1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Sirach 1:1 All *wisdom is from the Lord God, and hath been always with him, and is before all time.

3 Kings 3:9.; 3 Kings 4:29.
Wisdom. In this book, Wisdom is taken for the Deity, the Son, or the gift communicated to men, Proverbs 3:19., and Wisdom 7:25. (Calmet)
Sirach 1:2 Who hath numbered the sand of the sea, and the drops of rain, and the days of the world? Who hath measured the height of heaven, and the breadth of the earth, and the depth of the abyss?

Sirach 1:3 Who hath searched out the wisdom of God, that goeth before all things?

God. This is eternal and unsearchable, more than the sand of the sea, etc., Isaias 40:12. (Haydock) --- Man cannot comprehend God's works. (Worthington)
Sirach 1:4 Wisdom hath been created before all things, and the understanding of prudence from everlasting.

Created. Or "generated," if it be understood of the Son. (St. Athanasius) (Bos.[Bossuet?]) --- The wisdom which is given to man, was in God before the creation, Proverbs 8:22. (Calmet) --- The decree regarding the incarnation was from eternity. (Menochius)
Sirach 1:5 The word of God on high is the fountain of wisdom, and her ways are everlasting commandments.

Commandments. The wise will observe the law (Deuteronomy 4:6.; Haydock) and the Scriptures. This verse is not in the Greek of Rome, etc., but it is in the edition of Complutensian and Camerarius.
Sirach 1:6 To whom hath the root of wisdom been revealed, and who hath known her wise counsels?

Sirach 1:7 To whom hath the discipline of wisdom been revealed and made manifest? and who hath understood the multiplicity of her steps?

Sirach 1:8 There is one most high Creator Almighty, and a powerful King, and greatly to be feared, who sitteth upon his throne, and is the God of dominion.

Sirach 1:9 He created her in the Holy Ghost, and saw her, and numbered her, and measured her.

In the Holy Ghost, or from himself. See Wisdom 1:5., and 7:22. Greek omits these words. (Calmet)
Sirach 1:10 And he poured her out upon all his works, and upon all flesh, according to his gift, and hath given her to them that love him.

Sirach 1:11 The fear of the Lord is honour, and glory, and gladness, and a crown of joy.

Joy. Eternal glory is the fruit of the fear of the Lord; not that this virtue sufficeth, but it is the beginning, grounded on true faith, and bringeth forth other virtues, and fruits of the Holy Ghost, and a joyful crown in the end. (Worthington) --- The virtuous enjoy or deserve honour. (Calmet)
Sirach 1:12 The fear of the Lord shall delight the heart, and shall give joy, and gladness, and length of days.

Sirach 1:13 With him that feareth the Lord, it shall go well in the latter end, and in the day of his death he shall be blessed.

Sirach 1:14 The love of God is honourable wisdom.

Sirach 1:15 And they to whom she shall shew herself, love her by the sight, and by the knowledge of her great works.

Sirach 1:16 *The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and was created with the faithful in the womb, it walketh with chosen women, and is known with the just and faithful.

Psalm 110:10.; Proverbs 1:7.; Proverbs 9:10.
Womb. Grace has prevented them. (Haydock) --- They are free from evil dispositions, Wisdom 8:19., and Job 31:18. --- Women; feminis, or rather seminis. (Calmet) --- Greek, "it shall be intrusted to their seed." (Haydock) --- "His mercy is fixed with their seed." (Syriac) (Menochius) --- This includes both men and women.
Sirach 1:17 The fear of the Lord is the religiousness of knowledge.

Religiousness, or proper application of knowledge. (Haydock) --- A learned impious man is most dangerous. This and the two next verses are not in Greek.
Sirach 1:18 Religiousness shall keep and justify the heart, it shall give joy and gladness.

Sirach 1:19 It shall go well with him that feareth the Lord, and in the days of his end he shall be blessed.

Sirach 1:20 To fear God is the fulness of wisdom, and fulness is from the fruits thereof.

Sirach 1:21 She shall fill all her house with her increase, and the storehouses with her treasures.

Sirach 1:22 The fear of the Lord is a crown of wisdom, filling up peace and the fruit of salvation:

Sirach 1:23 And it hath seen, and numbered her: but both are the gifts of God.

Sirach 1:24 Wisdom shall distribute knowledge, and understanding of prudence: and exalteth the glory of them that hold her.

Sirach 1:25 The root of wisdom is to fear the Lord: and the branches thereof are long-lived.

Sirach 1:26 In the treasures of wisdom is understanding, and religiousness of knowledge: but to sinners wisdom is an abomination.

Sirach 1:27 The fear of the Lord driveth out sin:

Sin, by vigilance or by repentance.
Sirach 1:28 For he that is without fear, cannot be justified: for the wrath of his high spirits is his ruin.

Sirach 1:29 A patient man shall bear for a time, and afterwards joy shall be restored to him.

To him, as may be seen in the lives of the patriarchs.
Sirach 1:30 A good understanding will hide his words for a time, and the lips of many shall declare his wisdom.

Sirach 1:31 In the treasures of wisdom is the signification of discipline:

Sirach 1:32 But the worship of God is an abomination to a sinner.

Sinner. Such imagine that God's service is insupportable. (Worthington)
Sirach 1:33 Son, if thou desire wisdom, keep justice, and God will give her to thee.

Sirach 1:34 For the fear of the Lord is wisdom and discipline: and that which is agreeable to him,

Sirach 1:35 Is faith, and meekness: and he will fill up his treasures.

Faith, or fidelity. (Menochius) --- The meek shall possess the land, Matthew 5:4. (Calmet)
Sirach 1:36 Be not incredulous to the fear of the Lord: and come not to him with a double heart.

Sirach 1:37 Be not a hypocrite in the sight of men, and let not thy lips be a stumbling-block to thee.

Sirach 1:38 Watch over them, lest thou fall, and bring dishonour upon thy soul,

Sirach 1:39 And God discover thy secrets, and cast thee down in the midst of the congregation:

Down. Pride is usually thus treated, Matthew 23:12. (Calmet)
Sirach 1:40 Because thou camest to the Lord wickedly, and thy heart is full of guile and deceit.

Sirach 2:0 God's servants must look for temptations: and must arm themselves with patience and confidence in God.

Sirach 2:1 Son, *when thou comest to the service of God, stand in justice and in fear, and prepare thy soul for temptation.

Matthew 4:1.; 2 Timothy 3:12.
God. All must be tried, Tobias 12:13., and Hebrews 12:6., and Luke 24:46. But God will grant sufficient grace, 1 Corinthians 10:13. (Calmet)
Sirach 2:2 Humble thy heart, and endure: incline thy ear, and receive the words of understanding: and make not haste in the time of clouds.

Humble. Greek, "regulate thy heart, and endure, and make not haste in the time of trouble," (Haydock) inflicted by God. (Grotius) --- But not impatient, Isaias 28:16. --- Clouds. Literally, "overcast," obductionis. (Haydock) --- Desire not death, in order to be covered from the miseries of life; for that would (Worthington) border on despair. (Haydock)
Sirach 2:3 Wait on God with patience: join thyself to God, and endure, that thy life may be increased in the latter end.

Patience. Or expectation of being relieved. (Menochius)
Sirach 2:4 Take all that shall be brought upon thee: and in thy sorrow endure, and in thy humiliation keep patience:

Sirach 2:5 *For gold and silver are tried in the fire, but acceptable men in the furnace of humiliation.

Wisdom 3:6.
Humiliation. It shews what they really are. (Calmet)
Sirach 2:6 Believe God, and he will recover thee: and direct thy way, and trust in him. Keep his fear, and grow old therein.

Sirach 2:7 Ye that fear the Lord, wait for his mercy: and go not aside from him, lest ye fall.

Sirach 2:8 Ye that fear the Lord, believe him: and your reward shall not be made void.

Sirach 2:9 Ye that fear the Lord, hope in him: and mercy shall come to you for your delight.

Sirach 2:10 Ye that fear the Lord, love him, and your hearts shall be enlightened.

Enlightened. With joy, Isaias lviii. (Menochius) --- This verse is not in Greek. To avoid such frequent repetitions, it would be well to mark the passages in different characters, (Haydock) or between crotchets, as in the French version. (Calmet) --- Yet the Greek editions are not uniform. See Drusius and Haeschel.
Sirach 2:11 My children, behold the generations of men: and know ye that no one hath hoped in the Lord, and hath been confounded.

Sirach 2:12 *For who hath continued in his commandment, and hath been forsaken? or who hath called upon him, and he despised him?

Psalm 30:1.
Sirach 2:13 For God is compassionate and merciful, and will forgive sins in the day of tribulation: and he is a protector to all that seek him in truth.

Sirach 2:14 Woe to them that are of a double heart, and to wicked lips, and to the hands that do evil, *and to the sinner that goeth on the earth two ways.

3 Kings 18:21.
Ways. Attempting to reconcile the service of the world with that of God, who rejects hypocrites, (Haydock) the inconstant, and faint-hearted, ver. 15., and 3 Kings 18:21. (Calmet) --- Virtues and sins will receive their due. (Worthington)
Sirach 2:15 Woe to them that are faint-hearted, who believe not God: and therefore they shall not be protected by him.

Sirach 2:16 Woe to them that have lost patience, and that have forsaken the right ways, and have gone aside into crooked ways.

Sirach 2:17 And what will they do, when the Lord shall begin to examine?

Sirach 2:18 They that fear the Lord, will not be incredulous to his word: *and they that love him, will keep his way.

John 14:23.
Sirach 2:19 They that fear the Lord, will seek after the things that are well pleasing to him: and they that love him, shall be filled with his law.

Sirach 2:20 They that fear the Lord, will prepare their hearts, and in his sight will sanctify their souls.

Hearts. With God's grace (Haydock) to fight manfully. (Calmet) --- Sanctify. Greek, "humble their souls, saying, we shall," etc., ver. 22. (Haydock) --- Prayer, vigilance, and humility are the best dispositions to resist the devil.
Sirach 2:21 They that fear the Lord, keep his commandments, and will have patience even until his visitation,

Sirach 2:22 Saying: If we do not penance, we shall fall into the hands of the Lord, and not into the hands of men.

Men. He alludes to 2 Kings 24:14. In this world, God punishes with mercy; in the next, with severity, Daniel 13:23. (Calmet)
Sirach 2:23 For according to his greatness, so also is his mercy with him.

Sirach 3:0 Lessons concerning the honour of parents, and humility, and avoiding curiosity.

Sirach 3:1 The sons of wisdom are the church of the just: and their generation, obedience and love.

Love. The progeny of God's children brings forth the fruits of obedience and love. (Worthington) --- Wisdom teaches every virtue. (Calmet) --- This verse is not in Greek.
Sirach 3:2 Children, hear the judgment of your father, and so do that you may be saved.

Sirach 3:3 For God hath made the father honourable to the children: and seeking the judgment of the mothers, hath confirmed it upon the children.

Seeking. Greek, "and hath confirmed the judgment," etc. (Haydock) --- God will revenge any disrespect shewn to parents. (Menochius)
Sirach 3:4 He that loveth God, shall obtain pardon for his sins by prayer, and shall refrain himself from them, and shall be heard in the prayer of days.

Sirach 3:5 And he that honoureth his mother, is as one that layeth up a treasure.

Sirach 3:6 He that honoureth his father, shall have joy in his own children, and in the day of his prayer he shall be heard.

Sirach 3:7 He that honoureth his father, shall enjoy a long life: and he that obeyeth the father, shall be a comfort to his mother.

Father. Greek, "Lord....mother (8.) and will serve them," etc. (Haydock) --- Though you may feed your parents, you are still much in their debt. (St. Ambrose in Luke ii., and xviii.; Exodus 20:12., and Job 4:3.)
Sirach 3:8 He that feareth the Lord, honoureth his parents, and will serve them as his masters that brought him into the world.

Sirach 3:9 *Honour thy father in work and word, and all patience,

Exodus 20:12.; Deuteronomy 5:16.; Matthew 15:4.; Mark 7:10.; Ephesians 6:2.
Father. Greek adds, "and thy mother." (Calmet) --- Grabe marks this in another character, and substitutes "them" for him, ver. 10. --- And his, etc., is wholly omitted. (Haydock)
Sirach 3:10 That a blessing may come upon thee from him, and his blessing may remain in the latter end.

Sirach 3:11 *The father's blessing establisheth the houses of the children: but the mother's curse rooteth up the foundations.

Genesis 27:27.; Genesis 49:2.
Foundations. St. Augustine (City of God 22:8.) gives a memorable instance. The pagans deemed such curses most terrible. (Orpheus) (Genesis 9:25.) --- They are executed upon the wicked.
Sirach 3:12 Glory not in the dishonour of thy father: for his shame is no glory to thee.

Thee. Boast not of thy superior talents, nor say any thing disrespectful.
Sirach 3:13 For the glory of a man is from the honour of his father, and a father without honour is the disgrace of the son.

A father. Greek, "mother." Alexander [the Great] was ashamed of having Philip for his father, pretending that he was the son of Jupiter Ammon. His mother Olympias, with much ingenuity, wrote to him, that he would thus make Juno her powerful rival!
Sirach 3:14 Son, support the old age of thy father, and grieve him not in his life:

Sirach 3:15 And if his understanding fail, have patience with him, and despise him not when thou art in thy strength: for the relieving of the father shall not be forgotten.

Fail. Bis pueri senes. They do not lose the character of fathers, how infirm soever, (Calmet) and those can never truly serve the invisible Deity, who despise their fathers, his visible images on the earth. (Philo; Decal.)
Sirach 3:16 For good shall be repaid to thee for the sin of thy mother.

Sin. Or ill-nature. Greek, "instead of sins, (17.) a house shall be built up for thee." (Haydock) --- Thy family shall increase, Exodus 1:21. (Calmet) --- Alms, prayer, and sacrifice for parents merit reward. (Worthington)
Sirach 3:17 And in justice thou shalt be built up, and in the day of affliction thou shalt be remembered: and thy sins shall melt away as the ice in the fair warm weather.

Sirach 3:18 Of what an evil fame is he that forsaketh his father: and he is cursed of God that angereth his mother.

Of. Greek, "Like a blasphemer is," etc. (Calmet) --- He who reviles his father, meditates blasphemy against the Deity. (Menander)
Sirach 3:19 My son, do thy works in meekness, and thou shalt be beloved above the glory of men.

Meekness. Here a new subject begins. Goodness begets love. (St. Ambrose, Off. 2:7.)
Sirach 3:20 *The greater thou art, the more humble thyself in all things, and thou shalt find grace before God:

Philippians 2:3.
Greater. The dignity of a person should be the measure of his humility, (St. Ambrose, de virg. 31.) as the most elevated are the most exposed to pride. Humility is taught only by true wisdom and the gospel, Matthew 11:29. Philosophy may inspire us with the contempt of riches, etc. (Calmet) --- Yet humility is the most indispensable duty, and no less essential than delivery to an orator. (St. Augustine, ep. 118. ad Diosc.) --- All human greatness comes from God, who requires us to shew our gratitude by humility. (Worthington)
Sirach 3:21 For great is the power of God alone, and he is honoured by the humble.

Sirach 3:22 *Seek not the things that are too high for thee, and search not into things above thy ability: but the things that God hath commanded thee, think on them always, and in many of his works be not curious.

Proverbs 25:27.
In, etc. The mysterious nature of God and providence, cannot be comprehended: and in many things we must confess our ignorance. Life is often spent in idle researches.
Sirach 3:23 For it is not necessary for thee to see with thy eyes those things that are hid.

Sirach 3:24 In unnecessary matters be not over-curious, and in many of his works thou shalt not be inquisitive.

Sirach 3:25 For many things are shewn to thee above the understanding of men.

Sirach 3:26 And the suspicion of them hath deceived many, and hath detained their minds in vanity.

Suspicion. Greek Complutensian, "their vain suspicion hath deceived many and their wicked thought has ruined their judgment. Not having the apples of the eye, thou wilt be deprived of light; and being ignorant, do not speak." The latter sentence is marked by Grabe as wanting in his copy, as it is in the Vatican, if we may believe the London edition, (Haydock) which, however, is not an exact copy, no more than any of the other editions, of that famous manuscript. (Grabe)
Sirach 3:27 A hard heart shall fear evil at the last: and he that loveth danger, shall perish in it.

Heart. Which fears neither God nor man. (St. Bernard, cons. 1.) --- Those who have not shewn mercy, can expect none. (Haydock) --- The impenitent see their folly, like Antiochus, when it is too late. (Calmet) --- They have loved the danger, which shall overtake them, Proverbs 1:26. He seems to refute those who believed in fate, and would take no precautions. (Calmet) --- Those who live in sin, tempting God to the last hour, generally perish. (Worthington)
Sirach 3:28 A heart that goeth two ways shall not have success, and the perverse of heart shall be scandalized therein.

Sirach 3:29 A wicked heart shall be laden with sorrows, and the sinner will add sin to sin.

Wicked. Greek, "hard," obdurate in sin, like Pharao, Romans 2:5. (Haydock) --- Sorrows. Or crimes, as the word often implies, and the punishment thereof. (Calmet) --- "Sin, by its own weight, leads to another, (St. Gregory, Mor. 25:12.) and while custom is not resisted, a necessity arises." (St. Augustine, Confessions 8:5.)
Sirach 3:30 The congregation of the proud shall not be healed: for the plant of wickedness shall take root in them, and it shall not be perceived.

Congregation. The proud or obstinate sinner will take no advice, Proverbs 18:3. (Calmet)
Sirach 3:31 The heart of the wise is understood in wisdom, and a good ear will hear wisdom with all desire.

Understand. Greek, "shall devise a parable, and the ear of the hearer is the desire of a wise man." (Haydock)
Sirach 3:32 A wise heart, and which hath understanding, will abstain from sins, and in the works of justice shall have success.

Sirach 3:33 *Water quencheth a flaming fire, and alms resisteth sins:

Daniel 4:24.
Water, etc. He delights to instruct the attentive. (Calmet) --- Resist. Greek, "shall expiate, or obtain pardon for sins," Daniel 4:24., and Luke 11:41. "Alms-deeds are a sort of baptism, which may be often repeated" to advantage. (St. Ambrose, or. Max.) --- "When we bestow any thing, it is not of our own, but the gift of Christ. We give bread....He, the poor, renders us the kingdom of heaven." (St. Jerome in Psalm cxxxiii.) God becomes our debtor. (St. Chrysostom, hom. liii., and lviii.) --- Our inheritance is secured. (St. Cyprian, de Op.) --- But then charity and repentance must accompany our alms. (St. Augustine, City of God 21. ultra.[last chapter])
Sirach 3:34 And God provideth for him that sheweth favour: he remembereth him afterwards, and in the time of his fall he shall find a sure stay.

Sirach 4:0 An exhortation to works of mercy, and to the love of wisdom.

Sirach 4:1 Son, *defraud not the poor of alms, and turn not away thy eyes from the poor.

Tobias 4:7.
Alms. Greek, "life," and of what is necessary to support it. Si non pavisti, occidisti. St. Thomas Aquinas (II. 2. q. 32:5.) quoting the offices of St. Ambrose, though the sentence is not to be found there. (Calmet) --- Christians are not master of what is superfluous, no more than those who have the goods of the Church. (St. Chrysostom) (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Turn. Greek, "draw not after thee indigent eyes." (Haydock) --- Make not the poor wait long for relief, 2 Corinthians 9:7., Romans xii 8., and Proverbs 8:28. (Calmet) --- Qui tarde dat, diu noluit. (Seneca, Ben. 1:1.) --- Fames et mora bilem in nasum concitant. (Plaut.)
Sirach 4:2 Despise not the hungry soul: and provoke not the poor in his want.

Sirach 4:3 Afflict not the heart of the needy, and defer not to give to him that is in distress.

Sirach 4:4 Reject not the petition of the afflicted: and turn not away thy face from the needy.

Sirach 4:5 Turn not away thy eyes from the poor, for fear of anger: and leave not to them that ask of thee to curse thee behind thy back.

For....anger, and behind, etc., is not in Greek. (Haydock) -- He thrice repeats the same injunction, Exodus 22:22. (Calmet) --- Deal not cruelly with the poor; for God will revenge their injuries. (Worthington)
Sirach 4:6 For the prayer of him that curseth thee in the bitterness of his soul, shall be heard: for he that made him, will hear him.

Sirach 4:7 Make thyself affable to the congregation of the poor, and humble thy soul to the ancient, and bow thy head to a great man.

Of the. Greek, "and bow," etc. (Haydock) --- Submission to magistrates is enforced. (Calmet)
Sirach 4:8 Bow down thy ear cheerfully to the poor, and pay what thou owest, and answer him peaceable words with mildness.

And...owest, is not in Greek. (Haydock) --- People in office must attend to all. (Calmet)
Sirach 4:9 Deliver him that suffereth wrong out of the hand of the proud: and be not faint-hearted in thy soul.

Sirach 4:10 In judging, be merciful to the fatherless, as a father, and as a husband to their mother:

Sirach 4:11 And thou shalt be as the obedient son of the most High, and he will have mercy on thee more than a mother.

Sirach 4:12 Wisdom inspireth life into her children, and protecteth them that seek after her, and will go before them in the way of justice.

Sirach 4:13 And he that loveth her, loveth life: and they that watch for her, shall embrace her sweetness.

Sirach 4:14 They that hold her fast, shall inherit life: and whithersoever she entereth, God will give a blessing.

Sirach 4:15 They that serve her, shall be servants to the holy one: and God loveth them that love her.

One. Or "sanctuary." They shall be honoured like priests, Isaias 61:6. Birth, rather than merit, gave a title to the Jewish priests; but those who are wise shall minister in a more glorious temple. (Calmet)
Sirach 4:16 He that hearkeneth to her, shall judge nations: and he that looketh upon her, shall remain secure.

Sirach 4:17 If he trust to her, he shall inherit her, and his generation shall be in assurance.

Sirach 4:18 For she walketh with him in temptation, and at the first she chooseth him.

In temptation, etc. The meaning is, that before wisdom will choose any for her favourites, she will try them by leading them through contradictions, afflictions, and temptations, the usual noviceship of the children of God. (Challoner) --- Greek, "for sideways or through crooked paths she shall walk with him at first, (19.) she," etc. (Haydock) --- The narrow path leads to heaven, (Matthew 7:13.) and to virtue. (Hesiod.)
Sirach 4:19 She will bring upon him fear, and dread, and trial: and she will scourge him with the affliction of her discipline, till she try him by her laws, and trust his soul.

Sirach 4:20 Then she will strengthen him, and make a straight way to him, and give him joy,

Sirach 4:21 And will disclose her secrets to him, and will heap upon him treasures of knowledge, and understanding of justice.

To him. And explain why she has treated him so roughly.
Sirach 4:22 But if he go astray, she will forsake him, and deliver him into the hands of his enemy.

Enemy. Greek, "ruin." This road leads to eternal misery. (Haydock)
Sirach 4:23 Son, observe the time, and fly from evil.

Time. For all things, Ecclesiastes 3:1. All depends on the proper season.
Sirach 4:24 For thy soul, be not ashamed to say the truth.

Ashamed, to ask for relief, (ver. 25.; Calmet) or to say the truth, as the martyrs have done. This is not in Greek.
Sirach 4:25 For there is a shame that bringeth sin, and there is a shame that bringeth glory and grace.

Sin. Thus to refuse asking for what is necessary to support life, would be criminal. --- Grace. When we refrain from doing things truly shameful, Ecclesiasticus 41. (Calmet) --- To abhor sin is glorious; but to yield to it, through shamefacedness, or not to reprove it, is vicious. (Worthington)
Sirach 4:26 Accept no person against thy own person, nor against thy soul a lie.

Sirach 4:27 Reverence not thy neighbour in his fall:

Fall. Excuse not his faults, (Calmet) lest thou partake in them.
Sirach 4:28 And refrain not to speak in the time of salvation. Hide not thy wisdom in her beauty.

Hide, etc., is not in the Alexandrian copy, though inserted by Grabe. (Haydock) --- Ostentation is blameable; still we must speak in defence of the truth. (Calmet)
Sirach 4:29 For by the tongue wisdom is discerned: and understanding, and knowledge, and learning by the word of the wise, and steadfastness in the works of justice.

Tongue. Greek, "by speech, wisdom shall be known, and instruction by the word of the tongue."
Sirach 4:30 In no wise speak against the truth, but be ashamed of the lie of thy ignorance.

Lie. Greek, "of thy want of information." Yet Grabe and the Complutensian edition have lie, etc. (Haydock) --- Always yield to the truth, (Calmet) and never tell a lie, but speak the truth at proper times. (Worthington)
Sirach 4:31 Be not ashamed to confess thy sins, *but submit not thyself to every man for sin.

Ecclesiasticus 6:6.
Sirach 4:32 Resist not against the face of the mighty, and do not strive against the stream of the river.

River. Useless resistance is to be avoided; and when it is requisite to oppose the demands of the great, we must do it with reserve, ver. 33. (Calmet)
Sirach 4:33 Strive for justice for thy soul, and even unto death fight for justice, and God will overthrow thy enemies for thee.

Strive. Greek, "unto death strive for the truth, and the Lord God will fight for thee." (Haydock) --- The saints were modest, but intrepid. (Calmet) --- All must rather lose their lives than act against justice or truth. (Worthington)
Sirach 4:34 Be not hasty in thy tongue: and slack, and remiss in thy works.

Works. Perform what thou hast promised.
Sirach 4:35 Be not as a lion in thy house, terrifying them of thy household, and oppressing them that are under thee.

Sirach 4:36 Let not thy hand be stretched out to receive, and shut when thou shouldst give.

Sirach 5:0 We must not presume of our wealth or strength: nor of the mercy of God, to go on in sin: we must be steadfast in virtue and truth.

Sirach 5:1 Set not thy heart upon unjust possessions, and say not: I have enough to live on: for it shall be of no service in the time of vengeance and darkness.

Unjust. The translator styles riches unjust, because they often proceed from, or tend to injustice. They can afford no protection in death, Psalm 48:17., and Luke 12:19., and 16:9. (Calmet)
Sirach 5:2 Follow not in thy strength the desires of thy heart:

Heart. If no man can oppose thee, remember God's judgments. (Worthington)
Sirach 5:3 And say not: How mighty am I? and who shall bring me under for my deeds? for God will surely take revenge.

How mighty am I? is not in Greek, though read by St. Cyprian and St. Augustine, Spec. --- Sennacherib's vain boasting was soon punished, Isaias 37:36. (Calmet)
Sirach 5:4 Say not: I have sinned, and what harm hath befallen me? for the most High is a patient rewarder.

Rewarder. Greek, "is long-suffering, he will not let thee escape."
Sirach 5:5 Be not without fear about sin forgiven, and add not sin upon sin:

And add. Greek, "to add." Take not occasion from God's goodness to offend him. (Haydock) --- He will punish at last. (Jansenius) --- Though you may have taken pains to repent, are you assured of being forgiven? (Ecclesiastes 9:1.) A relapse calls for greater severity, though the graces of God are without repentance, Romans 11:29. He does not recall his favours, but he hates the ungrateful, ver. 6. (Bellarmine, Just. 3:4.) (Calmet) --- Satisfaction must be made even after the sin has been remitted. (Worthington) --- This may be feared. (Menochius)
Sirach 5:6 And say not: The mercy of the Lord is great, he will have mercy on the multitude of my sins.

Sirach 5:7 *For mercy and wrath quickly come from him, and his wrath looketh upon sinners.

Proverbs 10:6.
Looketh. Greek, "shall rest" in hell, to punish the abuse of mercy. (Haydock)
Sirach 5:8 Delay not to be converted to the Lord, and defer it not from day to day.

Day. A rabbin being asked when one must repent? answered, the day before death. But we know not when that will take place! Then, replied he, we must repent to-day. (Drusius) --- "God has promised thee pardon, if thou repent, but he has not promised thee to-morrow." (St. Augustine, Psalm cxiv.)
Sirach 5:9 For his wrath shall come on a sudden, and in the time of vengeance he will destroy thee.

Sirach 5:10 *Be not anxious for goods unjustly gotten: for they shall not profit thee in the day of calamity and revenge.

Proverbs 11:4.; Proverbs 11:28.
Sirach 5:11 Winnow not with every wind, and go not into every way: for so is every sinner proved by a double tongue.

Sirach 5:12 Be steadfast in the way of the Lord, and in the truth of thy judgment, and in knowledge, and let the word of peace and justice keep with thee.

The way. Greek, "thy knowledge or sentiment, and let thy speech be one," (Haydock) that men may depend upon thee.
Sirach 5:13 Be meek to hear the word, that thou mayst understand: and return a true answer with wisdom.

Word. Complutensian adds, "of God." But the Roman edition has, "be quick to hear, and answer slowly," James 1:19. "It is safer to hear than to preach." (St. Augustine, lix. in John) --- Constancy in virtue will obtain the promised peace. (Worthington)
Sirach 5:14 If thou have understanding, answer thy neighbour: but if not, let thy hand be upon thy mouth, lest thou be surprised in an unskilful word, and be confounded.

Lest. Greek, "honour and infamy is in speech; and the tongue of man proves his ruin." (Haydock) --- Nothing can be productive of better or of worse consequences, Proverbs 18:21. (Calmet)
Sirach 5:15 Honour and glory is in the word of the wise, but the tongue of the fool is his ruin.

Sirach 5:16 Be not called a whisperer, and be not taken in thy tongue, and confounded.

Be. Greek, "ensnare not by thy tongue, (17.) for evil confusion is upon the thief, and great condemnation on the double-tongued. (18.) Be not ignorant in any thing, great or small." (Haydock) --- The detractor is more dangerous than the thief. He pierces without being seen, Ecclesiastes 10:11., Proverbs 26:20., and Romans 1:29.
Sirach 5:17 For confusion and repentance is upon a thief, and an evil mark of disgrace upon the double-tongued, but to the whisperer hatred, and enmity, and reproach.

Sirach 5:18 Justify alike the small, and the great.

Great. Only examine the justice of the cause; or, according to the Greek, commit no fault of ignorance, nor say, "I did not think." (Calmet) --- Acknowledge thy friend in his poverty, as well as in his greatness. (Haydock)
Sirach 6:0 Of true and false friends: and of the fruits of wisdom.

Sirach 6:1 Instead of a friend, become not an enemy to thy neighbour: for an evil man shall inherit reproach and shame, so shall every sinner that is envious and double-tongued.

Instead. Greek, "and instead," etc. Syriac begins this chapter with the preceding verse, with which this is connected. Detraction will separate friends.
Sirach 6:2 *Extol not thyself in the thoughts of thy soul like a bull: lest thy strength be quashed by folly,

Romans 12:6.; Philippians 2:3.
Extol. This conduct is inimical to true friendship, which requires that we should make allowance for one another's faults. (Calmet) --- Like. Greek, "lest thy soul be torn away like a bull. Thou wilt eat," etc. (Haydock) --- Vulgate is better. (Calmet)
Sirach 6:3 And it eat up thy leaves, and destroy thy fruit, and thou be left as a dry tree in the wilderness.

Wilderness. Thus was Nabuchodonosor humbled, Daniel 4:(Menochius)
Sirach 6:4 For a wicked soul shall destroy him that hath it, and maketh him to be a joy to his enemies, and shall lead him into the lot of the wicked.

Sirach 6:5 A sweet word multiplieth friends, and appeaseth enemies, and a gracious tongue in a good man aboundeth.

Appeaseth. Greek, "and an eloquent tongue multiplies good words." (Haydock) --- The affable gain our affections. Gideon pacified the incensed Ephraimites by a mild answer, Judges viii. (Worthington)
Sirach 6:6 Be in peace with many, but let one of a thousand be thy counsellor.

Counsellor. Only few are capable of this office, (Haydock) or of keeping a secret. Yet we must have peace, if possible, with all, Romans 12:18. (Calmet) --- The Scythians condemned many friends, no less than many wives, (Luc. Tox.) and Aristotle (Eth. 9:10.) commends this maxim of Hesiod: mete poluxeinos met azeinos; "neither to have too many guests, or intimate friends, nor to be without any."
Sirach 6:7 If thou wouldst get a friend, try him before thou takest him, and do not credit him easily.

Get. Literally, "dost possess a friend, possess him in trial," (Haydock) as the Greek also has it. But the Hebrew term kanah, means likewise, "to acquire," and a friend ought to be chosen with judgment. It is too late to try him after he has been received. (Calmet) --- One must try much before a companion be chosen, that he may be afterwards preserved. (Plut.[Plutarch?]) --- "Possess not friends quickly, but those whom thou hast obtained, reject not with disgrace." (Solon; Laertius i., and 2:8.)
Sirach 6:8 For there is a friend for his own occasion, and he will not abide in the day of thy trouble.

Trouble. Such are interested friends; but true friendship is a kind and perfect agreement in all divine and human affairs." (Cicero) (St. Augustine, contra Acad. iii.) --- Religion must be the foundation.
Sirach 6:9 And there is a friend that turneth to enmity; and there is a friend that will disclose hatred and strife, and reproaches.

Reproaches. Disclosing all your imperfections. (Calmet) --- "The closest alliances, being broken, produce the most bitter enmities." (Pliny, [Natural History?] 37:4.)
Sirach 6:10 And there is a friend, a companion at the table, and he will not abide in the day of distress.

Sirach 6:11 A friend, if he continue steadfast, shall be to thee as thyself, and shall act with confidence among them of thy household.

Sirach 6:12 If he humble himself before thee, and hide himself from thy face, thou shalt have unanimous friendship for good.

Humble. "Friends must have a respect for each other." (Cicero)
Sirach 6:13 Separate thyself from thy enemies, and take heed of thy friends.

Friends. Such as have been just described. Of these the maxim of Bias may be true, that people should "love as if they were to hate," at some future period. (Laertius i.) --- Entire confidence becomes those who are friends indeed.
Sirach 6:14 A faithful friend is a strong defence: and he that hath found him, hath found a treasure.

Defence. Jonathas and Chusai saved David.
Sirach 6:15 Nothing can be compared to a faithful friend, and no weight of gold and silver is able to countervail the goodness of his fidelity.

Sirach 6:16 A faithful friend is the medicine of life and immortality: and they that fear the Lord, shall find him.

And immortality, is not in Greek. (Calmet) --- But shews the meaning of life is this place; as a true friend will not cease to give good advice for eternity. (Haydock) --- But even in this world, nothing can be more advantageous. (Calmet) --- Amicus magis necessarius est quam ignis et aqua. (Cicero) (St. Ambrose, off iii.) --- Him. Cicero himself says, "friendship can subsist only among the virtuous." Yet these, judging others by themselves, are more easily imposed upon, and ought, therefore, to address themselves to God. (Calmet)
Sirach 6:17 He that feareth God, shall likewise have good friendship: because according to him shall his friend be.

Be. He will instill into his friend sentiments of piety, if he have them not before. Amicitia similes invenit aut facit. "Pythagoras desires that in friendship one should be formed of many." (Cicero 5:11.) (Haydock)
Sirach 6:18 My son, from thy youth up receive instruction, and even to thy grey hairs thou shalt find wisdom.

Wisdom. A good education will, at last, bring forth fruit, though the passions may choke the good seed for a time. (Calmet) --- "Take wisdom for the provision on thy journey, from youth to old age." (Bias; Laertius i.)
Sirach 6:19 Come to her as one that plougheth, and soweth, and wait for her good fruits.

Sirach 6:20 For in working about her, thou shalt labour a little, and shalt quickly eat of her fruits.

Sirach 6:21 How very unpleasant is wisdom to the unlearned, and the unwise will not continue with her.

Sirach 6:22 She shall be to them as a mighty stone of trial, and they will cast her from them before it be long.

Trial. Such stones were used to try people's strength, (Zacharias 12:3.; Calmet) or to try gold. (Vatable) --- The Syriac explains it of a precious stone. But the first idea is preferable. Many will not so much as attempt to become acquainted with wisdom and piety.
Sirach 6:23 For the wisdom of doctrine is according to her name, and she is not manifest unto many, but with them to whom she is known, she continueth even to the sight of God.

Name. Perhaps the author may compare the Greek word Sophia, (Calmet) with Tsopuie, (Haydock) "hidden," or with the Greek term, zophos, which means "darkness." See Ecclesiasticus 43:8,. and 46:1. The original Hebrew test is lost, so that we cannot determine to what word allusion is made. See Cornelius a Lapide, who has written the best commentary on this book. --- But, etc., is not in Greek. (Calmet) --- Many prefer learning before piety. But St. Augustine says, the unlearned rise and take the kingdom of heaven, while we with our learning, devoid of heart, (or charity; Haydock) behold we fall into the dirt. (Confessions 8:8.) (Worthington)
Sirach 6:24 Give ear, my son, and take wise counsel, and cast not away my advice.

