relations. (Menochius) --- It was a disgrace to refuse marrying a relation, who was an heiress, Numbers 36:6., and Ruth 4:6. (Calmet)
Tobit 7:15 And taking the right hand of his daughter, he gave it into the right hand of Tobias, saying: The God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, be with you, and may he join you together, and fulfil his blessing in you.

Hand. This was the mode of confirming agreements, in Media. (Alex. Genial 5:3.) --- The custom prevailed in marriages, (Lamentations 5:6., and Isaiah. 62:8.) as it does still among Christians. --- It. Greek, "her for a wife to Tobias, and said: Behold: take care of her according to the law of Moses, and go to thy father. And he blessed them. And he called Edna, his wife, and taking a book, wrote a note, (Haydock; or contract.; Calmet) and sealed it, and they began to eat." (Haydock) --- It was almost universally the custom to have such writings, particularly where polygamy prevailed. The wives of lower condition were taken without formality. (Calmet)
Tobit 7:16 And taking paper, they made a writing of the marriage.

Tobit 7:17 And afterwards they made merry, blessing God.

Tobit 7:18 And Raguel called to him Anna, his wife, and bid her prepare another chamber.

Chamber. Different from that where they kept the feast, and perhaps (Haydock) not the same with the nuptial chamber, which had been so unfortunate, in order that Sara might not be so much alarmed. (Calmet)
Tobit 7:19 And she brought Sara, her daughter, in thither, and she wept.

Wept, at the recollection of what had happened. (Menochius)
Tobit 7:20 And she said to her: Be of good cheer, my daughter: the Lord of heaven give thee joy for the trouble thou hast undergone.

And she. Greek adds, "received the tears of her daughter; and said, have confidence, child." --- For the. Greek, "instead of this sorrow, have a good heart, daughter." (Haydock)
Tobit 8:0 Tobias burneth part of the fish's liver, and Raphael bindeth the devil. Tobias and Sara pray.

Tobit 8:1 And *after they had supped, they brought in the young man to her.

Year of the World 3299. To her, in the nuptial chamber. See Genesis 29:23.
Tobit 8:2 And Tobias, remembering the angel's word, took out of his bag part of the liver, and laid it upon burning coals.

Bag, (cassidili) resembling a wallet or pannier, for provisions. (Calmet) --- Liver. (Chap. 6:8.) This mystically represented the Passion of Christ, by which the devil is expelled from men's hearts. (St. Augustine, ser. 28, de Sanct.; Prosper, promis. 2:c. 39.) (Worthington) --- Greek, "and he took the ashes of incense, and placed thereon the heart of the fish and the liver, causing them to smoke. And when the devil perceived the odour, he fled to the highest parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him," (Haydock) confining his malice to those deserts. Jesus Christ insinuates that the devil walks through dry places, Matthew 12:24. The angel was not seen to absent himself: (Calmet) --- This country was chosen as being very remote from Media. (Houbigant) --- It was afterwards sanctified by the presence of many Christian solitaries. (Haydock) --- Our adversaries laugh at this account. But surely Christ has used similar expressions of binding the devil, who cannot molest people, when he is not present; (Houbigant) or do any thing without the divine permission, Tobias 6:17. (Haydock)
Tobit 8:3 Then the angel, Raphael, took the devil, and bound him in the desert of Upper Egypt.

Tobit 8:4 Then Tobias exhorted the virgin, and said to her: Sara, arise, and let us pray to God to-day, and to-morrow, and the next day: because for these three nights we are joined to God: and when the third night is over, we will be in our own wedlock.

Then. Greek, "and when they were shut up together, Tobias ascended the bed, (klines, on which it was customary to sit, (Haydock) or rather according to the Roman edition, he rose from the bed) and said, Arise, sister, and let us pray, that the Lord may take pity on us. And Tobias began to say," ver. 7. (Haydock) --- The rest is omitted. (Calmet)
Tobit 8:5 For we are the children of saints, and we must not be joined together like heathens that know not God.

Tobit 8:6 So they both arose, and prayed earnestly both together that health might be given them.

Tobit 8:7 And Tobias said: Lord God of our father, may the heavens and the earth, and the sea, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all thy creatures that are in them, bless thee.

Lord. Greek, "Blessed art thou, the God of our fathers, and blessed is thy name, holy and glorious for ever. May the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee." (Haydock)
Tobit 8:8 *Thou madest Adam of the slime of the earth, and gavest him Eve for a helper.

Genesis 2:7.
Of. Greek, "And gavest him Eve for his wife, an assistant, and a support. From these all the seed of men was formed. Thou didst say, It is not good for man to be alone: Let us make for him a helper like unto himself. And now Lord," etc.
Tobit 8:9 And now, Lord, thou knowest, that not for fleshly lust do I take my sister to wife, but only for the love of posterity, in which thy name may be blessed for ever and ever.

Only. Greek, "for truth," resolving to be ever faithful to her. (Haydock) --- We cannot read the pure sentiments of Tobias and Sara, brought up in the midst of infidels, without surprise. Nothing more perfect could be required of Christians (Calmet) in the married state. (Haydock) --- St. Augustine (Doct. X. and xviii.) adduces this text to shew the true intent of marriage.
Tobit 8:10 Sara also said: Have mercy on us, O Lord, have mercy on us, and let us grow old both together in health.

And. Greek, "Order pity to be shewn me, and that I may grow old with this woman. And she said along with him, Amen. And they both slept the night," probably on separate beds, ver. 15. (Haydock)
Tobit 8:11 And it came to pass about the cock crowing, Raguel ordered his servants to be called for, and they went with him together to dig a grave.

It. Greek, "Raguel arising, went and dug a grave, saying, lest this man also should die. Then Raguel came to his own house, and said to Edna, his wife."
Tobit 8:12 For he said: Lest, perhaps it may have happened to him, in like manner as it did to the other seven husbands that went in unto her.

Tobit 8:13 And when they had prepared the pit, Raguel went back to his wife, and said to her:

Tobit 8:14 Send one of thy maids, and let her see if he be dead, that I may bury him before it be day.

Dead. Greek, "alive. But if not, that I may bury him, and no body may know," The custom of burying too soon ought to be avoided, as many have thus been consigned to the tomb before they were really dead!
Tobit 8:15 So she sent one of her maid-servants, who went into the chamber, and found them safe and sound, sleeping both together.

Together. In the same chamber, (Haydock) or with their clothes on. (Serarius, q. 21.) The Vulgate specifies that the three first nights were to be spent in continence. But the other versions are silent on this head. (Calmet) --- Greek, "And the girl entered, having opened the door, and found the two sleeping; and going out, she told them that he was alive. And Raguel blessed," etc.
Tobit 8:16 And returning, she brought the good news: and Raguel, and Anna, his wife, blessed the Lord,

Tobit 8:17 And said: We bless thee, O Lord God of Israel, because it hath not happened as we suspected.

And. Greek, "saying, Blessed art thou, O God, in all pure and holy benediction; and may all thy saints, and all thy creatures, bless thee. Yea, may all thy angels, and thy elect, bless thee for all ages. Blessed art thou, because thou hast filled me with joy, and it has not happened as I suspected: but thou hast done unto us according to thy great mercy. And," ver. 19.
Tobit 8:18 For thou hast shewn thy mercy to us, and hast shut out from us the enemy that persecuted us.

Tobit 8:19 And thou hast taken pity upon two only children. Make them, O Lord, bless thee more fully: and to offer up to thee a sacrifice of thy praise, and of their health, that all nations may know, that thou alone art God in all the earth.

Make. Greek, "Shew them mercy, Lord. Perfect their life in health, with gladness and mercy. But he ordered his domestics to fill up the grave, and he made them a marriage feast for fourteen days. And," ver. 23. The ancient Vulgate seems rather more conformable to the present. "Raguel ordered his wife to make several loaves, and going himself to the flock, he brought two cows and four rams, and ordered them to prepare a feast. He called Tobias, and swore to him, saying, Thou shalt not depart hence these 14 days, but remain here eating and drinking with me, and shalt fill with joy me and my daughter, who has been greatly afflicted. Receive half of my goods, and thou shalt return safe and sound to thy father; and after my death, and that of my wife, thou shalt have the other half." (Haydock) --- Greek and Hebrew mention nothing of the beasts slaughtered, or of Raguel's testament. (Calmet)
Tobit 8:20 And immediately Raguel commanded his servants to fill up the pit they had made, before it was day.

Tobit 8:21 And he spoke to his wife to make ready a feast, and prepare all kind of provisions that are necessary for such as go a journey.

Journey. He expected that Tobias would proceed to Rages. (Menochius)
Tobit 8:22 He caused also two fat kine, and four wethers to be killed, and a banquet to be prepared for all his neighbours, and all his friends.

Tobit 8:23 And Raguel adjured Tobias, to abide with him two weeks.

Adjured. Greek, "said to him before the two days of the marriage were accomplished, with an oath, that he should not depart till the 14 days of marriage were over; and then taking half of his goods, he might depart in health to his father, and receive the rest when I and my wife shall be no more." (Haydock) --- Weeks. The usual term was doubled, (Genesis 29:27.) on account of the mercy shewn to Sara, and her marriage. (Menochius)
Tobit 8:24 And of all things which Raguel possessed, he gave one half to Tobias, and made a writing, that the half that remained, should after their decease, come also to Tobias.

Tobit 9:0 The angel, Raphael, goeth to Gabelus, receiveth the money, and bringeth him to the marriage.

Tobit 9:1 Then *Tobias called the angel to him, whom he took to be a man, and said to him: Brother Azarias, I pray thee hearken to my words:

Year of the World 3299. The angel. Greek, "Raphael, and said." --- I pray. Greek, "Take with thee a servant and two camels," ver. 6. (Haydock)
Tobit 9:2 If I should give myself to be thy servant, I should not make a worthy return for thy care.

Tobit 9:3 However, I beseech thee, to take with thee beasts and servants, and to go to Gabelus, to Rages, the city of the Medes: and to restore to him his note of hand, and receive of him the money, and desire him to come to my wedding.

Rages. Tobias remained in the province of the same name, Tobias 3:7. (Worthington) --- And to. Greek, "Bring me the money and him to the marriage feast."
Tobit 9:4 For thou knowest that my father numbereth the days: and if I stay one day more, his soul will be afflicted.

Tobit 9:5 And, indeed, thou seest how Raguel hath adjured me, whose adjuring I cannot despise.

Whose. Greek, "that I should not go out, and my father," etc., ver. 4. (Haydock) --- Tobias finds out an expedient to shew his respect for God, his father, and his friend, (Calmet) without retarding the business for which he came.
Tobit 9:6 Then Raphael took four of Raguel's servants, and two camels, and went to Rages, the city of the Medes: and finding Gabelus, gave him his note of hand, and received of him all the money.

And received. Greek, "But he produced the coffers sealed up, and gave him, and they set off early together, and came to the wedding, and Tobias blessed his wife," (Haydock) by removing the source of her disgrace. The Hebrew of Fagius is equally concise in this chapter, omitting all the rest. (Calmet) --- Munster has only, "Raguel wept, embracing Tobias, and said, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who has made thee (Sara) marry this man. May he, in his mercy, grant you male children, who may employ themselves in the law of the Lord."
Tobit 9:7 And he told him concerning Tobias, the son of Tobias, all that had been done: and made him come with him to the wedding.

Tobit 9:8 And when he was come into Raguel's house, he found Tobias sitting at the table: and he leaped up, and they kissed each other: and Gabelus wept, and blessed God,

Tobit 9:9 And said: The God of Israel bless thee, because thou art the son of a very good and just man, and that feareth God, and doth alms-deeds:

Tobit 9:10 And may a blessing come upon thy wife, and upon your parents.

Tobit 9:11 And may you see your children, and your children's children, unto the third and fourth generation: and may your seed be blessed by the God of Israel, who reigneth for ever and ever.

Tobit 9:12 And when all had said, Amen; they went to the feast: but the marriage feast they celebrated, also, with the fear of the Lord.

Lord. Not giving too much way to pleasure, (Haydock) or gluttony, as Plato beautifully commends. (Leg. vi.; Serarius) (Worthington)
Tobit 10:0 The parents lament the long absence of their son, Tobias. He sets out to return.