Sirach 6:25 Put thy feet into her fetters, and thy neck into her chains:

Sirach 6:26 Bow down thy shoulder, and bear her, and be not grieved with her bands.

Sirach 6:27 Come to her with all thy mind, and keep her ways with all thy power.

Sirach 6:28 Search for her, and she shall be made known to thee, and when thou hast gotten her, let her not go:

Thee. She will even seek thee first, Wisdom 6:14., Proverbs viii., and Matthew 7:7. --- Gotten. Continence does not here signify being chaste, (Calmet) though this is one of the fruits of wisdom, Wisdom 8:21., and Galatians 5:23. (Haydock)
Sirach 6:29 For in the latter end thou shalt find rest in her, and she shall be turned to thy joy.

Sirach 6:30 Then shall her fetters be a strong defence for thee, and a firm foundation, and her chain a robe of glory.

Firm. Literally, "bases of virtue;" (Haydock) which is not in Greek, and rather embarrasses the sentence; (Calmet) though it may signify, that if we serve the Lord with fidelity, our building will never be overturned. (Haydock)
Sirach 6:31 For in her is the beauty of life, and her bands are a healthful binding.

Sirach 6:32 Thou shalt put her on as a robe of glory, and thou shalt set her upon thee as a crown of joy.

Sirach 6:33 My son, if thou wilt attend to me, thou shalt learn: and if thou wilt apply thy mind, thou shalt be wise.

Sirach 6:34 If thou wilt incline thy ear, thou shalt receive instruction: and if thou love to hear, thou shalt be wise.

Sirach 6:35 *Stand in the multitude of ancients that are wise, and join thyself from thy heart to their wisdom, that thou mayst hear every discourse of God, and the sayings of praise may not escape thee.

Ecclesiasticus 8:9.
Wise. Literally, "prudent." The Latin has this epithet, because old people are not always such, though it may be expected of them. (Calmet) --- "While wisdom increases, all other faculties decrease." (St. Jerome, ad Nepot.)
Sirach 6:36 And if thou see a man of understanding, go to him early in the morning, and let thy foot wear the steps of his doors.

Morning, with the utmost diligence. (Calmet) --- "The very meeting of the wise is of advantage; and thou mayst learn something of a great man, though he open not his mouth." (Seneca, ep. xciv.)
Sirach 6:37 *Let thy thoughts be upon the precepts of God, and meditate continually on his commandments: and he will give thee a heart, and the desire of wisdom shall be given to thee.

Psalm 1:2.
Sirach 7:0 Religious and moral duties.

Sirach 7:1 Do no evils, and no evils shall lay hold of thee.

Sirach 7:2 Depart from the unjust, and evils shall depart from thee.

Evils. Greek, "injustice." Evil communications corrupt good manners, (Haydock) or the punishment of sin follows its commission. (Calmet)
Sirach 7:3 My son, sow not evils in the furrows of injustice, and thou shalt not reap them seven-fold.

Not. Greek, "not in." (Haydock) --- Seven-fold: more abundantly, Osee 10:11., Job 4:5., and Galatians 6:7. (Calmet) --- The wicked shall receive the fruit of their wickedness. (Worthington)
Sirach 7:4 Seek not of the Lord a pre-eminence, nor of the king the seat of honour.

Honour. Ambition is the source of ruin to men and empires, James 3:1. (Calmet)
Sirach 7:5 *Justify not thyself before God, for he knoweth the heart: and desire not to appear wise before the king.

Job 9:2.; Psalm 142:2.; Ecclesiastes 7:7.[17?]; Luke 18:11.
God. Greek, "the Lord, and affect not wisdom (sophizou) before the king." (Haydock) --- Of ourselves we are despicable; and kings love not those whose superior talents seem to eclipse their own. David's valour excited the hatred of Saul, and Alexander "was indignant that Antipater (his general; Haydock) had conquered, thinking his own glory was diminished by that which another acquired." (Curt. vi.)
Sirach 7:6 Seek not to be made a judge, unless thou have strength enough to extirpate iniquities: least thou fear the person of the powerful, and lay a stumbling-block for thy integrity.

Integrity. A judge is exposed to many dangers, 2 Paralipomenon 19:6. (Calmet) --- "He must be prudent and firm." (Plato, 2 Republic) --- What will become of those who push themselves forward? (St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxiv. in Hebrews xiii.)
Sirach 7:7 Offend not against the multitude of a city, neither cast thyself in upon the people,

Sirach 7:8 *Nor bind sin to sin: for even in one thou shalt not be unpunished.

Ecclesiasticus 12:7.
To sin. Correct not thy severity by too great indulgence, nor entangle thyself with the sins of othres, as with a chain, Isaias 5:18.
Sirach 7:9 Be not faint-hearted in thy mind:

Mind. If thou hast committed a fault, despair not, but pray, (ver. 10.) avoiding presumption, ver. 14.
Sirach 7:10 Neglect not to pray, and to give alms.

Sirach 7:11 Say not: God will have respect to the multitude of my gifts, and when I offer to the most high God, he will accept my offerings.

Sirach 7:12 Laugh no man to scorn in the bitterness of his soul: *for there is one that humbleth and exalteth, God who seeth all.

1 Kings 2:7.
Soul. Whether the person have incurred a fault or not, we ought to shew pity, reflecting on our own frailty, 1 Corinthians 10:12.
Sirach 7:13 Devise not a lie against thy brother: neither do the like against thy friend.

Devise. Literally, "plough." But Hebrew Charasch, means also to machinate. --- Brother. We cannot hence infer, with Grotius, that the Jews allowed themselves to deceive strangers. (Calmet)
Sirach 7:14 Be not willing to make any manner of lie: for the custom thereof is not good.

Good, but very pernicious, (Matthew 5:37., and Apocalypse 21:8.; St. Augustine, Mend.) though some have thought that lies might be told to prevent evil. (Origen, etc.) (Calmet)
Sirach 7:15 Be not full of words in a multitude of ancients, and repeat not the word in thy prayer.

Repeat not. Make not much babbling by repetition of words, but aim more at fervour of heart. (Challoner) --- A supplication ought to be drawn up in a concise manner. (Haydock) --- Judges and orators should speak with due reserve. Prayer must be unceasing: yet many words must not be used to inform God of our wants. Our Saviour seems to allude to this text, Matthew 6:7.
Sirach 7:16 Hate not laborious works, nor husbandry ordained by the Most High.

High. Genesis 2:15., and 3:18. The patriarchs and the most famous Roman generals followed this employment.
Sirach 7:17 Number not thyself among the multitude of the disorderly.

Sirach 7:18 Remember wrath, for it will not tarry long.

Sirach 7:19 Humble thy spirit very much: for the vengeance on the flesh of the ungodly is fire and worms.

On the flesh, is not in Greek. Christ appears to have had this passage in view, Mark 9:44. Many suppose that both allude to the fire which burnt dead bodies, etc., in the vale of Hinnon. But all allow that the inextinguishable flames of hell are meant. Whether the fire and worms be corporeal or not has been questioned: the Greek Fathers, and the Church of Florence, generally maintain the negative, and the Latins assert it on better grounds. St. Thomas Aquinas adopts the opinion of many of the Fathers, who explain the worm to denote the remorse of conscience. Yet many take it to be a worm, though not like those with which we are acquainted. Horreo vermem mendacem et mortem vivacem. (St. Bernard, cons. v.) See St. Jerome; Isaias lxvi.; Cornelius a Lapide; St. Gregory, Dial. 4:29.; St. Augustine, City of God 20:10.; St. Ambrose vii. in Luke xiv.) (Calmet) --- Fire and the worm of conscience are both eternal. (Worthington) --- The punishment at least is such, and more intense than we can conceive.
Sirach 7:20 Do not transgress against thy friend, deferring money, nor despise thy dear brother for the sake of gold.

Sirach 7:21 Depart not from a wise and good wife, whom thou hast gotten in the fear of the Lord: for the grace of her modesty is above gold.

Wife. The virtuous never approved of divorcing any but the incorrigible. (Calmet, Dis.)
Sirach 7:22 *Hurt not the servant that worketh faithfully, nor the hired man that giveth thee his life.

Leviticus 19:13.
Sirach 7:23 Let a wise servant be dear to thee as thy own soul, defraud him not of liberty, nor leave him needy.

Sirach 7:24 Hast thou cattle? have an eye to them: and if they be for thy profit, keep them with thee.

Sirach 7:25 Hast thou children? instruct them, and bow down their neck from their childhood.

Sirach 7:26 Hast thou daughters? have a care of their body, and shew not thy countenance gay towards them.

Sirach 7:27 Marry thy daughter well, and thou shalt do a great work, and give her to a wise man.

Man. The Jews in general embraced the married state in their youth. St. Paul prefers virginity, 1 Corinthians 7:8.
Sirach 7:28 If thou hast a wife according to thy soul, cast her not off: and to her that is hateful, trust not thyself. With thy whole heart,

Hateful. To marry such a one would be an occasion of divorce, which is always odious.
Sirach 7:29 *Honour thy father, and forget not the groanings of thy mother:

Tobias 4:3.
Groanings, in child-bed, and (Calmet) during thy infancy. (Menochius) (Job 4:4.)
Sirach 7:30 Remember that thou hadst not been born but through them: and make a return to them as they have done for thee.

Sirach 7:31 With all thy soul fear the Lord, and reverence his priests.

Sirach 7:32 With all thy strength love him that made thee: and forsake not his ministers.

Sirach 7:33 *Honour God with all thy soul, and give honour to the priests, and purify thyself with thy arms.

Deuteronomy 12:18.
Priests. Greek, "priest, and give him the portion which is enjoined thee, the first-fruit, and for negligence, and the gift of the shoulders, and the," etc., ver. 35. (Haydock) --- Arms. That is, with all thy power: or else by arms (brachiis) are here signified the right shoulders of the victims, which by the law fell to the share of the priests. See ver. 35., (Challoner) Exodus 29:28., and Leviticus 7:22.
Sirach 7:34 Give them their portion, *as it is commanded thee, of the first-fruits, and of purifications: and for thy negligences purify thyself with a few.

Leviticus 2:3.; Numbers 18:15.
Few offerings, if thou be poor. (Sa) --- Be alone with the priest when thou dost confess, and imitate the small number.
Sirach 7:35 Offer to the Lord the gift of thy shoulders, and the sacrifice of sanctification, and the first-fruits of the holy things:

Sirach 7:36 And stretch out thy hand to the poor, that thy expiation and thy blessing may be perfected.

Poor. They and Levites are always to be invited, Deuteronomy 12:19., and 14:26.
Sirach 7:37 A gift hath grace in the sight of all the living, and restrain not grace from the dead.

Dead: detained in purgatory. (Worthington) --- And restrain not grace from the dead. Withhold not from them the benefit of alms, prayers, and sacrifices. Such was the doctrine and practice of the Church of God, even in the time of the Old Testament. And the same has always been continued from the days of the apostles in the Church of the New Testament. (Challoner) --- Meat was also placed on the tombs of the deceased, for the benefit of the poor, Tobias 4:18. (St. Augustine, Confessions 6:2.)
Sirach 7:38 *Be not wanting in comforting them that weep, and walk with them that mourn.

Romans 12:15.
Walk. Greek, "mourn." (Haydock) --- It was customary to join those who mourned for the dead, and to offer them meat, and endeavour to comfort them. (Calmet, Diss.)
Sirach 7:39 *Be not slow to visit the sick: for by these things thou shalt be confirmed in love.

Matthew 25:36.
Love, being approved both by God and man.
Sirach 7:40 In all thy works remember thy last end, and thou shalt never sin.

End. Greek, "things;" death, judgment, and either hell or heaven. (Haydock) --- This consideration is a powerful preservative against sin. (Worthington) --- For who would dare to offend his judge, if he believed that the next moment he would be arraigned before his dreadful tribunal? (Calmet) --- "We die daily," etc. (St. Jerome, ad Heliod.)
Sirach 8:0 Other lessons of wisdom and virtue.

Sirach 8:1 Strive not with a powerful man, lest thou fall into his hands.

Sirach 8:2 *Contend not with a rich man, lest he bring an action against thee.

Matthew 25:25.
Bring. Greek, "overweigh thee," (Haydock) or turn the balance of the judge (Calmet) against thee, by money, (Haydock) which sometimes will corrupt kings. It is better, therefore, to avoid all law-suits. (Worthington)
Sirach 8:3 *For gold and silver hath destroyed many, and hath reached even to the heart of kings, and perverted them.

Ecclesiasticus 31:6.
Sirach 8:4 Strive not with a man that is full of tongue, and heap not wood upon his fire.

Fire. Ver. 13., and Proverbs 26:20. Such contests are full of danger.
Sirach 8:5 Communicate not with an ignorant man, lest he speak ill of thy family.

Family. Or "ancestors." They will be accused of having neglected thy education. People generally associate with those of the like dispositions.
Sirach 8:6 Despise not a man that turneth away from sin, *nor reproach him therewith: remember that we are all worthy of reproof.

2 Corinthians 2:6.; Galatians 6:1.
Sirach 8:7 *Despise not a man in his old age: for we also shall become old.

Leviticus 19:32.
Sirach 8:8 Rejoice not at the death of thy enemy: knowing that we all die, and are not willing that others should rejoice at our death.

Sirach 8:9 *Despise not the discourse of them that are ancient and wise, but acquaint thyself with their proverbs.

Ecclesiasticus 6:35.
Sirach 8:10 For of them thou shalt learn wisdom, and instruction of understanding, and to serve great men without blame.

Sirach 8:11 Let not the discourse of the ancients escape thee, for they have learned of their fathers:

Sirach 8:12 For of them thou shalt learn understanding, and to give an answer in time of need.

Sirach 8:13 Kindle not the coals of sinners by rebuking them, lest thou be burnt with the flame of the fire of their sins.

Sinners. Greek, "a sinner, lest thou be burnt in the fire of his flame,["] when he shall be enraged. (Haydock) --- This is not the time for reprehension. (Calmet) --- The envoys of Ezechias prudently answered nothing to Rabsaces. (S. Jerome in Isaias xxxvi.) --- Useless correction must be avoided. (Menochius)
Sirach 8:14 Stand not against the face of an injurious person, lest he sit as a spy to entrap thee in thy words.

Words. Thus the Pharisees attacked our Saviour, Matthew 22:15. In popular assemblies it is dangerous, but sometimes requisite to oppose bold declaimers, Ecclesiasticus 9:25.
Sirach 8:15 *Lend not to a man that is mightier than thyself: and if thou lendest, count it as lost.

Ecclesiasticus 29:4.
Sirach 8:16 Be not surety above thy power: and if thou be surety, think as if thou wert to pay it.

Power. Thou must consider the debt as thy own, Proverbs 6:1. (Calmet)
Sirach 8:17 Judge not against a judge: for he judgeth according to that which is just.

Sirach 8:18 *Go not on the way with a bold man, lest he burden thee with his evils: for he goeth according to his own will, and thou shalt perish together with his folly.

Genesis 4:8.
Sirach 8:19 *Quarrel not with a passionate man, and go not into the desert with a bold man: for blood is as nothing in his sight, and where there is no help he will overthrow thee.

Proverbs 22:24.
Sirach 8:20 Advise not with fools, for they cannot love but such things as please them.

Love. Greek, "keep the word secret. (21) Do no hidden thing before a stranger." (Haydock) --- The skilful alone must be consulted. (Worthington)
Sirach 8:21 Before a stranger do no matter of counsel: for thou knowest not what he will bring forth.

Sirach 8:22 Open not thy heart to every man: lest he repay thee with an evil turn, and speak reproachfully to thee.

Evil. Greek, "false kindness." The rest is omitted. (Haydock) --- Samson was undone by Dalilia. When Pompey was going on an embassy, he was taken by king Gentius, who wished to extort his secret from him; but he put his finger in the flame of a candle, that he might see that all his attempts would be fruitless. (V. Max. 3:3.)
Sirach 9:0 Cautions with regard to women, and dangerous conversations.

Sirach 9:1 Be not jealous over the wife of thy bosom, lest she shew in thy regard the malice of a wicked lesson.

Lest. "A husband should teach his wife to be chaste by his own example." (Lact. Relig. vi.) Ipse miser docui quo posset ludere pacto Custodes eheu! nunc premor arte mea. (Tibul.)
Sirach 9:2 Give not the power of thy soul to a woman, lest she enter upon thy strength, and thou be confounded.

Sirach 9:3 Look not upon a woman that hath a mind for many: lest thou fall into her snares.

Sirach 9:4 Use not much the company of her that is a dancer, and hearken not to her, lest thou perish by the force of her charms.

Dancer. Greek, "musician, lest," etc. (Haydock) --- The same person is often given to both music and dancing, (Menochius) and these arts are very dangerous. ([Ovid?] Met. 14:6.) --- The dances in the East were more licentious than ours.
Sirach 9:5 *Gaze not upon a maiden, lest her beauty be a stumbling-block to thee.

Genesis 6:2.
Gaze. It is not always possible to avoid seeing them; but the greatest caution is requisite, Job 32:1., and Matthew 5:28. (Calmet) --- Jealousy and all dangerous occasions must be avoided. (Worthington)
Sirach 9:6 *Give not thy soul to harlots in any point: lest thou destroy thyself and thy inheritance.

Proverbs 5:2.
Sirach 9:7 Look not round about thee in the ways of the city, nor wander up and down in the streets thereof.

Streets. Greek, "retired parts," where bad women dwell. (Calmet)
Sirach 9:8 *Turn away thy face from a woman dressed up, and gaze not about upon another's beauty.

Genesis 34.; 2 Kings 11:4.; 2 Kings 13:1.; Matthew 5:28.
Up. Greek, "of a fine appearance." Grabe substitutes, "who has found favour." (Haydock) --- The Fathers condemn too much dressing as a mark of levity and incontinence.
Sirach 9:9 For many have perished by the beauty of a woman, and hereby lust is enkindled as a fire.

Sirach 9:10 Every woman that is a harlot, shall be trodden upon as dung in the way.

Sirach 9:11 Many, by admiring the beauty of another man's wife, have become reprobate, for her conversation burneth as fire.

Sirach 9:12 Sit not at all with another man's wife, nor repose upon the bed with her:

Nor, etc., is also admitted in many copies, though found in the Complutensian and Aldus edition. (Calmet) --- Grabe replaces it on the authority of Clement (Paed. 2:7.) as he does many other passages, which are erroneously left out in several editions. (Prolog. t. 4. C. 3.) It would therefore be injurious to the word of God, if we were always to reject the additions in the Vulgate, which are not in the Vatican Greek copy; and they must not all at least be considered as interpolations.
Sirach 9:13 And strive not with her over wine, lest thy heart decline towards her, and by thy blood thou fall into destruction.

Sirach 9:14 Forsake not an old friend, for the new will not be like to him.

Sirach 9:15 A new friend is as new wine: it shall grow old, and thou shalt drink it with pleasure.

Sirach 9:16 *Envy not the glory and riches of a sinner, for thou knowest not what his ruin shall be.

Judges 9:4.; 2 Kings 15:10.
Envy not. If thou hast faith and wisdom, thou wilt rather dread his punishment, Psalm 36:1., and Proverbs 3:31. (Calmet) --- He is like a summer flower, that is quickly cut down. (Worthington)
Sirach 9:17 Be not pleased with the wrong done by the unjust, knowing that even to hell the wicked shall not please.

Wrong. Greek, "applauses of the unjust. Remember that they will not be justified even to hell." (Haydock) --- The world itself will finally approve only of virtue. (Calmet) --- The wicked will be condemned both by God and man. (Haydock)
Sirach 9:18 Keep thee far from the man that hath power to kill, so thou shalt not suspect the fear of death.

Sirach 9:19 And if thou come to him, commit no fault, lest he take away thy life.

Sirach 9:20 Know it to be a communication with death: for thou art going in the midst of snares, and walking upon the arms of them that are grieved.

It. Greek, "Know what thou art....walking on the pinnacles of the city." (Haydock) --- The same sense is given in the Vulgate, as people walking among armed men in a rage, are exposed to imminent danger. (Menochius)
Sirach 9:21 According to thy power beware of thy neighbour, and treat with the wise and prudent.

Beware. Greek, "aim at." Examine the person to whom thou intrusteth a secret.
Sirach 9:22 Let just men be thy guests, and let thy glory be in the fear of God.

Sirach 9:23 And let the thought of God be in thy mind, and all thy discourse on the commandments of the Highest.

Sirach 9:24 Works shall be praised for the hand of the artificers, and the prince of the people for the wisdom of his speech, but the word of the ancients for the sense.

Artificers. All strive to excel in their profession.
Sirach 9:25 A man full of tongue is terrible in his city, and he that is rash in his word shall be hateful.

Hateful. Satirists are dangerous. (Calmet) --- -----Dummodo risum Excutiat sibi, non cuiquam parcet amico. (Horace, 1:sat. 4.)
Sirach 10:0 The virtues and vices of men in power: the great evil of pride.

Sirach 10:1 A wise judge shall judge his people, and the government of a prudent man shall be steady.

Judge. Greek, "instruct." (Challoner) --- The example of rulers is very powerful. (Worthington)
Sirach 10:2 *As the judge of the people is himself, so also are his ministers: and what manner of man the ruler of a city is, such also are they that dwell therein.

Proverbs 29:12.
Therein. Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis. (Claud.) --- As a whole city is infected with the vices of princes, so it may be corrected by their good behaviour, (continentia.) (Cicero, Leg. 3.)
Sirach 10:3 *An unwise king shall be the ruin of his people: and cities shall be inhabited through the prudence of the rulers.

3 Kings 12:13.
Rulers. All who wish to live under just kings, Proverbs 29:4.
Sirach 10:4 The power of the earth is in the hand of God, and in his time he will raise up a profitable ruler over it.

It, as he did David, Job 34:30., and Daniel 2:20. (Calmet)
Sirach 10:5 The prosperity of man is in the hand of God, and upon the person of the scribe he shall lay his honour.

The scribe. That is, the man that is wise and learned in the law. (Challoner) --- It also denotes an officer, Judges 5:14. God must give light and success. (Calmet)
Sirach 10:6 Remember not any injury done thee by thy neighbour, *and do thou nothing by deeds of injury.

Leviticus 19:13.
Injury, out of revenge. (Haydock) (Leviticus 19:18.) --- "Caesar used to forget nothing but injuries." (Cicero, Ligar.) --- This at least is the character of a great man. (St. Augustine, ep. 138., and 54.)
Sirach 10:7 Pride is hateful before God and men: and all iniquity of nations is execrable.

Men. It invades the rights of the former, and disturbs the repose of mankind. --- All. Greek is obscure, "and from both proceeds injustice;" (Calmet) or, "it shall act unjustly." (Haydock) --- Pride attacks both God and man. (Grotius)
Sirach 10:8 *A kingdom is translated from one people to another, because of injustices, and wrongs, and injuries, and divers deceits.

Daniel 4:14.
Deceits. Hence kingdoms are changed. (Worthington) --- The ambition and luxury of subjects (Cato) and the negligence of the rulers, bring on confusion. (St. Augustine, City of God 5:13.)
Sirach 10:9 But nothing is more wicked than the covetous man. Why is earth and ashes proud?

Man. The desire of plunder, or of glory, occasions revolutions. (Haydock) --- Covetousness is the root of all evils, and causes people to abandon the faith, 1 Timothy 6:10. (Worthington)
Sirach 10:10 There is not a more wicked thing than to love money: for such a one setteth even his own soul to sale: because while he liveth, he hath cast away his bowels.

Bowels, and would have no compassion for others or for himself. Some Greek copies leave out as far as sale, but Grabe replaces the omission from the Complutensian.
Sirach 10:11 All power is of short life. A long sickness is troublesome to the physician.

Sirach 10:12 The physician cutteth off a short sickness: so also a king is to-day, and to-morrow he shall die.

Sirach 10:13 For when a man shall die, he shall inherit serpents, and beasts, and worms.

Sirach 10:14 The beginning of the pride of man is to fall off from God:

Beginning, or summit; arche. (Calmet) --- Thus Lucifer and Adam fell by pride. (St. Augustine, City of God 12:6.) All sin, being a contempt of God, springs from pride, (Prosper. contemp. 3:3.) and from an inordinate self-love. (Calmet)
Sirach 10:15 Because his heart is departed from him that made him: *for pride is the beginning of all sin: he that holdeth it, shall be filled with maledictions, and it shall ruin him in the end.

Proverbs 18:11.[12.?]
Sin, because man abandons God's law, and falls into all misery. (Worthington) --- The proud easily yield to all sorts of iniquity. (Menochius)
Sirach 10:16 Therefore hath the Lord disgraced the assemblies of the wicked, and hath utterly destroyed them.

Disgraced. Greek, "hath taken an exemplary vengeance, and hath," etc. (Haydock) --- Them, as he did the giants, Sodom, Nabuchodonosor, etc.
Sirach 10:17 God hath overturned the thrones of proud princes, and hath set up the meek in their stead.

Stead. Luke 1:52. (Calmet) --- "Thales being asked what was difficult to be seen; replied, a tyrant grown old." (Laertius 1.)
Sirach 10:18 God hath made the roots of proud nations to wither, and hath planted the humble of these nations.

Nations, the Chanaanites, who submitted to the yoke: or rather the Hebrews. (Calmet) --- Greek, "instead of them."
Sirach 10:19 The Lord hath overthrown the lands of the Gentiles, and hath destroyed them even to the foundation.

Foundation: overturning Sodom, Babylon, and even Jerusalem, for their sins. (Calmet)
Sirach 10:20 He hath made some of them to wither away, and hath destroyed them, and hath made the memory of them to cease from the earth.

Sirach 10:21 God hath abolished the memory of the proud, and hath preserved the memory of them that are humble in mind.

Sirach 10:22 Pride was not made for men: nor wrath for the race of women.

Sirach 10:23 That seed of men shall be honoured, which feareth God: but that seed shall be dishonoured, which transgresseth the commandments of the Lord.

Sirach 10:24 In the midst of brethren their chief is honourable: so shall they that fear the Lord, be in his eyes.

Sirach 10:25 The fear of God is the glory of the rich, and of the honourable, and of the poor:

Sirach 10:26 Despise not a just man that is poor, and do not magnify a sinful man that is rich.

Sirach 10:27 The great man, and the judge, and the mighty, is in honour: and there is none greater than he that feareth God.

Sirach 10:28 *They that are free, shall serve a servant that is wise: **and a man that is prudent and well instructed, will not murmur when he is reproved: and he that is ignorant, shall not be honoured.

Proverbs 17:2. --- ** 2 Kings 12:13.
Wise. When Diogenes was exposed to sale, and asked what he could do, he answered, "I know how to command free men." (Laertius 6.) --- Joseph and Daniel obtained authority by their wise conduct. (Calmet)
Sirach 10:29 Extol not thyself in doing thy work, and linger not in the time of distress.

Sirach 10:30 *Better is he that laboureth, and aboundeth in all things, than he that boasteth himself and wanteth bread.

Proverbs 12:9.
Sirach 10:31 My son, keep thy soul in meekness, and give it honour according to its desert.

Desert. Let not avarice deprive thee of the necessities of life, nor do any thing beneath thy dignity, Luke 21:19.
Sirach 10:32 Who will justify him that sinneth against his own soul? and who will honour him that dishonoureth his own soul?

Sirach 10:33 The poor man is glorified by his discipline and fear: and there is a man that is honoured for his wealth.

Glorified. Greek, "honoured on account of his knowledge, and the rich is, " etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 10:34 But he that is glorified in poverty, how much more in wealth? and he that is glorified in wealth, let him fear poverty.

And. Greek omits this sentence: (Calmet) yet Grabe has, And the man who is without honour in wealth, how much more so will he be in poverty? (Haydock) (Ecclesiastes 7:12.)
Sirach 11:0 Lessons of humility and moderation in all things.

Sirach 11:1 The *wisdom of the humble shall exalt his head, and shall make him sit in the midst of great men.

Genesis 41:4.; Daniel 6:3.; John 7:18.
Men. Merit is preferable to high birth, as it surmounts difficulties. (Calmet) --- Those who humble themselves, like Daniel, or fall under the oppression of others unjustly, as Joseph did, shall be exalted by God. (Worthington)
Sirach 11:2 *Praise not a man for his beauty, neither despise a man for his look.

1 Kings 16:17.; 2 Corinthians 10:10.; James 2:1.; James 2:9.
Look. "The most robust is farthest removed from wisdom." (Cicero) --- The beauty of the soul must be regarded. (St. Ambrose, Virg. 3.) (Calmet) Forma bonum fragile est, quantumque accedit ad annos Fit minor, et spatio carpitur ipsa suo. (Ovid, Art. 2.)
Sirach 11:3 The bee is small among flying things, but her fruit hath the chiefest sweetness.

Sweetness. Honey was more esteemed before sugar became common. As the little bee produces such sweetness, so the less beautiful often by their abilities surpass the comely.
Sirach 11:4 *Glory not in apparel at any time, and be not exalted in the day of thy honour: for the works of the Highest only are wonderful, and his works are glorious, and secret, and hidden.

Acts 12:12.; Acts 12:22.
Sirach 11:5 Many tyrants have sat on the throne, and he whom no man would think on hath worn the crown.

Throne. Greek, "pavement." Dionysius II, tyrant of Syracuse, was forced to turn schoolmaster at Corinth. (Calmet) --- Crown. Abdalonymus, a gardener, was placed on the throne of Sidon; (Curt. 4.) and several Roman emperors had been of the meanest condition. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 35:18.) David was a shepherd.
Sirach 11:6 *Many mighty men have been greatly brought down, and the glorious have been delivered into the hand of others.

1 Kings 15:28.; Esther 6:7.
Others, like Samson, Sedecias, Bajazet, etc.
Sirach 11:7 Before thou inquire, blame no man: and when thou hast inquired, reprove justly.

Man, as David did Miphiboset, 2 Kings 16:4. Constantine the Great grieved for having put his son Crispus to death on too weak evidence; and Theodosius repented for the sentence he had rashly passed on the inhabitants of Thessalonica. Even though the sentence should happen to be just, it would be wrong to pronounce it too hastily.
Sirach 11:8 *Before thou hear, answer not a word: and interrupt not others in the midst of their discourse.

Proverbs 18:13.
Discourse. This is a mark of impertinence, Proverbs 18:13. (Calmet) --- Let others finish their sentence, and wait if there be any elder or better informed to speak. (Worthington)
Sirach 11:9 Strive not in a matter which doth not concern thee, and sit not in judgment with sinners.

Sirach 11:10 My son, meddle not with many matters: *and if thou be rich, thou shalt not be free from sin: for if thou pursue after, thou shalt not overtake: and if thou run before, thou shalt not escape.

1 Timothy 6:9.
Escape. God will grant thee riches without so much solicitude (Lyranus) or rather meddle not with too many things, as that is the way to succeed in none, and destroys all repose.
Sirach 11:11 *There is an ungodly man that laboureth, and maketh haste, and is in sorrow, and is so much the more in want.

Ecclesiastes 4:8.
Sirach 11:12 Again, there is an inactive man that wanteth help, is very weak in ability, and full of poverty:

Sirach 11:13 *Yet the eye of God hath looked upon him for good, and hath lifted him up from his low estate, and hath exalted his head: and many have wondered at him, and have glorified God.

Job 42:10.
Sirach 11:14 *Good things and evil, life and death, poverty and riches, are from God.

Job 2:10.
Sirach 11:15 Wisdom and discipline, and the knowledge of the law, are with God. Love and the ways of good things are with him.

Sirach 11:16 Error and darkness are created with sinners: and they that glory in evil things, grow old in evil.

Sinners. They are all born in sin. But some appear to have worse dispositions than others, Psalm 57:4. (Calmet) --- God is not the author of iniquity. (Haydock) --- He punishes in order to save, though he be offended by the wicked choice of man. (Calmet) --- Blindness of heart and obduracy are punishments of sin. (Worthington)
Sirach 11:17 The gift of God abideth with the just, and his advancement shall have success for ever.

Ever. All things work together for the good of the elect, Romans 8:8. (Haydock) --- God never abandons first. (Council of Trent, Session 7:11.) --- The wicked often abuse graces. (Calmet)
Sirach 11:18 There is one that is enriched by living sparingly, and this is the portion of his reward.

Sirach 11:19 In that he saith: *I have found me rest, and now I will eat of my goods alone:

Luke 18:19.
Sirach 11:20 And he knoweth not what time shall pass, and that death approacheth, and that he must leave all to others, and shall die.

Sirach 11:21 Be steadfast in thy covenant, and be conversant therein, and grow old in the work of thy commandments.

Covenant. All the Israelites partook in the covenants entered into between God and their fathers, which became their own by circumcision, as we become entitled to the alliance of Christ by baptism.
Sirach 11:22 Abide not in the works of sinners. But trust in God, and stay in thy place.

Place. If God bestow not riches, it may be for thy advantage.
Sirach 11:23 For it is easy in the eyes of God on a sudden to make the poor man rich.

Sirach 11:24 The blessing of God maketh haste to reward the just, and in a swift hour his blessing beareth fruit.

Fruit. Prosperity was a sign of God's favour, under the old law. Now nothing is more equivocal, and the poor are declared blessed. (Calmet)
Sirach 11:25 Say not: What need I, and what good shall I have by this?

Sirach 11:26 Say not: I am sufficient for myself: and what shall I be made worse by this?

Myself. Neither the poor nor the rich can be independent of God. (Haydock) --- Perhaps no one dares to hold this language. But many act as if they thought themselves gods, and some have claimed divine honours, 4 Kings 18:34., Isaias 14:13., and Ezechiel 29:3.
Sirach 11:27 *In the day of good things be not unmindful of evils: and in the day of evils be not unmindful of good things:

Ecclesiasticus 18:25.
Sirach 11:28 For it is easy before God in the day of death to reward every one according to his ways.

Death, in old age, (Grotius) or rather after the soul's departure. The pagans had not this consolation. Their hopes were confined to the earth; and as they saw many honest people miserable, they introduced a chimerical idea of happiness, consisting in virtue alone. The views of Christians are chiefly bent on future rewards.
Sirach 11:29 The affliction of an hour maketh one forget great delights, and in the end of a man is the disclosing of his works.

Hour. The last of life. It demonstrates the vanity of past pleasures. Even a momentary toothache will banish the recollection of such delights.
Sirach 11:30 Praise not any man before death, for a man is known by his children.

Children. If they take wicked ways, it is a stain on their father's memory; and though the latter were blameless, it must greatly disturb their repose. (Calmet) --- Children may here denote the works of man, which can only then be pronounced perfect, when he is incapable of falling from the state of virtue. (Haydock) ------Dicique beatus Ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet. (Ovid, Metam. iii.) --- Solon inculcated this truth to Croesus, and when the latter was about to be burnt to death by Cyrus, he called thrice upon Solon's name; the reason of which being told the conqueror, he took pity on the fallen king, and treated him with great respect. (Laert. 1.; Plut.[Plutarch?] in Solon) --- These sages only regarded the goods of this life. But the Christian's real happiness commences after death. Mors....gratio missionis est. (St. Ambrose, Mort. viii.)
Sirach 11:31 Bring not every man into thy house: for many are the snares of the deceitful.

Sirach 11:32 For as corrupted bowels send forth stinking breath, and as the partridge is brought into the cage, and as the roe into the snare: so also is the heart of the proud, and as a spy that looketh on the fall of his neighbour.

Sirach 11:33 For he lieth in wait, and turneth good into evil, and on the elect he will lay a blot.

Sirach 11:34 Of one spark cometh a great fire, and of one deceitful man much blood: and a sinful man lieth in wait for blood.

Sirach 11:35 Take heed to thyself of a mischievous man, for he worketh evils: lest he bring upon thee reproach for ever.

Sirach 11:36 Receive a stranger in, and he shall overthrow thee with a whirlwind, and shall turn thee out of thy own.

Own. So Herod destroyed his wife's family, and Paris stole Helen. (Calmet)
Sirach 12:0 We are to be liberal to the just: and not to trust the wicked.

Sirach 12:1 If thou do good, know to whom thou dost it, and there shall be much thanks for thy good deeds.

To whom. All must not be admitted into the house, nor treated with marks of particular esteem. Yet daily alms must be given without too scrupulous an enquiry, Luke 6:30. (Calmet) --- It would be wrong to encourage sinners, who would run to their ruin. But we must relieve the penitent. (Worthington)
Sirach 12:2 Do good to the just, and thou shalt find great recompense: and if not of him, assuredly of the Lord.

Lord. Christ rewards what good is done to his poor brethren.
Sirach 12:3 For there is no good for him that is always occupied in evil, and that giveth no alms: for the Highest hateth sinners, and hath mercy on the penitent.