Tobit 10:1 But *as Tobias made longer stay upon occasion of the marriage, Tobias, his father, was solicitous, saying: Why, thinkest thou, doth my son tarry, or why is he detained there?

Year of the World 3299. But. Greek, "And Tobit, his father, counted each day; and as the days of the journey were ended, and they did not come, Tobit said, Is he not put to shame?" (Haydock) and refused payment? (Calmet) --- Old Vulgate and Protestants, "detained."
Tobit 10:2 Is Gabelus dead, thinkest thou, and no man will pay him the money?

Tobit 10:3 And he began to be exceedingly sad, both he and Anna, his wife, with him: and they began both to weep together: because their son did not return to them on the day appointed.

He. Greek, "He was much troubled. But his wife said to him, the boy is come to an untimely end, since he tarries; and she began to mourn for him, and said, I am not, or am I not full of solicitude, my son, that I have let thee go, the light of my eyes and Tobit ?", ver. 6. Without this interrogation, (Haydock) the Greek seems to be corrupt; (Calmet) and os, "how," or oi, "woe," should be put instead of ou, "not." (Drusius; Grotius; etc.) "Now I care for nothing, my son, since I have let thee go, the light," etc., Protestants.
Tobit 10:4 *But his mother wept and was quite disconsolate, and said: Woe, woe is me, my son, why did we send thee to go to a strange country, the light of our eyes, the staff of our old age, the comfort of our life, the hope of our posterity?

Tobias 5:23.
Tobit 10:5 We, having all things together in thee alone, ought not to have let thee go from us.

Tobit 10:6 And Tobias said to her: Hold thy peace, and be not troubled, our son is safe: that man with whom we sent him, is very trusty.

That. Greek, "And she said to him, Be silent, deceive me not. My son is lost: and she went out daily into the road without, by which they departed. In the day time she eat no bread, and the night she spent in bewailing her son, Tobias, till the 14 days of the wedding were finished, which Raguel had adjured him to tarry there. And," ver. 9. (Haydock) --- Thus the converted Jews lament that Christ should so long abandon their nation, while some hope like Tobias, and others are in more suspense, like his wife. (Ven. Bede) --- So Catholics, in countries fallen into heresy, are in great distress for their brethren; (Romans ix.) While some more confidently hope that God will enlighten our nation again, as sight was restored to old Tobias. (Worthington)
Tobit 10:7 But she could by no means be comforted, but daily running out, looked round about, and went into all the ways by which there seemed any hope he might return, that she might, if possible, see him coming afar off.

Tobit 10:8 But Raguel said to his son-in-law: Stay here, and I will send a messenger to Tobias, thy father, that thou art in health.

Raguel. Greek, "Tobias," as [in] ver. 9, which is transposed.
Tobit 10:9 And Tobias said to him: I know that my father and mother now count the days, and their spirit is grievously afflicted within them.

Days. It would require 42, (Tirinus) or 38, (Torniel) or 34 days, (Salien; Menochius) to perform what is here recorded. (Haydock) --- But it would be difficult to ascertain the precise time. To go from Ninive to Ecbatana would occupy eight or ten days. (Calmet) ---If, therefore, the parents of Tobias expected that he would return in about 20 days, they might well wonder at the 14 days’ delay occasioned by the marriage. The distance might prevent him from giving notice of this event. Greek, "Dismiss me, because my, etc.,....no longer hope to see me again. But his father-in-law replied, Stop with me," etc., ver. 8. (Haydock)
Tobit 10:10 And when Raguel had pressed Tobias with many words, and he by no means would hearken to him, he delivered Sara unto him, and half of all his substance in men-servants, and women-servants, in cattle, in camels, and in kine, and in much money, and sent him away safe and joyful from him,

When. Greek, "And Tobias said, No; but dismiss me to my father and mother. Then Raguel rising up, gave him Sarra[Sara], his wife, and half his goods, bodies, beasts, and silver." This expression, bodies, (H). or men generally denotes slaves; but it may also be put for others, (Calmet) who were in the train of Sara. (Grotius) --- Safe. Greek, "with blessing, saying, May God prosper you, children, the God of heaven, before I die; and he said to his daughter, Honour thy father and mother-in-law, they are now thy parents. May I hear a good report of thee, and he kissed her; and Edna said to Tobias, dear brother, May the Lord of heaven re-establish thee and grant me to behold thy children by my daughter, Sarra, that I may rejoice before the Lord; and behold, I place my daughter with thee as a deposit, and thou must not grieve her. Afterwards she departed, and Toby[Tobias] also blessing God, and he made his journey prosperous and blessed Raguel, and Edna, and his wife." (Haydock) --- The Jews still adopt many customs similar to those which we here behold, as this is a most excellent description of a holy marriage. (Serarius) (Calmet) --- Some also prevail in the Christian Church, though marriage is now become more holy, and a sacrament. (Cat. Rom. q. 22.) --- The proper intent of the contract, and many rites accompanying it, may be seen in the preceding chapters. (Worthington)
Tobit 10:11 Saying: The holy angel of the Lord be with you in your journey, and bring you through safe, and that you may find all things well about your parents, and my eyes see your children before I die.

Tobit 10:12 And the parents taking their daughter, kissed her, and let her go:

Tobit 10:13 Admonishing her to honour her father and mother-in-law, to love her husband, to take care of the family, to govern the house, and to behave herself irreprehensibly.

Tobit 11:0 Tobias anointeth his father's eyes with the fish's gall, and he recovereth his sight.

Tobit 11:1 And *as they were returning they came to Charan, which is in the midway to Ninive, the eleventh day.

Year of the World 3299. Charan. Not the residence of Abraham, Genesis 12:4. Syriac reads, "Bazri," or "Carrac." Old Vulgate, ibat Caracha, quae est civitas in Ninive. Arrian places Carcha in Assyria, and Ptolemy mentions a Characa in Susiana. --- Midway. At this rate, the distance from Ninive to Ecbatana would be 22 days’ journey. But it is not half so much for a man travelling expeditiously. (Calmet) --- Tobias had much luggage. Leaving it with his wife, (Haydock) he went from this city to Ninive in three or four days, ver. 18. (Calmet) --- Greek, "And he travelled on till he came near to Ninive. And Raphael said," etc.
Tobit 11:2 And the angel said: Brother Tobias, thou knowest how thou didst leave thy father.

Tobit 11:3 If it please thee, therefore, let us go before, and let the family follow softly after us, together with thy wife, and with the beasts.

If. Greek, "Let us go quickly before thy wife, and prepare the house." (Haydock) --- This would be necessary, for the reception of so many goods, as well as to relieve the anxiety (Calmet) of the aged parents, and prevent surprise.
Tobit 11:4 And as this their going pleased him, Raphael said to Tobias: Take with thee of the gall of the fish, for it will be necessary. So Tobias took some of that gall and departed.

And. Greek, "Take now in thy hand the gall of the fish. And they went on. And the dog followed close up to them; (Haydock; Syriac, "ran before them." Calmet) and Anna."
Tobit 11:5 But Anna sat beside the way daily, on the top of a hill, from whence she might see afar off.

Tobit 11:6 And while she watched his coming from that place, she saw him afar off, and presently perceived it was her son coming: and returning, she told her husband, saying: Behold thy son cometh.

Cometh. Greek adds, "and the man who went with him."
Tobit 11:7 And Raphael said to Tobias: As soon as thou shalt come into thy house, forthwith adore the Lord, thy God: and giving thanks to him, go to thy father, and kiss him:

To. Greek, "I know, Tobias, that thy father will open his eyes. Anoint, therefore, the gall upon his eyes, and feeling the smart, he will rub and remove the white specks, and shall see thee." (Haydock) --- God. This laudable custom was observed by the ancient solitaries, and prescribed by the rule of St. Benedict, Tobias 53.
Tobit 11:8 And immediately anoint his eyes with this gall of the fish, which thou carriest with thee. For be assured that his eyes shall be presently opened, and thy father shall see the light of heaven, and shall rejoice in the sight of thee.

Tobit 11:9 Then the dog, which had been with them in the way, ran before, and coming as if he had brought the news, shewed his joy by his fawning and wagging his tail.

The dog, etc. This may seem a very minute circumstance to be recorded in sacred history; but, as we learn from our Saviour, (St. Matthew 5:18) there are iotas and tittles in the word of God, that is to say, things that appear minute, but which have indeed a deep mysterious meaning in them. (Challoner) --- (Ven. Bede; St. Jerome in Isaias 56:8.; St. Augustine, contra Faust. 22:56.; Worthington) --- The other versions relate this event, ver. 4.
Tobit 11:10 And his father, that was blind, rising up, began to run, stumbling with his feet: and giving a servant his hand, went to meet his son.

And. After ver. 7., Greek adds, "and Anna running before, fell upon the neck of her son, and said to him, I have beheld thee, son; henceforth I may die. And they both wept. And Tobit went out towards the door, and he stumbled. But his son ran up to him, and took hold of his father, and spread the gall upon his father’s eyes, saying, Have confidence, father. But as soon as they began to smart, he rubbed his eyes, and the white specks came off like skins from the corners: and beholding his son, he fell upon his neck, and wept. Then he said," ver. 17. (Haydock)
Tobit 11:11 And receiving him, kissed him, as did also his wife, and they began to weep for joy.

Tobit 11:12 And when they had adored God, and given him thanks, they sat down together.

Tobit 11:13 Then Tobias taking of the gall of the fish, anointed his father's eyes.

Tobit 11:14 And he stayed about half an hour: and a white skin began to come out of his eyes, like the skin of an egg.

Hour. This is not in the other versions. (Calmet) --- It would intimate that the operation was natural. (Menochius) --- Yet some think that the cure was too instantaneous; (Drusius) or that the miracle consisted in the revelation of a remedy, till then unknown. (Serarius) --- The effect seems to have been of the same nature as that produced by the heart, etc., Tobias 6:8. (Worthington; Calmet) --- Estius believes that the optic nerve was entirely burnt. If the external coat of the eyes was only covered with a sort of skin, it might be removed by the gall of several fishes. (Calmet) --- Callionymi fel cicatrices sanat et carnes oculorum supervacuas consumit. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 32:4. (Menochius)
Tobit 11:15 And Tobias took hold of it, and drew it from his eyes, and immediately he recovered his sight.

Tobit 11:16 And they glorified God, both he and his wife, and all that knew them.

Tobit 11:17 And Tobias said: I bless thee, O Lord, God of Israel, because thou hast chastised me, and thou hast saved me: and behold I see Tobias, my son.

Lord. Greek, "Blessed be God, and blessed be thy name for ever, and blessed be all thy holy angels; because thou hast scourged, and hast shewn mercy, and," etc.
Tobit 11:18 And after seven days, Sara, his son's wife, and all the family, arrived safe, and the cattle, and the camels, and an abundance of money of his wife's: and that money, also, which he had received of Gabelus:

Days. Or perhaps hours; (Haydock) as the other versions intimate that Sara arrived the same day. (Calmet) --- Greek, "And his son entered, rejoicing, and related to his father the great things which had taken place in Media. And Tobit went out to meet his daughter-in-law, rejoicing, and blessing God, to the gate of Ninive. And those who saw him walking were astonished, because he saw. And Tobit confessed before them that God had taken pity on him. And as Tobit approached to Sarra, his daughter-in-law, he blessed her, saying, Mayst thou come with safety, daughter. Blessed be God, who has brought thee to us, and blessed be thy father and thy mother. And there was joy among all his brethren at Ninive. And," ver. 20. (Haydock)
Tobit 11:19 And he told his parents all the benefits of God, which he had done to him by the man that conducted him.

Tobit 11:20 And Achior, and Nabath, the kinsmen of Tobias, came, rejoicing for Tobias, and congratulating with him for all the good things that God had done for him.

Achior. Greek, "Achiachar," mentioned [in] Tobias 1:24. This text insinuates that he was also styled Anael (Haydock) and Nasbas, and was the nephew of Tobit. (Grotius) (Calmet) --- Greek, "And there came Achiachar, and Nasbas, his brother's son, and the wedding of Tobias was kept in joy for seven days." (Haydock)
Tobit 11:21 And for seven days they feasted and rejoiced, all with great joy.