For. Greek, (4.) "Give to the pious, and receive not the sinner, (6.) Do," etc. (Haydock) --- The gospel enjoins us to do good to all. St. Augustine (Dort. 3:16.) and St. Thomas Aquinas (II. 2. q. xxxii. a ix.) explain this in a spiritual sense, that we must not partake in the crimes of others. We may also make presents to the virtuous, and pass over people of a different character, particularly when they would abuse our gifts. The honest poor must be preserved.
Sirach 12:4 *Give to the merciful, and uphold not the sinner: God will repay vengeance to the ungodly and to sinners, and keep them against the day of vengeance.

Galatians 6:7.
Sirach 12:5 Give to the good, and receive not a sinner.

Sirach 12:6 Do good to the humble, and give not to the ungodly: hold back thy bread, and give it not to him, lest thereby he overmaster thee.

Sirach 12:7 For thou shalt receive twice as much evil for all the good thou shalt have done to him: for the Highest also hateth sinners, and will repay vengeance to the ungodly.

Sirach 12:8 A friend shall not be known in prosperity, and an enemy shall not be hidden in adversity.

Sirach 12:9 In the prosperity of a man, his enemies are grieved: and a friend is known in his adversity.

Sirach 12:10 Never trust thy enemy: for as a brass pot his wickedness rusteth:

Rusteth. So his malice always returns, (Calmet) and he shews what he is. (Vatable) --- Christianity does not blame due reserve in treating with those whom we know not, or who have formerly injured us. Though we must love them from our heart, yet we need not intrust our secrets to them, nor even to every friend. Joab always retained a hatred for Abner, and Absalom for his brother and father, though they dissembled their resentment. (Calmet) --- So the wicked commonly act. (Haydock) --- We must love, but not trust them, being wise as serpents, Matthew 10. (Worthington)
Sirach 12:11 Though he humble himself and go crouching, yet take good heed and beware of him.

Of him. Greek adds, "and thou shalt be to him as one who has rubbed a mirror, (of brass from the rust. It returns perpetually. Calmet) and shalt know that the rust is not removed for ever. (Grabe) (Haydock)
Sirach 12:12 Set him not by thee, neither let him sit on thy right hand, lest he turn into thy place, and seek to take thy seat: and at the last thou acknowledge my words, and be pricked with my sayings.

Sirach 12:13 Who will pity an enchanter struck by a serpent, or any that come near wild beasts? so is it with him that keepeth company with a wicked man, and is involved in his sins.

Beasts. Vipers, etc. Why should they familiarize themselves with such? Some Italians still handle serpents without fear, pretending that they are the descendants of St. Paul. (Calmet) --- But he was never married, (1 Corinthians vii.; Haydock) and they are rather of the race of the Marsi, who formerly claimed the same privilege, having made use of some drugs to prevent the poison. The ancients believed that they could charm serpents.
Sirach 12:14 For an hour he will abide with thee: but if thou begin to decline, he will not endure it.

Sirach 12:15 *An enemy speaketh sweetly with his lips, but in his heart he lieth in wait to throw thee into a pit.

Jeremias 41:6.
Sirach 12:16 An enemy weepeth with his eyes: but if he find an opportunity he will not be satisfied with blood:

Blood. Jeremias 41:6. Samson yielded to the tears of women, Judges 14:16., and 16:6.
Sirach 12:17 And if evils come upon thee, thou shalt find him there first.

Sirach 12:18 An enemy hath tears in his eyes, and while he pretendeth to help thee, will undermine thy feet.

Eyes. Is taken from ver. 16. It is not in Greek. (Haydock) --- His tears are like those of crocodiles, which cry when they are going to kill a man. (Calmet)
Sirach 12:19 He will shake his head, and clap his hands, and whisper much, and change his countenance.

Sirach 13:0 Cautions in the choice of company.

Sirach 13:1 He *that toucheth pitch, shall be defiled with it: and he that hath fellowship with the proud, shall put on pride.

Deuteronomy 7:2.
Pride. We are naturally prone to it, and the friendship and manners of the proud will increase it. (Calmet) --- If, therefore, the rich be not virtuous, it is dangerous to keep their company, (Worthington) both for this and the next world.
Sirach 13:2 He shall take a burden upon him that hath fellowship with one more honourable than himself. And have no fellowship with one that is richer than thyself.

Sirach 13:3 What agreement shall the earthen pot have with the kettle? for if they knock one against the other, it shall be broken.

Kettle. Made of iron. It will presently be broken. So the poor must suffer, if they marry, or have society with those who are much above their rank. (Calmet)
Sirach 13:4 The rich man hath done wrong, and yet he will fume: but the poor is wronged, and must hold his peace.

Sirach 13:5 If thou give, he will make use of thee: and if thou have nothing, he will forsake thee.

Sirach 13:6 If thou have any thing, he will live with thee, and will make thee bare, and he will not be sorry for thee.

Sirach 13:7 If he have need of thee, he will deceive thee; and smiling upon thee, will put thee in hope; he will speak thee fair, and will say: What wantest thou?

Thou? Distrust those who promise much. (Calmet) --- Spem pretio non emo. (Tertullian)
Sirach 13:8 And he will shame thee by his meats, till he have drawn thee dry twice or thrice, and at last he will laugh at thee: and afterward, when he seeth thee, he will forsake thee, and shake his head at thee.

Drawn. Literally, "exhaust." (Haydock) --- He will feast thee, while he wants thy service, or he will come to dine with thee, and thus reduce thee to distress, Proverbs 23:1. (Calmet)
Sirach 13:9 Humble thyself to God, and wait for his hands.

Sirach 13:10 Beware that thou be not deceived Into folly, and be humbled.

Humbled. By foolishly attempting to rival the sumptuous feasts of the great. Ver. 9., and 11., are not in the Greek. (Haydock)
Sirach 13:11 Be not lowly in thy wisdom, lest being humbled thou be deceived into folly.

Wisdom. Depend not on others' bounty. (Menochius) --- When the cause of God is at stake, be firm, like St. Paul. (Calmet) --- Pusillanimity in a superior might cause him to neglect his duty. (Worthington)
Sirach 13:12 If thou be invited by one that is mightier, withdraw thyself: for so he will invite thee the more.

Sirach 13:13 Be not troublesome to him, lest thou be put back: and keep not far from him, lest thou be forgotten.

Sirach 13:14 Affect not to speak with him as an equal: and believe not his many words: for by much talk he will sift thee, and smiling, will examine thee concerning thy secrets.

Concerning, etc., is not expressed in Greek. (Haydock) --- If a person be so weak as to disclose his secret to a great man, he will never be trusted by him. (Calmet)
Sirach 13:15 His cruel mind will lay up thy words: and he will not spare to do thee hurt, and to cast thee into prison.

Sirach 13:16 Take heed to thyself, and attend diligently to what thou hearest: for thou walkest in danger of thy ruin.

Sirach 13:17 When thou hearest those things, see as it were in sleep, and thou shalt awake.

Awake. Be cautious even in sleep, if possible; or seem not to hear what passes at court. (Calmet)
Sirach 13:18 Love God all thy life, and call upon him for thy salvation.

Sirach 13:19 Every beast loveth its like: so also every man him that is nearest to himself.

Himself. Similarity of manners and of condition is favourable to friendship. (Calmet) --- The good and bad cannot be friends, their manners are so different. (Cicero)
Sirach 13:20 All flesh shall consort with the like to itself, and every man shall associate himself to his like.

Sirach 13:21 If the wolf shall at any time have fellowship with the lamb, so the sinner with the just.

Lamb. Christ has taught people of different tempers to embrace the faith, which shows his admirable power, Isaias 11:6.
Sirach 13:22 *What fellowship hath a holy man with a dog, or what part hath the rich with the poor?

2 Corinthians 6:14.
Sirach 13:23 The wild ass is the lion's prey, in the desert: so also the poor are devoured by the rich.

Sirach 13:24 And as humility is an abomination to the proud, so also the rich man abhorreth the poor.

Sirach 13:25 When a rich man is shaken, he is kept up by his friends; but when a poor man is fallen down, he is thrust away even by his acquaintance.

Away. Psalm 61:4. (Calmet) --- "It is inhuman to push those who are falling." (Cicero, pro Rabir.)
Sirach 13:26 When a rich man hath been deceived, he hath many helpers: he hath spoken proud things, and they have justified him.

Helpers. Who prevent his ruin, (Calmet) and turn his words to good sense. (Menochius) --- Proud. Greek, "what should not be disclosed," aporreta. (Haydock) (Calmet) --- Their "fault increases, being fed by applause." (St. Gregory, Mor. 4:29.)
Sirach 13:27 The poor man was deceived, and he is rebuked also: he hath spoken wisely, and could have no place.

Sirach 13:28 The rich man spoke, and all held their peace; and what he said, they extol even to the clouds.

Clouds. People suppose that the rich must possess genius. (Horace, 2:Sat. iii.) --- "Every one honours the rich." (Theog.) (Calmet) --- Exception of persons hinders many good counsels, and promotes evil. (Worthington)
Sirach 13:29 The poor man spoke, and they say: Who is this? and if he stumble, they will overthrow him.

Sirach 13:30 Riches are good to him that hath no sin in his conscience: and poverty is very wicked in the mouth of the ungodly.

Ungodly. The abuse of riches is alone blameable. All things are clean for the clean, while the wicked perverts every advantage.
Sirach 13:31 The heart of a man changeth his countenance, either for good or for evil.

Evil. Sorrow will manifest itself. (Calmet) --- Imago animi vultus. (Cicero, Decorat. iii.)
Sirach 13:32 The token of a good heart, and a good countenance, thou shalt hardly find, and with labour.

Find. Few are perfectly sincere. (Calmet) --- Greek, "a cheerful countenance is the vestige of a heart in good things, (Haydock; prosperity, Menochius) and the discovery of parables is the effect of laborious enquiries." (Haydock) --- Study makes the countenance serious. (Calmet)
Sirach 14:0 The evil of avarice: works of mercy are recommended, and the love of wisdom.

Sirach 14:1 Blessed *is the man that hath not slipt by a word out of his mouth, and is not pricked with the remorse of sin.

Ecclesiasticus 19:17.
Mouth. He is perfect, James 3:2.
Sirach 14:2 Happy is he that hath had no sadness of his mind, and who is not fallen from his hope.

Sirach 14:3 Riches are not comely for a covetous man and a niggard, and what should an envious man do with gold?

Envious. Who will neither use his wealth himself, nor bestow it. The true use of riches is to take a sufficiency, and to relieve the poor. (Calmet)
Sirach 14:4 He that gathereth together by wronging his own soul, gathereth for others, and another will squander away his goods in rioting.

Gathereth. Greek, "taketh from his," etc. (Haydock) --- Such misers are continually derided, but will never be cured, Ecclesiastes 2:18., and 6:2. An old proverb says, "The miser doth nothing right but when he dies." (Calmet)
Sirach 14:5 He that is evil to himself, to whom will he be good? and he shall not take pleasure in his goods.

Sirach 14:6 There is none worse than he that envieth himself, and this is the reward of his wickedness.

Envieth. By refusing himself the necessaries of life, he rejects God's gifts, and scandalizes his neighbour. (Worthington)
Sirach 14:7 And if he do good, he doth it ignorantly, and unwillingly: and at the last he discovereth his wickedness.

Wickedness. Persisting covetous till death, as is commonly the case.
Sirach 14:8 The eye of the envious is wicked: and he turneth away his face, and despiseth his own soul.

Sirach 14:9 The eye of the covetous man is insatiable in his portion of iniquity: he will not be satisfied till he consume his own soul, drying it up.

Sirach 14:10 An evil eye is towards evil things: and he shall not have his fill of bread, but shall be needy and pensive at his own table.

Sirach 14:11 My son, if thou have any thing, do good to thyself, and offer to God worthy offerings.

Offerings. Make a proper use of what God has bestowed. (Calmet)
Sirach 14:12 Remember that death is not slow, and that the covenant of hell hath been shewn to thee: for the covenant of this world shall surely die.

The covenant of hell. The decree by which all are to go down to the regions of death, (Challoner) which hell frequently denotes. (Haydock) --- Under the old law, all went down into some part of hell. (Worthington) --- Hath been. Greek, "hath not," etc. We know not when we shall die, though all must taste of death, (Haydock) and therefore we must make haste to do good. (Menochius) --- Shall, or "is, he shall die the death," (Genesis 2:17.) as the Greek has this sentence, ver. 18. (Haydock) Certo veniunt ordine Parcae, Nulli jusso cessare licet. (Sen.[Seneca?] Hercul.)
Sirach 14:13 *Do good to thy friend before thou die; and according to thy ability, stretching out thy hand, give to the poor.

Ecclesiasticus 4:1.; Tobias 4:7.; Luke 16:9.
Sirach 14:14 Defraud not thyself of the good day, and let not the part of a good gift overpass thee.

Sirach 14:15 Shalt thou not leave to others to divide by lot thy sorrows and labours?

Sorrows. Greek, "toils," or what thou hast amassed with much care. (Haydock)
Sirach 14:16 Give and take, and justify thy soul.

Take. Alms-deeds will ensure the remission of sins. This usury is lawful. We must also keep up a good society with our friends. (Calmet) --- Justify. Greek, "sanctify thy soul (17.) for." (Grabe) (Haydock) --- Some read "love," or divert thy soul by lawful amusements. The argument is addressed to Jews and Gentiles. (Calmet)
Sirach 14:17 Before thy death work justice: for in hell there is no finding food.

Sirach 14:18 *All flesh shall fade as grass, and as the leaf that springeth out on a green tree.

Isaias 40:6.; James 1:10.; 1 Peter 1:24.
Fade. Greek, "grow old like a garment. For the covenant from the beginning is, he shall die the death. Like a leaf flourishing on a bushy tree." (Haydock) --- Homer has the same thought, Iliad vi.
Sirach 14:19 Some grow, and some fall off: so is the generation of flesh and blood: one cometh to an end, and another is born.

Sirach 14:20 Every work that is corruptible, shall fail in the end: and the worker thereof shall go with it.

End. The fruits of the Spirit are alone immortal, ver. 21., and Galatians 6:8.
Sirach 14:21 And every excellent work shall be justified: and the worker thereof shall be honoured therein.

Sirach 14:22 *Blessed is the man that shall continue in wisdom, and that shall meditate in his justice, and in his mind shall think of the all-seeing eye of God.

Psalm 1:2.
Sirach 14:23 He that considereth her ways in his heart, and hath understanding in her secrets, who goeth after her as one that traceth and stayeth in her ways:

Sirach 14:24 He who looketh in at her windows, and hearkeneth at her door:

Sirach 14:25 He that lodgeth near her house, and fastening a pin in her walls, shall set up his tent nigh unto her, where good things shall rest in his lodging for ever:

Sirach 14:26 He shall set his children under her shelter, and shall lodge under her branches:

Sirach 14:27 He shall be protected under her covering from the heat, and shall rest in her glory.

Glory. As under the miraculous pillar, Exodus 24:17. He who shall abide with wisdom shall have nothing to fear. (Calmet)
Sirach 15:0 Wisdom embraceth them that fear God. God is not the author of sin.

Sirach 15:1 He that feareth God, will do good: and he that possesseth justice, shall lay hold on her,

Good. Greek, "these things, and he who possess the knowledge of the law will find her," (Calmet) or, "he who keeps the law, will receive her." (Grabe) (1 Corinthians 4:20.) (Haydock) --- All who resolve to be virtuous, will have God's grace, which preventeth them, and continueth to afford them assistance. (Worthington)
Sirach 15:2 And she will meet him as an honourable mother, and will receive him as a wife married of a virgin.

Married. Literally, "from virginity." (Haydock) Those who have been espoused in youth have the most durable love for one another, Proverbs 2:17., and Malachias 2:14. (Calmet)
Sirach 15:3 With the bread of life and understanding she shall feed him, *and give him the water of wholesome wisdom to drink: and she shall be made strong in him, and he shall not be moved:

John 4:10.
Sirach 15:4 And she shall hold him fast, and he shall not be confounded: and she shall exalt him among his neighbours,

Sirach 15:5 And in the midst of the church she shall open his mouth, and shall fill him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding, and shall clothe him with a robe of glory.

She. Or Greek, "he shall open his mouth, (6.) he shall find joy and a crown of exultation, and shall inherit," etc. (Haydock) --- Church, or assembly of the people. In both, the wise shall be heard with respect. (Calmet)
Sirach 15:6 She shall heap upon him a treasure of joy and gladness, and shall cause him to inherit an everlasting name.

Sirach 15:7 But foolish men shall not obtain her: and wise men shall meet her, foolish men shall not see her: for she is far from pride and deceit.

Sirach 15:8 Lying men shall not be mindful of her: but men that speak truth shall be found with her, and shall advance, even till they come to the sight of God.

Sirach 15:9 Praise is not seemly in the mouth of a sinner:

Praise. Or Greek, "a proverb," Proverbs 17:7., and 26:7. (Calmet) --- David invites even dragons to praise God, but sinners never. (St. Chrysostom, orat. prebyt.) (Psalm 49:16.) --- The person who preaches well, and lives not accordingly, injures God. (Worthington)
Sirach 15:10 For wisdom came forth from God: for praise shall be with the wisdom of God, and shall abound in a faithful mouth, and the sovereign Lord will give praise unto it.

Wisdom. Greek, "it was not sent to him, (Calmet) or he was not commissioned by the Lord. For praise shall be spoken in wisdom, and the Lord will give him success."
Sirach 15:11 Say not: It is through God that she is not with me: for do not thou the things that he hateth.

She. Ignorance and vice are defects, and consequently not the work of God, but of the perversion of free-will. See James 1:13., and Ezechiel 33:11. (St. Augustine, Grat. et. lib. ii.) (Calmet) --- Beza says, that God ordained Adam's fall, but for a good end; and decreed justly what men unjustly perform, (ref. Castel. ii.) which is refuted here, and Deuteronomy 7:11., etc. (Worthington)
Sirach 15:12 Say not: He hath caused me to err: for he hath no need of wicked men.

Sirach 15:13 The Lord hateth all abomination of error, and they that fear him shall not love it.

Sirach 15:14 God made man from the beginning, and left him in the hand of his own counsel.

Counsel. Many explain this of Adam, before his fall, when he stood not in need of asking continually for God's assistance. (St. Augustine, correp. 2:n. 35.) --- But if we examine the context, it shews that man, in his present state, is declared inexcusable if he yield to sin, as he has still free-will, which may avoid it, with the grace of God, (Calmet) which is always ready to support us. Greek subjoins, (ver. 16.) "if thou wilt, thou shall keep the commandments, even to execute faithfully the good pleasure. (17.) He." etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 15:15 He added his commandments and precepts.

Precepts. These would never be imposed, if man were not free. (Calmet)
Sirach 15:16 *If thou wilt keep the commandments, and perform acceptable fidelity for ever, they shall preserve thee.

Matthew 19:17.; John 8:31-32.
Sirach 15:17 He hath set water and fire before thee: stretch forth thy hand to which thou wilt.

And fire. Or, good and evil, as the Vulgate explains it, (ver. 18.) though the Greek be silent. (Haydock) --- The law written on the heart, as well as on the tables of stone, shews man his duty;; and he has free-will to comply with it, Deuteronomy 30:15., and Jeremias 21:8. (Calmet) --- He may enjoy every advantage of life, denoted by these two elements. (Lyr.[Lyranus?]) An quod in his vitae causa est, haec perdidit exul His nova fit conjux; haec duo magna putant. (Ovid, Fast. 4.)
Sirach 15:18 *Before man is life and death, good and evil; that which he shall choose shall be given him:

Jeremias 21:8.
Sirach 15:19 For the wisdom of God is great, and he is strong in power, seeing all men without ceasing.

Sirach 15:20 *The eyes of the Lord are towards them that fear him, and he knoweth all the work of man.

Psalm 33:17.; Hebrews 4:13.
Sirach 15:21 He hath commanded no man to do wickedly, and he hath given no man licence to sin:

Commanded. He only permitted the wickedness of Semei, (2 Kings 16:10.) and the persecutors of his people, whose hearts are already bent on evil. (St. Augustine, Grat. et lib. xx.)
Sirach 15:22 For he desireth not a multitude of faithless and unprofitable children.

Sirach 16:0 It is better to have none than many wicked children. Of the justice and mercy of God. His ways are unsearchable.

Sirach 16:1 Rejoice not in ungodly children, if they be multiplied: neither be delighted in them, if the fear of God be not with them.

Rejoice. Greek, "desire not an useless multitude of children," etc.
Sirach 16:2 Trust not to their life, and respect not their labours.

Labours. All will end in ruin which springs from corruption. (Haydock) --- Achab and Gedeon had seventy sons, but all were presently exterminated, while Abraham had a numerous posterity by his son Isaac.
Sirach 16:3 For better is one that feareth God, than a thousand ungodly children.

Sirach 16:4 And it is better to die without children, than to leave ungodly children.

Sirach 16:5 By one that is wise, a country shall be inhabited; the tribe of the ungodly shall become desolate.

Sirach 16:6 Many such things hath my eyes seen, and greater things than these my ear hath heard.

Sirach 16:7 *In the congregation of sinners a fire shall be kindled, and in an unbelieving nation wrath shall flame out.

Ecclesiasticus 21:10.
Out. They shall perish by civil and foreign wars, (Calmet) and by God's indignation, Deuteronomy 32:23. (Haydock) --- They who yield to the fire of concupiscence, will feel God's wrath for ever. (Worthington)
Sirach 16:8 *The ancient giants did not obtain pardon for their sins, who were destroyed, trusting to their own strength:

Genesis 6:4.
Sirach 16:9 And he spared not the place where Lot sojourned, but abhorred them for the pride of their word.

Of their word, is not in Greek, but may imply the effrontery of the Sodomites, who were not ashamed of openly professing their brutality, Ezechiel 16:49. (Calmet)
Sirach 16:10 He had not pity on them, destroying the whole nation that extolled themselves in their sins.

Sirach 16:11 *So did he with the six hundred thousand footmen, who were gathered together in the hardness of their heart: and if one had been stiff-necked, it is a wonder if he had escaped unpunished:

Numbers 14:20.; Numbers 26:51.
Six hundred thousand footmen, etc. Viz., the children of Israel, whom he sentenced to die in the wilderness, Numbers xiv., (Challoner) and Exodus 12:37.
Sirach 16:12 For mercy and wrath are with him. He is mighty to forgive, and to pour out indignation:

Sirach 16:13 According as his mercy is, so his correction judgeth a man according to his works.

Sirach 16:14 The sinner shall not escape in his rapines, and the patience of him that sheweth mercy shall not be put off.

Off. The virtuous shall be rewarded, Romans 2:6. Greek, "the patience of the impious shall not delay." He shall soon be punished, (Haydock) while he who gives only a cup of cold water to the poor, shall find a recompense, Matthew 10. (Worthington)
Sirach 16:15 *All mercy shall make a place for every man according to the merit of his works, and according to the wisdom of his sojournment.

Romans 2:6.
And, etc., is not in Greek, the different editions of which vary. (Calmet) --- Instead of this sentence, Grabe inserts from the Complutensian, "the Lord hardened Pharao, that he might not know him, that his surprising works might be manifest under heaven. To every creature his mercy is evident, and he has divided his light from darkness with adamant.["] (Haydock) --- His counsels are unsearchable, and the good are entirely separated from the reprobate, 1 Timothy 6:16., and Luke 16:26.
Sirach 16:16 Say not: I shall be hidden from God. and who shall remember me from on high?

High. God would not be God if he were indifferent about virtue. None of his creatures can be beneath his notice. All the world is but like a drop of water to him, Isaias xl 15, 22. He cannot be distracted. (Calmet)
Sirach 16:17 In such a multitude I shall not be known: for what is my soul in such an immense creation?

Sirach 16:18 Behold the heaven, and the heavens of heavens, the deep, and all the earth, and the things that are in them, shall be moved in his sight:

Sirach 16:19 The mountains also, and the hills, and the foundations of the earth: when God shall look upon them, they shall be shaken with trembling.

Sirach 16:20 And in all these things the heart is senseless: and every heart is understood by him:

And. Greek, "his ways," ver. 21. (Haydock) --- God's threats and promises touch not the sinner.
Sirach 16:21 And his ways who shall understand, and the storm, which no eye of man shall see?

Sirach 16:22 For many of his works are hidden: but the works of his justice who shall declare? or who shall endure? for the testament is far from some, and the examination of all is in the end.

Testament. The law, or the judgment, which God shall pronounce. (Calmet)
Sirach 16:23 He that wanteth understanding, thinketh vain things: and the foolish and erring man thinketh foolish things.

Sirach 16:24 Hearken to me, my son, and learn the discipline of understanding, and attend to my words in thy heart.

Sirach 16:25 And I will shew forth good doctrine in equity, and will seek to declare wisdom: and attend to my words in thy heart, whilst with equity of spirit I tell thee the virtues that God hath put upon his works from the beginning, and I shew forth in truth his knowledge.

Sirach 16:26 The works of God are done in judgment from the beginning, and from the making of them he distinguished their parts, and their beginnings in their generations.

And their. The heavenly bodies continue their courses, (Grotius; Jansenius) and all things still subsist, (Haydock) being formed and preserved by an intelligent being. He refutes the epicureans. (Calmet)
Sirach 16:27 He beautified their works for ever; they have neither hungered, nor laboured, and they have not ceased from their works.

Sirach 16:28 Nor shall any of them straiten his neighbour at any time.

Sirach 16:29 Be not thou incredulous to his word.

Be. Greek, "they shall not disobey his order for ever." (Haydock) --- After the sun, etc., had been regulated on the fourth day, God set in order sublunary things, ver. 30. (Calmet)
Sirach 16:30 After this, God looked upon the earth, and filled it with his goods.

Sirach 16:31 The soul of every living thing hath shewn forth before the face thereof, and into it they return again.

Forth, the glory and power of God upon the earth. (Challoner) --- Before. Greek, "hath covered its (the earth's) face, and into it," etc. (Haydock) --- All living creatures shall return to dust, Psalm 103:29. (Calmet) --- Rational and brute creatures praise God by answering the ends designed by him. (Worthington)
Sirach 17:0 The creation and favour of God to man. An exhortation to turn to God.

Sirach 17:1 God created man of the earth, *and made him after his own image.

Genesis 1:27.; Genesis 5:1.
And made. This is transposed in Greek to the end of the third verse. (Haydock) --- The creation of other things had been specified before. Man was designed to be immortal, and was made like to God in his soul, which is spiritual, intelligent, etc. But sin caused his days to be shortened. (Calmet) --- By original sin, he lost the justice which he had at first received. (Worthington)
Sirach 17:2 And he turned him into it again, and clothed him with strength according to himself.

Sirach 17:3 He gave him the number of his days and time, and gave him power over all things that are upon the earth.

Sirach 17:4 He put the fear of him upon all flesh, and he had dominion over beasts and fowls.

Dominion. This is greatly diminished since the fall. (Calmet)
Sirach 17:5 *He created of him a help-mate like to himself: he gave them counsel, and a tongue, and eyes, and ears, and a heart to devise: and he filled them with the knowledge of understanding.

Genesis 2:18.
Sirach 17:6 He created in them the science of the spirit, he filled their heart with wisdom, and shewed them both good and evil.

Evil. Man has understanding, and may merit, which brutes cannot.
Sirach 17:7 He set his eye upon their hearts, to shew them the greatness of his works:

Hearts. God will bring them to judgment, and has given them a law. (Calmet)
Sirach 17:8 That they might praise the name which he hath sanctified: and glory in his wondrous acts, that they might declare the glorious things of his works.

Sirach 17:9 Moreover, he gave them instructions, and the law of life for an inheritance.

Life. The observance of which will insure life both now and for ever, Romans 10:5. This was the peculiar privilege of Israel, (Calmet) though the natural law had the same effect, and God had left none without sufficient light. (Haydock) --- The law was for a trial of obedience, Genesis 2:(Worthington)
Sirach 17:10 He made an everlasting covenant with them, and he shewed them his justice and judgments.

Everlasting. The gospel has perfected or fulfilled the law, Matthew 5:17.
Sirach 17:11 And their eye saw the majesty of his glory, and their ears heard his glorious voice, and he said to them: Beware of all iniquity.

Saw. When he gave the law on Mount Sinai. (Challoner) (Exodus 20:18.) --- Voice. Thunder, Psalm 28:4. (Calmet)
Sirach 17:12 And he gave to every one of them commandment concerning his neighbour.

Neighbour. Of whom the second table, or the seven last precepts of the law, speak. (Haydock)
Sirach 17:13 Their ways are always before him, they are not hidden from his eyes.

Eyes. He conducted them in the pillar, and always watched over them. Roman Greek adds, "their ways are bent on evils from youth, and he could not." Complutensian, "for every man is bent on evils from youth, and they could not from stony hearts make them fleshy, (Ezechiel 36:26.; Calmet) for in the division of the nations of all the earth (14.) over," etc. (Grabe)
Sirach 17:14 *Over every nation he set a ruler.

Romans 13:1.
Sirach 17:15 And Israel was made the manifest portion of God.

God. Complutensian adds, "he nourishes him as his first-born with instruction, and dividing the light of love, he does not abandon him." (Haydock) --- But the Roman edition agrees with us. God declared himself king of Israel, (Calmet) and its guardian, while he intrusted other nations to angels. (Origen; St. Augustine; Psalm cxxxviii.; Glossa.; Deuteronomy 32:8.)
Sirach 17:16 And all their works are as the sun in the sight of God: and his eyes are continually upon their ways.

Ways. He suffers them not to follow their own inclinations, like the Gentiles; but chastises them if they have done wrong, Acts 14:15. (Calmet)
Sirach 17:17 Their covenants were not hid by their iniquity: and all their iniquities are in the sight of God.

Covenants. Greek, "injustices were not concealed from him, and all," etc. (Haydock) --- God. Complutensian adds, "but the Lord being good, and knowing his work, neither left nor abandoned them, still sparing them," Hebrews 13:5. (Haydock) --- This is a gloss omitted in the Roman edition, Psalm 77:34.
Sirach 17:18 *The alms of a man is as a signet with him, and shall preserve the grace of a man as the apple of the eye:

Ecclesiasticus 29:6.
Alms, and all good works are placed in God's treasury, and as a ring which a person wears on his finger with the utmost care, Jeremias 22:24., and Canticle of Canticles 8:6. --- Eye. Greek Complutensian adds, (Calmet) "dividing to his sons and daughters penance, (19.) And." (Haydock) --- The Roman and Aldus edition agree with the Vulgate. --- Head. Giving a crown of glory. --- And shall, etc., is not in Greek. It implies that the wicked will be punished like Core. (Calmet)
Sirach 17:19 *And afterward he shall rise up, and shall render them their reward, to every one upon their own head, and shall turn them down into the bowels of the earth.

Matthew 25:35.
Sirach 17:20 But to the penitent he hath given the way of justice, and he hath strengthened them that were fainting in patience, and hath appointed to them the lot of truth.

Sirach 17:21 Turn to the Lord, and forsake thy sins:

Sirach 17:22 Make thy prayer before the face of the Lord, and offend less.

Offend less: minue offendicula. That is, remove sins, and the occasions of sins. (Challoner)
Sirach 17:23 Return to the Lord, and turn away from thy injustice, and greatly hate abomination.

Sirach 17:24 And know the justices and judgments of God, and stand firm in the lot set before thee, and in prayer to the most high God.

And. Greek, "return to the Highest, and be converted from injustice, (for he shall lead from darkness to the light of health) and greatly abhor abomination. Who shall praise the most high in hell, instead of the living, and of those who make a return of praise, or confession? Praise perisheth from the dead, as from one who has had no being. The living and sound of heart shall praise the Lord. (28.) How," etc. (Haydock) (Psalm 87:11.) (Calmet) --- We cannot merit perseverance, but must pray for it incessantly. (Worthington)
Sirach 17:25 Go to the side of the holy age, *with them that live and give praise to God.

Psalm 6:6.; Isaias 38:19.
Go to the side, etc. Fly from the side of satan and sin, and join with the holy ones that follow God and godliness. (Challoner) --- Christ is styled the father of the age to come, Isaias ix. (Menochius)
Sirach 17:26 Tarry not in the error of the ungodly, give glory before death. Praise perisheth from the dead as nothing.

Sirach 17:27 Give thanks whilst thou art living, whilst thou art alive and in health thou shalt give thanks, and shalt praise God, and shalt glory in his mercies.

Sirach 17:28 How great is the mercy of the Lord, and his forgiveness to them that turn to him!

Sirach 17:29 For all things cannot be in men, because the son of man is not immortal, and they are delighted with the vanity of evil.

Immortal. We all stand in need of a pardon. (Calmet) --- And. Greek, (30.) "what....and it fails. And flesh and blood shall study evil. (31.) He." (Haydock) --- We cannot exact absolute perfection from any mortal. But still a person may be watchful, and trust in God's mercies, Ecclesiasticus 18. (Calmet)
Sirach 17:30 What is brighter than the sun? yet it shall be eclipsed. Or what is more wicked than that which flesh and blood hath invented? and this shall be reproved.

Sirach 17:31 He beholdeth the power of the height of heaven: and all men are earth and ashes.

Sirach 18:0 God's works are wonderful: we must serve him, and not our lusts.

Sirach 18:1 He that liveth for ever, *created all things together. God only shall be justified, and he remaineth an invincible king for ever.

Genesis 1:1.
Together, as to their substance, though they received different forms successively, as Moses relates. Both writers are divinely inspired. (St. Augustine, de Gen. ad Lit. 4:33.) (Worthington) (St. Thomas Aquinas, 1:p. 974. a. 2.) --- Some suppose that all things were really formed in an instant, and that the order described by Moses is only as we should conceive it. (Cajetan) --- This passage only means that God alone was the creator both of the sun and of man, and without him nothing was made, (John i., and Psalm 32:15.) as he gave existence to all, koine, "in common." (Calmet) --- And he. Greek, "and there is no other besides him who steers the world with the palm of his hand. And all things obey his will; for he is king of all, in his might, separating what is holy among them from the profane. (2.) He has enabled no one to," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 18:2 Who is able to declare his works?

Sirach 18:3 For who shall search out his glorious acts?

Sirach 18:4 And who shall shew forth the power of his majesty? or who shall be able to declare his mercy?

Sirach 18:5 Nothing may be taken away, nor added, neither is it possible to find out the glorious works of God:

Added. The works speak for themselves, though man be silent. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:6 When a man hath done, then shall he begin: and when he leaveth off, he shall be at a loss.

Begin. God is so great and incomprehensible, that when man has done all that he can to find out his greatness and boundless perfections, he is still to begin: for what he has found out, is but a mere nothing, in comparison of his infinity. (Challoner) --- It is best to adore him in silence and humility. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:7 What is man, and what is his grace? and what is his good, or what is his evil?

Grace. Greek, "utility." (Haydock) --- Evil. What can man do for or against God? Job 22:3., and Psalm 15:2.
Sirach 18:8 *The number of the days of men at the most are a hundred years: as a drop of water of the sea are they esteemed: and as a pebble of the sand, so are a few years compared to eternity.

Psalm 89:10.
Years. Seneca fixes on the same number; (Brev. Vitae. 3.) Macrobius on seventy, for the life of man; which nearly agrees with the author of Psalm 89:10. (Haydock) --- It seldom happens that people exceed 70, or 100 years. But what is this compared with eternity? (Calmet) --- Greek, "a hundred years are many....so are a thousand years in the day of the age," or of aionos, eternity. (Haydock) (Psalm 89:4., and 2 Peter 3:8.)
Sirach 18:9 Therefore God is patient in them, and poureth forth his mercy upon them.

Them. Human misery calls forth God's pity. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:10 He hath seen the presumption of their heart, that it is wicked, and hath known their end, that it is evil.

Sirach 18:11 Therefore hath he filled up his mercy in their favour, and hath shewn them the way of justice.

Sirach 18:12 The compassion of man is toward his neighbour: but the mercy of God is upon all flesh.

Flesh. It is infinite and disinterested. Man assists his neighbour expecting a recompense, and remembering that he may be distressed.
Sirach 18:13 He hath mercy, and teacheth, and correcteth, as a shepherd doth his flock.

Sirach 18:14 He hath mercy on him that receiveth the discipline of mercy, and that maketh haste in his judgments.

Judgments. To execute his orders. Here ends the discourse begun [in] Ecclesiasticus 14:22. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:15 My son, in thy good deeds, make no complaint, and when thou givest any thing, add not grief by an evil word.

Complaint. Greek, "reproach." (Haydock) --- The manner of giving, enhances the value of the gift, or even surpasses it. (Calmet) -----Super omnia vultus Accessere boni, nec iners pauperque voluntas. ([Ovid?] Met. 8.)
Sirach 18:16 Shall not the dew assuage the heat? so also the good word is better than the gift.

Sirach 18:17 Lo, is not a word better than a gift? but both are with a justified man.

Sirach 18:18 A fool will upbraid bitterly: and a gift of one ill taught consumeth the eyes.