Joy. Old Vulgate adds, "and many presents were made to him."
Tobit 12:0 Raphael maketh himself known.

Tobit 12:1 Then *Tobias called to him his son, and said to him: What can we give to this holy man that is come with thee?

Year of the World 3299. What. Greek, Hebrew and Syriac (Calmet), "See thou give the man who has come with thee his hire, and something must be added to it;" (Haydock) as he had promised (chap. 7:19.) a drachm a day, (Calmet) and more if they returned safe. (Haydock)
Tobit 12:2 Tobias answering, said to his father: Father, what wages shall we give him? or what can be worthy of his benefits?

Said. Greek, "Father, I shall not be hurt if I give him half of what I have brought, since he has conducted me safe back to thee, and has healed my wife, and brought my money, and likewise has cured thee. And the old man said, he justly deserves it. And he called the angel, and said to him, Take half of what you have brought, and depart in health. Then," ver. 6.
Tobit 12:3 He conducted me and brought me safe again, he received the money of Gabelus, he caused me to have my wife, and he chased from her the evil spirit, he gave joy to her parents, myself he delivered from being devoured by the fish, thee also he hath made to see the light of heaven, and we are filled with all good things through him. What can we give him sufficient for these things?

Tobit 12:4 But I beseech thee, my father, to desire him, that he would vouchsafe to accept of one half of all things that have been brought.

Tobit 12:5 So the father and the son calling him, took him aside: and began to desire him that he would vouchsafe to accept of half of all things that they had brought.

Tobit 12:6 Then he said to them secretly: Bless ye the God of heaven, give glory to him in the sight of all that live, because he hath shewn his mercy to you.

Said. Greek, "Calling the two, in private, he said to them."
Tobit 12:7 For it is good to hide the secret of a king: but honourable to reveal and confess the works of God.

Hide. Greek, "To bless God, and to extol his name, exposing with honour the words of God, and delay not to confess unto him. For," etc. (Haydock) --- The Old Vulgate greatly abridges the remainder of this book, having only, "Then Raphael having called the two Tobies, said to them, Since thou hast not delayed to arise, and to leave thy meals to bury the dead, I have been sent to try thee to heal thee, and to deliver thy daughter-in-law. I am Raphael, one of the angels who assist and appear before the brightness of God. Hereupon the two Tobies were startled, and fell prostrate on the ground, and were seized with fear. And Raphael said, Fear not, Peace be with you. Bless the Lord all the days of your life, and sing his praises. You thought that I eat when I was at table with you. But you saw with your eyes; (Haydock; only a vision, Calmet) wherefore bless the Lord upon the earth, and praise his goodness. As for me, I return to him who sent me. Write down all that has happened. The angel having spoken thus to Tobias, the latter wrote this prayer as a monument of his joy, and said, Blessed be the Lord, who is great in eternity, because his reign endures for ever. It is He who strikes, and who shews mercy, who conducts to the grave, and who, by his majesty, rescues from the greatest miseries; and no one can withdraw himself from his hands. End of Tobias the just." (Haydock) --- King. Secrecy is the soul of human councils, to prevent an enemy from thwarting our designs: but nothing can withstand the divine power. It is therefore proper to testify our gratitude for favours received, as the ancient saints have done by their canticles. (Calmet)
Tobit 12:8 Prayer is good with fasting and alms, more than to lay up treasures of gold:

Alms. Greek adds, "and justice. Better is a little with justice, than much with iniquity." (Haydock) --- Fasting and alms are like the wings of prayer. (Worthington) See Tobias 4:11.
Tobit 12:9 For alms delivereth from death, and the same is that which purgeth away sins, and maketh to find mercy and life everlasting.

Everlasting. This word is not found in Greek, though sufficiently implied; as liberality does not always secure a person's life, or temporal happiness. (Calmet) --- Greek, "Those who perform alms-deeds and justice, shall be filled with life. But sinners are enemies," etc.
Tobit 12:10 But they that commit sin and iniquity, are enemies to their own soul.

Soul. If this were understood of the present life, nothing could be less accurate, as the wicked often prosper. See Psalm 10:6., and John 12:25. (Calmet)
Tobit 12:11 I discover then the truth unto you, and I will not hide the secret from you.

1:Greek, "I will not hide from you any word or thing. I said then, It is good to conceal the mystery of the king, but glorious to manifest the works of God. And now, when thou and thy daughter-in-law, Sarra, did pray, I brought forward the memorial of your prayer before the holy one." (Haydock) --- The angels are represented as God's ministers, offering our prayers to him, Apocalypse 8:3. (Calmet) (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- Philo styles them ambassadors. Socrates says, "every demon (or good spirit) is between God and mortals." (Plutarch) --- Inter homines caelicolasque, vectores hinc precum, inde donorum. (Apuleius de Deo Socrat.) (Calmet) --- Greek continues, "and when thou didst bury the dead, in like manner, I was present with thee; when thou didst not delay to rise and leave thy dinner, that going thou mightest cover the dead; in thy good work, thou wast not hidden from me: but I was with thee. And," etc., ver. 14. (Haydock)
Tobit 12:12 When thou didst pray with tears, and didst bury the dead, and didst leave thy dinner, and hide the dead, by day, in thy house, and bury them by night, I offered thy prayer to the Lord.

Tobit 12:13 And because thou wast acceptable to God, it was necessary that temptation should prove thee.

Thee. This rule is invariable, that the good may advance in virtue, and set a pattern to the world, (Hebrews 2:18., and 12:6., and Acts 14:21.; Calmet) and cancel their smallest faults.
Tobit 12:14 And now the Lord hath sent me to heal thee, and to deliver Sara, thy son's wife, from the devil.

From the devil, is not in Greek. (Haydock) --- In this history, as well as in other parts of Scripture, we have convincing proofs of the good which each one receives from his angel guardian, and from the other blessed spirits. See St. Luke xv., and xvi.; St. Chrysostom in col. hom. 3.; St. Augustine, City of God 11:31., etc. (Worthington)
Tobit 12:15 For I am the angel Raphael, one of the seven, who stand before the Lord.

Raphael. We know also the names of Michael and Gabriel. All others are apocryphal; such as Uriel, Saltiel, Jeadriel Barachiel, etc. --- Seven. This number is clearly specified by St. John, Apocalypse 1:4. A mass in their honour was approved by Pius 4:It is supposed that the seven deacons in the Church of Rome, and of Jerusalem, were instituted in imitation of them. The kings, Assuerus, etc., had seven chief officers, Esther 1:10. (Calmet) --- Lord, ready to fulfil his orders, as innumerable other angels, of inferior degree, are likewise. (Menochius) (Daniel 7:10.) --- These were the princes of the heavenly court. St. Jerome (contra Jovin.) admits only seven orders of angels. (Calmet) --- Greek, "I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who offer up the prayers of the saints, and go out before the glory of the Holy One. And they were both troubled," etc., (Haydock) at so unusual a thing, (Menochius) and filled with reverential awe. (Haydock) --- They might also suspect that death would shortly follow. (Calmet) (Genesis 16:13.)
Tobit 12:16 And when they had heard these things, they were troubled, and being seized with fear, they fell upon the ground on their face.

Tobit 12:17 And the angel said to them: Peace be to you, fear not.

Be. Greek, "shall be with you. But praise God: for I came not of my own accord, but by the will of our God. Wherefore praise him for ever."
Tobit 12:18 For when I was with you, I was there by the will of God: bless ye him, and sing praises to him.

Tobit 12:19 I seemed, indeed, to eat, and to drink with you: but I use an invisible meat and drink, which cannot be seen by men.

1:Greek, "I appeared to you all the days; yet I did not eat nor drink. But you beheld a vision." (Haydock) --- Having an aerial body, he made the provisions disappear, as the sun melts snow, Genesis 18:9. (Calmet) --- He might swallow, though he had no need of meat, (St. Augustine, City of God 13:22.) or digestion, (Grotius) so as to convert it into his substance. (Menochius) --- Men. I constantly enjoy the beatific vision, Matthew 18:10. (Calmet)
Tobit 12:20 It is time, therefore, that I return to him that sent me: but bless ye God, and publish all his wonderful works.

It. Greek, "And now confess to God, because I ascend to him who sent me. Write ye all these occurrences in a book. And they arose, and beheld him no longer; and they proclaimed the great and wonderful works of God, and how the angel of the Lord had appeared to them." (Haydock) --- Almost all interpreters infer from this injunction, (Calmet) that the work before us was originally composed by these holy men. (Haydock)
Tobit 12:21 And when he had said these things, he was taken from their sight, and they could see him no more.

Tobit 12:22 Then they lying prostrate for three hours upon their face, blessed God: and rising up, they told all his wonderful works.

Tobit 13:0 Tobias, the father, praiseth God, exhorting all Israel to do the same. Prophesieth the restoration and better state of Jerusalem.

Tobit 13:1 And *Tobias, the elder, opening his mouth, blessed the Lord, and said: Thou art great, O Lord, for ever, and thy kingdom is unto all ages:

Year of the World 3299. Tobias. Greek, "Tobit wrote a prayer for exultation, and said." (Haydock)
Tobit 13:2 *For thou scourgest, and thou savest: thou leadest down to hell, and bringest up again: and there is none that can escape thy hand.

Deuteronomy 32:39.; 1 Kings 2:6.; Wisdom 16:13.
Hell; death. (Menochius) --- Out of hell there is no redemption or return. (Haydock) (1 Kings 2:6.)
Tobit 13:3 Give glory to the Lord, ye children of Israel, and praise him in the sight of the Gentiles:

Tobit 13:4 Because he hath therefore scattered you among the Gentiles, who know not him, that you may declare his wonderful works, and make them know that there is no other Almighty God besides him.

Therefore, is not in Greek. (Haydock) --- But God had the good of the Gentiles in view, that they might become acquainted with his law, and behold the conduct of his saints, Tobias, Esther, Daniel, etc., (Calmet) as well as to punish his people. (Haydock) --- Temporal afflictions are sometimes for the spiritual good of others. (Worthington) --- Greek, "because he has scattered you among them. There shew forth his grandeur, and extol him before every one living: for he is our Lord and God, our Father for ever. Yea, he hath chastised us in our iniquities, again he will have mercy, and will gather us from all nations where he has scattered us, if ye be converted to him with all your heart, and with all your soul, to act sincerely. Then he will turn towards you, and will not hide his face from you; and ye shall behold what he will do with you, and ye shall confess to him with all your mouth, and bless the Lord of power, and extol the king of ages. I," etc., ver. 7. (Haydock)
Tobit 13:5 He hath chastised us for our iniquities: and he will save us for his own mercy.

Mercy. He can discover nothing in the sinner. (Calmet)
Tobit 13:6 See then what he hath done with us, and with fear and trembling give ye glory to him: and extol the eternal king of worlds in your works.

Tobit 13:7 As for me, I will praise him in the land of my captivity: because he hath shewn his majesty toward a sinful nation.

Nation; the Israelites, (Menochius) whom he has chastised. (Haydock) --- Ninive was still flourishing. Yet the Greek seems to refer to the Assyrian idolaters, (Calmet) or to both. Greek, "and I shew his power and magnificence to a sinful nation. Who knows if he will love and shew his mercy to you? I exalt my God, and my soul magnifies the King of heaven, and shall gladly proclaim his greatness: let all speak and confess to him in justice."
Tobit 13:8 Be converted, therefore, ye sinners, and do justice before God, believing that he will shew his mercy to you.

Tobit 13:9 And I and my soul will rejoice in him.

Tobit 13:10 Bless ye the Lord, all his elect, keep days of joy, and give glory to him.

Tobit 13:11 Jerusalem, city of God, the Lord hath chastised thee for the works of thy hands.