Sirach 18:19 Before judgment prepare thee justice, and learn before thou speak.

Sirach 18:20 Before sickness take a medicine, *and before judgment examine thyself, and thou shalt find mercy in the sight of God.

1 Corinthians 11:28.
Medicine. This is more requisite and easy to do in the maladies of the soul, which are brought on by our own fault. Principiis obsta. (Calmet) --- Mercy. Greek, "propitiation in the hour of visitation," (Haydock) or punishment. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:21 Humble thyself before thou art sick, and in the time of sickness shew thy conversation.

Sick. Roman Greek adds, "by abstinence, and in the time of sins, manifest a conversion." (Haydock) --- If we take precautions to avoid illness, why should we neglect the concerns of our soul? --- Conversation, or good conduct.
Sirach 18:22 Let nothing hinder thee from praying *always, and be not afraid to be justified even to death: for the reward of God continueth for ever.

Luke 18:1.; 1 Thessalonians 5:17.
Always. These admirable maxims seem copied from the gospel, Luke 18:1. (Calmet) --- The same spirit dictated all the Scriptures. (Haydock) --- Those pray always who neglect not this duty at proper times, and are always resolved to do so. (St. Augustine, ep. 121. q. ad Prob.) (Worthington) --- Greek, "be not hindered from performing thy vow in good time, and wait not to be justified, (Haydock) or to put it in execution till death. Deuteronomy 23:21. Before thou takest a vow," etc. Examine well if thou intend to perform it. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:23 Before prayer prepare thy soul: and be not as a man that tempteth God.

God. Can we expect that he will hear what we do not ourselves? To approach his majesty, without repentance and attention, is presumptuous. We must ask God to open our lips, and do what lies in us. (Trid.[Council of Trent?]) (Calmet)
Sirach 18:24 *Remember the wrath that shall be at the last day, and the time of repaying, when he shall turn away his face.

Ecclesiasticus 7:18.
Face, saying to the reprobate, Depart, etc., Ecclesiasticus 7:40., and Matthew 25:41. (Haydock)
Sirach 18:25 *Remember poverty in the time of abundance, and the necessities of poverty in the day of riches.

Ecclesiasticus 11:27.
Riches. By their good use, lay up a treasure in heaven, and be always humble, Ecclesiasticus 11:27.
Sirach 18:26 From the morning until the evening the time shall be changed, and all these are swift in the eyes of God.

God. All things continually change. (Calmet) --- Rotam volubili orbe versamus. (Boet. cons. 2.) --- Reflect on Aman and Mardochai. (Calmet) Quem dies vidit veniens superbum, Hunc dies vidit fugiens jacentem. (Sen.[Seneca?] Thyeste.)
Sirach 18:27 A wise man will fear in every thing, and in the days of sins will beware of sloth.

Thing. Mindful of the reverses of fortune, Ecclesiasticus 11:30., and Proverbs 28:14. (Calmet) --- Sloth, and repent. Greek adds, "the fool will not observe the season." (Haydock)
Sirach 18:28 Every man of understanding knoweth wisdom, and will give praise to him that findeth her.

Her. It is a rare thing to discern and to give due praise to merit. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:29 They that were of good understanding in words, have also done wisely themselves: and have understood truth and justice, and have poured forth proverbs and judgments.

And judgments. Greek, "full of accuracy." Some add the title "restraint of the soul." (Haydock)
Sirach 18:30 *Go not after thy lusts, but turn away from thy own will.

Romans 6:12-13. and 13:14.
Sirach 18:31 If thou give to thy soul her desires, she will make thee a joy to thy enemies.

Enemies. This motive will make the most impression on those who are slaves to their passions. (Calmet)
Sirach 18:32 Take no pleasure in riotous assemblies, be they ever so small: for their concertation is continual.

Small. Literally, "nor in those which are small." (Haydock) --- Composed of the meanest citizens. Quarrels and sin are there almost inevitable. (Calmet) --- Greek, "rejoice not in high living; nor beg for its symbol," (Haydock) or feast, in which each person contributed his share, sumbole, as the next verse implies. (Calmet) --- Symbolum dedit, caenavit. (Ter.[Tertullian?] And.)
Sirach 18:33 Make not thyself poor by borrowing to contribute to feasts when thou hast nothing in thy purse: for thou shalt be an enemy to thy own life.

Sirach 19:0 Admonitions against sundry vices.

Sirach 19:1 A workman that is a drunkard shall not be rich: and he that contemneth small things, shall fall by little and little.

Little. Small expenses, often repeated, will ruin an estate, (Haydock) and the neglect of venial sins is of the most dangerous consequence. (Calmet) --- The best way to avoid great faults, is to guard against small ones. (Worthington)
Sirach 19:2 *Wine and women make wise men fall off, and shall rebuke the prudent:

Genesis 19:33.; 3 Kings 11:1.
Off. From God (Calmet) and religion. See Genesis 19:33., and 2 Kings 11:1., and Osee 4:11.
Sirach 19:3 And he that joineth himself to harlots, will be wicked. Rottenness and worms shall inherit him, and he shall be lifted up for a greater example, and his soul shall be taken away out of the number.

Number. Of the living. (Haydock) --- The venereal disease seems to be described.
Sirach 19:4 *He that is hasty to give credit, is light of heart, and shall be lessened: and he that sinneth against his own soul, shall be despised.

Josue 9:15.; Josue 22:11.
Credit. To harlots, 1 Corinthians 6:18. (Calmet)
Sirach 19:5 He that rejoiceth in iniquity, shall be censured, and he that hateth chastisement, shall have less life: and he that hateth babbling, extinguisheth evil.

Hateth. Greek, "resisteth pleasure, shall crown his life. He who guardeth his tongue, shall live without contention: and he," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 19:6 He that sinneth against his own soul, shall repent: and he that is delighted with wickedness, shall be condemned.

He. Greek omits this explication of the preceding verse.
Sirach 19:7 Rehearse not again a wicked and harsh word, and thou shalt not fare the worse.

Sirach 19:8 Tell not thy mind to friend or foe: and if there be a sin with thee, disclose it not.

Not. Only to God and his minister. Friends do not require to be informed of such things. Greek, "disclose not the conduct of others." --- Be. Greek, "be not." Do not boast of sins which thou hast not committed, (Calmet) as St. Augustine did before his conversion. (Haydock) --- But the Vulgate seems preferable. (Calmet) --- In ordinary conversation to reveal our faults would be dangerous, but not in confession, or in religious orders, for advancement in virtue. (Worthington)
Sirach 19:9 For he will hearken to thee, and will watch thee, and as it were defending thy sin he will hate thee, and so will he be with thee always.

Hate thee. Whether thou hast spoken of thy own or of others' faults, he will distrust thee.
Sirach 19:10 Hast thou heard a word against thy neighbour? let it die within thee, trusting that it will not burst thee.

Burst thee. Like poison, or as new wine (Calmet) does a leathern bottle. (Haydock) --- This expression well implies the eagerness which some manifest to divulge a secret injurious to their neighbour. (Calmet)
Sirach 19:11 At the hearing of a word the fool is in travail, as a woman groaning in the bringing forth a child.

Sirach 19:12 As an arrow that sticketh in a man's thigh: so is a word in the heart of a fool.

Sirach 19:13 *Reprove a friend, lest he may not have understood, and say; I did it not: or if he did it, that he may do it no more.

Leviticus 19:17.; Matthew 18:15.; Luke 17:3.
Understood. Greek, "done it." (Haydock) --- For want of coming to a timely explanation, many friendships are broken, owing to groundless surmises.
Sirach 19:14 Reprove thy neighbour, for it may be he hath not said it: and if he hath said it, that he may not say it again.

Sirach 19:15 Admonish thy friend: for there is often a fault committed.

Committed. Or "a false report," commissio. (Calmet) --- Greek, "a foolish calumny." (Haydock) --- Monere et moneri proprium est verae amicitiae. (Cicero)
Sirach 19:16 And believe not every word. There is one, that slippeth with the tongue, but not from his heart.

Sirach 19:17 *For who is there that hath not offended with his tongue? Admonish thy neighbour before thou threaten him.

James 3:8.
Him. Gentle means must be first tried, Matthew 18:15., and Galatians 6:1. (Haydock)
Sirach 19:18 And give place to the fear of the Most High: for the fear of God is all wisdom, and therein is to fear God, and the disposition of the law is in all wisdom.

Place. Love true piety. (Calmet) --- Disposition. Greek, "complying with." (Haydock) --- The Complutensian has several additions which are not in the Roman edition. (Calmet) --- Grabe inserts them. But it is not necessary to mark here every such variation. (Haydock)
Sirach 19:19 But the learning of wickedness is not wisdom: and the device of sinners is not prudence.

Sirach 19:20 There is a subtile wickedness, and the same is detestable: and there is a man that is foolish, wanting in wisdom.

Sirach 19:21 Better is a man that hath less wisdom, and wanteth understanding, with the fear of God, than he that aboundeth in understanding, and transgresseth the law of the Most High.

Sirach 19:22 There is an exquisite subtilty, and the same is unjust.

Unjust. St. James 3:15. describes true and false wisdom, Romans 16:19. (Calmet)
Sirach 19:23 And there is one that uttereth an exact word, telling the truth. There is one that humbleth himself wickedly, and his interior is full of deceit.

Wickedly. Greek, "in black," (Haydock) wearing the robes of mourning. (Grotius)
Sirach 19:24 And there is one that submitteth himself exceedingly with a great lowliness: and there is one that casteth down his countenance, and maketh as if he did not see that which is unknown:

And. Greek, "there," etc. (Haydock) --- The hypocrite abstains from exterior crimes, only through fear. (Calmet) --- False pretence of piety, is hypocrisy; and it is wrong for a superior to reveal his secret faults to his subjects. Reason must direct. (Worthington)
Sirach 19:25 And if he be hindered from sinning for want of power, if he shall find opportunity to do evil, he will do it.

Sirach 19:26 A man is known by his look, and a wise man, when thou meetest him, is known by his countenance.

Countenance. Yet this is not always the case, ver. 28. We may sometimes condemn a person unjustly, on such outward appearances. (Calmet)
Sirach 19:27 The attire of the body, and the laughter of the teeth, and the gait of the man, shew what he is.

Sirach 19:28 There is a lying rebuke in the anger of an injurious man: and there is a judgment that is not allowed to be good: and there is one that holdeth his peace, and he is wise.

Lying. Greek, "a reproof which is not seemly; and there is one," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 20:0 Rules with regard to correction, discretion, and avoiding lies.

Sirach 20:1 How much better is it to reprove, than to be angry, and not to hinder him that confesseth in prayer?

Prayer. A friend's excuses must be heard. (Calmet) --- Greek, "and he who apologises shall be preserved from ruin." Grabe adds, "how good is it for one who has been rebuked," etc., ver. 4. (Haydock) --- Thus the guilty merit pardon, and the innocent obtain a greater reward, and satisfy for former offences. (Worthington)
Sirach 20:2 *The lust of an eunuch shall deflower a young maiden:

Ecclesiasticus 30:21.
Maiden. Or "woman," (Haydock) who has been entrusted to his care. (Menochius) --- Such people are not free from concupiscence, which must be restrained by the virtue of chastity. (St. Augustine, contra Jul. 6:14.)
Sirach 20:3 So is he that by violence executeth unjust judgment.

Sirach 20:4 How good is it, when thou art reproved, to shew repentance! for so thou shalt escape wilful sin.

Sirach 20:5 There is one that holdeth his peace, that is found wise: and there is another that is hateful, that is bold in speech.

Sirach 20:6 There is one that holdeth his peace, because he knoweth not what to say: and there is another that holdeth his peace, knowing the proper time.

Sirach 20:7 A wise man will hold his peace till he see opportunity: but a babbler, and a fool, will regard no time.

Sirach 20:8 He that useth many words shall hurt his own soul: and he that taketh authority to himself unjustly, shall be hated.

Hated. As the pests of society. See Cicero, off. 1.
Sirach 20:9 There is success in evil things to a man without discipline, and there is a finding that turneth to loss.

Loss. The prosperity of the wicked must not be envied, Psalm 38:1, 8. (Calmet)
Sirach 20:10 There is a gift that is not profitable: and there is a gift, the recompense of which is double.

Sirach 20:11 There is an abasement because of glory: and there is one that shall lift up his head from a low estate.

Glory. Galba "would have been universally deemed worthy of the empire, if he had not reigned." (Tacitus, Hist. 1.) --- Adrian VI thought the pontificate the greatest misfortune to which he had been exposed; and this observation was engraven on his tomb. --- Estate. By merit.
Sirach 20:12 There is that buyeth much for a small price, and restoreth the same sevenfold.

Sevenfold. As the merchandise was good for nothing, which the miser had obtained for a little money, thinking to save thereby.
Sirach 20:13 A man wise in words shall make himself beloved: but the graces of fools shall be poured out.

Graces. Or favours bestowed with ill-nature.
Sirach 20:14 The gift of the fool shall do thee no good: for his eyes are sevenfold.

Sevenfold. He expects more. (Calmet) --- His intention is full of guile, who flattereth and detracteth for the sake of gain. (Worthington)
Sirach 20:15 He will give a few things, and upbraid much: and the opening of his mouth is the kindling of a fire.

Much. As Dido did. "This is to make a display of favours to excite hatred." (Sen.[Seneca?] Ben.)
Sirach 20:16 To day a man lendeth, and to-morrow he asketh it again: such a man as this is hateful.

Hateful. He seems to distrust you, and will not permit his goods to be of any service. (Calmet)
Sirach 20:17 A fool shall have no friend, and there shall be no thanks for his good deeds.

Have. Greek, "say I have," etc. --- His. Greek, "my," as also [in] ver. 18. (Haydock) --- Such is the language of the fool.
Sirach 20:18 For they that eat his bread, are of a false tongue. How often, and how many will laugh him to scorn?

Sirach 20:19 For he doth not distribute with right understanding that which was to be had: in like manner also that which was not to be had.

That, etc. Riches and poverty are both wrong to misers and fools. Greek, "he had as well be without any thing." (Calmet)
Sirach 20:20 The slipping of a false tongue is as one that falleth on the pavement: so the fall of the wicked shall come speedily.

Pavement. It is equally destructive.
Sirach 20:21 A man without grace is as a vain fable, it shall be continually in the mouth of the unwise.

Grace, (acharis) impolite and importunate. (Calmet)
Sirach 20:22 A parable coming out of a fool's mouth shall be rejected: for he doth not speak it in due season.

Sirach 20:23 There is that is hindered from sinning through want, and in his rest he shall be pricked.

Shall. Greek adds, "not." Yet if a person has had the will to offend, he must repent, though he could not put it in execution. (Haydock)
Sirach 20:24 There is that will destroy his own soul through shamefacedness, and by occasion of an unwise person he will destroy it: and by respect of person he will destroy himself.

Himself. Being afraid to beg for necessaries, or given too much.
Sirach 20:25 There is that for bashfulness promiseth to his friend, and maketh him his enemy for nothing.

Nothing. People are always displeased, when a promise is broken. (Calmet)
Sirach 20:26 A lie is a foul blot in a man, and yet it will be continually in the mouth of men without discipline.

Man. "It is the vice of slaves." (Aristotle, Ethic.)
Sirach 20:27 A thief is better than a man that is always lying: but both of them shall inherit destruction.

Lying. He exposes honour and virtue, without making restitution. (Calmet) --- He throws all into confusion, and we can trust him with nothing. (Menochius)
Sirach 20:28 The manners of lying men are without honour: and their confusion is with them without ceasing.

Sirach 20:29 A wise man shall advance himself with his words, and a prudent man shall please the great ones.

A. Greek adds a title, "discourses of proverbs."
Sirach 20:30 He that tilleth his land shall make a high heap of corn: and he that worketh justice shall be exalted: and he that pleaseth great men shall escape iniquity.

And....exalted, is not in Greek but explains the meaning of the former sentence. --- Escape. Greek, "obtain pardon for iniquity." (Haydock) --- The great will protect him.
Sirach 20:31 *Presents and gifts blind the eyes of judges, and make them dumb in the mouth, so that they cannot correct.

Exodus 23:8.; Deuteronomy 16:19.
Make. Greek, "like a bit in the mouth, remove corrections," Exodus 23:8. (Calmet)
Sirach 20:32 *Wisdom that is hid, and treasure that is not seen: what profit is there in them both?

Ecclesiasticus 41:17.
Both? He who, through a false humility refuses to take charge of others, resembles a man who locks up his corn in time of scarcity. (St. Gregory, Part. 3:26.) (Matthew xxv.) (Calmet) --- Wisdom must be shewn for the benefit of others. (Worthington)
Sirach 20:33 Better is he that hideth his folly, than the man that hideth his wisdom.

Folly. He may still appear to have some sense, and injures none. --- It is convenient to conceal faults, provided they be amended. (Worthington)
Sirach 21:0 Cautions against sin in general, and some sins in particular.

Sirach 21:1 My son, hast thou sinned? do so no more: but for thy former sins also pray that they may be forgiven thee.

Thee. The just may offend: but the wicked relapse continually.
Sirach 21:2 Flee from sins as from the face of a serpent: for if thou comest near them, they will take hold of thee.

Hold. Greek, "bite," (Calmet) in the same sense. (Menochius) --- Serpents sting in secret: so all sins inveigle the soul. (Worthington)
Sirach 21:3 The teeth thereof are the teeth of a lion, killing the souls of men.

Lion. Yet only those are hurt, who consent to sin. The devil may go round about, (1 Peter 5:8.) and tempt; (Calmet) he cannot bite, except a man willingly expose himself, and come near, ver. 2.
Sirach 21:4 All iniquity is like a two-edged sword, there is no remedy for the wound thereof.

Remedy. In man. (Haydock) --- Only the sovereign physician can cure it. (Calmet)
Sirach 21:5 Injuries and wrongs will waste riches: and the house that is very rich shall be brought to nothing by pride: so the substance of the proud shall be rooted out.

Riches. As they make enemies arise. Greek subjoins, "so the house of the proud shall be made desolate." (Haydock) --- Roboam lost ten tribes by an insolent answer, and the Tarquins were expelled for their pride.
Sirach 21:6 The prayer out of the mouth of the poor shall reach the ears of God, and judgment shall come for him speedily.

Speedily. God is the protector of the poor, Psalm 10:5.
Sirach 21:7 He that hateth to be reproved walketh in the trace of a sinner: and he that feareth God will turn to his own heart.

Sinner. He rejects all medicines. How shall he be cured? (Calmet) --- They who fear God, will examine their actions when they are warned. (Worthington)
Sirach 21:8 He that is mighty by a bold tongue is known afar off, but a wise man knoweth to slip by him.

By him. And to avoid his reproaches. Greek, "knoweth when he is ruined." (Haydock) --- He is more reserved, and escapes the dangers of talkativeness.
Sirach 21:9 He that buildeth his house at other men's charges, is as he that gathereth himself stones to build in the winter.

Winter. This season is unfit for building; so the man who borrows, may be forced to pay again (Calmet) before it is convenient for him. (Haydock) --- Injustice will bring on ruin, Jeremias 23:13. Some Greek copies have, "stones for a heap over his tomb," as Achan and Absalom were treated. Reputation, or goods ill-acquired, will not continue long. (Worthington)
Sirach 21:10 *The congregation of sinners is like tow heaped together, and the end of them is a flame of fire.

Ecclesiasticus 16:7.
Fire. All their grandeur will end in smoke. (Haydock) --- Malachias 4:1., and Matthew 13:30.
Sirach 21:11 The way of sinners is made plain with stones, and in their end is hell, and darkness, and pains.

Stones. It is broad and easy, Matthew vii.
Sirach 21:12 He that keepeth justice shall get the understanding thereof.

Thereof. Practice makes perfect. A painter may produce a better piece by this means, than one who is more acquainted with theory, (Calmet) and neglects it. (Haydock)
Sirach 21:13 The perfection of the fear of God is wisdom and understanding.

Sirach 21:14 He that is not wise in good, will not be taught.

Sirach 21:15 But there is a wisdom that aboundeth in evil: and there is no understanding where there is bitterness.

Bitterness. True wisdom promotes the general good.
Sirach 21:16 The knowledge of a wise man shall abound like a flood, and his counsel continueth like a fountain of life.

Of life. Which never fails, John 4:14., and 7:38.
Sirach 21:17 The heart of a fool is like a broken vessel, and no wisdom at all shall it hold.

Sirach 21:18 A man of sense will praise every wise word he shall hear, and will apply it to himself: the luxurious man hath heard it, and it shall displease him, and he will cast it behind his back.

Sirach 21:19 The talking of a fool is like a burden in the way: but in the lips of the wise grace shall be found.

Sirach 21:20 The mouth of the prudent is sought after in the church, and they will think upon his words in their hearts.

Church. Or assembly, Job 29:11, 21. (Calmet) --- All good people dislike senseless talk, and approve of what is edifying. (Worthington)
Sirach 21:21 As a house that is destroyed, so is wisdom to a fool: and the knowledge of the unwise is as words without sense.

Fool. All is in confusion, like a heap of ruins.
Sirach 21:22 Doctrine to a fool is as fetters on the feet, and like manacles on the right hand.

Hand. He esteems instruction burdensome.
Sirach 21:23 A fool lifteth up his voice in laughter: but a wise man will scarce laugh low to himself.

Low. A smiling countenance is commendable, but loud laughter is to be avoided. (Clement, Paed. 2:5.) --- It causes too great a change, (Plato, Rep. 3.) and is a mark of folly, Ecclesiastes 7:5. (St. Augustine, contra Acad. 2:2.)
Sirach 21:24 Learning to the prudent is as an ornament of gold, and like a bracelet upon his right arm.

Sirach 21:25 The foot of a fool is soon in his neighbour's house: but a man of experience will be abashed at the person of the mighty.

House. And meddles with the concerns of others. (Calmet) --- Of the mighty, is not in Greek. The wise will not easily receive invitations. (Haydock)
Sirach 21:26 A fool will peep through the window into the house: but he that is well taught, will stand without.

Window. Greek, "door" with impudence. (Calmet)
Sirach 21:27 It is the folly of a man to hearken at the door: and a wise man will be grieved with the disgrace.

Sirach 21:28 The lips of the unwise will be telling foolish things: but the words of the wise shall be weighed in a balance.

Sirach 21:29 The heart of fools is in their mouth: and the mouth of wise men is in their heart.

Heart. Understanding. (Haydock) --- The wise speak with reflection, Proverbs 16:23.
Sirach 21:30 While the ungodly curseth the devil, he curseth his own soul.

While the ungodly, etc. He condemneth and curseth himself; inasmuch as by sin he takes part with the devil, and is, as it were, his member and subject. (Challoner) --- In vain does he lay the blame of his sins on the devil, ver. 3. (Calmet) --- He condemns himself by imitating the wicked, Luke xix. (Worthington)
Sirach 21:31 The tale-bearer shall defile his own soul, and shall be hated by all: and he that shall abide with him shall be hateful: the silent and wise man shall be honoured.

By all. Greek, "in the neighbourhood." The rest is omitted. (Haydock)
Sirach 22:0 Wise sayings on divers subjects.

Sirach 22:1 The sluggard is pelted with a dirty stone, and all men will speak of his disgrace.

Sluggard. Who neglects his own and others' welfare. (Calmet) --- Disgrace. He is still despised here, and punished eternally, Matthew 25:30. (Worthington)
Sirach 22:2 The sluggard is pelted with the dung of oxen: and every one that toucheth him will shake his hands.

Pelted. Greek, "compared to a lump of dung." (Haydock)
Sirach 22:3 A son ill taught is the confusion of the father: and a foolish daughter shall be to his loss.

Loss. "I wish," said Augustus, "I had never married, or that I had died without children." (Suetonius)
Sirach 22:4 A wise daughter shall bring an inheritance to her husband: but she that confoundeth, becometh a disgrace to her father.

Inheritance. Her wisdom and economy, Proverbs 31:29. Women had no inheritance among the Jews, when they had brothers.
Sirach 22:5 She that is bold shameth both her father and husband, and will not be inferior to the ungodly: and shall be disgraced by them both.

Bold. In speaking and acting without restraint. (Calmet)
Sirach 22:6 A tale out of time is like music in mourning: but the stripes and instruction of wisdom are never out of time.

Mourning. St. Jerome (ep. ad Julian) quoting this sentence, calls it "divine Scripture," Proverb 25:20. --- Of time. Or "stripes and instruction well-timed, are wisdom." (Haydock) --- Only the wise know how to correct with advantage.
Sirach 22:7 He that teacheth a fool, is like one that glueth a potsherd together.

Fool. Who is incapable of understanding. Those who have sense may be corrected, though they may have taken evil courses.
Sirach 22:8 He that telleth a word to him that heareth not, is like one that waketh a man out of a deep sleep.

Sirach 22:9 He speaketh with one that is asleep, who uttereth wisdom to a fool: and in the end of the discourse he saith: Who is this?

This? The Athenian philosophers and Festus derided St. Paul, Acts 17:32.
Sirach 22:10 *Weep for the dead, for his light hath failed: and weep for the fool, for his understanding faileth.

Ecclesiasticus 38:16.
For the fool. In the language of the Holy Ghost, he is styled a fool that turns away from God to follow vanity and sin. And what is said by the wise man against fools is meant of such fools as these. (Challoner) --- Their wicked life is worse than death. (Worthington)
Sirach 22:11 Weep but a little for the dead, for he is at rest.

Sirach 22:12 For the wicked life of a wicked fool is worse than death.

Sirach 22:13 *The mourning for the dead is seven days: but for a fool and an ungodly man all the days of their life.

Genesis 50:10.
Days. There was a longer time assigned for great men, Genesis 50:3., Numbers 20:30., and Deuteronomy 34:8. --- Life. This is understood of those who have lost all reason, or sense of religion. St. Monica wept for her son, hoping that he would repent, as a certain bishop had comforted her. (St. Augustine, Confessions 3:ultra.[last chapter])
Sirach 22:14 Talk not much with a fool, and go not with him that hath no sense.

Sirach 22:15 Keep thyself from him, that thou mayst not have trouble, and thou shalt not be defiled with his sin.

Sirach 22:16 Turn away from him, and thou shalt find rest, and shalt not be wearied out with his folly.

Sirach 22:17 What is heavier than lead? and what other name hath he but fool?

Lead? Gold alone is heavier. But the fool is compared with lead, and is most insupportable.
Sirach 22:18 *Sand and salt, and a mass of iron, is easier to bear, than a man without sense, that is both foolish and wicked.

Proverbs 27:3.
Sirach 22:19 A frame of wood bound together in the foundation of a building, shall not be loosed: so neither shall the heart that is established by advised counsel.

Wood. Such were used in the walls of Jerusalem, (4 Machabees ii.) and of the temple and palace, 3 Kings 6:36., and 7:12.
Sirach 22:20 The thought of him that is wise at all times, shall not be depraved by fear.

Sirach 22:21 As pales set in high places, and plasterings made without cost, will not stand against the face of the wind:

Cost. Of lime. (Calmet) --- Greek omits this comparison, as well as the 23d verse. (Haydock)
Sirach 22:22 So also a fearful heart in the imagination of a fool shall not resist against the violence of fear.

Sirach 22:23 As a fearful heart in the thought of a fool at all times will not fear, so neither shall he that continueth always in the commandments of God.

Not fear. This seems contrary to what goes before. But fools are sometimes intrepid even to harshness. (Calmet)
Sirach 22:24 He that pricketh the eye, bringeth out tears: and he that pricketh the heart, bringeth forth resentment.

Resentment. Or "sense," (Haydock) by means of pungent reprimands. (Calmet)
Sirach 22:25 He that flingeth a stone at birds, shall drive them away: so he that upbraideth his friend, breaketh friendship.

Away. Greek literally, "will knock them down," dejiciet. (Haydock) --- Deliberate provocations (ver. 27.) are pardoned with more difficulty than a sudden impulse of wrath, ver. 26. On such occasions we may withdraw our confidence, but not our charity and patience, Matthew 5:11. (Calmet) --- A true friend will not be lost for a temporal damage; but he must not be slighted. (Worthington)
Sirach 22:26 Although thou hast drawn a sword at a friend, despair not: for there may be a returning. To a friend,

Sirach 22:27 If thou hast opened a sad mouth, fear not, for there may be a reconciliation: except upbraiding, and reproach, and pride, and disclosing of secrets, or a treacherous wound: for in all these cases a friend will flee away.

Sirach 22:28 Keep fidelity with a friend in his poverty, that in his prosperity also thou mayst rejoice.

Sirach 22:29 In the time of his trouble continue faithful to him, that thou mayst also be heir with him in his inheritance.

Inheritance. Greek adds, "for poverty is not always contemptible, nor is the senseless rich worthy of admiration." (Haydock)
Sirach 22:30 As the vapour of a chimney, and the smoke of the fire goeth up before the fire: so also injurious words, and reproaches, and threats, before blood.

Sirach 22:31 I will not be ashamed to salute a friend, neither will I hide myself from his face: and if any evil happen to me by him, I will bear it.

Sirach 22:32 But every one that shall hear it, will beware of him.

Of him. Yet I will not follow their example. (Calmet) --- If my friend has behaved ill to me, he will be the greatest sufferer. (Haydock)
Sirach 22:33 *Who will set a guard before my mouth, and a sure seal upon my lips, that I fall not by them, and that my tongue destroy me not?

Psalm 140:3.
Not. Psalm 140:3. Who can sufficiently guard his tongue? (Calmet)
Sirach 23:0 A prayer for grace to flee sin: cautions against profane swearing and other vices.

Sirach 23:1 O Lord Father, and Sovereign Ruler of my life, leave me not to their counsel: nor suffer me to fall by them.

By them. Viz., the tongue and the lips, mentioned in the last verse of the foregoing chapter. (Challoner) --- We cannot resist of ourselves, and must therefore pray to God. (Worthington) --- We have need of a good master to correct our eagerness in speaking. (Calmet)
Sirach 23:2 Who will set scourges over my thoughts, and the discipline of wisdom over my heart, that they spare me not in their ignorances, and that their sins may not appear:

Ignorances, etc. That is, that the scourges and discipline of wisdom may restrain the ignorances, that is, the slips and offences which are usually committed by the tongue and the lips. (Challoner) --- The tongue is a restless evil, James 3:8.
Sirach 23:3 Lest my ignorance increase, and my offences be multiplied, and my sins abound, and I fall before my adversaries, and my enemy rejoice over me?

Over me. The noblest motives are not always proposed first.
Sirach 23:4 O Lord Father, and God of my life, leave me not to their devices.

Sirach 23:5 Give me not haughtiness of my eyes, and turn away from me all coveting.

Eyes. God never makes such presents, but he permits us to fall in punishment of former transgressions. (Calmet) --- Coveting. Greek, "from thy servants all giant-like affection. Vain hopes and desires remove from me; and thou shalt possess him who wishes to serve thee without ceasing." (Grabe) (Haydock)
Sirach 23:6 Take from me the greediness of the belly, and let not the lusts of the flesh take hold of me, and give me not over to a shameless and foolish mind.

Foolish, (infrunitae) is used in this sense by Seneca. (Calmet) --- Greek has not this epithet. The title, "instruction of the mouth," follows, (Haydock) to ver. 20. (Calmet)
Sirach 23:7 Hear, O ye children, the discipline of the mouth: and he that will keep it, shall not perish by his lips, nor be brought to fall into most wicked works.

Sirach 23:8 A sinner is caught in his own vanity, and the proud and the evil speakers shall fall thereby.

Sirach 23:9 *Let not thy mouth be accustomed to swearing: for in it there are many falls.

Exodus 20:7.; Matthew 5:33.
Sirach 23:10 And let not the naming of God be usual in thy mouth, and meddle not with the names of saints, for thou shalt not escape free from them.

Them. Alexandrian Greek has only (9.) "swearing, (10.) and have not a custom of naming the Most High." Other editions have "the holy one." (Haydock) --- Rash and false oaths are forbidden, Jeremias 4., and Matthew 5. (Worthington)
Sirach 23:11 For as a slave daily put to the question, is never without a blue mark: so every one that sweareth, and nameth, shall not be wholly pure from sin.

Sin. "No swearing is secure." (St. Augustine) --- Slaves were forced to confess the truth by torments; free-men took an oath; and priests gave their word. (Plut.[Plutarch?] Prob.)
Sirach 23:12 A man that sweareth much, shall be filled with iniquity, and a scourge shall not depart from his house.

Sirach 23:13 And if he make it void, his sin shall be upon him: and if he dissemble it, he offendeth double:

Dissemble. Greek, "despise." He will be punished, at least, by God. (Calmet)
Sirach 23:14 And if he swear in vain, he shall not be justified: for his house shall be filled with his punishment.

In vain. Without a design to execute, (Grotius) or through levity, or rather falsely, Exodus 23:1., and Deuteronomy 5:11.
Sirach 23:15 There is also another speech opposite to death, let it not be found in the inheritance of Jacob.

Opposite. Or equal. Greek, "clothed with death." He denotes blasphemy, (Leviticus 24:14.) or the invitation to idolatry, (Deuteronomy 13:1.) or calumny, ver. 17., and Leviticus 19:12. (Calmet) --- In oaths God is called to witness, as being unable to deceive. But blasphemy attributes to him or to others what does not belong to them. (Worthington)
Sirach 23:16 For from the merciful all these things shall be taken away, and they shall not wallow in sins.

Merciful. Or true believers, Assideans, 1 Machabees 2:42.
Sirach 23:17 Let not thy mouth be accustomed to indiscreet speech: for therein is the word of sin.

Of sin. A Hebrew idiom, to imply something criminal. Those who have laid aside shame, are capable of any wickedness.
Sirach 23:18 Remember thy father and thy mother, for thou sittest is the midst of great men;

Men. Treat thy parents with no less regard, (Calmet) even though thou shouldst be exalted in dignity. (Lyr.[Lyranus?]) ---Thus thou wilt be rewarded, (Calmet) of if thou transgress, wilt be brought to judgment. (Bossuet) --- Greek, "thou shalt sit," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 23:19 Lest God forget thee in their sight, and thou, by thy daily custom, be infatuated and suffer reproach: and wish that thou hadst not been born, and curse the day of thy nativity.

Nativity. Wish not that thou hadst not been born of such parents. (Grotius)
Sirach 23:20 *The man that is accustomed to opprobrious words, will never be corrected all the days of his life.

2 Kings 16:7.
Life. For who will admonish him?
Sirach 23:21 Two sorts of men multiply sins, and the third bringeth wrath and destruction.

Two. The first is a passionate man, (ver. 22.) the second a libertine, (ver. 23.) and the third an adulterer, ver. 25. (Calmet)
Sirach 23:22 A hot soul is a burning fire, it will never be quenched, till it devour something.

Hot. With any furious passion, (Vatable) or anger, (Calmet) avarice, (Worthington) or lust. (Menochius)
Sirach 23:23 And a man that is wicked in the mouth of his flesh, will not leave off till he hath kindled a fire.

Mouth. Greek, "body." --- Fire. Shameful diseases will come upon him, Ecclesiasticus 19:3. His brutal passion will never be satiated. (Calmet)
Sirach 23:24 To a man that is a fornicator, all bread is sweet; he will not be weary of sinning unto the end.

Sweet. He is not delicate in his choice. (Haydock) --- All obstacles increase his irregular desires, Proverbs 9:17. (Calmet)
Sirach 23:25 Every man that passeth beyond his own bed, despising his own soul, and saying: *Who seeth me?

Isaias 29:15.
Sirach 23:26 Darkness compasseth me about, and the walls cover me, and no man seeth me: whom do I fear? the Most High will not remember my sins.

Sirach 23:27 And he understandeth not that his eye seeth all things, for such a man's fear driveth from him the fear of God, and the eyes of men fearing him:

And. Greek, "the eyes of men are his dread." (Haydock) --- Such is the folly of the adulterer!
Sirach 23:28 And he knoweth not that the eyes of the Lord are far brighter than the sun, beholding round about all the ways of men, and the bottom of the deep, and looking into the hearts of men, into the most hidden parts.

Sirach 23:29 For all things were known to the Lord God before they were created: so also, after they were perfected, he beholdeth all things.

Sirach 23:30 This man shall be punished in the streets of the city, and he shall be chased as a colt: and where he suspected not, he shall be taken.

And he. Greek, "and where," etc. He shall be stoned, Leviticus 20:10. (Calmet) --- Taken. Greek subjoins (ver. 32.) "so," etc. (Haydock) --- If carnal adultery be thus punished, how much more will spiritual adultery, schism, and apostacy from the Catholic religion? (Worthington)
Sirach 23:31 And he shall be in disgrace with all men, because he understood not the fear of the Lord.