Jerusalem. What is prophetically delivered here, and in the following chapter, with relation to Jerusalem, is partly to be understood of the rebuilding the city after the captivity, and partly of the spiritual Jerusalem, which is the Church of Christ, and the eternal Jerusalem in heaven. (Challoner) --- It would seem that Jerusalem and the temple were now destroyed, which is contrary to chronology, as Manasses had not yet began to reign, (Calmet) and Tobias died when he had been on the throne fifty-two years. (Houbigant) --- But the Greek shews that (Calmet) he speaks prophetically: (Worthington) "Jerusalem, holy city, He will chastise thee for the works of thy children, and again he will shew mercy on the children of the just. Confess to the Lord, for he is good; and bless the king of ages, that his tabernacle may be again rebuilt in thee, with joy." (Haydock) --- The Hebrew of Munster had only a few verses of this and the following chapter. (Calmet)
Tobit 13:12 Give glory to the Lord for thy good things, and bless the God eternal, that he may rebuild his tabernacle in thee, and may call back all the captives to thee, and thou mayst rejoice for ever and ever.

Call. Greek, "cause thy captives to rejoice in thee, and love in thee all the distressed unto eternity."
Tobit 13:13 Thou shalt shine with a glorious light: and all the ends of the earth shall worship thee.

Thou. Greek, "Many nations from afar shall come to the name of the Lord God, with presents in their hands, presents for the king of heaven; race after race shall praise thee, and give exultation. They," etc., ver. 16. (Haydock) --- How many potent monarchs of Persia, Egypt, Rome, etc., honoured the temple of Jerusalem! How many wars have been carried on by Christian potentates, to rescue that favourite spot out of the hands of infidels! all out of respect for Christ. These priests are still better verified in his Church, to which the powers of the earth have submitted, (Calmet) esteeming it an honour and happiness to be members of this holy society. (Haydock)
Tobit 13:14 *Nations from afar shall come to thee: and shall bring gifts, and shall adore the Lord in thee, and shall esteem thy land as holy.

Isaias 60:5.
Holy. This soil has been carried into distant countries, out of reverence, (4 Kings 5:17.; St. Augustine, City of God xxii.8.) and has been honoured with miracles. (St. Gregory Turon. 1:7.)
Tobit 13:15 For they shall call upon the great name in thee.

Tobit 13:16 They shall be cursed that shall despise thee: and they shall be condemned that shall blaspheme thee: and blessed shall they be that shall build thee up.

Despise. Greek, "hate thee, and blessed shall be those who love thee for ever." (Haydock)
Tobit 13:17 But thou shalt rejoice in thy children, because they shall all be blessed, and shall be gathered together to the Lord.

But. Greek, "rejoice, and exult for the children of the just, because they shall be gathered together, and shall bless the Lord of the just." (Haydock) --- The people of God, in the old law, have often this title, as those of the new are styled saints. Both have a claim to this prediction. The Jews became more faithful after the captivity, so that the most cruel persecution of Epiphanes could not overcome their resolution; and the world was astonished at the courage of the martyrs, and the exemplary conduct of the primitive Christians. (Calmet)
Tobit 13:18 Blessed are all they that love thee, and that rejoice in thy peace.

Peace. Greek adds, "blessed are those who have mourned on account of thy chastisements, because they shall rejoice, beholding all thy glory, and their joy shall endure for ever." (Haydock)
Tobit 13:19 My soul, bless thou the Lord, because the Lord, our God, hath delivered Jerusalem, his city, from all her troubles.

Thou. Greek, "God, the great king: For Jerusalem," etc., ver. 21. (Haydock) --- Troubles. This regards only the heavenly Jerusalem. (Worthington)
Tobit 13:20 Happy shall I be if there shall remain of my seed, to see the glory of Jerusalem.

Seed. Hence it appears that Tobias did not speak of an approaching event, (Calmet) or at least he wished that his posterity might be set free.
Tobit 13:21 *The gates of Jerusalem shall be built of sapphire, and of emerald, and all the walls thereof round about of precious stones.

Apocalypse 21:16.
Emerald. Greek adds, "and precious stone: thy walls, and towers, and battlements, of pure gold. And the streets of Jerusalem shall be strewed with beryl and carbuncle, and stone from Soupheir." (Haydock) --- This description resembles that of Isaias, (liv. 11.) who lived a little before. St. John (Apocalypse xxi.10.) represents the church in the same ornaments, denoting the merits of Christ and the virtues of his saints. All are convinced that such expressions are not to be taken in the literal sense. (Calmet)
Tobit 13:22 All its streets shall be paved with white and clean stones: and Alleluia shall be sung in its streets.

Alleluia. A sound of praise. St. Augustine (ep. 86.) means, "Praise ye the Lord (Haydock) with joy." (Worthington) --- It is disused in times of penance. (Calmet) --- Greek adds, " and they shall praise, saying, Blessed be God, who has exalted it for ever."
Tobit 13:23 Blessed be the Lord, who hath exalted it, and may he reign over it for ever and ever, Amen.

Tobit 14:0 Old Tobias dieth at the age of a hundred and two years, after exhorting his son and grandsons to piety, foreshewing that Ninive shall be destroyed, and Jerusalem rebuilt. The younger Tobias returneth with his family to Raguel, and dieth happily as he had lived.

Tobit 14:1 And the words of Tobias were ended. And after Tobias was restored to his sight, he lived two and forty years, and saw the children of his grandchildren.

Words. Greek, "confession; (or hymn of praise) and he was 58 years old when he lost his sight, which he recovered eight years after, and gave alms, and continued to fear the Lord God, and to confess unto him. Now he arrived at a very advanced age," 158, ver. 10. (Haydock) --- But this chronology must be abandoned. All the versions disagree; and perhaps there may be none perfectly accurate. (Calmet)
Tobit 14:2 And after he had lived a hundred and two years, he was buried *honourably in Ninive.

Year of the World 3341, Year before Christ 663. Two. Arabic and Schol. History, read "twelve."
Tobit 14:3 For he was six and fifty years old when he lost the sight of his eyes, and sixty when he recovered it again.

Tobit 14:4 And the rest of his life was in joy, and with great increase of the fear of God he departed in peace.

Tobit 14:5 And at the hour of his death he called unto him his son, Tobias, and his children, seven young men, his grandsons, and said to them:

Seven. Greek Compl. and Alexandrian, as well as Fagius, have only "six."
Tobit 14:6 The destruction of Ninive is at hand: for the word of the Lord must be fulfilled: *and our brethren, that are scattered abroad from the land of Israel, shall return to it.