Sirach 23:32 *So every woman also that leaveth her husband, and bringeth in an heir by another:

Leviticus 20:10.; Deuteronomy 22:21.
Sirach 23:33 For first she hath been unfaithful to the law of the Most High: and secondly, she hath offended against her husband: thirdly, she hath fornicated in adultery, and hath gotten her children of another man.

Sirach 23:34 This woman shall be brought into the assembly, and inquisition shall be made of her children.

Sirach 23:35 Her children shall not take root, and her branches shall bring forth no fruit.

Sirach 23:36 She shall leave her memory to be cursed, and her infamy shall not be blotted out.

Sirach 23:37 And they that remain shall know, that there is nothing better than the fear of God: and that there is nothing sweeter than to have regard to the commandments of the Lord.

Sirach 23:38 It is great glory to follow the Lord: for length of days shall be received from him.

Shall. Greek, "that thou shouldst be taken under his protection." (Haydock)
Sirach 24:0 Wisdom praiseth herself: her origin, her dwelling, her dignity, and her fruits.

Sirach 24:1 Wisdom shall praise her own self, and shall be honoured in God, and shall glory in the midst of her people,

Wisdom. Greek title, "the praise of wisdom." Here the book of Ecclesiastes is imitated. (Haydock) --- See also Proverbs viii., and Wisdom 7:24., and 8:1. The pagans boasted of their philosophy. But it was not to be compared with the true religion, which the Israelites possessed. --- Own self. Literally, "soul." She alone is capable of this office. (Calmet) --- In God. Referring all the glory to him. (Menochius) --- This sentence is not in Greek. (Haydock) --- The second person of the Trinity proclaims his own praises. (Worthington)
Sirach 24:2 And shall open her mouth in the churches of the Most High, and shall glorify herself in the sight of his power,

Power. The temple, rather than in the schools of Athens. (Calmet)
Sirach 24:3 And in the midst of her own people she shall be exalted, and shall be admired in the holy assembly,

And. Greek, (5.) "I came out of the mouth of the Highest, (6.) and as," etc. (Haydock) --- He alludes to the darkness which covered the earth, Genesis 1:2., and Job 38:9. Many explain this of the uncreated wisdom, born in the womb of the blessed Virgin [Mary]; and the Church, in her office, applies it to her in a mystical sense. But it seems literally to refer to the wisdom and grace granted to the saints, which enlightens every man, and presides over the creation.
Sirach 24:4 And in the multitude of the elect she shall have praise, and among the blessed she shall be blessed, saying:

Sirach 24:5 I came out of the mouth of the Most High, the first-born before all creatures:

Sirach 24:6 I made that in the heavens there should rise light that never faileth, and as a cloud I covered all the earth:

Sirach 24:7 I dwelt in the highest places, and my throne is in a pillar of a cloud.

Cloud. Guiding the Israelites (Exodus 13:21.) or near the throne of God, Wisdom 9:4. (Calmet)
Sirach 24:8 I alone have compassed the circuit of heaven, and have penetrated into the bottom of the deep, and have walked in the waves of the sea,

Penetrated. Greek, "walked in."
Sirach 24:9 And have stood in all the earth: and in every people,

Sirach 24:10 And in every nation I have had the chief rule:

Sirach 24:11 And by my power I have trodden under my feet the hearts of all the high and low: and in all these I sought rest, and I shall abide in the inheritance of the Lord.

By. Greek, "with all," etc. (Haydock) --- Lord. Israel was chosen gratuitously. (Calmet) --- Greek, of whom?
Sirach 24:12 Then the creator of all things commanded, and said to me: and he that made me, rested in my tabernacle,

Rested. Greek, "gave rest to my tent." (Haydock) --- So Virgil says, requierun. flumina cursus. (Menochius) --- God offers grace, but forces none to accept of it. (Worthington)
Sirach 24:13 And he said to me: Let thy dwelling be in Jacob, and thy inheritance in Israel, and take root in my elect.

And take, etc., is not in Greek. (Haydock) --- This may be explained of the true religion, or (Calmet) of the word of the Father. (St. Augustine, Trin. 1:12.) --- In the Church only is effectual grace, (Worthington) or none will receive it, who refuses to hear the Church. (Haydock)
Sirach 24:14 *From the beginning, and before the world, was I created, and unto the world to come I shall not cease to be, and in the holy dwelling-place I have ministered before him.

Proverbs 8:22.
Created. Or engendered, Proverbs 8:22. --- Him. As his priestess, directing all the ministers of the temple. (Calmet) --- Christ is begotten by the understanding, and the Holy Ghost proceeds from love. Creation is not here taken strictly. (Worthington)
Sirach 24:15 And so was I established in Sion, and in the holy city likewise I rested, and my power was in Jerusalem.

Sirach 24:16 And I took root in an honourable people, and in the portion of my God his inheritance, and my abode is in the full assembly of saints.

His. Greek, "of his inheritance, (17.) I," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 24:17 I was exalted like a cedar in Libanus, and as a cypress-tree on Mount Sion.

Sion. Beyond the Jordan. Greek, "Hermon," Deuteronomy 4:48.
Sirach 24:18 I was exalted like a palm-tree in Cades, and as a rose-plant in Jericho:

Cades-barne, Numbers 20:1. Greek, "Engaddi," (Calmet) or Roman and Alexandrian edition, "on the sea shore." (Haydock)
Sirach 24:19 As a fair olive-tree in the plains, and as a plane-tree by the water in the streets, was I exalted.

In the streets, is not in Greek. (Calmet) --- Grabe inserts, by the waters. (Haydock) --- These trees flourish most in such situations, and people delighted to walk under them in hot countries.
Sirach 24:20 I gave a sweet smell like cinnamon, and aromatical balm: I yielded a sweet odour like the best myrrh:

Myrrh. Which distills through the bark, without any incision.
Sirach 24:21 And I perfumed my dwelling as storax, and galbanum, and onyx, and aloes, and as the frankincense not cut, and my odour is as the purest balm.

Onyx. A shell-fish in the Indies, which feeds on the spica nardi, and hence becomes odoriferous. --- Aloes, (gutta) the finest myrrh. --- Not cut. Greek, "in a tent." --- And my, etc., is not in Greek. Wisdom is compared to what was most esteemed. (Calmet)
Sirach 24:22 I have stretched out my branches as the turpentine-tree, and my branches are of honour and grace.

Honour. Rich and pleasant. (Haydock)
Sirach 24:23 As the vine I have brought forth a pleasant odour: and my flowers are the fruit of honour and riches.

Sirach 24:24 I am the mother of fair love, and of fear, and of knowledge, and of holy hope.

I, etc. Grabe restores this verse, and, instead of the next, has, "but I am given to all my children, being born myself for ever, to those who are specified by him. (26.) Come," etc. (Haydock) --- The text seems to be corrupt. (Calmet)
Sirach 24:25 In me is all grace of the way, and of the truth; in me is all hope of life and of virtue.

Life. Christ declares himself to be, the way, the truth, and the life. [John 14:6.]
Sirach 24:26 Come over to me, all ye that desire me, and be filled with my fruits.

Sirach 24:27 For my spirit is sweet above honey, and my inheritance above honey and the honeycomb.

Spirit. Greek, "remembrance." It has not the following verse.
Sirach 24:28 My memory is unto everlasting generations.

Sirach 24:29 *They that eat me shall yet hunger: and they that drink me, shall yet thirst.

John 6:35.
Thirst. Without being ever disgusted, John 4:13. (Calmet) --- Experience of carnal delights is quite the reverse. (St. Gregory, hom. xxxvi. Ev.) --- The more grace a person has, the more he desireth and receiveth from God. (Worthington)
Sirach 24:30 He that hearkeneth to me, shall not be confounded: and they that work by me, shall not sin.

Sin. Or lose their labour. They shall be directed in the paths of life. (Calmet)
Sirach 24:31 They that explain me, shall have life everlasting.

They. Greek, "all these things are the book of the covenant of the most high God, the law which Moses gave unto us, an inheritance to the synagogues of Jacob." Grabe puts in a different character from the Complutensian, "Lose not strength in the Lord, but stick to him, that he may strengthen you. The Lord Almighty is the only God, and there is no other Saviour." Then follows, (ver. 35.) "who," etc. (Haydock) --- Everlasting. Provided his life correspond with his doctrine. No occupation can be more glorious. (Calmet) --- Let thy Scriptures be my chaste delights: let me not be deceived in them, nor deceive others by them. (St. Augustine, Confessions 11:2.) (Calmet) (Daniel xii.) (Menochius)
Sirach 24:32 All these things are the book of life, and the covenant of the Most High, and the knowledge of truth.

Truth. They are equally certain, and no more is required. (Calmet) --- He that loves has fulfilled the law. (Haydock)
Sirach 24:33 Moses commanded a law in the precepts of justices, and an inheritance to the house of Jacob, and the promises to Israel.

Sirach 24:34 He appointed to David, his servant, to raise up of him a most mighty king, and sitting on the throne of glory for ever.

King. Viz., Christ, who by his gospel, like an overflowing river, hath enriched the earth with heavenly wisdom. (Challoner) --- Ever. The Lord (Haydock) is a king, (Carriers) who, etc., ver. 35. (Haydock) --- Solomon's wisdom is also praised. (Calmet) --- The sceptre of David remained till the captivity, and the royal family continued in esteem till Christ. Yet David was only a figure of Christ, the eternal king. (Worthington)
Sirach 24:35 *Who filleth up wisdom as the Phison, and as the Tigris in the days of the new fruits.

Genesis 2:11.
Phison. Or Phase of Colchis, which rises in Armenia, like the Tigris and Euphrates, all which overflow their banks at the beginning of summer, on account of the snow melting.
Sirach 24:36 Who maketh understanding to abound as the Euphrates, *who multiplieth it as the Jordan in the time of harvest.

Josue 3:15.
Harvest. The snow of Libanus makes the Jordan swell at Pentecost, Josue 3:15.
Sirach 24:37 Who sendeth knowledge as the light, and riseth up as Gehon in the time of the vintage.

Light. Giving to all the light of reason, and to Israel the law, Psalm 147:20. --- Gehon. Or Araxes, which descends from Armenia into the Caspian sea, though some erroneously take it to be the Nile, (Calmet) which overflows at the same time as the Euphrates. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 18:18.; Solin xlvi.)
Sirach 24:38 Who first hath perfect knowledge of her, and a weaker shall not search her out.

Of her. Christ was the first that had perfect knowledge of heavenly wisdom. (Challoner) --- This is the privilege of God. Greek, "the first hath not perfect," etc.
Sirach 24:39 For her thoughts are more vast than the sea, and her counsels more deep than the great ocean.

Sirach 24:40 I wisdom have poured out rivers.

Rivers of saving waters, on all, but particularly (Haydock) on Judea, ver. 42. Greek, "and like a ditch (dioryx. Calmet) from a river, and as an aqueduct, I came into paradise," (Haydock) like the four rivers aforesaid, Genesis ii.
Sirach 24:41 I like a brook out of a river of a mighty water, I like a channel of a river, and like an aqueduct came out of paradise.

Sirach 24:42 I said: I will water my garden of plants, and I will water abundantly the fruit of my meadow.

Sirach 24:43 And behold my brook became a great river, and my river became near to a sea:

Sirach 24:44 For I make doctrine to shine forth to all as the morning light, and I will declare it afar off.

Off. He alludes to the conversion of the Gentiles.
Sirach 24:45 I will penetrate to all the lower parts of the earth, and will behold all that sleep, and will enlighten all that hope in the Lord.

I will. Many Fathers explain this of Christ's descent into hell. But as it occurs not in the Greek, if may be considered as the tradition of the first Christians, who gave this version, (Calmet) or they found it in their copies. (Haydock)
Sirach 24:46 I will yet pour out doctrine as prophecy, and will leave it to them that seek wisdom, and will not cease to instruct their offspring even to the holy age.

Prophecy. Of no less authority. The prophets had ceased for some time before Christ. (Calmet) --- Them. Greek, "to ages of ages. See," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 24:47 *See ye that I have not laboured for myself only, but for all that seek out the truth.

Ecclesiasticus 33:18.
1:Wisdom, or the author of this book, Ecclesiasticus 33:18., and Wisdom 7:13. (Calmet)
Sirach 25:0 Documents of wisdom on several subjects.

Sirach 25:1 With three things my spirit is pleased, which are approved before God and men:

Pleased. Wisdom still speaks. Solomon often makes similar divisions, to make the deeper impression, Proverbs 30:15, 24.
Sirach 25:2 The concord of brethren, and the love of neighbours, and man and wife that agree well together.

Sirach 25:3 Three sorts my soul hateth, and I am greatly grieved at their life:

Sirach 25:4 A poor man that is proud: a rich man that is a liar: an old man that is a fool, and doting.

Fool. Greek, "adulterer, devoid of sense," Isaias 65:20. (Calmet) --- Luxuria....senectuti foedissima. (Cicero, off. i.)
Sirach 25:5 The things that thou hast not gathered in thy youth, how shalt thou find them in thy old age?

Age? Wisdom, says Bias, "is more durable than other possessions." (Laertius)
Sirach 25:6 O how comely is judgment for a grey head, and for ancients to know counsel!

Sirach 25:7 O how comely is wisdom for the aged, and understanding and counsel to men of honour!

Sirach 25:8 Much experience is the crown of old men, and the fear of God is their glory.

Sirach 25:9 Nine things that are not to be imagined by the heart have I magnified, and the tenth I will utter to men with my tongue.

Things. Greek, "nine suppositions I have blessed in my heart," (Haydock) or thought that they may confer felicity. B\but the tenth will certainly do it, Ecclesiasticus 14.
Sirach 25:10 A man that hath joy of his children: and he that liveth and seeth the fall of his enemies.

Enemies. Not out of revenge, but for the glory of God. See Matthew 5:43.
Sirach 25:11 *Blessed is he. that dwelleth with a wise woman, *and that hath not slipped with his tongue, and that hath not served such as are unworthy of him.

Ecclesiasticus 26:1.; Ecclesiasticus 14:1.; Ecclesiasticus 19:16.; James 3:2.
Sirach 25:12 Blessed is he that findeth a true friend: and that declareth justice to an ear that heareth.

A true. Greek, "prudence." (Calmet)
Sirach 25:13 How great is he that findeth wisdom and knowledge! but there is none above him that feareth the Lord.

Sirach 25:14 The fear of God hath set itself above all things:

Things. Greek adds, "for light (15.) he that," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 25:15 Blessed is the man, to whom it is given to have the fear of God: he that holdeth it, to whom shall he be likened?

Sirach 25:16 The fear of God is the beginning of his love: and the beginning of faith is to be fast joined unto it.

It. This is not in the edition of Rome, or of Aldus: but it is in the rest. Fear commonly begins the work of salvation, and love perfects it, 1 Timothy 1:5. (Calmet) --- All happiness in this life is grounded on the fear of God. (Worthington)
Sirach 25:17 The sadness of the heart is every plague: and the wickedness of a woman is all evil.

Evil. Greek reads not this; but the Syriac does, omitting the two next verses. (Calmet) --- Heresy is described under the idea of a wicked woman, concealing her malice. (Worthington)
Sirach 25:18 And a man will choose any plague, but the plague of the heart:

Choose. Literally, "see." (Haydock) --- Some supply "send any plague," etc.
Sirach 25:19 And any wickedness, but the wickedness of a woman:

Sirach 25:20 And any affliction, but the affliction from them that hate him:

Sirach 25:21 And any revenge, but the revenge of enemies.

Enemies. Which they wish, or may behold, Ecclesiasticus 18:31. (Calmet)
Sirach 25:22 There is no head worse than the head of a serpent:

Head. Or poison, as the Hebrew rosh signifies both. (Rondet.)
Sirach 25:23 And there is no anger above the anger of a woman. *It will be more agreeable to abide with a lion and a dragon, than to dwell with a wicked woman.

Proverbs 21:19.
Woman. Greek, "enemy." (Calmet) --- Revenge is the passion of little souls, and of women. (Juvenal xiii.) --- Dragon. This is not exaggerated, if we reflect on the evils occasioned by Eve, Dalila, Athalia, etc. (Calmet) --- "A woman is the greatest wild-beast." (Menander)
Sirach 25:24 The wickedness of a woman changeth her face: and she darkeneth her countenance as a bear: and sheweth it like sackcloth. In the midst of her neighbours,

Sackcloth. And is black when passion bursts forth, though women too frequently conceal their anger to take deeper vengeance.
Sirach 25:25 Her husband groaned, and hearing, he sighed a little.

Groaned. Greek, "shall fall." --- Little. Greek, "bitterly." He cannot avoid hearing of his wife's misconduct. (Haydock) --- She will raise him enemies on all sides.
Sirach 25:26 All malice is short to the malice of a woman: let the lot of sinners fall upon her.

Her. I could wish no greater evil to the worst of enemies, Ecclesiastes 7:27.
Sirach 25:27 As the climbing of a sandy way is to the feet of the aged, so is a wife full of tongue to a quiet man.

Man. He cannot advance. (Calmet) --- Semper habet lites. (Juvenal vi.)
Sirach 25:28 Look not upon a woman's beauty, and desire not a woman for beauty.

Beauty. Other qualifications of more importance must be regarded. (Haydock) --- He should choose one who may be a companion and assistant in domestic concerns. (Grotius)
Sirach 25:29 *A woman's anger, and impudence, and confusion is great.

Ecclesiasticus 42:6
Sirach 25:30 A woman, if she have superiority, is contrary to her husband.

A. Greek, "If she bring a fortune to her husband," (Haydock) she will continually upbraid him with it, and cover him with confusion, ver. 29. (Calmet) --- Lay-leadership in spiritual things is so unreasonable, that few heretics will endure it. (Worthington)
Sirach 25:31 A wicked woman abateth the courage, and maketh a heavy countenance and a wounded heart.

Sirach 25:32 Feeble hands, and disjointed knees, a woman that doth not make her husband happy.

Happy. A lazy wife will give no content.
Sirach 25:33 *From the woman came the beginning of sin, and by her we all die.

Genesis 3:6.
Die. Eve tempted her husband, and thus we are all involved in sin, 1 Timothy 2:14.
Sirach 25:34 Give no issue to thy water, no, not a little: nor to a wicked woman liberty to gad abroad.

Water. Incontinency, Ecclesiasticus 26:15., and Proverbs 5:15. If water find a hole, it will presently flow away. Women were kept much at home in the East, as they are in many parts of Europe. (Calmet) --- Retirement and silence are the characteristics of a wise woman. (Aeschylus, Thebas.)
Sirach 25:35 If she walk not at thy hand, she will confound thee in the sight of thy enemies.

She will. Greek, "cut her off from thy flesh." Grabe and Complutensian add, (Haydock) "give a bill of divorce or her dowry, and send her away." (Calmet)
Sirach 25:36 Cut her off from thy flesh, lest she always abuse thee.

Sirach 26:0 Of good and bad women.

Sirach 26:1 Happy is the husband of a good wife: for the number of his years is double.

Double. Uneasiness deprives a person of much comfort. (Worthington)
Sirach 26:2 A virtuous woman rejoiceth her husband, and shall fulfil the years of his life in peace.

Sirach 26:3 A good wife is a good portion: she shall be given in the portion of them that fear God, to a man for his good deeds:

To a, etc., is not in Greek. (Haydock)
Sirach 26:4 Rich or poor, if his heart is good, his countenance shall be cheerful at all times.

Sirach 26:5 Of three things my heart hath been afraid, and at the fourth my face hath trembled:

Fourth. A jealous wife, ver. 8.
Sirach 26:6 The accusation of a city, and the gathering together of the people:

City. When all are charged with a crime, or when all rise up against a man. (Calmet)
Sirach 26:7 And a false calumny, all are more grievous than death.

Sirach 26:8 A jealous woman is the grief and mourning of the heart.

Woman. Greek adds, "against another woman."
Sirach 26:9 With a jealous woman is a scourge of the tongue which communicateth with all.

With. Greek, "and the scourge of the tongue, which," etc. (Haydock) --- Back-biting occasions the four evils aforesaid. (Grotius)
Sirach 26:10 As a yoke of oxen that is moved to and fro, so also is a wicked woman: he that hath hold of her, is as he that taketh hold of a scorpion.

Woman. When oxen move, the yoke moves also: Thus heresy will suffer none to rest. (Worthington) --- The yoke ought to fit the neck, and not be fastened to the horns. (Colum. 2:2.)
Sirach 26:11 A drunken woman is a great wrath: and her reproach and shame shall not be hid.

Hid. She will be given to debauchery. (St. Chrysostom) (Calmet) --- Romulus ordered wives to be slain, like adulteresses, who had drunk wine at home. (V. Max. 6:3.)
Sirach 26:12 The fornication of a woman shall be known by the haughtiness of her eyes, and by her eye-lids.

Eye-lids. Shewing her impudence, 2 Peter 2:14., and Isaias 3:16.
Sirach 26:13 *On a daughter that turneth not away herself, set a strict watch: lest finding an opportunity she abuse herself.

Ecclesiasticus 42:11.
Herself. From gazing at men. (Calmet) --- Love manifests itself by the eyes. (Propert.)
Sirach 26:14 Take heed of the impudence of her eyes, and wonder not if she slight thee.

Sirach 26:15 She will open her mouth as a thirsty traveller to the fountain, and will drink of every water near her, and will sit down by every hedge, and open her quiver against every arrow, until she fail.

Hedge. Or "stake," palum, (Haydock) on which tents were fixed, Genesis 38:14. (Calmet) --- Fail. Incontinence will at last ruin her health. (Haydock)
Sirach 26:16 The grace of a diligent woman shall delight her husband, and shall fatten his bones.

Bones. The Catholic faith is the ground of all virtues. (Worthington)
Sirach 26:17 Her discipline is the gift of God.

Sirach 26:18 Such is a wise and silent woman, and there is nothing so much worth as a well instructed soul.

Worth. Literally, "exchange;" (Greek; Haydock) such a wife is above all price. (Menochius)
Sirach 26:19 A holy and shamefaced woman is grace upon grace.

Sirach 26:20 And no price is worthy of a continent soul.

Continent. Adhering to virtue. (Calmet)
Sirach 26:21 As the sun, when it riseth to the world in the high places of God, so is the beauty of a good wife for the ornament of her house.

Sirach 26:22 As the lamp shining upon the holy candlestick, so is the beauty of the face in a ripe age.

Holy. Made of gold, and placed in the sanctuary. (Menochius)
Sirach 26:23 As golden pillars upon bases of silver, so are the firm feet upon the soles of a steady woman.

Soles. Greek, "heels." Complutensian, "solid pavement." A long addition follows in this edition, which is inserted by Grabe, (Haydock; but is not in the best copies. Calmet) instead of the following verse. (Haydock)
Sirach 26:24 As everlasting foundations upon a solid rock, so the commandments of God In the heart of a holy woman.

Sirach 26:25 At two things my heart is grieved, and the third bringeth anger upon me:

Sirach 26:26 A man of war fainting through poverty: and a man of sense despised:

Poverty. The Romans provided for veteran soldiers, as Louis XIV did with great magnificence. (Calmet) --- Greenwich hospital is for the same purpose. (Haydock) --- Despised. Solomon makes the same complaint, Ecclesiastes 9:15.
Sirach 26:27 And he that passeth over from justice to sin, God hath prepared such an one for the sword.

To sin. He is less excusable, as he knows what he abandons, Jeremias 2:12. (Calmet)
Sirach 26:28 Two sorts of callings have appeared to me hard and dangerous: a merchant is hardly free from negligence: and a huckster shall not be justified from the sins of the lips.

Two. Greek, "scarcely is a merchant exempt from negligence, and the seller of wine, and eatables, (Grotius) or retailer (Voss. kapelos) shall not be justified from sin." (Haydock) --- Negligence. That is, from the neglect of the service of God: because the eager pursuit of the mammon of this world, is apt to make men of that calling forget the great duties of loving God above all things, and their neighbours as themselves. --- A huckster. Or a retailer of wine. Men of that profession are both greatly exposed to danger of sin themselves, and are too often accessary to the sins of others. (Challoner) --- Lips. Innkeepers talk much to please, and thus fall into danger, Proverbs 10:19. (Worthington) --- They are also exposed to lying, (Menochius) and to adulterate their merchandise. (Calmet)
Sirach 27:0 Dangers of sin from several heads: the fear of God is the best preservative. He that diggeth a pit, shall fall into it.

Sirach 27:1 Through poverty many have sinned: and he that seeketh to be enriched, turneth away his eye.

Poverty. Greek, "the indifferent thing," as the Stoics represented money, Ecclesiasticus 7:20. --- Sinned. Hence proceeds the danger to which little merchants are exposed. Involuntary povery is very miserable, Proverbs 30:9
Sirach 27:2 As a stake sticketh fast in the midst of the joining of stones, so also in the midst of selling and buying, sin shall stick fast.

Fast. Anacharsis styled "the market-place the receptacle of mutual cheating." (Laertius 1.) --- The seller praises his goods to get them off: (Horace) the buyer says it is bad, Proverbs 20:14. The next verse is a gloss omitted in Greek. (Calmet)
Sirach 27:3 Sin shall be destroyed with the sinner.

Sirach 27:4 Unless thou hold thyself diligently in the fear of the Lord, thy house shall quickly be overthrown.

Fear. By this the soul is preserved in a good state. (Worthington)
Sirach 27:5 As when one sifteth with a sieve, the dust will remain: so will the perplexity of a man in his thoughts.

Thoughts. The more he thinks on some things, the more is he perplexed. (Calmet) --- After sin is purged away, there remains some defects like dust, Psalm 50:4. (Worthington)
Sirach 27:6 The furnace trieth the potter's vessels, and the trial of affliction just men.

Affliction. Greek, "thought," (Haydock) or speech. (Calmet) --- A young man being brought to Socrates, that he might pass judgment on his dispositions, the philosopher ordered him to "speak." (Cicero)
Sirach 27:7 As the dressing of a tree sheweth the fruit thereof, so a word out of the thought of the heart of man.

As. Greek, "the fruit shews the dressing," etc.
Sirach 27:8 Praise not a man before he speaketh, for this is the trial of men.

Sirach 27:9 If thou followest justice, thou shalt obtain her: and shalt put her on as a long robe of honour, and thou shalt dwell with her: and she shall protect thee for ever, and in the day of acknowledgment thou shalt find a strong foundation.

Honour. The desire of justice is the sure method to obtain it. The rest is not in Greek. (Haydock)
Sirach 27:10 Birds resort unto their like: so truth will return to them that practise her.

Sirach 27:11 The lion always lieth in wait for prey: so do sins for them that work iniquities.

Iniquities. They fall deeper, or sin entails punishment. (Calmet)
Sirach 27:12 A holy man continueth in wisdom as the sun: but a fool is changed as the moon.

A. Greek, "the speech of the wise man is wisdom throughout: but," etc. (Haydock) --- The fool always mixes something improper with what good he speaks. (Calmet) --- Sun. The wise man preserves his virtue, whether it appear or not. (Worthington)
Sirach 27:13 In the midst of the unwise keep in the word till its time: but be continually among men that think.

Keep. Greek, "wait an opportunity." (Haydock) --- Go but seldom. Their discourse tends to promote iniquity, (ver. 14.) and blasphemous oaths, (ver. 15.) and bloodshed, ver. 16. (Calmet)
Sirach 27:14 The discourse of sinners is hateful, and their laughter is at the pleasures of sin.

Sirach 27:15 The speech that sweareth much shall make the hair of the head stand upright: and its irreverence shall make one stop his ears.

Ears. The Jews did so, when they heard blasphemy, Acts 7:56. (Menochius)
Sirach 27:16 In the quarrels of the proud is the shedding of blood: and their cursing is a grievous hearing.

Sirach 27:17 He that discloseth the secret of a friend, loseth his credit, and shall never find a friend to his mind.

Mind. In Egypt, those who disclosed a secret to the enemy, were condemned to have their tongues cut out. (Diodorus 2:2.)
Sirach 27:18 Love thy neighbour, and be joined to him with fidelity.

Sirach 27:19 But if thou discover his secrets, follow no more after him.

Him. He will never trust thee more, ver. 22.
Sirach 27:20 For as a man that destroyeth his friend, so also is he that destroyeth the friendship of his neighbour.

Friend. Roman and Alexandrian Septuagint, "enemy." (Haydock) --- This crime is like murder. The Romans sometimes solemnly renounced the friendship of those who had offended them, as Germanicus and Caius did that of Piso. (Tacitus, An. 2.; Suetonius 3.)
Sirach 27:21 And as one that letteth a bird go out of his hand, so hast thou let thy neighbour go, and thou shalt not get him again.

Sirach 27:22 Follow after him no more, for he is gone afar off, he is fled, as a roe escaped out of the snare: because his soul is wounded.

Because. Greek, "for one may bind up a wound, and an insult may be pardoned. But he who hath revealed secrets, hath lost all hope," (Haydock) or "confidence," ver. 24, Ecclesiasticus 22:27.
Sirach 27:23 Thou canst no more bind him up. And of a curse there is reconciliation:

Sirach 27:24 But to disclose the secrets of a friend leaveth no hope to an unhappy soul.

Sirach 27:25 He that winketh with the eye forgeth wicked things, and no man will cast him off:

Off. Some Greek copies have, "he who knows him will depart from him." It is difficult to guard against a false friend, who winks as if he desired to please us, (Calmet) while he really seeks our ruin, ver. 26.
Sirach 27:26 In the sight of thy eyes he will sweeten his mouth, and will admire thy words: but at the last he will writhe his mouth, and on thy words he will lay a stumbling-block.

Sirach 27:27 I have hated many things, but not like him, and the Lord will hate him.

Sirach 27:28 If one cast a stone on high, it will fall upon his own head: and the deceitful stroke will wound the deceitful.

Wound. Greek, "deal wounds. He," etc. (Haydock) --- Traitors, in the dark, often wound their fellows, (Calmet) or themselves. (Menochius)
Sirach 27:29 He that diggeth a pit, shall fall into it: and he that setteth a stone for his neighbour, shall stumble upon it: and he that layeth a snare for another, shall perish in it.

Setteth. Greek, "layeth a snare, shall perish in it."
Sirach 27:30 A mischievous counsel shall be rolled back upon the author, and he shall not know from whence it cometh to him.

Him. God will punish, when the sinner has perhaps forgotten his offence. (Calmet) --- Such are often chastised here, and always hereafter. (Worthington)
Sirach 27:31 Mockery and reproach are of the proud, and vengeance as a lion shall lie in wait for him.

Sirach 27:32 They shall perish in a snare that are delighted with the fall of the just: and sorrow shall consume them before they die.

Sirach 27:33 Anger and fury are both of them abominable, and the sinful man shall be subject to them.

Them. He shall feel the indignation of God, (Calmet) and shall repine. (Haydock)
Sirach 28:0 Lessons against revenge and quarrels. The evils of the tongue.

Sirach 28:1 He *that seeketh to revenge himself, shall find vengeance from the Lord, and he will surely keep his sins in remembrance.

Deuteronomy 32:35.; Matthew 6:14.; Mark 11:25.; Romans 12:19.
Sins. To seek revenge out of rancour, or contrary to justice, is a grievous sin. (Worthington) --- Retaliation was tolerated, (Exodus 21:24.) but love was not to be laid aside, Deuteronomy 33:35., Leviticus 21:17., Psalm 7:5., and Matthew 7:2.
Sirach 28:2 Forgive thy neighbour if he hath hurt thee: and then shall thy sins be forgiven to thee when thou prayest.

Forgive. This charity enforces, when the offender is penitent, if the remission of punishment be not contrary to justice and discipline. (Worthington) --- Matthew 6:12., and 18:32., and Luke 6:37. We all stand in need of pardon. (Calmet)
Sirach 28:3 Man to man reserveth anger, and doth he seek remedy of God?

Sirach 28:4 He hath no mercy on a man like himself, and doth he entreat for his own sins?

Sirach 28:5 He that is but flesh, nourisheth anger, and doth he ask forgiveness of God? who shall obtain pardon for his sins?

And doth. Greek, "who will expiate his sins?" Is God bound to receive his victims or prayers while he entertains such dispositions? (Calmet)
Sirach 28:6 Remember thy last things, and let enmity cease:

Sirach 28:7 For corruption and death hang over in his commandments.

In his commandments. Supply the sentence out of the Greek thus: Remember corruption and death, and abide in the commandments, (Challoner) which condemn revenge, Exodus 23:4. (Calmet) --- Complutensian, "and do not rage or menace thy neighbour with destruction and death; yea, stick to the commandments. Be mindful of the precepts, and be not angry with thy neighbour; and of the covenant," etc., ver. 9. (Haydock)
Sirach 28:8 Remember the fear of God, and be not angry with thy neighbour.

Sirach 28:9 Remember the covenant of the most High, and overlook the ignorance of thy neighbour.

Ignorance. He uses a softer term. In effect, most quarrels proceed from a misunderstanding. "Every sinner is ignorant."
Sirach 28:10 Refrain from strife, and thou shalt diminish thy sins:

Sirach 28:11 For a passionate man kindleth strife, and a sinful man will trouble his friends, and bring in debate in the midst of them that are at peace.

Sirach 28:12 For as the wood of the forest is, so the fire burneth: and as man's strength is, so shall his anger be, and according to his riches he shall increase his anger.

Burneth. The more fuel, the greater will be the blaze.
Sirach 28:13 A hasty contention kindleth a fire: and a hasty quarrel sheddeth blood: and a tongue that beareth witness bringeth death.

And a, etc., is not in Greek. Proverbs 19:12., and 26:21.
Sirach 28:14 If thou blow the spark, it shall burn as a fire: and if thou spit upon it, it shall be quenched: both come out of the mouth.

Sirach 28:15 The whisperer and the double-tongued is accursed: for he hath troubled many that were at peace.

Sirach 28:16 The tongue of a third person hath disquieted many, and scattered them from nation to nation.

Third. Who carries stories between friends, to set them at variance. (Calmet)
Sirach 28:17 It hath destroyed the strong cities of the rich, and hath overthrown the houses of great men.

Sirach 28:18 It hath cut in pieces the forces of people, and undone strong nations.

It, etc., is omitted in Greek. (Haydock) --- Indiscreet reports often cause dissensions. (Worthington)
Sirach 28:19 The tongue of a third person hath cast out valiant women, and deprived them of their labours.

Labours. Causing their husbands to suspect them.
Sirach 28:20 He that hearkeneth to it, shall never have rest, neither shall he have a friend in whom he may repose.

Sirach 28:21 The stroke of a whip maketh a blue mark: but the stroke of the tongue will break the bones.

Sirach 28:22 Many have fallen by the edge of the sword, but not so many as have perished by their own tongue.

Their own. Greek, "the." Detraction separates many friends. (Calmet)
Sirach 28:23 Blessed is he that is defended from a wicked tongue, that hath not passed into the wrath thereof, and that hath not drawn the yoke thereof, and hath not been bound in its bands.

Sirach 28:24 For its yoke is a yoke of iron: and its bands are bands of brass.

Sirach 28:25 The death thereof is a most evil death: and hell is preferable to it.

Hell. Or rather "the grave."
Sirach 28:26 Its continuance shall not be for a long time, but it shall possess the ways of the unjust: and the just shall not be burnt with its flame.

Its. Greek, "it shall not take hold of the pious, and they shall not," etc. (Haydock) --- Their virtue shall quickly shine forth. (Calmet)
Sirach 28:27 They that forsake God shall fall into it, and it shall burn in them, and shall not be quenched, and it shall be sent upon them as a lion, and as a leopard it shall tear them.

Sirach 28:28 Hedge in thy ears with horns, hear not a wicked tongue, and make doors and bars to thy mouth.

Hear. Greek, "lo, hedge in thy possessions with thorns: bind up thy silver and gold." (Haydock) --- To pay attention to detraction is as bad as to utter it. (Worthington)
Sirach 28:29 Melt down thy gold and silver, and make a balance for thy words, and a just bridle for thy mouth:

Just. Greek, "a door and bolt," etc., as [in] ver. 28. If people guard their property with so much care, why do they make light of words? (Haydock) --- These ought to be weighed with more attention than money, and we ought to spare no pains or expense on this head. (Calmet)
Sirach 28:30 And take heed lest thou slip with thy tongue, and fall in the sight of thy enemies who lie in wait for thee, and thy fall be incurable unto death.

Tongue. Greek, "by them, lest thou fall before him who lays snares," Ecclesiasticus 29. (Haydock)
Sirach 29:0 Of charity in lending money, and justice in repaying. Of alms, and of being surety.

Sirach 29:1 He that sheweth mercy, lendeth to his neighbour: and he that is stronger in hand keepeth the commandments.

Hand. That is, he that is hearty and bountiful in lending to his neighbour in his necessity. (Challoner) --- Foenus, in this book means simply "lending." (Rondet.) --- This is a work of mercy, and a sort of alms. Justice requires that the thing should be restored, and if any refuse on purpose, he is as bad as a thief. (Worthington) -- He who lends will receive usury from the Lord, Proverbs 19:17., and Psalm 36:21. --- In hand. Rich.
Sirach 29:2 Lend to thy neighbour in the time of his need, and pay thou thy neighbour again in due time.

Time. The neglect of this causes many to be unwilling to lend. (Calmet)
Sirach 29:3 Keep thy word, and deal faithfully with him: and thou shalt always find that which is necessary for thee.

Sirach 29:4 Many have looked upon a thing lent as a thing found, and have given trouble to them that helped them.

Sirach 29:5 Till they receive, they kiss the hands of the lender, and in promises they humble their voice:

Hands. Like slaves. (Macrobius 1.) --- Others kissed the face, neck, etc., Acts 20:37.
Sirach 29:6 But when they should repay, they will ask time, and will return tedious and murmuring words, and will complain of the time:

Sirach 29:7 And if he be able to pay, he will stand off, he will scarce pay one half, and will count it as if he had found it.

Found it. Seeming to make thee partaker of his good fortune, (Jansenius) or he will keep the other half as his own. (Grotius)
Sirach 29:8 But if not, he will defraud him of his money, and he shall get him for an enemy without cause:

Sirach 29:9 And he will pay him with reproaches and curses, and instead of honour and good turn will repay him injuries.

Injuries. Thus one loses both money and friends. Must we then never lend? If the person be poor, we must be ready to give. (Calmet)
Sirach 29:10 Many have refused to lend, not out of wickedness, but they were afraid to be defrauded without cause.

Sirach 29:11 But yet towards the poor be thou more hearty, and delay not to shew him mercy.

And delay. Or literally, "and for an alms, drag him not along." (Haydock) --- Let not the fraud of many deter thee from assisting the poor, for the sake of God and justice. (Calmet) --- Si fraudaris pecunia acquiris justitiam. (St. Ambrose, Tob. 3:n. 11.)
Sirach 29:12 Help the poor because of the commandment: and send him not away empty-handed because of his poverty.

Commandment. Deuteronomy 15:7. Else where is your merit?
Sirach 29:13 Lose thy money for thy brother and thy friend: and hide it not under a stone to be lost.

Friend. He is entitled to partake of all thy goods. If he be only thy fellow-creature, assist him; and God will reward thee, Matthew 6:19.
Sirach 29:14 *Place thy treasure in the commandments of the most High, and it shall bring thee more profit than gold.

Tobias 4:10.; Ecclesiasticus 17:18.
Sirach 29:15 Shut up alms in the heart of the poor, and it shall obtain help for thee against all evil.

Heart. Greek, "thy store-houses," the poor. (Calmet) --- I never read that one who was liberal to the poor came to an evil death, as he has so many to intercede for him, whose prayers must be heard. (St. Jerome, ad Nepot.) --- Works of mercy produce the best fruits. (Worthington)
Sirach 29:16 Better than the shield of the mighty, and better than the spear:

Sirach 29:17 It shall fight for thee against thy enemy.

Sirach 29:18 A good man is surety for his neighbour: and he that hath lost shame will leave him to himself.

Himself. Yet he will not engage his word for more than he can pay, (ver. 27., and Ecclesiasticus 8:16.) nor encourage the negligence of debtors, Proverbs 6:1.
Sirach 29:19 Forget not the kindness of thy surety: for he hath given his life for thee.

Life. Or his subsistence, (chap. 19:28.) though some answered for the person of another, 3 Kings 20:39.
Sirach 29:20 The sinner and the unclean fleeth from his surety.

And. Greek, "will turn away the goods of his surety, (21.) and the ungrateful in mind will abandon his redeemer." (Haydock) --- "All hate the ungrateful," (Cicero, off. ii.) and the Persians punished such with death. (Xenophon, Cyr. i.) --- Him. Greek subjoins ver. 23. (Haydock)
Sirach 29:21 A sinner attributeth to himself the goods of his surety: and he that is of an unthankful mind will leave him that delivered him.

Sirach 29:22 A man is surety for his neighbour: and when he hath lost all shame, he shall forsake him.

Sirach 29:23 Evil suretyship hath undone many of good estate, and hath tossed them as a wave of the sea.

Estate, (dirigentes) whose affairs were prosperous. (Menochius) --- Hence Solomon dissuades any rash engagements.
Sirach 29:24 It hath made powerful men to go from place to place round about, and they have wandered in strange countries.

Sirach 29:25 A sinner that transgresseth the commandment of the Lord shall fall into an evil suretyship: and he that undertaketh many things shall fall into judgment.

Things. Tax-gatherers may deserve to fall into this misery. (Calmet)
Sirach 29:26 Recover thy neighbour according to thy power, and take heed to thyself that thou fall not.

Not. Prudence requires that we should not ruin ourselves to help others. (Worthington)
Sirach 29:27 The chief thing for man's life is water and bread, and clothing, and a house to cover shame.

Shame. Clothing is like a portable house. (Grotius) --- Man stands in need of little, and those who are content will not need to borrow, ver. 29.
Sirach 29:28 *Better is the poor man's fare under a roof of boards, than sumptuous cheer abroad in another man's house.

Ecclesiasticus 39:31.
Sirach 29:29 Be contented with little instead of much, and thou shalt not hear the reproach of going abroad.

Sirach 29:30 It is a miserable life to go as a guest from house to house: for where a man is a stranger, he shall not deal confidently, nor open his mouth.

Sirach 29:31 He shall entertain, and feed, and give drink to the unthankful, and moreover he shall hear bitter words.

Shall. Or "has formerly entertained" those, who now reproach him, make him serve in the meanest offices, and at last cast him forth. It may also signify that people who receive ungrateful vagabonds, will be required to serve them, and had better keep them out, ver. 33. (Calmet) --- Greek, "thou shalt entertain and give drink to the most disagreeable things." (Haydock)
Sirach 29:32 Go, stranger, and furnish the table, and give others to eat what thou hast in thy hand.

Others. Greek, "me." (Menochius) --- Travellers carried their provisions with them. (Calmet)
Sirach 29:33 Give place to the honourable presence of my friends: for I want my house, my brother being to be lodged with me.

Give. Greek, "depart, stranger, from the face of glory; for," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 29:34 These things are grievous to a man of understanding: the upbraiding of house-room, and the reproaching of the lender.

Lender. Who demands his money, and upbraids his debtor. (Menochius)
Sirach 30:0 Of correction of children. Health is better than wealth. Excessive grief is hurtful.

Sirach 30:1 He *that loveth his son, frequently chastiseth him, that he may rejoice in his latter end, and not grope after the doors of his neighbours.

Proverbs 13:24.; Proverbs 23:13.
He. Greek prefixes "on children." (Haydock) --- And not, etc., is omitted in Greek. It may signify, and not beg, (Calmet) or steal. (Haydock) --- The welfare of the country depends on the good education of children, which cannot be performed without correction, (Calmet) though this should never be used till more gentle means have been tried. (Fenelon on Educ.) --- The neglect of correction proceeds from a misplaced tenderness, (Proverbs 13:24.) which in the end proves most prejudicial both to the child and to the public. (Haydock) --- See Plato, rep. ii., and vii; Aristotle, pol. vi.; Cicero, off. 2:(Calmet)
Sirach 30:2 He that instructeth his son, shall be praised in him, and shall glory in him in the midst of them of his household.

Them. Greek, "his acquaintance." (Haydock) --- He sees himself re-born in his son, ver. 4. (Calmet)
Sirach 30:3 *He that teacheth his son, maketh his enemy jealous, and in the midst of his friends he shall glory in him.

Deuteronomy 6:7.
Sirach 30:4 His father is dead, and he is as if he were not dead: for he hath left one behind him that is like himself.

Sirach 30:5 While he lived he saw and rejoiced in him: and when he died he was not sorrowful, neither was he confounded before his enemies.

Sirach 30:6 For he left behind him a defender of his house against his enemies, and one that will requite kindness to his friends.

Sirach 30:7 For the souls of his sons he shall bind up his wounds, and at every cry his bowels shall be troubled.

Wounds. To which he has exposed himself for his child's welfare, (2 Corinthians 12:15.; Raban.) or if he neglect correction, he will have to bewail the wounds which his son's imprudence shall occasion. Syriac, Vatable, Greek, Complutensian, "He who rubs, (Roman edition) cherishes his son," etc. (Calmet) --- The eldest brother must take care of the rest, so as even to expose himself to danger. (Worthington)
Sirach 30:8 A horse not broken becometh stubborn, and a child left to himself will become headstrong.

Horse. A colt full of spirit, when properly broken in, will answer best, so a proper education corrects impetuous tempers. (Plut.[Plutarch] apop. in Them.)
Sirach 30:9 Give thy son his way, and he shall make thee afraid: play with him, and he shall make thee sorrowful.

Sirach 30:10 Laugh not with him, lest thou have sorrow, and at the last thy teeth be set on edge.

Laugh. "Smiling he must be feared." (St. Gregory, Mor. 20:3.)
Sirach 30:11 Give him not liberty in his youth, and wink not at his devices.

Devices. Greek, "sins of ignorance." Youth is incapable of guiding itself, being destitute of experience, and too confident, Proverbs 29:45.
Sirach 30:12 *Bow down his neck while he is young, and beat his sides while he is a child, lest he grow stubborn, and regard thee not, and so be a sorrow of heart to thee.

Ecclesiasticus 7:25.
Sirach 30:13 Instruct thy son, and labour about him, lest his lewd behaviour be an offence to thee.

Thee. "Very few excel their father." (Homer, Odyssey E.) --- This is sometimes to be attributed to the neglect of education. (Calmet) --- Greek subjoins, "on health." (Haydock)
Sirach 30:14 Better is a poor man who is sound, and strong of constitution, than a rich man who is weak, and afflicted with evils.

Evils. Health is better than riches. (Pythagoras, etc.)
Sirach 30:15 Health of the soul in holiness of justice, is better then all gold and silver: and a sound body, than immense revenues.

Justice. This is the first of all advantages. (Calmet) --- Thales pronounced him happy who was healthy and rich, and "whose soul was well tutored." (Laertius) --- Greek, "health and a good constitution are preferable to all gold, and a," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 30:16 There is no riches above the riches of the health of the body: and there is no pleasure above the joy of the heart.

Sirach 30:17 Better is death than a bitter life: and everlasting rest, than continual sickness.

Rest. In the grave. He speaks not of the soul, Job 3:13.
Sirach 30:18 Good things that are hidden in a mouth that is shut, are as messes of meat set about a grave.

Grave. The dead cannot partake of them, (Calmet) so neither can the sick of their great possessions. (Haydock) --- It was customary to place meat on the tombs of the dead. (Calmet) --- The pagans invited them to eat; (St. Epip. Ancor.) but the faithful intended it for the poor, who might pray (Calmet) for the deceased. (Menochius) (Chap. 7:37., and Tobias 4:18.) --- The kings of France were served at table till they were placed in the tomb, and in many monasteries the usual portion is assigned the dead for thirty days, and given to the poor. (Calmet)
Sirach 30:19 *What good shall an offering do to an idol? for it can neither eat, nor smell:

Daniel 14:6.
Sirach 30:20 So is he that is persecuted by the Lord, bearing the reward of his iniquity:

Sirach 30:21 *He seeth with his eyes, and groaneth, as an eunuch embracing a virgin, and sighing.

Ecclesiasticus 20:2.
Sighing. Thus meat is useless to those whom God visits with sickness. See Ecclesiasticus 20:3.
Sirach 30:22 *Give not up thy soul to sadness, and afflict not thyself in thy own counsel.

Proverbs 12:25.; Proverbs 15:13.; Proverbs 17:22.
Sadness. For temporal things, but trusting in Providence, 1 Peter 5:7. Grief for sin is alone of service, 2 Corinthians 7:10. (Calmet) --- Pusillanimity must be avoided. (Worthington)
Sirach 30:23 The joyfulness of the heart, is the life of a man, and a never failing treasure of holiness: and the joy of a man is length of life.

A never. Greek, "the joy," etc., Proverbs 17:22., and 2 Corinthians 9:7.
Sirach 30:24 Have pity on thy own soul, pleasing God, and contain thyself: gather up thy heart in his holiness: and drive away sadness far from thee.

Have. Greek, "love thy soul, and comfort thy heart, and drive," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 30:25 *For sadness hath killed many, and there is no profit in it.

2 Corinthians 7:10.
Many. Bringing on maladies, and driving people into despair, ver. 22. It was thought that the sad could not prophesy, 4 Kings 3:15. (Hermas ii.; Mand. iii.; More Neb. 2:37.) (Calmet)
Sirach 30:26 Envy and anger shorten a man's days, and pensiveness will bring old age before the time.

Envy. Or jealousy. These passions banish joy. Envy is like rust. (Calmet)
Sirach 30:27 A cheerful and good heart is always feasting: for his banquets are prepared with diligence.

Always. Greek, "will mind the meats which it shall eat." (Haydock) --- It will feast and enjoy content. This verse and the following chapters are in a much less natural order in the Greek editions, till Ecclesiasticus 37. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:0 Of the desire of riches, and of moderation in eating and drinking.

Sirach 31:1 Watching for riches consumeth the flesh, and the thought thereof driveth away sleep.

Riches. Literally, "honesty" has this sense. (Haydock) --- The study of virtue and of the Scriptures removes temptations of the flesh. (St. Jerome, ad Rust.) (Worthington)
Sirach 31:2 The thinking beforehand turneth away the understanding, and a grievous sickness maketh the soul sober.

Hand. With too much anxiety. (Calmet) --- Greek, "the solicitude of watching will drive away slumber, and a grievous malady will moderate sleep," (Grabe; Haydock) or "sleep will alleviate a severe illness," as experience evinces. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:3 The rich man hath laboured in gathering riches together, and when he resteth he shall be filled with his goods.

Sirach 31:4 The poor man hath laboured in his low way of life, and in the end he is still poor.

Poor. All have not equal success, Proverbs 10:22, and Psalm 126:1. (Drusius)
Sirach 31:5 He that loveth gold, shall not be justified: and he that followeth after corruption, shall be filled with it.

Justified. He is exposed to various temptations, 1 Timothy 6:9.
Sirach 31:6 *Many have been brought to fall for gold, and the beauty thereof hath been their ruin.

Ecclesiasticus 8:3.
Sirach 31:7 Gold is a stumbling-block to them that sacrifice to it: woe to them that eagerly follow after it, and every fool shall perish by it.

To it. Being a sort of idol, Colossians 3:5. (Calmet) --- Woe. Greek, "and every," etc.
Sirach 31:8 Blessed is the rich man that is found without blemish: and that hath not gone after gold, nor put his trust in money nor in treasures.

Nor, etc. Greek, (9.) who, etc. "Pride is the worm of riches." (St. Augustine) --- "In delights, chastity is endangered; and humility in the midst of riches." (St. Bernard, conv. Cler. xxx.) --- Not to transgress, on such occasions, is the greatest miracle. (Calmet) --- Man has free will, and those are happy, who, by God's grace, do not abuse it. (Worthington)
Sirach 31:9 Who is he, and we will praise him? for he hath done wonderful things in his life.

Sirach 31:10 Who hath been tried thereby, and made perfect, he shall have glory everlasting. He that could have transgressed, and hath not transgressed: and could do evil things, and hath not done them:

Sirach 31:11 Therefore are his goods established in the Lord, and all the church of the saints shall declare his alms.

In, etc. Alexandrian Greek, "and wisdom (Grabe substitutes the Church) shall proclaim his alms." (Haydock) --- God will bless his riches. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:12 Art thou set at a great table? be not the first to open thy mouth upon it.

Be, etc. Greek, "do not open," (Haydock) shew not too much greediness.
Sirach 31:13 Say not: There are many things which are upon it.

Sirach 31:14 Remember that a wicked eye is evil.

Wicked. Jealous or avaricious, as if the person feared lest he should have to prepare the like sumptuous entertainment, Proverbs 23:1. Judas blamed the profusion of Magdalene, John 12:5.
Sirach 31:15 What is created more wicked than an eye? therefore shall it weep over all the face when it shall see.

Face. Or portion set before him, 1 Kings 1:5. (Calmet) --- When. Greek, "wheresoever it, (Haydock) or he (Calmet) shall look, stretch not forth thy hand, and strive not with him in the dish. Judge," etc. Let the envious person (Haydock) or the master be served first. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:16 Stretch not out thy hand first, lest being disgraced with envy thou be put to confusion.

Sirach 31:17 Be not hasty in a feast.

Sirach 31:18 Judge of the disposition of thy neighbour by thyself.

Sirach 31:19 Use as a frugal man the things that are set before thee: lest if thou eatest much, thou be hated.

Use. Greek, "in all act considerately. Eat like a man," etc., (Haydock) not like a beast.
Sirach 31:20 Leave off first, for manners sake: and exceed not, lest thou offend.

First. Yet not too soon, lest the others should seem to be gluttons. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:21 And if thou sittest among many, reach not thy hand out first of all: and be not the first to ask for drink.

Of all. Greek, "of them. How," etc. (Haydock) --- Politeness is grounded on virtue. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:22 How sufficient is a little wine for a man well taught, and in sleeping thou shalt not be uneasy with it, and thou shalt feel no pain.

Wine. Greek specifies nothing, and to eat much is unwholesome. (Haydock)
Sirach 31:23 Watching, and choler, and gripes, are with an intemperate man:

Choler. Or the cholic. The intemperate, infrunito, (Calmet) Greek, "insatiable," cannot sleep. (Haydock)
Sirach 31:24 Sound and wholesome sleep with a moderate man: he shall sleep till morning, and his soul shall be delighted with him.

Sirach 31:25 And if thou hast been forced to eat much, arise, go out, and vomit: and it shall refresh thee, and thou shalt not bring sickness upon thy body.

Vomit. Some have omitted this term as indelicate; but the Scripture does not approve of intemperance, while it advises the preventing of a disorder. A man's stomach may sometimes be innocently overcharged. On such occasions, an emetic was prescribed. The ancients had not the same horror of it as moderns, Proverbs 23:8. (Calmet) --- Cicero, addressing Caesar, says, Cum te vomere post caenam velli dixisses. (Pro. R. Dejot.) --- And thou. Greek, "hear," etc.
Sirach 31:26 Hear me, my son, and despise me not: and in the end thou shalt find my words.

Sirach 31:27 In all thy works be quick, and no infirmity shall come to thee.

Quick. Intemperance and idleness are the great sources of illness.
Sirach 31:28 The lips of many shall bless him that is liberal of his bread, and the testimony of his truth is faithful.

Bread. And other provisions; while the miser is contemned, Proverbs 22:9. (Calmet) --- Bread supports the body, and instruction the soul. If it be bad, it does the reverse. (Worthington)
Sirach 31:29 Against him that is niggardly of his bread, the city will murmur, and the testimony of his niggardliness is true.

Sirach 31:30 Challenge not them that love wine: *for wine hath destroyed very many.

Judith 13:4.
Challenge. Not to fight, or rather (Haydock) to drink, Isaias 5:22. (Calmet)
Sirach 31:31 Fire trieth hard iron: so wine drunk to excess shall rebuke the hearts of the proud.

Rebuke. Or disorder. Greek, "prove," (Haydock) or "lay open." (Calmet) --- Consilium retegis Lydo. (Horace, 3:ode 21.)
Sirach 31:32 Wine taken with sobriety is equal life to men: if thou drink it moderately, thou shalt be sober.

Taken. Greek, "is as good as life," etc. --- Thou shalt. Greek, "what," etc.
Sirach 31:33 What is his life, who is diminished with wine?

With. Greek, "destitute of wine, (35.) and this was created to," etc.
Sirach 31:34 What taketh away life? death.

Sirach 31:35 *Wine was created from the beginning to make men joyful, and not to make them drunk.

Psalm 103:15.; Proverbs 31:4.
And not. Greek, (36.) "sufficient wine taken in season is the," etc.
Sirach 31:36 Wine drunken with moderation is the joy of the soul, and the heart.

Sirach 31:37 Sober drinking is health to soul and body.

Sober. Greek, (39.) "wine," etc. (Haydock) --- Anacharsis said that "the vine bore three clusters; the first of pleasure, the second of drunkenness, the third of discontent." (Laertius i.)
Sirach 31:38 Wine drunken with excess raiseth quarrels, and wrath, and many ruins.

Sirach 31:39 Wine drunken with excess is bitterness of the soul.

Sirach 31:40 The heat of drunkenness is the stumbling-block of the fool, lessening strength, and causing wounds.

Sirach 31:41 Rebuke not thy neighbour in a banquet of wine: and despise him not in his mirth.

Sirach 31:42 Speak not to him words of reproach: and press him not in demanding again.

Reproach. Alexander [the Great] transfixed Clytus for so doing. (Curtius viii.) --- Again. By the pernicious custom of drinking healths, which still prevails in some countries, (Calmet) and occasions people to get drunk. (Drusius) --- Such abuses ought to be discouraged by every one. (Haydock)
Sirach 32:0 Lessons for superiors and inferiors. Advantages of fearing God, and doing nothing without counsel.

Sirach 32:1 Have they made thee ruler? be not lifted up: be among them as one of them.

Ruler. Or king of the feast, alluding to an ancient custom, Esther 1:8. (Calmet) --- Nec regna vini sortiere talis. (Horace, Athen. Dipn.; Plut.[Plutarch?], Symp. 1:q. 14.) --- Humility is most requisite for those in power, and it is most difficult to contemn vain honours, when enjoyed. (St. Gregory, pastor.) (Worthington)
Sirach 32:2 Have care of them, and so sit down, and when thou hast acquitted thyself of all thy charge, take thy place:

Sirach 32:3 That thou mayst rejoice for them, and receive a crown as an ornament of grace, and get the honour of the contribution.

Contribution, towards the feast, (Menochius) or company. This sentence is not in Greek, "rejoice on their account, and for the excellent disposition, mayst receive a corner." (Haydock)
Sirach 32:4 Speak, thou that art elder: for it becometh thee,

Sirach 32:5 To speak the first word with careful knowledge, and hinder not music.

Music. Which usually accompanied the meals of the rich. (Horace, 2:ode 11.) --- "A lyre is handed round, on which each one plays. When Themistocles confessed that he knew not how, he was deemed deficient." indoctior. (Tusc. 1:Quint. i.)
Sirach 32:6 Where there is no hearing, pour not out words, and be not lifted up out of season with thy wisdom.

Words. Some Greek copies have, "where there is a concert, pour," etc. (Calmet) --- And be. Greek, "and utter not wise sayings out of season."
Sirach 32:7 A concert of music in a banquet of wine is as a carbuncle set in gold.

Wine was not used at all meals. (Calmet) --- After they were ended, the pagans sung in honour of Bacchus, or of great men. (Plut.[Plutarch?], Sym.) --- But the Jews directed their hymns to God, Matthew 26:30. (Philo, Contemp.)
Sirach 32:8 As a signet of an emerald in a work of gold: so is the melody of music with pleasant and moderate wine.

Sirach 32:9 Hear in silence, and for thy reverence good grace shall come to thee.

Hear. Greek, (10.) "young man speak if there be wanted of thee; scarcely twice if thou be asked. Sum up thy speech, much in few words. Be knowing and still silent. (11.) In the," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 32:10 Young man, scarcely speak in thy own cause.

Sirach 32:11 If thou be asked twice, let thy answer be short.

Sirach 32:12 In many things, be as if thou wert ignorant, and hear in silence, and withal seeking.

Sirach 32:13 In the company of great men take not upon thee: and when the ancients are present, speak not much.

Thee. Greek implies to be equal. (Calmet)
Sirach 32:14 Before a storm goeth lightning: and before shamefacedness goeth favour: and for thy reverence good grace shall come to thee.

Storm. Literally, "hail." Greek, "thunder." (Haydock) --- It comes forth at the same time as the lightning, but travels slower. (Calmet) --- For. Greek, (15.) "at," etc. (Haydock) --- Young people must leave the table, and take recreation.
Sirach 32:15 And at the time of rising be not slack: but be first to run home to thy house, and there withdraw thyself, and there take thy pastime.

Sirach 32:16 And do what thou hast a mind, but not in sins or proud speech.

Sirach 32:17 And for all these things bless the Lord, that made thee, and that replenisheth thee with all his good things.

Bless. This is taught by the light of reason, (chap. 5:7.) and the omission before or after meals betrays a want of faith and gratitude, particularly in Christians. --- Replenisheth. Greek, "inebriateth thee with his goods." (Haydock)
Sirach 32:18 He that feareth the Lord, will receive his discipline: and they that will seek him early, shall find a blessing.

Sirach 32:19 He that seeketh the law, shall be filled with it: and he that dealeth deceitfully, shall meet with a stumbling-block therein.

Sirach 32:20 They that fear the Lord, shall find just judgment, and shall kindle justice as a light.

Light. They shall advance in virtue and glory, Proverbs 4:18. (Calmet)
Sirach 32:21 A sinful man will flee reproof, and will find an excuse according to his will.

Excuse. Literally, "comparison." "He will bend the law to his desires." Thus heretics interpret Scripture. (Haydock) --- Greek, "he will find condemnation."
Sirach 32:22 A man of counsel will not neglect understanding, a strange and proud man will not dread fear:

Sirach 32:23 Even after he hath done with fear without counsel, he shall be controlled by the things of his own seeking.

Sirach 32:24 My son, do thou nothing without counsel, and thou shalt not repent when thou hast done.

Without counsel; or "by himself," (Calmet) cum eo. --- And. Greek, "do nothing without counsel, and in acting do not repent," (Haydock) but execute what has been prudently devised. (Calmet) --- God directs; yet he would have us to ask advice. (Worthington)
Sirach 32:25 Go not in the way of ruin, and thou shalt not stumble against the stones: trust not thyself to a rugged way, lest thou set a stumbling-block to thy soul.

Rugged way. The end of which is unknown, Luke 14:28. (Calmet) --- Lest. Greek, "and keep a guard over thy children. In every good work confide in thy soul; for," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 32:26 And beware of thy own children, and take heed of them of thy household.

Sirach 32:27 In every work of thine regard thy soul in faith: for this is the keeping of the commandments.

In faith. That is, follow sincerely thy soul in her faith and conscience, (Challoner) when it is well informed. Greek, "in every good work believe thy soul; for," etc. (Calmet) --- Act not in opposition to it. (Worthington) --- Rondet and Grotius would read, "in every work believe in God with all thy soul." --- All that is not of faith is sin, (Romans 14:23.) inasmuch as it is against conscience. (Haydock)
Sirach 32:28 He that believeth God, taketh heed to the commandments: and he that trusteth in him, shall fare never the worse.

Sirach 33:0 The fear of God is the best security. Times and men are in the hands of God. Take care of thyself as long as thou livest, and look to thy servants.

Sirach 33:1 No evils shall happen to him that feareth the Lord, but in temptation God will keep him, and deliver him from evils.

Evils. God will make all turn to the advantage of the elect.
Sirach 33:2 A wise man hateth not the commandments and justices, and he shall not be dashed in pieces as a ship in a storm.

Sirach 33:3 A man of understanding is faithful to the law of God, and the law is faithful to him.

To him. God will fulfill all his promises. (Calmet) --- Greek continues, "as the interrogation (Haydock) of the Urim, (delon. Calmet) prepare what to say, and so thou shalt be heard. Put on instruction, and thus reply." (Haydock) --- Speak not without being prepared.
Sirach 33:4 He that cleareth up a question, shall prepare what to say, and so having prayed he shall be heard, and shall keep discipline, and then he shall answer.

Sirach 33:5 *The heart of a fool is as a wheel of a cart: and his thoughts are like a rolling axle-tree.

Ecclesiasticus 21:17.
Cart. Inconstant and grating. (Calmet) --- The wicked turn from one vice to another, as heretics devise many errors, not having their heart established in grace, Hebrews 13:9. (Worthington)
Sirach 33:6 A friend that is a mocker, is like a stallion horse: he neigheth under every one that sitteth upon him.

Him. And will be unmanageable, (Menochius) when he has any thing to ridicule. (Calmet) --- Qui captat risus. (Horace, 1:Sat. 4.)
Sirach 33:7 Why doth one day excel another, and one light another, and one year another year, when all come of the sun?

Another. God's will alone appoints one to be holy or fine; and another to be stormy, or dedicated to labour. (Calmet) --- And one. Greek, "and all the light of the day throughout the year proceeds from the sun."
Sirach 33:8 By the knowledge of the Lord they were distinguished, the sun being made, and keeping his commandment.

The sun. Greek, "and he distinguished the seasons and holidays (10.) some," etc.
Sirach 33:9 And he ordered the seasons, and holidays of them, and in them they celebrated festivals at an hour.

Sirach 33:10 Some of them God made high and great days, and some of them he put in the number of ordinary days. And all men are from the ground, *and out of the earth, from whence Adam was created.

Genesis 2:7.
Great. Greek, "holy." (Haydock) --- Thus all men are by nature equal. Yet what difference do we not find in their condition? Some live in obscurity, who might have shone upon the throne; and this is God's will. (Calmet)
Sirach 33:11 With much knowledge the Lord hath divided them, and diversified their ways.

Sirach 33:12 Some of them hath he blessed, and exalted: and some of them hath he sanctified, and set near himself: and some of them hath he cursed and brought low, and turned them from their station.

Station. Exterminating the Chanaanites. God disposes of all with sovereign power and justice, Romans 9:29.
Sirach 33:13 *As the potter's clay is in his hand, to fashion and order it.

Romans 9:11.
Sirach 33:14 All his ways are according to his ordering: so man is in the hand of him that made him, and he will render to him according to his judgment.

Ordering. All depend on God. (Calmet) --- "The predestination of the saints is nothing but the foreknowledge and preparation of God's benefits, by which those are most certainly liberated who obtain their freedom. But where are the rest left; except in the mass of perdition, by the just judgment of the Deity? (St. Augustine, Persev. xiv. n. 35, and Corrept. xiii. n. 42.)
Sirach 33:15 Good is set against evil, and life against death: so also is the sinner against a just man. And so look upon all the works of the most High. Two and two, and one against another.

Another. Lights and shades both contribute to form the beauty of a picture. (Haydock) --- Antitheses adorn a discourse, as opposite things do the universe. (St. Augustine, City of God 11:18.) --- God will make the wicked subservient to his glory.
Sirach 33:16 And I awaked last of all, and as one that gathereth after the grape-gatherers.

Of all. Solomon, Ezechias, etc., made various collections of similar maxims. (Calmet) --- The books of the Machabees were alone written after this in the Old Testament. (Menochius) --- Greek places what follows after Ecclesiasticus 30:26. These four verses may be regarded as a sort of preface. (Haydock)
Sirach 33:17 In the blessing of God I also have hoped: and as one that gathereth grapes, have I filled the wine-press.

Sirach 33:18 *See that I have not laboured for myself only, but for all that seek discipline.

Ecclesiasticus 24:47.
Sirach 33:19 Hear me, ye great men, and all ye people, and hearken with your ears, ye rulers of the church.

Sirach 33:20 Give not to son or wife, brother or friend, power over thee while thou livest; and give not thy estate to another: lest thou repent, and thou entreat for the same.

Sirach 33:21 As long as thou livest, and hast breath in thee, let no man change thee.

Change thee. That is, so as to have this power over thee. (Challoner) --- Be inflexible on this head. (Calmet)
Sirach 33:22 For it is better that thy children should ask of thee, than that thou look toward the hands of thy children.

Sirach 33:23 In all thy works keep the pre-eminence.

The pre-eminence. That is, be master in thy own house, and part not with thy authority. (Challoner) --- Let not thy wife or servants rule in thy name. (Menochius)
Sirach 33:24 Let no stain sully thy glory. In the time when thou shalt end the days of thy life, and in the time of thy decease, distribute thy inheritance.

Sirach 33:25 Fodder, and a wand, and a burden, are for an ass: bread, and correction, and work, for a slave.

Fodder. Greek prefixes "on slaves." (Haydock) --- They were bought like horses. Aristotle (oecon. 1:5.) gives the like instructions on their treatment. (Calmet)
Sirach 33:26 He worketh under correction, and seeketh to rest: let his hands be idle, and he seeketh liberty.

Sirach 33:27 The yoke and the thong bend a stiff neck, and continual labours bow a slave.

A stiff. Greek, "the neck, (28.) torture," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 33:28 Torture and fetters are for a malicious slave: send him to work, that he be not idle:

Sirach 33:29 For idleness hath taught much evil.

Sirach 33:30 Set him to work: for so it is fit for him. And if he be not obedient, bring him down with fetters, but be not excessive towards any one: and do no grievous thing without judgment.

Sirach 33:31 *If thou have a faithful servant, let him be to thee as thy own soul: treat him as a brother: because in the blood of thy soul thou hast gotten him.

Ecclesiasticus 7:21.
Faithful, is not expressed in Greek but must be understood. --- Blood. Taking him prisoner at the hazard of thy life. The like misfortune might easily have befallen thee. (Calmet) --- Seneca (ep. 47.) says, "live so with thy inferior, as thou wouldst have thy superior live with thee."
Sirach 33:32 If thou hurt him unjustly, he will run away:

Sirach 33:33 And if he rise up and depart, thou knowest not whom to ask, and in what way to seek him.

Thou. Greek, "on what road wilt thou seek for him?"
Sirach 34:0 The vanity of dreams. The advantage of experience, and of the fear of God.

Sirach 34:1 The hopes of a man that is void of understanding are vain and deceitful: and dreams lift up fools.

The. Greek, "on dreams. The," etc. (Haydock) --- No dependence can be had on the pretended interpretation of dreams, which do not come from God; (Calmet) as some do, Matthew i., and Daniel 2:(Worthington)
Sirach 34:2 The man that giveth heed to lying visions, is like to him that catcheth at a shadow, and followeth after the wind.

Sirach 34:3 The vision of dreams is the resemblance of one thing to another: as when a man's likeness is before the face of a man.

Man. When he turns away from the mirror, it appears no more, James 1:23.
Sirach 34:4 What can be made clean by the unclean? and what truth can come from that which is false?

Unclean. This text has been abused, to prove that the sinner cannot confer grace in the sacraments. (Calmet) --- But Christ does this by his ministry. (St. Augustine, Psalm 10. n. 6.)
Sirach 34:5 Deceitful divinations and lying omens, and the dreams of evil doers, are vanity.

Deceitful. Greek, "divinations, and auguries, and dreams, are vain."
Sirach 34:6 And the heart fancieth as that of a woman in travail: except it be a vision sent forth from the Most High, set not thy heart upon them.

Travail. Such things cannot be explained. Twenty people will all give different interpretations. --- High, as those of Jacob, Joseph, etc., were. Yet it is difficult to make the discrimination. (St. Gregory, dial. 4:48.) --- Homer admits of two sorts of dreams. (Odyssey xix.)
Sirach 34:7 For dreams have deceived many, and they have failed that put their trust in them.

Them. The devil takes advantage of their weakness, and they have recourse to magic, etc. (Calmet)
Sirach 34:8 The word of the law shall be fulfilled without a lie, and wisdom shall be made plain in the mouth of the faithful.

Law, which forbids attention to dreams, Leviticus xix 26., and Isaias 8:20. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- No part of the law shall perish; and some will always explain it truly. (Worthington)
Sirach 34:9 What doth he know, that hath not been tried? A man that hath much experience, shall think of many things: and he that hath learned many things, shall shew forth understanding.

What. Greek, "A man who has travelled, knows much," etc. (Haydock) --- Thus Ulysses became so wise, (Homer) as well as the ancient philosophers, Pythagoras, etc. (St. Jerome, ad Paulin.) --- The knowledge derived from books will not suffice. (Calmet)
Sirach 34:10 He that hath no experience, knoweth little: and he that hath been experienced in many things, multiplieth prudence.

Experienced. Greek, "much abroad, shall abound with subtlety. (11.) I," etc.
Sirach 34:11 He that hath not been tried, what manner of things doth he know? he that hath been surprised, shall abound with subtlety.

Sirach 34:12 I have seen many things by travelling, and many customs of things.

And. Greek, "And I know more than I announce." (Grabe's edition)
Sirach 34:13 Sometimes I have been in danger of death for these things, and I have been delivered by the grace of God.

For. Greek, "On account of these things I have been saved:" (Haydock) by my great experience, which gives weight to my instructions.
Sirach 34:14 The spirit of those that fear God, is sought after, and by his regard shall be blessed.

Is. Greek, "shall live. (15.) For....them. (16.) He," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 34:15 For their hope is on him that saveth them, and the eyes of God are upon them that love him.

Sirach 34:16 He that feareth the Lord shall tremble at nothing, and shall not be afraid: for he is his hope.

Sirach 34:17 The soul of him that feareth the Lord is blessed.

Sirach 34:18 To whom doth he look, and who is his strength?