1 Esdras 3:8.
The. Greek, "Son, take thy children. Behold, I am grown old, and my life is hastening to an end. Depart into Media, my son, for I believe all that the prophet, Jonas, spoke concerning Ninive, that it will be overturned. But in Media there will be more peace for a time, and that our brethren in the land will be scattered from the good land; and Jerusalem shall be deserted, and the house of God in it will be burnt, and shall be abandoned for a time; and they shall build the house, not like the former, till the times of the world or age be accomplished; and afterwards they shall return from the captives, and shall build Jerusalem gloriously; and the house of God shall be built in it, and the edifice shall be glorious for ever, as the prophets have spoken concerning it; and all the Gentiles shall turn truly to fear the Lord God, and shall undermine (and destroy) their idols; and all the Gentiles shall bless the Lord," etc., (Tobit 14:9.) (Haydock) --- This text is of importance, as it specifies the name of Jonas, and is quoted by St. Jerome; (ibid.) though Nahum and Sophoniash (Nahum 3:8.; Sophonias 2:13.) also foretold the destruction of Ninive. It speaks of the future, and not of the past ruin, of the temple, which certainly took place after the death of Tobias. (Calmet) --- The prophets, however, frequently speak of future events, as if they were past, to shew the certainty of their predictions. (Haydock)
Tobit 14:7 And all the land thereof, that is desert, shall be filled with people, and the house of God which is burnt in it, shall again be rebuilt: and all that fear God shall return thither.

Tobit 14:8 And the Gentiles shall leave their idols, and shall come into Jerusalem, and shall dwell in it,

In it. Let the Jews shew when this was accomplished. We can easily point out the nations converted from idolatry to the Church of Christ, as the prophets foretold, (Jeremias 3:17., Jeremias 16:19.) (Calmet) --- It cannot, therefore, be understood of the temporal Jerusalem. (Worthington)
Tobit 14:9 And all the kings of the earth shall rejoice in it, adoring the King of Israel.

And. Greek, "And his people shall confess to God, and the Lord shall exalt his people, and all shall rejoice who love the Lord God in truth and justice, shewing mercy to our brethren. And now, son, depart from Ninive; for what the prophet, Jonas, spoke, shall surely be accomplished." (Haydock) --- This prediction was conditional, as was also the pardon of the people, who were justly punished for their relapse. (Menochius)
Tobit 14:10 Hearken, therefore, my children, to your father: serve the Lord in truth, and seek to do the things that please him:

Seek with diligence, not barely doing what you are commanded. (Haydock) --- Greek is much more diffuse. (Calmet) --- "But do thou keep the law and the ordinances, be a lover of alms-deeds, and just, that it may be well with thee. Bury me with decency, and thy mother with me, and tarry then no longer at Ninive. Son, behold what Aman (Syriac, Acab.) did to Achiachar, who fed him, how he conducted him from light into darkness, and what return he made him. Now, Achiachar met with safety: but he received his due, and he went down into darkness. Manasses gave alms, and was rescued from the snare of death, which was laid for him: but Aman fell into the snare, and perished. And now, son, behold the effects of alms-deeds, and how justice brings deliverance. While he was speaking these things, his soul failed upon the bed: but he was 150 years old, and he buried him honourably." (Haydock) --- The allusion to Aman seems improper, he lived many years after the captivity; (Calmet) or rather it may refer to some other history (Houbigant) with which we are not acquainted. (Haydock)
Tobit 14:11 And command your children that they do justice and alms-deeds, and that they be mindful of God, and bless him at all times in truth, and with all their power.

Tobit 14:12 And now, children, hear me, and do not stay here: but as soon as you shall bury your mother, by me, in one sepulchre, without delay direct your steps to depart hence:

Tobit 14:13 For I see that its iniquity will bring it to destruction.

Tobit 14:14 And it came to pass, that after the death of his mother, Tobias departed out of Ninive with his wife, and children, and children's children, and returned to his father and mother-in-law.

And. Greek, "And when Anna, his mother, was dead; he buried her with his father. But Tobias departed with his wife and sons to Ecbatana, to Raguel, his father-in-law, and lived to an honourable old age; and he buried honourably his father and mother-in-law, and he inherited their substance, as well as that of his father, Tobit." (Haydock)
Tobit 14:15 And he found them in health in a good old age: and he took care of them, and he closed their eyes: and all the inheritance of Raguel's house came to him: and he saw his children's children to the fifth generation.

Fifth. Including himself. He might see the offspring of his great grandson, if he lived only 70 years after his marriage. (Calmet)
Tobit 14:16 And after he had lived ninety-nine years in the fear of the Lord, with joy they buried him.

Nine. Syriac, 107. (Calmet) --- Greek, "But he also died at the age of 127, at Ecbatana, of Media; and he heard, before his death, of the destruction of Ninive, the citizens of which Nabuchodonosor and Assuerus led captives; and he rejoiced over Ninive before he died." We have been more particular in giving the Greek text of this book, because some look upon it as an original; and we should wish to lose no particle of the word of God, which is more precious than gold. Tobias might applaud the execution of divine justice without any private resentment. (Haydock) --- Ninive was taken by Nabuchodonosor, who acted for his father, Nabopolassar, with whom Astyages, king of the Medes, was leagued. They took the city in the reign of Chinaladan, or Sarac, in the year of the world 3378. It also fell a prey to its enemies, under Sardanapalus, in the year 3257; as the inhabitants did not persevere in sentiments of repentance, which they had entertained at the preaching of Jonas, in the reign of Phul. Hence God revealed its destruction to Tobias. (Calmet) --- With joy, may refer to the surviving friends, who rejoiced interiorly at his felicity, while they wept for their own loss; or it may he understood of the deceased; who, like his father, (ver. 4.; Calmet) rejoiced in the Lord, and in performance of good works.
Tobit 14:17 And all his kindred, and all his generation continued in good life, and in holy conversation, so that they were acceptable, both to God, and to men, and to all that dwelt in the land.

Kindred. Behold the influence of good example; (Haydock) and a proof that the true religion failed not in Israel, much less in Juda, or the Church of Christ. (Worthington) --- The virtues of these two holy men are truly deserving of applause and imitation. They thought and acted in perfect conformity with the gospel. The father might represent the old law, under all its inconveniences, while the son holds forth the light of Christ, and banishes the devil. (Calmet)