Sirach 34:19 *The eyes of the Lord are upon them that fear him, he is their powerful protector, and strong stay, a defence from the heat, and a cover from the sun at noon.

Psalm 33:16.
Sirach 34:20 A preservation from stumbling, and a help from falling; he raiseth up the soul, and enlighteneth the eyes, and giving health, and life, and blessing.

From falling, or when a person is fallen.
Sirach 34:21 *The offering of him that sacrificeth of a thing wrongfully gotten, is stained; and the mockeries of the unjust are not acceptable.

Proverbs 21:27.
Mockeries. Some Greek copies have "gifts." Such unjust presents or sacrifices, God will abhor, Isaias 41:8., and Deuteronomy 24:15. (Calmet)
Sirach 34:22 The Lord is only for them that wait upon him in the way of truth and justice.

Lord. Greek, (23.) "most....wicked, nor," etc.
Sirach 34:23 *The Most High approveth not the gifts of the wicked: neither hath he respect to the oblations of the unjust, nor will he be pacified for sins by the multitude of their sacrifices.

Proverbs 15:8.
Sirach 34:24 He that offereth sacrifice of the goods of the poor, is as one that sacrificeth the son in the presence of his father.

Sirach 34:25 The bread of the needy is the life of the poor: he that defraudeth them thereof, is a man of blood.

Sirach 34:26 He that taketh away the bread gotten by sweat, is like him that killeth his neighbour.

Bread. Greek, "a livelihood, killeth his neighbour; and he sheddeth blood, who keepeth back the hire of the workman." (Haydock)
Sirach 34:27 He that sheddeth blood, *and he that defraudeth the labourer of his hire, are brothers.

Deuteronomy 24:14.; Ecclesiasticus 7:22.
Sirach 34:28 When one buildeth up, and another pulleth down: what profit have they but the labour?

Labour? So, if your sacrifices be ill-gotten, they will not be received; and if you relapse, you will be as bad as ever. (Calmet)
Sirach 34:29 When one prayeth, and another curseth: whose voice will God hear?

Sirach 34:30 He that washeth himself after touching the dead, if he toucheth him again, what doth his washing avail?

Dead. Literally, "is baptized by or from the dead;" baptizatur a mortuo. (Haydock) --- St. Cyprian thought this text was peremptory against the baptism of heretics; and the Donatists were of the same opinion. They seem not to have read, if he touch him again, which entirely alters the meaning. St. Augustine admonishes them of this; though he explains it of the pagan rather than of the Jewish purifications, to which it refers, Numbers 19:11. See St. Augustine, contra Cres. 1:24., and 2:25., and contra Petil. 1:9., and St. Cyprian, ep. ad Quint. (Calmet)
Sirach 34:31 *So a man that fasteth for his sins, and doth the same again, what doth his humbling himself profit him? who will hear his prayer?

2 Peter 2:21.
Prayer. A relapse makes the former repentance useless, Matthew 18:33. (Worthington)
Sirach 35:0 What sacrifices are pleasing to God.

Sirach 35:1 He that keepeth the law, multiplieth offerings.

Offerings. He cannot otherwise observe the law. (Haydock) --- Virtue is the most acceptable sacrifice. (Calmet) --- The sacrifices of penance, of justice, and of praise, are to be preferred before all external ones. (Worthington)
Sirach 35:2 *It is a wholesome sacrifice to take heed to the commandments, and to depart from all iniquity.

1 Kings 15:22.
And to. Greek, (4.) "He," etc. (Haydock) --- The peace-offering and that for sin, as well as the oblation of fine flour and of praise, (which is the most perfect of all) are noticed. (Calmet) --- External sacrifice must not be neglected. (Worthington)
Sirach 35:3 And to depart from injustice, is to offer a propitiatory sacrifice for injustices, and a begging of pardon for sins.

Sirach 35:4 He shall return thanks that offereth fine flour: and he that doth mercy offereth sacrifice.

Sacrifice. Greek adds, "of praise." (Haydock) --- This was the true spirit of the law. (Calmet)
Sirach 35:5 *To depart from iniquity, is that which pleaseth the Lord, and to depart from injustice, is an entreaty for sins.

Jeremias 7:3.; Jeremias 26:13.
Sirach 35:6 *Thou shalt not appear empty in the sight of the Lord.

Exodus 23:15.; Exodus 34:20.; Deuteronomy 16:16.
Lord. The poor, who present a virtuous heart, are more acceptable than the rich, who are buried in sin, though the latter may offer the most splendid sacrifices. (Haydock) --- God requires that all should do according to their abilities. If they have nothing, they must fulfill the commandments, and he will be satisfied. Some have inferred from Exodus 23:16., that the poor were rejected. But the meaning of the law is here explained. (Calmet)
Sirach 35:7 For all these things are to be done, because of the commandment of God.

Sirach 35:8 The oblation of the just maketh the altar fat, and is an odour of sweetness in the sight of the Most High.

Sirach 35:9 The sacrifice of the just is acceptable, and the Lord will not forget the memorial thereof.

Sirach 35:10 Give glory to God with a good heart: and diminish not the first-fruits of thy hands.

Heart. Literally, "mind." Greek, "eye," (Haydock) free from avarice, 2 Corinthians 9:7.
Sirach 35:11 *In every gift shew a cheerful countenance, and sanctify thy tithes with joy.

2 Corinthians 9:7.; Tobias 4:9.
Sanctify: "set apart" for the use of the ministers, and of the temple. (Calmet) --- God will reward thee much more. (Worthington)
Sirach 35:12 Give to the Most High according to what he hath given to thee, and with a good eye do according to the ability of thy hands:

Sirach 35:13 For the Lord maketh recompense, and will give thee seven times as much.

Sirach 35:14 *Do not offer wicked gifts, for such he will not receive.

Leviticus 22:21.; Deuteronomy 15:21.
Wicked; defective, Leviticus 22:21., and Malachias 1:7. Greek, "curtailed, or ill-acquired," (Calmet) or "do not bribe" God; (dorokopei. Grotius) as the word is used [in] 2 Machabees. God will not regard our gifts, to let our offences escape punishment, Isaias 42:1. (Calmet)
Sirach 35:15 And look not upon an unjust sacrifice, for the Lord is judge, *and there is not with him respect of person.

Deuteronomy 10:17.; 2 Paralipomenon 19:7.; Job 34:19.; Wisdom 6:8.; Romans 2:11.; Galatians 2:6.; Colossians 3:25.; Acts 10:34.; 1 Peter 1:17.
Sirach 35:16 The Lord will not accept any person against a poor man, and he will hear the prayer of him that is wronged.

Sirach 35:17 He will not despise the prayers of the fatherless: nor the widow, when she poureth out her complaint.

Sirach 35:18 Do not the widow's tears run down the cheek, and her cry against him that causeth them to fall?

Sirach 35:19 For from the cheek they go up even to heaven, and the Lord that heareth will not be delighted with them.

For, etc., is not in Greek. God will protect the defenceless. (Haydock)
Sirach 35:20 He that adoreth God with joy, shall be accepted, and his prayer shall approach even to the clouds.

Sirach 35:21 The prayer of him that humbleth himself shall pierce the clouds: and till it come nigh he will not be comforted: and he will not depart till the Most High behold.

He, or "it." (Calmet) --- Prayer is personified, and presents itself before God.
Sirach 35:22 And the Lord will not be slack, but will judge for the just, and will do judgment: and the Almighty will not have patience with them, that he may crush their back:

Them, the Gentiles, etc., ver. 23. Greek, "will not delay to punish them, till he crush the loins of the unmerciful. And," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 35:23 And he will repay vengeance to the Gentiles, till he have taken away the multitude of the proud, and broken the sceptres of the unjust,

Unjust Egyptians, Syrians, and Greeks, who then oppressed the Jews.
Sirach 35:24 Till he have rendered to men according to their deeds: and according to the works of Adam, and according to his presumption.

Adam, who was not spared. (Calmet) --- Greek, "of men and their desires." (Haydock) --- Our version seems to be taken from the Hebrew. (Du Hamel) --- Adam sometimes denotes any man. (Menochius)
Sirach 35:25 Till he have judged the cause of his people, and he shall delight the just with his mercy.

Sirach 35:26 The mercy of God is beautiful in the time of affliction, as a cloud of rain in the time of drought.

The. Greek, "mercy is beautiful," etc., Psalm 9:10. (Haydock)
Sirach 36:0 A prayer for the church of God. Of a good heart, and a good wife.

Sirach 36:1 Have mercy upon us, O God of all, and behold us, and shew us the light of thy mercies:

Have. He has pointed out the conditions for prayer, and now he gives a model. The Jews were at this time dispersed and subservient to the Egyptians or Syrians, which greatly afflicted them. (Calmet) --- And shew. Greek, (2.) "send."
Sirach 36:2 And send thy fear upon the nations, that have not sought after thee: that they may know that there is no God beside thee, and that they may shew forth thy wonders.

That. Roman Greek omits the rest. But Grabe retains, "all nations which seek not after thee." (Haydock) --- This prayer implies a prediction of the Gentiles' conversion, as the psalms do frequently in like terms, Psalm lxiv. (Worthington)
Sirach 36:3 Lift up thy hand over the strange nations, that they may see thy power.

Sirach 36:4 For as thou hast been sanctified in us in their sight, so thou shalt be magnified among them in our presence,

Sanctified, by chastising us, or by protecting our fathers in the desert.
Sirach 36:5 That they may know thee, as we also have known thee, that there is no God beside thee, O Lord.

Sirach 36:6 Renew thy signs, and work new miracles.

Sirach 36:7 Glorify thy hand, and thy right arm.

Sirach 36:8 Raise up indignation, and pour out wrath.

Sirach 36:9 Take away the adversary, and crush the enemy.

Sirach 36:10 Hasten the time, and remember the end, that they may declare thy wonderful works.

End of our sufferings. The malice of our enemies is at the height.
Sirach 36:11 Let him that escapeth be consumed by the rage of the fire: and let them perish that oppress thy people.

Escapeth the sword, Deuteronomy 32:36. He foretells the event, or wishes that they may be chastised, in order that they may enter into themselves, and adore the true God.
Sirach 36:12 Crush the head of the princes of the enemies, that say: There is no other beside us.

Other lord. The Syrian and Egyptian monarchs sometimes claimed divine honours, Daniel 7:25., and 11:36. (Calmet)
Sirach 36:13 Gather together all the tribes of Jacob: that they may know that there is no God besides thee, and may declare thy great works: and thou shalt inherit them as from the beginning.

That. Greek transposes the rest, and has only, and thou, etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 36:14 Have mercy on thy people, upon whom thy name is invoked: and upon Israel, *whom thou hast raised up to be thy first-born.

Exodus 4:22.
First-born. Exodus 4:22. Wives, children, and servants, were called after their lord or father, Isaias 4:1., and 63:19., and Jeremias 7:10.
Sirach 36:15 Have mercy on Jerusalem, the city which thou hast sanctified, the city of thy rest.

Rest, where the temple is built, 2 Paralipomenon 6:41., and Psalm 131:8.
Sirach 36:16 Fill Sion with thy unspeakable words, and thy people with thy glory.

Words, predictions, as heretofore; or with thy favours.
Sirach 36:17 Give testimony to them that are thy creatures from the beginning, and raise up the prophecies which the former prophets spoke in thy name.

Sirach 36:18 Reward them that patiently wait for thee, that thy prophets may be found faithful: and hear the prayers of thy servants,

Thee. The Jews were more faithful after the captivity. The author seems to beg for the coming of the Messias.
Sirach 36:19 *According to the blessing of Aaron over thy people, and direct us into the way of justice, and let all know that dwell upon the earth, that thou art God, the beholder of all ages.

Numbers 6:24.
People, which thou hast prescribed, Numbers 6:24. (Calmet) --- Direct. Greek, "All shall know." --- Art. Greek, "Lord art the God of ages." (Haydock) --- Here the prayer ends. (Calmet) --- The author continues to instruct. (Haydock)
Sirach 36:20 The belly will devour all meat, yet one is better than another.

Another. Thus act discreetly in the pursuit of knowledge. The good may be distinguished from bad, as easily as venison can from other meats. (Calmet) --- As there is a difference of meats, so must discretion be used in words, in the choice of a wife, etc. (Worthington)
Sirach 36:21 The palate tasteth venison, and the wise heart false speeches.

Sirach 36:22 A perverse heart will cause grief, and a man of experience will resist it.

Resist. Greek, "requite it," as it deserves. (Haydock)
Sirach 36:23 A woman will receive every man: yet one daughter is better than another.

Man. Yet in marriage the temper of the person is to be considered.
Sirach 36:24 The beauty of a woman cheereth the countenance of her husband, and a man desireth nothing more.

More. Love is the most violent of all the passions, and nothing can afford greater content than a virtuous and consoling wife, Ecclesiasticus 26:21. (Calmet)
Sirach 36:25 If she have a tongue that can cure, and likewise mitigate and shew mercy: her husband is not like other men.

Sirach 36:26 He that possesseth a good wife, beginneth a possession: she is a help like to himself, and a pillar of rest.

Good, is not in Greek, but the context shews that it is necessary. (Haydock) --- By concord small possessions increase, as by discord the greatest are lost. (Worthington)
Sirach 36:27 Where there is no hedge, the possession shall be spoiled: and where there is no wife, he mourneth that is in want.

Want. If he be not so at first, servants will soon ruin his affairs.
Sirach 36:28 Who will trust him that hath no rest, and that lodgeth wheresoever the night taketh him, as a robber well appointed, that skippeth from city to city.

Rest, or abode with his wife and family. The Jews in general married, and such as delayed were deemed suspicious characters, Proverbs 27:8. (Calmet)
Sirach 37:0 Of the choice of friends and counsellors.

Sirach 37:1 Every friend will say: I also am his friend: but there is a friend, that is only a friend in name. Is not this a grief even to death?

Death. Greek explains this: (Calmet) I mean (2.) "a companion and friend turned?" etc. (Haydock) --- True friendship is most necessary, and false most dangerous. (Worthington)
Sirach 37:2 But a companion and a friend shall be turned to an enemy.

Sirach 37:3 O wicked presumption, whence camest thou to cover the earth with thy malice, and deceitfulness?

Sirach 37:4 There is a companion who rejoiceth with his friend in his joys, but in the time of trouble he will be against him.

Sirach 37:5 There is a companion who condoleth with his friend for his belly's sake, and he will take up a shield against enemy.

Will. Grotius suspects that not is wanting. Yet, if such a false friend take up arms, it will only be (Calmet) for his own belly. (Menochius) --- Not is ill-omitted in the Complutensian edition in the last part of the following verse.
Sirach 37:6 Forget not thy friend in thy mind, and be not unmindful of him in thy riches.

Sirach 37:7 Consult not with him that layeth a snare for thee, and hide thy counsel from them that envy thee.

Snare. Roman and Alexandrian Greek has at the end (Calmet) of ver. 11., "with him that suspecteth thee." (Haydock)
Sirach 37:8 Every counsellor giveth out counsel, but there is one that is a counsellor for himself.

Sirach 37:9 Beware of a counsellor. And know before what need he hath: for he will devise to his own mind:

Sirach 37:10 Lest he thrust a stake into the ground, and say to thee:

Stake, or stumbling-block. (Calmet)
Sirach 37:11 Thy way is good; and then stand on the other side to see what shall befall thee.

Sirach 37:12 Treat not with a man without religion concerning holiness, nor with an unjust man concerning justice, nor with a woman touching her of whom she is jealous, nor with a coward concerning war, nor with a merchant about traffic, nor with a buyer of selling, nor with an envious man of giving thanks,

Treat not. The negation is omitted in the Vulgate, (Haydock) which speaks ironically in the three following verses. Greek, "consult not with him who suspecteth thee, and hide thy counsel from those who are jealous of thee. With a woman," etc. Consult not, is always understood. Among the Jews, polygamy occasioned much jealousy. --- Envious miser. (Calmet)
Sirach 37:13 Nor with the ungodly of piety, nor with the dishonest of honesty, nor with the field-labourer of every work,

Nor. Greek, "with the merciless concerning kindness, with the sluggard concerning any work. With one hired for the year, concerning coming to an end:" sunteleias. (Haydock) --- He will never finish his work, or think he has sufficient wages.
Sirach 37:14 Nor with him that worketh by the year of the finishing of the year, nor with an idle servant of much business: give no heed to these in any matter of counsel.

Sirach 37:15 But be continually with a holy man, whomsoever thou shalt know to observe the fear of God,

God, and is enlightened, as well as a good friend, ver. 16. (Calmet)
Sirach 37:16 Whose soul is according to thy own soul: and who, when thou shalt stumble in the dark, will be sorry for thee.

Sirach 37:17 And establish within thyself a heart of good counsel: for there is no other thing of more worth to thee than it.

It. Greek, "more faithful than it," the well regulated heart. (Haydock) --- It will give the best counsel, if we be not guided by passion.
Sirach 37:18 The soul of a holy man discovereth sometimes true things, more than seven watchmen that sit in a high piece to watch.

Holy is not in Greek, but must be understood. (Calmet) --- The soul or heart, which is attentive to God, (ver. 17.) will be the best guide. (Haydock) --- All good advice proceeds from the Lord. (St. Augustine, Doct. prol. 7.) --- We must always have recourse to him, though we must use our best endeavours. (Worthington)
Sirach 37:19 But above all these things pray to the Most High, that he may direct thy way in truth.

Sirach 37:20 In all thy works let the true word go before thee, and steady counsel before every action.

In. Greek, "Reason is chief of every work, and counsel must go before every action." (Haydock) --- We must distrust our own lights.
Sirach 37:21 A wicked word shall change the heart: out of which four manner of things arise, good and evil, life and death: and the tongue is continually the ruler of them. There is a man that is subtle and a teacher of many, and yet is unprofitable to his own soul.

Them. The heart gives birth to good or evil, which the tongue utters, Matthew 12:34., and 15:18. --- Soul. What will science, without charity, profit him, if he should even gain the world? (Matthew 16:26., and 1 Corinthians 13:1.)
Sirach 37:22 A skilful man hath taught many, and is sweet to his own soul.

Sirach 37:23 He that speaketh sophistically, is hateful: he shall be destitute of every thing.

Hateful. His sophisms are soon discovered. Greek, "there is one wise, hateful in his discourses: he shall be devoid of all wisdom."
Sirach 37:24 Grace is not given him from the Lord: for he is deprived of all wisdom.

Sirach 37:25 There is a wise man that is wise to his own soul: and the fruit of his understanding is commendable.

Soul. Being replenished with wisdom, he communicates it to others, and obtains an eternal reward. (Calmet)
Sirach 37:26 A wise man instructeth his own people, and the fruits of his understanding are faithful.

Sirach 37:27 A wise man shall be filled with blessings, and they that see shall praise him.

Sirach 37:28 The life of a man is in the number of his days: but the days of Israel are innumerable.

But. Greek, "And." The wisest must soon die: Even the race of Israel shall end: But the virtuous shall be for ever remembered, ver. 29. (Haydock) --- The blessed in heaven live for ever. (Worthington)
Sirach 37:29 A wise man shall inherit honour among his people, and his name shall live forever.

Sirach 37:30 My son, prove thy soul in thy life: and if it be wicked, give it no power:

Life. Attempt nothing above thy strength: or Greek, try what agrees with thy health or soul, (Calmet) and see thou give it not what is hurtful to it." (Haydock) --- St. Paul (1 Corinthians xi.) exhorts every one to prove or try himself and his own conscience. (Worthington)
Sirach 37:31 For all things are not expedient for all, and every kind pleaseth not every soul.

Soul. "We must not dispute about tastes." (Haydock) --- They are as various as men's faces. All conditions do not suit every person.
Sirach 37:32 Be not greedy in any feasting, and pour not out thyself upon any meat:

Sirach 37:33 For in many meats there will be sickness, and greediness will turn to choler.

Choler, or indigestion. "Gluttony has slain more than the sword." (Calmet)
Sirach 37:34 By surfeiting many have perished: but he that is temperate, shall prolong life.

Sirach 38:0 Of physicians and medicines: what is to be done in sickness, and how we are to mourn for the dead. Of the employments of labourers and artificers.

Sirach 38:1 Honour the physician for the need thou hast of him: for the Most High hath created him.

Honour and pay, Proverbs 8:9. (Calmet) --- Greek adds, "with his fees." (Haydock) --- The health of body and soul must be regarded. (Worthington)
Sirach 38:2 For all healing is from God, and he shall receive gifts of the king.

King. Physicians were formerly kept at the king's expense. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 29:1.)
Sirach 38:3 The skill of the physician shall lift up his head, and in the sight of great men he shall be praised.

Sirach 38:4 The Most High hath created medicines out of the earth, and a wise man will not abhor them.

Them, as he will all superstitious remedies. (Calmet) --- "A crowd of physicians killed Caesar," said Adrian, on his death-bed. They often try experiments, and kill with impunity, (Pliny 29:1.) --- Yet we must not condemn the prudent use of medicine. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:5 *Was not bitter water made sweet with wood?

Exodus 15:25.
Wood, of various sorts. (Grotius) --- Many suppose that he alludes to the miracle of Moses, (Exodus 15:25.) who thus was supernaturally informed (Calmet) of the effects of a certain wood. (Tirinus) (Menochius) (St. Augustine, q. lvii. in Ex.)
Sirach 38:6 The virtue of these things is come to the knowledge of men, and the Most High hath given knowledge to men, that he may be honoured in his wonders.

The. Greek, "that his or its virtue might be known by man."
Sirach 38:7 By these he shall cure and shall allay their pains, and of these the apothecary shall make sweet confections, and shall make up ointments of health, and of his works there shall be no end.

These plants. --- And of. Greek, "Of these the maker of ointments shall compose a mixture and his works are not yet finished, when peace (health) from him appears on the face of the earth." (Haydock) --- Diseases flee before him; so powerful are his medicines, that the very smell effects a cure.
Sirach 38:8 For the peace of God is over all the face of the earth.

Sirach 38:9 *My son, in thy sickness neglect not thyself, but pray to the Lord, and he shall heal thee.

Isaias 38:3.
Thee. We must neither trust too much in physicians, (2 Paralipomenon 16:12.) nor despise them, as this would be tempting God.
Sirach 38:10 Turn away from sin, and order thy hands aright, and cleanse thy heart from all offence.

Sin. All diseases are in consequence of original sin, and many are inflicted for actual transgressions, John 9:2., and 1 Corinthians 11:30., and Numbers 12:10. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:11 Give a sweet savour, and a memorial of fine flour, and make a fat offering, and then give place to the physician.

Then. Greek, "as being no longer. Yet give," etc. (Haydock) --- Be converted and offer sacrifice, as if there were no hopes of life. Still do not despair. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:12 For the Lord created him: and let him not depart from thee, for his works are necessary.

Sirach 38:13 For there is a time when thou must fall into their hands:

Thou. Greek, "a sweet smell (success) shall be in their hands." (Haydock)
Sirach 38:14 And they shall beseech the Lord, that he would prosper what they give for ease and remedy, for their conversation.

Sirach 38:15 He that sinneth in the sight of his Maker, shall fall into the hands of the physician.

Physician. This state is very troublesome, and a punishment of sin, ver. 10.
Sirach 38:16 My son, shed tears over the dead, and begin to lament as if thou hadst suffered some great harm, and according to judgment cover his body, and neglect not his burial.

Burial. Thus we must shew our respect for the deceased. The Jews also prayed for them, 2 Machabees 12:42. (Calmet) --- "The care....and pomp of funerals are rather the consolations of survivors than of service to the dead." (St. Augustine, cura 2.)
Sirach 38:17 And for fear of being ill spoken of, weep bitterly for a day, and then comfort thyself in thy sadness.

For. Greek, "and shed burning tears of mourning, (18.) and lament for," etc. (Haydock) --- Sorrow would be unsuitable for the saints, and useless for the damned, who being rebellious to God do not deserve our lamentations. Yet nature dictates, and people expect we should allow something to the first emotions of sorrow, (Calmet) for a day or two; and we may receive the consolatory visits of our friends, during the seven days of mourning, Ecclesiasticus 22:13., and John 11:19. (St. Paulin. ad Pam.) --- To avoid the evil reports of men, we must shew ourselves to be really sorry; yet we must not suffer grief to hurt our health. (Worthington)
Sirach 38:18 And make mourning for him according to his merit, for a day or two, for fear of detraction.

Sirach 38:19 *For of sadness cometh death, and it overwhelmeth the strength, and the sorrow of the heart boweth down the neck.

Proverbs 15:13.; Proverbs 17:22.
And the, etc., is not in Greek. Excessive sorrow brings on sickness, and renders us unfit for any thing.
Sirach 38:20 In withdrawing aside, sorrow remaineth: and the substance of the poor is according to his heart.

Aside, in solitude. --- Substance; or what the poor has to live on, will seem sweet or bitter according as he is affected with joy or grief.
Sirach 38:21 Give not up thy heart to sadness, but drive it from thee: and remember the latter end.

End. This is the chief utility derived from attending funerals.
Sirach 38:22 Forget it not: for there is no returning, and thou shalt do him no good, and shalt hurt thyself.

Sirach 38:23 Remember my judgment: for thine also shall be so: yesterday for me, and to-day for thee.

Thee. A man on his death-bed, or already dead, is introduced speaking. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:24 *When the dead is at rest, let his remembrance rest, and comfort him in the departing of his spirit.

2 Kings 12:21.
Him. Greek, "thyself." He is at rest, we hope; (Haydock) be thou so too. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:25 The wisdom of a scribe cometh by his time of leisure: and he that is less in action, shall receive wisdom.

A scribe; that is, a doctor of the law, or a learned man. (Challoner) --- Sorrow (Haydock) and too much employment, are injurious to learning. (Calmet) --- Sapientiae otia negotia sunt. (St. Bernard, ser. 85. Cant.) --- When pastors have leisure, they would do well to write, in imitation of St. Paul, etc. (Worthington)
Sirach 38:26 With what wisdom shall he be furnished that holdeth the plough, and that glorieth in the goad, that driveth the oxen therewith, and is occupied in their labours, and his whole talk is about the offspring of bulls?

Sirach 38:27 He shall give his mind to turn up furrows, and his care is to give the kine fodder.

Sirach 38:28 So every craftsman and workmaster that laboureth night and day, he who maketh graven seals, and by his continual diligence varieth the figure: he shall give his mind to the resemblance of the picture, and by his watching shall finish the work.

Work: engraving on gold, or silver, or on precious stones.
Sirach 38:29 So doth the smith sitting by the anvil, and considering the iron-work. The vapour of the fire wasteth his flesh, and he fighteth with the heat of the furnace:

Sitting. Such was the ancient custom of smiths, (Calmet) who carried all their implements with them, and laboured with much pain. (Chardin.)
Sirach 38:30 The noise of the hammer is always in his ears, and his eye is upon the pattern of the vessel he maketh.

Sirach 38:31 He setteth his mind to finish his work, and his watching to polish them to perfection.

Sirach 38:32 So doth the potter sitting at his work, turning the wheel about with his feet, who is always carefully set to his work, and maketh all his work by number:

Sirach 38:33 He fashioneth the clay with his arm, and boweth down his strength before his feet.

Sirach 38:34 He shall give his mind to finish the glazing, and his watching to make clean the furnace.

Glazing. The earthen vessel would otherwise spoil all but oil and water. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:35 All these trust to their hands, and every one is wise in his own art.

Sirach 38:36 Without these a city is not built.

Sirach 38:37 And they shall not dwell nor walk about therein, and they shall not go up into the assembly.

Dwell. Greek, "travel," to get a livelihood, (Grotius) or to acquire wisdom, (chap. 34:9., and 39:5.) and walk about like the ancient philosophers. They shall not be chosen magistrates. (Calmet)
Sirach 38:38 Upon the judges' seat they shall not sit, and the ordinance of judgment they shall not understand, neither shall they declare discipline and judgment, and they shall not be found where parables are spoken:

Spoken. They have not leisure to attend the lectures of sages; (Haydock) nor are they ever quoted by them.
Sirach 38:39 But they shall strengthen the state of the world, and their prayer shall be in the work of their craft, applying their soul, and searching in the law of the Most High.

World, giving children to the commonwealth, (Menochius) and employing themselves in useful arts. The Jews would not allow magicians, players, etc., to reside in their country. --- Craft. They pray that they may succeed in their employment, while some also strive to comply with their religious duties. (Calmet) --- Applying. Greek refers this to the following chapter, "As for him who applies his soul and meditates on the law of the Most High, he will," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 39:0 The exercises of the wise man. The Lord is to be glorified for his works.

Sirach 39:1 The wise man will seek out the wisdom of all the ancients, and will be occupied in the prophets.

Ancients. The Essenes (Josephus, Jewish Wars 1:7.) and Therapeuts (Philo, Comtemp.) were most famous for doing so. In general the Jews despise the learning of foreign nations: but some have applied themselves to it, particularly Philo, Josephus, etc., 1 Machabees 1:11., and 2 Machabees 6:11.) --- Prophets. These required the utmost study, before the coming of Christ, 1 Peter 1:11., and Daniel 9:9. (Calmet) --- The virtuous must follow both an active and contemplative life. (Worthington)
Sirach 39:2 He will keep the sayings of renowned men, and will enter withal into the subtilties of parables.

Sayings, or history of Abraham, etc. --- Parables. This was most in vogue, 3 Kings 10. --- But mechanics abstained from this study, Ecclesiasticus 38:38. (Calmet) --- To meditate well, 1. knowledge; 2. virtue; 3. humility; and 4. hope, are requisite. (Worthington)
Sirach 39:3 He will search out the hidden meanings of proverbs, and will be conversant in the secrets of parables.

Sirach 39:4 He shall serve among great men, and: appear before the governor.

Governor of the province or army. The most enlightened were chosen, like Joseph, Daniel 1:4., etc.
Sirach 39:5 He shall pass into strange countries: for he shall try good and evil among men:

Men. Travelling was very requisite, (chap. 34:11.) and history records the actions of the bad as well as of the good, for the instruction of the public.
Sirach 39:6 He will give his heart to resort early to the Lord, that made him, and he will pray in the sight of the Most High.

Pray. Diligence and prayer are the means to acquire wisdom, Ecclesiasticus 4:13.
Sirach 39:7 He will open his mouth in prayer, and will make supplication for his sins.

Sirach 39:8 For if it shall please the great Lord, he will fill him with the spirit of understanding:

Sirach 39:9 And he will pour forth the words of his wisdom as showers, and in his prayer he will confess to the Lord.

Lord, being in a sort of rapture, and enlightened by Him.
Sirach 39:10 And he shall direct his counsel, and his knowledge, and in his secrets shall he meditate.

Sirach 39:11 He shall shew forth the discipline he hath learned, and shall glory in the law of the covenant of the Lord.

Sirach 39:12 Many shall praise his wisdom, and it shall never be forgotten.

Sirach 39:13 The memory of him shall not depart away, and his name shall be in request from generation to generation.

Generation. With what care do we not preserve the Scriptures? etc.
Sirach 39:14 Nations shall declare his wisdom, and the church shall shew forth his praise.

Sirach 39:15 If he continue, he shall leave a name above a thousand: and if he rest, it shall be to his advantage.

Thousand. Children or other men. --- Rest, in death. (Calmet)
Sirach 39:16 I will yet meditate, that I may declare: for I am filled as with a holy transport.

With. Greek, "as the moon in the first quarter," dichomenia. The Vulgate has read Diomenia, "divine transport." The author declares that he was inspired. (Calmet)
Sirach 39:17 By a voice he saith: Hear me, ye divine offspring, and bud forth as the rose planted by the brooks of waters.

By. Greek, "Hear me, ye holy children." --- Offspring. Literally, "fruits." (Haydock) --- He speaks to the children of Israel, the people of God: whom he exhorts to bud forth and flourish with virtue. (Challoner)
Sirach 39:18 Give ye a sweet odour as frankincense.

Sirach 39:19 Send forth flowers, as the lily, and yield a smell, and bring forth leaves in grace, and praise with canticles, and bless the Lord in his works.

Bring. Greek, "praise a canticle."
Sirach 39:20 Magnify his name, and give glory to him with the voice of your lips, and with the canticles of your mouths, and with harps: and in praising him, you shall say in this manner:

Voice. Greek, "songs of your lips, (Haydock) and with ancient lyres," etc. (Calmet)
Sirach 39:21 *All the works of the Lord are exceeding good.

Genesis 1:31.; Mark 7:37.
Sirach 39:22 *At his word the waters stood as a heap: and at the words of his mouth the receptacles of waters:

Genesis 8:3.
Waters. At the world's creation, or at the passage of the Israelites. [Exodus 14:21., and Josue 3:13.] (Calmet)
Sirach 39:23 For at his commandment favour is shewn, and there is no diminishing of his salvation.

Salvation. None can prevent the salvation of God's elect. (Haydock)
Sirach 39:24 The works of all flesh are before him, and there is nothing hid from his eyes.

Sirach 39:25 He seeth from eternity to eternity, and there is nothing wonderful before him.

Wonderful, or new. (Calmet) --- The greatest miracles cost him nothing. (Haydock)
Sirach 39:26 There is no saying: What is this, or what is that? for all things shall be sought in their time.

Time. The veil shall be withdrawn, and Providence will appear. Greek, "all things are made for their proper use."
Sirach 39:27 His blessing hath overflowed like a river:

Sirach 39:28 *And as a flood hath watered the earth; so shall his wrath inherit the nations that have not sought after him:

Genesis 7:21.
That. Greek, "as he changed the waters into saltness," (Haydock) at Sodom, (Calmet) "his ways are plain for the saints: so to sinners they are stumbling-blocks," ver. 30. The Red Sea gave a passage to Israel, and overwhelmed the Egyptians. (Haydock) --- Him. God does all with grandeur. He poured his graces upon Israel, and overwhelmed the giants in the deluge. (Calmet)
Sirach 39:29 *Even as he turned the waters into a dry land, and the earth was made dry: and his ways were made plain for their journey: so to sinners they are stumbling-blocks in his wrath.

Exodus 14:21.
Sirach 39:30 Good things were created for the good from the beginning; so for the wicked, good and evil things.

Good and, is omitted in Greek. Before the fall, all was happiness. Now, the wicked have still some mixture of good, ver. 32. (Bossuet)
Sirach 39:31 *The principal things necessary for the life of men, are: water, fire, and iron, salt, milk, and bread of flour, and honey, and the cluster of the grape, and oil, and clothing.

Ecclesiasticus 29:28.
Water and fire. These are requisite to prepare bread. The Romans refused them to the enemies of the state. --- Cluster. Greek, "blood," as [in] Deuteronomy 32:14. (Calmet) --- God gives the necessaries of life, which the virtuous use well, for their reward; and the wicked ill, to their ruin. (Worthington)
Sirach 39:32 All these things shall be for good to the holy; so to the sinners, and the ungodly, they shall be turned into evil.

Evil. The good or bad use of them decides all, Wisdom 14:11., Romans 8:18., and Titus 1:15.
Sirach 39:33 There are spirits that are created for vengeance, and in their fury they lay on grievous torments:

Spirits. Storms (Psalm 10:7., and 148:8.) good angels, (Genesis 19:11., and Isaias 37:36.) or rather devils: who, though created in holiness, fell, and became executioners of the wicked. (Calmet) --- They abused their free-will, and are eternally punished. (Worthington)
Sirach 39:34 In the time of destruction they shall pour out their force: and they shall appease the wrath of him that made them.

Destruction, and final ruin of the impious, or at the last day. (Calmet) --- Appease. God is pleased with the execution of justice. (Menochius) --- Yet the devils cannot obtain a reconciliation; neither do they act to please God, having their wills obstinately bent against his, though they be forced to obey. (Haydock)
Sirach 39:35 Fire, hail, famine, and death: all these were created for vengeance.

Sirach 39:36 The teeth of beasts, and scorpions, and serpents, and the sword taking vengeance upon the ungodly unto destruction.

Beasts. Wolves, etc., with which the country was infested, Deuteronomy 7:22., and 22:24. --- Sword. War.
Sirach 39:37 In his commandments they shall feast, and they shall be ready upon earth when need is, and when their time is come, they shall not transgress his word.

Feast. Greek, "rejoice," as at a feast, Ezechiel 39:16. --- Word. They will be ready at the first sign. (Calmet) --- All creatures, but the rebel angels and man, obey God. (Haydock)
Sirach 39:38 Therefore, from the beginning I was resolved, and I have meditated and thought on these things, and left them in writing.

Resolved. Literally, "confirmed" in this opinion by a divine light, ver. 16, 21.
Sirach 39:39 *All the works of the Lord are good, and he will furnish every work in due time.

Genesis 1:31.; Mark 7:37.
Time. If we receive not at first, we must have patience.
Sirach 39:40 It is not to be said: This is worse than that: for all shall be well approved in their time.

That. Even sin contributes to manifest the justice and mercy of God; and we are not to judge of his works, but to praise him; as every thing is created for wise purposes, and evil proceeds from our abuse of things. (Calmet)
Sirach 39:41 Now, therefore, with the whole heart and mouth praise ye him, and bless the name of the Lord.

Sirach 40:0 The miseries of the life of man are relieved by the grace of God and his fear.

Sirach 40:1 Great labour is created for all men, and a heavy yoke is upon the children of Adam, from the day of their coming out of their mother's womb, until the day of their burial into the mother of all.

Labour, "anxiety," ascholia. (Menochius) --- All misery (Calmet) is in consequence of original sin. (Worthington) --- The life of man is a trial, Job 7:1., and 14:1. --- Of all. The earth, (Calmet) which covers us, when all other things cast us away. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 2:63.)
Sirach 40:2 Their thoughts and fears of the heart, their imagination of things to come, and the day of their end:

Sirach 40:3 From him that sitteth on a glorious throne, unto him that is humbled in earth and ashes:

Sirach 40:4 From him that weareth purple, and beareth the crown, even to him that is covered with rough linen: wrath, envy, trouble, unquietness, and the fear of death, continual anger and strife,

Purple. Literally, "hyacinth," (Haydock) or violet colour. Purple was more like scarlet.
Sirach 40:5 And in the time of rest upon his bed, the sleep of the night changeth his knowledge.

Knowledge. He is disquieted by restless (Calmet) and frightful dreams, ver. 6. (Haydock)
Sirach 40:6 A little and as nothing is his rest, and afterward in sleep, as in the day of keeping watch.

Sirach 40:7 He is troubled in the vision of his heart, as if he had escaped in the day of battle. In the time of his safety he rose up, and wondereth that there is no fear:

Fear, or no reason for it. (Calmet)
Sirach 40:8 Such things happen to all flesh, from man even to beast, and upon sinners are sevenfold more.

Beast. Their instinct causes them to fear death, to fight, etc.
Sirach 40:9 *Moreover, death and bloodshed, strife and sword, oppressions, famine, and affliction, and scourges:

Ecclesiasticus 39:35-36.
Moreover. Greek, "death," etc., are all destined for the wicked.
Sirach 40:10 All these things are created for the wicked, *and for their sakes came the flood.

Genesis 7:10.
Sirach 40:11 *All things that are of the earth shall return to the earth again, **and all waters shall return to the sea.

Ecclesiasticus 41:13. --- ** Ecclesiastes 1:7.
Sirach 40:12 All bribery and injustice shall be blotted out, and fidelity shall stand for ever.

Out, and severely punished. (Calmet) --- They shall not appear in the book of life.
Sirach 40:13 The riches of the unjust shall be dried up like a river, and shall pass away a noise like a great thunder in rain.

Sirach 40:14 While he openeth his hands, he shall rejoice: but transgressors shall pine away in the end.

Rejoice. The corrupt judge once rejoiced: but now he shall mourn. (Haydock) --- The possessions and grandeur of the unjust shall end in a moment, like a clap of thunder, Psalm 36:36., and Proverbs 10:25. (Calmet)
Sirach 40:15 The offspring of the ungodly shall not bring forth many branches, and make a noise as unclean roots upon the top of a rock.

And make. Greek, "they are unclean," (Haydock) and will produce no fruit.
Sirach 40:16 The weed growing over every water, and at the bank of the river, shall be pulled up before all grass.

Weed. Literally, "verdure." Greek Achei, (Haydock) properly denotes the rush, papyrus, which grows on the banks of the Nile, (Genesis 41:2.; Calmet) and was used for fuel. (Alpin. 1:7.) (Matthew 6:30.) --- Thus the wicked will presently (Calmet) be treated. (Menochius)
Sirach 40:17 Grace is like a paradise in blessings, and mercy remaineth for ever.

Grace. The beneficent will produce fruits, like those of paradise, Genesis 2:8.
Sirach 40:18 The life of a labourer, that is content with what he hath, shall be sweet, and in it thou shalt find a treasure.

That is. Greek, "and of one that." --- In it. Greek, "and more than both is one discovering a treasure," (Haydock) who finds himself rich, without labour or injustice.
Sirach 40:19 Children, and the building of a city, shall establish a name; but a blameless wife shall be counted above them both.

Both. Thus Judith, Zenobia, etc., ennobled their husbands, Proverbs 31:10.
Sirach 40:20 Wine and music rejoice the heart: but the love of wisdom is above them both.

Wisdom. Virtue gives more content to the soul than corporal pleasures do to the body. It brings us near to God. (Calmet)
Sirach 40:21 The flute and the psaltery make a sweet melody, but a pleasant tongue is above them both.

Sirach 40:22 Thy eye desireth favour and beauty, but more than these green sown fields.

Green. "The sight of no colour is more agreeable to the eyes." (Pliny 37:1.) --- The Church is more excellent than the synagogue. (Worthington)
Sirach 40:23 A friend and companion meeting together, in season; but above them both, is a wife with her husband.

Husband. Their union is closer, and they can best assist each other.
Sirach 40:24 Brethren are a help in the time of trouble, but mercy shall deliver more than they.

Sirach 40:25 Gold and silver make the feet stand sure, but wise counsel is above them both.

Counsel. By this the Romans conquered the world, 1 Machabees 8:31., and Proverbs 11:14.
Sirach 40:26 Riches and strength lift up the heart, but above these is the fear of the Lord.

Heart, and make people presumptuous; while piety gives real courage, Psalm 26:1. (Calmet)
Sirach 40:27 There is no want in the fear of the Lord, and it needeth not to seek for help.

Sirach 40:28 The fear of the Lord is like a paradise of blessing, and they have covered it above all glory.

It, or "him." (Haydock) --- The virtuous man is covered with glory.
Sirach 40:29 My son, in thy life-time be not indigent; for it is better to die than to want.

Indigent. Greek, "live not by begging," being too lazy to work, or incurring this punishment for thy sins, Leviticus 26:16., Psalm cviii., and Deuteronomy 15:4. Involuntary poverty is a most severe scourge. (Calmet) --- All are bound to labour for what is needful; (Worthington) some by prayer, others by trade, etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 40:30 The life of him that looketh toward another man's table, is not to be counted a life: for he feedeth his soul with another man's meat.

Meat. Such is the condition of the parasite, (Calmet) and of the beggar. (Haydock)
Sirach 40:31 But a man well instructed and taught, will look to himself.

Sirach 40:32 Begging will be sweet in the mouth of the unwise, but in his belly there shall burn a fire.

Unwise. Some read, "impudent man," with the Greek. --- Fire. He shall feel the inconveniences of poverty; (Haydock) yet will not work, being lost to all shame. (Calmet) --- Plato (Leg. 11.) orders magistrates to "clear the country of such an animal," zoou, (Haydock) and the Lacedemonians suffered no beggars among them.
Sirach 41:0 Of the remembrance of death: of an evil and of a good name: of what things we ought to be ashamed.

Sirach 41:1 O death, how bitter is the remembrance of thee to a man that hath peace in his possessions!

Death is terrible to all, but most to those who live comfortably. (Calmet) --- O vita misero longa, felici brevis. (Seneca)
Sirach 41:2 To a man that is at rest, and whose ways are prosperous in all things, and that is yet able to take meat!

Sirach 41:3 O death, thy sentence is welcome to the man that is in need, and to him whose strength faileth:

Sentence, pronounced on Adam and all his posterity. (Calmet)
Sirach 41:4 Who is in a decrepit age, and that is in care about all things: and to the distrustful that loseth patience!

Sirach 41:5 Fear not the sentence of death. Remember what things have been before thee, and what shall come after thee: this sentence is from the Lord upon all flesh.

Flesh. "It is a great consolation to share the fate of all." (Seneca, Provid. v.)
Sirach 41:6 And what shall come upon thee by the good pleasure of the Most High? whether ten, or a hundred, or a thousand years.

What. Greek, "why wouldst thou refuse to submit to the?" etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 41:7 For among the dead there is no accusing of life.

Life. Thou wilt not be asked how long, but how well thou hast lived. No one will then envy thy long life. (Calmet) --- It will be in vain to plead that the length or shortness of life has occasioned thy sins; for God does all with justice and for the best, if men would use rightly his benefits. (Worthington) --- Thou wilt not repine at having lived too short a time. (Menochius) --- An evil life will be alone condemned, Wisdom 5. (Du Hamel)
Sirach 41:8 The children of sinners become children of abominations, and they that converse near the houses of the ungodly.

Ungodly. They adopt the wicked manners of their parents (Calmet) and companions, and thus become still more criminal. (Haydock) oetas parentum pejor avis tulit Nos nequiores, mox daturos Progeniem vitiosiorem. (Horace, 2:ode 6.) --- This was terribly verified in the three French assemblies, which overturned the Church and state. (The year of our Lord 1793.) See Barruel. (Haydock)
Sirach 41:9 The inheritance of the children of sinners shall perish, and with their posterity shall be a perpetual reproach.

Sirach 41:10 The children will complain of an ungodly father, because for his sake they are a reproach.

Father. He is rather their executioner, (Calmet) and would have been less cruel, if he had murdered them while they were innocent, Wisdom 12:10. (Haydock)
Sirach 41:11 Woe to you, ungodly men, who have forsaken the law of the most high Lord.

Sirach 41:12 And if you be born, you shall be born in malediction: and if you die, in malediction shall be your portion.

Portion. It would have been better for them never to have existed, Matthew 26:24. This [is] the case of heresiarchs. (Calmet)
Sirach 41:13 *All things that are of the earth, shall return into the earth: so the ungodly shall from malediction to destruction.

Ecclesiasticus 40:11.
From. Greek, "go to destruction." (Haydock) --- It is their destination (chap. 40:11.; Calmet) and choice. (Haydock)
Sirach 41:14 The mourning of men is about their body, but the name of the ungodly shall be blotted out.

Body. The death of the body is bewailed in the just, but that of the soul also of wicked people calls for our tears. They will soon perish, Psalm 9:7.
Sirach 41:15 Take care of a good name: for this shall continue with thee more than a thousand treasures, precious and great.

Great. The concern which all have for a good name, is one of the strongest proofs of the souls' immortality, Proverbs 22:11.
Sirach 41:16 A good life hath its number of days: but a good name shall continue for ever.

Sirach 41:17 My children, keep discipline in peace: *for wisdom that is hid, and a treasure that is not seen, what profit is there in them both?

Ecclesiasticus 20:32.
Peace, with docility, (Matthew 11:25.) or in the midst of prosperity, be on your guard, Ecclesiasticus 20:32. (Calmet)
Sirach 41:18 Better is the man that hideth his folly, than the man that hideth his wisdom.

Sirach 41:19 Wherefore, have a shame of these things I am now going to speak of.

Have a shame, etc. That is to say, be ashamed of doing any of these things, which I am now going to mention: for though sometimes shamefacedness is not to be indulged, yet it is often good and necessary; as in the following cases. (Challoner) --- Disciples ought to esteem what their masters teach, though they do not perceive the reasonableness of what they assert. (Worthington)
Sirach 41:20 For it is not good to keep all shamefacedness, and all things do not please all men, in opinion.

Opinion. Grotius corrects the Greek, "It is not laudable to be incredulous in all."
Sirach 41:21 Be ashamed of fornication before father and mother; and of a lie before a governor and a man in power;

Mother. Thy misconduct seems to redound to their dishonour, as if they had not given thee a proper education.
Sirach 41:22 Of an offence before a prince and a judge; of iniquity before a congregation and a people;

People. They will stone thee. Remember the fate of Roboam, 3 Kings xii. (Calmet)
Sirach 41:23 Of injustice before a companion and friend: And in regard to the place where thou dwellest,

Sirach 41:24 Of theft, and of the truth of God, and the covenant; of leaning with thy elbow over meat, and of deceit in giving and taking;

And of. Literally, "out of respect for the," etc. De veritate Dei et testamento. (Haydock) --- The same words occur [in] Ecclesiasticus 42:2.; whence Jansenius thinks they have been transferred hither. Most refer them to what goes before. Blush for lying, which is contrary to the truth of God; and for the other sins which injure his covenant. --- Meat. This posture betrays idleness or pride.
Sirach 41:25 Of silence before them that salute thee; of looking upon a harlot; and of turning away thy face from thy kinsman.

Harlot. The eyes must be chaste, Jeremias 9:21., and Matthew 5:28. --- Kinsman, when he is poor, and refusing to assist him. (Calmet)
Sirach 41:26 Turn not away thy face from thy neighbour; and of taking away a portion, and not restoring.

Turn. Greek, "of taking away a portion and gift," made already to God or men; (27.) "of considering attentively another's wife; of being too busy about his," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 41:27 *Gaze not upon another man's wife, and be not inquisitive after his handmaid, and approach not her bed.

Matthew 5:28.
Sirach 41:28 Be ashamed of upbraiding speeches before friends; and after thou hast given, upbraid not.

Sirach 42:0 Of what things we ought not to be ashamed. Cautions with regard to women. The works and greatness of God.

Sirach 42:1 Repeat not the word which thou hast heard, and disclose not the thing that is secret; so shalt thou be truly without confusion, and shall find favour before all men: be not ashamed of any of these things, *and accept no person to sin thereby.

Leviticus 19:15.; Deuteronomy 1:17.; Deuteronomy 16:19.; Proverbs 24:23.; James 2:1.
Men. Here the Greek concludes the former chapter very properly, (Haydock) as we must be ashamed of doing these things, and not of those which follow. (Calmet) --- "Of repeating [and] of the speech which thou hast heard, and of revealing secret words; (things.; Haydock) and thou shalt be truly bashful, (aischunteros.; Calmet) and find favour with every man." (Grabe's edition) (Haydock) --- Thereby. In such cases we must shew a holy impudence, like Jeremias 1:10, 18.
Sirach 42:2 Of the law of the Most High, and of his covenant, and of judgment to justify the ungodly.

Covenant. We must be ashamed of transgressing these, (chap. 41:24.) but not of complying with them. This is the first duty of man. --- Ungodly. Blush not to oppose such a judgment, (Calmet) though all the judges should be against thee. Follow no collusion of man to do evil. (Haydock) --- Pass sentence without respect of persons, (Deuteronomy 1:16.; Calmet) whether the parties be thy companions, or only travellers, ver. 3. (Haydock)
Sirach 42:3 Of the affair of companions and travellers, and of the gift of the inheritance of friends.

Friends. Be not ashamed to leave something to thy friends, though relations may grumble; or execute thy friend's will exactly. (Calmet)
Sirach 42:4 Of exactness of balance and weights, of getting much or little.

Little. Be scrupulously exact in thy dealings, but not afraid of advancing thy fortune by lawful means.
Sirach 42:5 Of the corruption of buying, and of merchants, and of much correction of children, and to make the side of a wicked slave to bleed.

Buying. This regards magistrates, who must correct such frauds. Greek, "of the money (Calmet) to purchase from merchants." (Haydock) --- We may examine whether the coin be good, and strive to get things as cheap as we can. --- Bleed. Great severity was formerly used, Ecclesiasticus 30:12. (Calmet)
Sirach 42:6 Sure keeping is good over a wicked wife.

Keeping. Literally, "a seal." (Haydock) --- All must be locked up.
Sirach 42:7 Where there are many hands, shut up, and deliver all things in number and weight; and put all in writing that thou givest out or receivest in.

In. Not out of distrust so much, as to keep servants honest. All who have written on economy give the same rules.
Sirach 42:8 Be not ashamed to inform the unwise and foolish, and the aged, that are judged by young men: and thou shalt be well instructed in all things, and well approved in the sight of all men living.

Men. So Daniel discovered the malice of the two ancients, Daniel 13:46. Admonish the aged not to enter into disputes, or strive with the young. (Calmet)
Sirach 42:9 The father waketh for the daughter when no man knoweth, and the care for her taketh away his sleep, when she is young, lest she pass away the flower of her age, and when she is married lest she should be hateful:

Knoweth. Literally, "who is hidden." (Haydock) --- An unmarried woman was styled Halma, or "hidden," Isaias 7:11. (Calmet) --- Pass away. Greek, "abuse." (Haydock) --- Some read adultera, (Sixtus V; Jansenius) instead of adulta, improperly. It was deemed shameful for a parent not to have his daughter married soon, 1 Corinthians 7:36. --- Hateful. Deuteronomy xxiv.
Sirach 42:10 In her virginity, lest she should be corrupted, and be found with child in her father's house; and having a husband, lest she should misbehave herself, or at the least become barren.

Barren. And thus fall into contempt, Deuteronomy 7:14. If she committed adultery she must die; or if she were only suspected, she must drink the waters of jealousy, Numbers 5:17. Husbands would often seek a divorce, on such occasions; which would involve the father in fresh difficulties.
Sirach 42:11 Keep a sure watch over a shameless daughter; lest at any time she make thee become a laughing-stock to thy enemies, and a bye-word in the city, and a reproach among the people, and she make thee ashamed before all the multitude.

Multitude, who will accuse thee of negligence. (Calmet)
Sirach 42:12 Behold not every body's beauty: and tarry not among women.

Body's. Literally, "man's." But females are included in this term. (Haydock) --- It was also necessary to guard the Greeks, and pagans in general, against a criminal affection for boys.
Sirach 42:13 For from garments cometh a moth, and from a woman the iniquity of a man.

Man. Greek, "woman." Malice is natural to her. Beauty becomes her ruin, as well as that of others. (Calmet) --- The Fathers compare women to a loadstone. (St. Basil) --- Men who come near them, are greatly exposed. (Calmet)
Sirach 42:14 For better is the iniquity of a man, than a woman doing a good turn, and a woman bringing shame and reproach.

Better, etc. That is, there is, commonly speaking, less danger to be apprehended to the soul from the churlishness, or injuries we receive from men, than from the flattering favours and familiarity of women. (Challoner) --- Josephus (contra Apion ii.) attributes this sentence to Moses, and prefers the worst man to the best woman, as Euripides does in Clement. (Strom. iv.) (Calmet) --- But this is ridiculous. --- Reproach. This explains what sort of good the woman aforesaid has done; she had fostered the passions of men, and brought them to shame, which all the malevolence of an enemy could not have done. (Haydock) --- The company of women is therefore more dangerous, Ecclesiasticus 9. (Worthington)
Sirach 42:15 I will now remember the works of the Lord, and I will declare the things I have seen. By the words of the Lord are his works.

Remember, or publish. He praises God and the great men of his nation, to the end of the book, (Calmet) or to Ecclesiasticus 50:29. (Haydock) --- By. Literally, "in." (Haydock) --- I have only abridged what the sacred Scriptures relate.
Sirach 42:16 The sun giving light hath looked upon all things, and full of the glory of the Lord is his work.

Work. The world displays God's glory and power, Psalm 18:6.
Sirach 42:17 Hath not the Lord made the saints to declare all his wonderful works, which the Lord Almighty hath firmly settled to be established for his glory?

Saints, in heaven, or rather the Israelites, Psalm 147:20. (Calmet)
Sirach 42:18 He hath searched out the deep, and the heart of men, and considered their crafty devices.

Sirach 42:19 For the Lord knoweth all knowledge, and hath beheld the signs of the world, he declareth the things that are past, and the things that are to come, and revealeth the traces of hidden things.

Signs. Literally, "sign," the order of the stars, etc. (Haydock) --- Yet God does not study these things, to discover what will happen. He is the author of nature. (Calmet) --- From his works we are to form some idea of his greatness, Job xxxviii., etc. (Worthington)
Sirach 42:20 No thought escapeth him, and no word can hide itself from him.

Sirach 42:21 He hath beautified the glorious works of his wisdom: and he is from eternity to eternity, and to him nothing may be added,

Sirach 42:22 Nor can he be diminished, and he hath no need of any counsellor.

Sirach 42:23 O how desirable are all his works, and what we can know is but as a spark!

Sirach 42:24 All these things live and remain for ever, and for every use all things obey him.

Sirach 42:25 All things are double, one against another, and he hath made nothing defective.

Another. By this opposition the world subsists, according to Linus, Epimenides, etc. Hanc Deus et melior litem natura diremit. ([Ovid,] Met. i.) See Ecclesiasticus 33:16.
Sirach 42:26 He hath established the good things of every one. And who shall be filled with beholding his glory?

He. Greek, "one thing establishes the good of another," (Haydock) serving as a counterpoise. (Calmet) --- Black colours cause the white to shine forth. Youth is guided by the experience of old age. (Menochius)
Sirach 43:0 The works of God are exceedingly glorious and wonderful: no man is able sufficiently to praise him.

Sirach 43:1 The firmament on high is his beauty, the beauty of heaven with its glorious shew.

Shew. We cannot behold these things without admiration of God.
Sirach 43:2 The sun, when he appeareth shewing forth at his rising, an admirable instrument, the work of the Most High.

High. The sun is the most excellent of all irrational creatures, affording light (Worthington) and heat for the production of things; (Haydock) whence Aristotle (de Anima ii.) styles it "father of men and of gods." Yet it is inferior to man, being devoid of reason. All creatures manifest God's majesty; the little as well as the great. (Worthington)
Sirach 43:3 At noon he burneth the earth; and who can abide his burning heat? As one keeping a furnace in works of heat:

Sirach 43:4 The sun three times as much, burneth the mountains, breathing out fiery vapours, and shining with his beams, he blindeth the eyes.

Sirach 43:5 Great is the Lord that made him, and at his words he hath hastened his course.

Hastened. Some Greek copies read "slackened," alluding to Josue 10:13.
Sirach 43:6 And the moon in all in her season, is for a declaration of times and a sign of the world.

In all. Complutensian Greek, "to stand guard." Other copies agree with the Vulgate, though embarrassed. --- World. To mark out the seasons, Genesis 1:14., and Psalm 103:19.
Sirach 43:7 From the moon is the sign of the festival-day, a light that decreaseth in her perfection.

Day. The lunar system prevailed only after the captivity. The Passover was celebrated on the 14th of the moon of Nisan.
Sirach 43:8 The month is called after her name, increasing wonderfully in her perfection.

Name. Meni is used for the moon, (Jeremias 65:11.) which resembles the Greek men, "month." This is also derived from mene, "the moon." We know not what Hebrew words were used, Ecclesiasticus 6:23. The two former may both come from manah, "to divide."
Sirach 43:9 Being an instrument of the armies on high, shining gloriously in the firmament of heaven.

Armies. The stars, etc., are compared to a camp or army.
Sirach 43:10 The glory of the stars is the beauty of heaven; the Lord enlighteneth the world on high.

Sirach 43:11 By the words of the holy one they shall stand in judgment, and shall never fail in their watches.

Judgment. The angels are not pure before God; (Job 4:18., and 15:15.) or rather the stars obey his orders, Baruch 3:34., Judges 5:20., and Psalm 118:91. (Calmet)
Sirach 43:12 Look upon the rainbow, and bless him that made it: *it is very beautiful in its brightness.

Genesis 9:13.
Brightness. Mille trahit varios adverso sole colores. (Virgil, Aeneid 5.)
Sirach 43:13 It encompasseth the heaven about with the circle of its glory, the hands of the Most High have displayed it.

Sirach 43:14 By his commandment he maketh the snow to fall apace, and sendeth forth swiftly the lightnings of his judgment.

Judgment, to punish the wicked, Exodus 14:24., and Isaias 37:36. (Calmet)
Sirach 43:15 Through this are the treasures opened, and the clouds fly out like birds.

Birds, sent to give information by letters, as the Egyptians still do. (Bochart 1:2.) (Isaias 60:8.) --- Tempests execute God's judgments, Job 38:22.
Sirach 43:16 By his greatness he hath fixed the clouds, and the hailstones are broken.

Broken, as from huge mountains, Job 38:39. (Calmet)
Sirach 43:17 At his sight shall the mountains be shaken, and at his will the south wind shall blow.

Sirach 43:18 The noise of his thunder shall strike the earth, so doth the northern storm, and the whirlwind:

Strike. Greek, "upbraid, (Drusius) or make the earth fall in labour," odinesen. (Grabe) (Haydock)
Sirach 43:19 And as the birds lighting upon the earth, he scattereth snow, and the falling thereof is as the coming down of locusts.

Lightning. Greek, "flying, he." (Haydock) --- Locusts. "They cover the cornfields with a destructive cloud." (Pliny, [Natural History?] 11:29.)
Sirach 43:20 The eye admireth at the beauty of the whiteness thereof, and the heart is astonished at the shower thereof.

Shower, as if God were about to drown the world. The melting of snow occasions dreadful inundations. (Calmet) --- Its whiteness sometimes deprives people of their sight. (Xenophon, Anab. iv.)
Sirach 43:21 He shall pour frost as salt upon the earth: and when it freezeth, it shall become like the tops of thistles.

Thistles. Greek, "stakes," pointed as it were with steel. (Menochius)
Sirach 43:22 The cold north wind bloweth, and the water is congealed into crystal: upon every gathering together of waters it shall rest, and shall clothe the waters as a breastplate.

Crystal, or ice. (Calmet)
Sirach 43:23 And it shall devour the mountains, and burn the wilderness, and consume all that is green as with fire.

Burn. Cold destroys verdure no less than fire, Genesis 31:40.
Sirach 43:24 A present remedy of all is the speedy coming of a cloud, and a dew that meeteth it, by the heat that cometh, shall overpower it.

Overpower it. Greek, "give joy; (25.) with," etc. (Haydock) --- Warmth and rain restore beauty to the earth, after the horrors of winter.
Sirach 43:25 At his word the wind is still, and with his thought he appeaseth the deep, and the Lord hath planted islands therein.

Still. Literally, "silent," Matthew 8:26. --- Lord. Roman Greek, "Jesus planted it;" which is a mistake for nesous, islands. (Calmet) --- "He planted islands in it." Grabe thus corrects the Alexandrian copy, though it agree with the Roman and Aldine editions. (Haydock)
Sirach 43:26 Let them that sail on the sea, tell the dangers thereof: and when we hear with our ears, we shall admire.

Thereof. Psalm 106:23. "He who has not sailed has seen nothing evil." (Possidip.)
Sirach 43:27 There are great and wonderful works: a variety of beasts, and of all living things, and the monstrous creatures of whales.

Monstrous. Greek, "creation of whales." (Haydock)
Sirach 43:28 Through him is established the end of their journey, and by his word all things are regulated.

Is. Greek, "his angel gives a prosperous journey." --- Regulated. Greek, "blended." (Haydock) --- If God be angry, all will go to the bottom. (Grotius)
Sirach 43:29 We shall say much, and yet shall want words: but the sum of our words is, He is all.

All. Literally, "in all." Every thing obeys God, Ecclesiasticus 42:15., and Ecclesiastes 12:13.
Sirach 43:30 What shall we be able to do to glorify him: for the Almighty himself is above all his works.

Him. So the Greek reads. Vulgate seems to say, "boasting in all, what shall we be able to do?" What is man, fighting against the Lord! (Calmet)
Sirach 43:31 The Lord is terrible, and exceeding great, and his power is admirable.

Sirach 43:32 Glorify the Lord as much as ever you can, for he will yet far exceed, and his magnificence is wonderful.

His. Greek, "exalting the Lord, exert your power; and labour, for you will not come up to him: (35.) who," etc. (Haydock) --- He is above all praise, Psalm 144:3. (Calmet)
Sirach 43:33 Blessing the Lord, exalt him as much as you can: for he is above all praise.

Sirach 43:34 When you exalt him, put forth all your strength, and be not weary: for you can never go far enough.

Sirach 43:35 *Who shall see him, and declare him? and who shall magnify him as he is from the beginning?

Psalm 105:2.
From. Greek, "many hidden things are," etc. (Haydock) --- The angels, and many secrets of nature, have not been mentioned. (Calmet)
Sirach 43:36 There are many things hidden from us that are greater than these: for we have seen but a few of his works.

Sirach 43:37 But the Lord hath made all things, and to the godly he hath given wisdom.

Sirach 44:0 The praises of the holy fathers, in particular of Henoch, Noe, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Sirach 44:1 Let us now praise men of renown, and our fathers in their generation.

Greek prefixes, "A Hymn of the Fathers." The author here imitates the third work of Solomon. (Haydock) --- He had given rules for all virtues; and he now sets before us those who had put them in practice. (Calmet) --- It was the custom to sound forth the praises of these fathers in the temple and synagogues, ver. 15. (Grotius)
Sirach 44:2 The Lord hath wrought great glory through his magnificence, from the beginning.

Glory. Greek adds, "in them." He was the author of all their virtue, (Haydock) and has acquired much glory by their means, (Calmet) among men; though his essential glory can never increase.
Sirach 44:3 Such as have borne rule in their dominions, men of great power, and endued with their wisdom, shewing forth in the prophets the dignity of prophets,

In the. Greek, "futurity by their predictions." Kings, judges, and prophets are praised. (Haydock) --- The virtuous are justly styled kings, Genesis xxiii. (Worthington)
Sirach 44:4 And ruling over the present people, and by the strength of wisdom instructing the people in most holy words.

The present. Greek, "the people by counsels, and by the knowledge of the office of scribes of the people. Wise in speech by their instruction. (5.) Seeking out," etc. (Haydock) --- Prudence and eloquence ought to appear in a ruler.
Sirach 44:5 Such as by their skill sought out musical tunes, and published canticles of the scriptures.

Tunes. The Hebrews, and David in particular, were famous for music. (Calmet)
Sirach 44:6 Rich men in virtue, studying beautifulness: living at peace in their houses.

In. Greek, "established in power, living," etc., (Haydock) like Abraham, Ezechias, etc. (Calmet)
Sirach 44:7 All these have gained glory in their generations, and were praised in their days.

Generations. Literally, "races of their nation." But this is omitted in Greek.
Sirach 44:8 They that were born of them have left a name behind them, that their praises might be related:

Born. Greek, "some of them have left a name," (Haydock) or posterity, Deuteronomy 25:6.
Sirach 44:9 And there are some, of whom there is no memorial: who are perished, as if they had never been: and are born, as if they had never been born, and their children with them.

Them. This may be understood of the wicked Israelites, or of the sons of Abraham by Agar, etc.
Sirach 44:10 But these were men of mercy, whose godly deeds have not failed:

Mercy. Assideans, (1 Paralipomenon 6:41., and 1 Machabees 7:13.) or true Israelites.
Sirach 44:11 Good things continue with their seed,

Sirach 44:12 Their posterity are a holy inheritance, and their seed hath stood in the covenants:

Sirach 44:13 And their children for their sakes remain for ever: their seed and their glory shall not be forsaken.

Sirach 44:14 Their bodies are buried in peace, and their name liveth unto generation and generation.

Peace. The Jews were very solicitous about this, Genesis 35:8. (Calmet)
Sirach 44:15 Let the people shew forth their wisdom, and the church declare their praise.

Sirach 44:16 *Henoch pleased God, and was translated into paradise, that he may give repentance to the nations.

Genesis 5:24.; Hebrews 11:5.
Into. Greek, "a model of penance to past or future generations." (Haydock) --- The Latin fathers suppose that Henoch was translated to heaven, or to the earthly paradise. It is the tradition both of Jews and of Christians that he is still alive, and will come to oppose Antichrist, (Apocalypse 11:3., Genesis 5:22., and Hebrews 11:5.; Calmet) when he will preach penance, (Worthington) chiefly to the Gentiles, while Elias will address himself to the Jews. (Haydock)
Sirach 44:17 *Noe was found perfect, just, and in the time of wrath he was made a reconciliation.

Genesis 6:9.
A. Greek, "an exchange," to save mankind, Genesis 6:8., and 8:21. (Calmet) --- Noe[Noah] was perfect, (Worthington) which does not exclude some human failings. (Haydock)
Sirach 44:18 Therefore was there a remnant left to the earth, when the flood came.

Sirach 44:19 *The covenants of the world were made with him, that all flesh should no more be destroyed with the flood.

Genesis 9:11.; Hebrews 11:7.
Sirach 44:20 *Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations, and there was not found the like to him in glory, who kept the law of the Most High, and was in covenant with him.

Genesis 12:2.; Genesis 15:5.; Genesis 17:4.
Multitude. His name implies as much. (Calmet) --- He was father of all who believed in Christ. (Worthington)
Sirach 44:21 *In his flesh he established the covenant, **and in temptation he was found faithful.

Genesis 17:10.; Galatians 3:6.; Genesis 22:2.
Faithful. He received the sign of circumcision, and was ready to sacrifice Israel. (Calmet)
Sirach 44:22 Therefore, by an oath he gave him glory in his posterity, that he should increase as the dust of the earth,

In his. Greek, "that the nations should be blessed in his posterity." --- Dust. Literally, "a heap." (Haydock) (Genesis 12:2., and 22:17.)
Sirach 44:23 And that he would exalt his seed as the stars, and they should inherit from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth.

Earth. In Arabia, and from the Red Sea to the Euphrates. This was verified in David, Psalm lxxi., and Genesis 13:14.
Sirach 44:24 And he did in like manner with Isaac, for the sake of Abraham, his father.

Sirach 44:25 The Lord gave him the blessing of all nations, and confirmed his covenant upon the head of Jacob.

Jacob. The promises made to Abraham were confirmed to Isaac and Jacob. (Haydock) --- These were also blessed in Abraham. (Worthington)
Sirach 44:26 He acknowledged him in his blessings, and gave him an inheritance, and divided him his portion in twelve tribes.

Tribes. Giving him so many children, who inherited Chanaan.
Sirach 44:27 And he preserved for him men of mercy, that found grace in the eyes of all flesh.

Men. The Israelites, ver. 10. Greek, "the man," Joseph; though the Greek of the Roman edition would refer it to Moses. (Calmet) --- Grabe corrects his copy agreeably to the Vulgate. (Haydock)
Sirach 45:0 The praises of Moses, of Aaron, and of Phinees.

Sirach 45:1 Moses *was beloved of God, and men: whose memory is in benediction.

Exodus 11:3.
Men. Pharao, Jethro, and the whole nation of the Hebrews, whom he governed as a father, being the mildest of men, Numbers 12:23.[3.?] His life was a continued miracle, and he was honoured more than any prophet, (ibid. vi.[Numbers 12:7.?], and Acts vii.; Calmet) seeing God's works more clearly, but not his substance, Exodus xxxiii. (Worthington)
Sirach 45:2 He made him like the saints in glory, and magnified him in the fear of his enemies, and with his words he made prodigies to cease.

Saints, patriarchs or angels, as he saw God face to face. --- Enemies. The Egyptians, Amalecites, and all who rebelled against God. --- Cease. Removing the scourges which he had inflicted. His serpent devoured those of the magicians, who were confounded before him.
Sirach 45:3 *He glorified him in the sight of kings, and gave him commandments in the sight of his people, and shewed him his glory.

Exodus 6:7-8.
Kings. Pharao, Og, etc. --- Glory, when he had passed by, Exodus 33:22.
Sirach 45:4 *He sanctified him in his faith and meekness, and chose him out of all flesh.

Numbers 12:3.; Numbers12:7.; Hebrews 3:2-5.
Meekness, giving him these necessary qualifications to rule a rebellious people, ver. 1.
Sirach 45:5 For he heard him, and his voice, and brought him into a cloud.

Heard. Greek, "made him hear his voice."
Sirach 45:6 And he gave him commandments before his face, and a law of life and instruction, that he might teach Jacob his covenant, and Israel his judgments.

Face, familiarly. --- Life, by observing which, the Hebrews might live. Thus the trees of life and of knowledge were a sort of remedy against death and ignorance, Genesis 2:9. (Calmet)
Sirach 45:7 He exalted Aaron, his brother, and like to himself of the tribe of Levi:

His. Greek, "holy, like to himself his brother of the," etc. (Haydock) (Psalm 105:16.) --- He was the interpreter of Moses, and honoured with the high priesthood. Aaron and his posterity were bound to be faithful to the law, ver. 19. (Calmet) --- Their priesthood was to last till Christ appeared, a priest forever of the order of Melchisedech.
Sirach 45:8 He made an everlasting covenant with him, and gave him the priesthood of the nation, and made him blessed in glory,

Sirach 45:9 And he girded him about with a glorious girdle, and clothed him with a robe of glory, and crowned him with majestic attire.

Robe. Literally, "stole," (Haydock) which was a long robe, used in the East by both sexes. --- Crowned. Greek, "confirmed" him in his dignity. (Calmet)
Sirach 45:10 He put upon him a garment to the feet, and breeches, and an ephod, and he compassed him with many little bells of gold all round about,

To the. Greek, "enclosing his legs, (Haydock; breeches, Calmet) and the robe hanging down to the feet, (podere) and the garment over the shoulders," (Haydock, ephod) which met at the breast, where the rational was fixed. See Exodus xxviii. (Calmet) --- Many. Greek, "spheres, (Haydock; or pomegranates, Exodus 28:23.; Calmet) with many little bells," (Haydock) to admonish the people of his coming.
Sirach 45:11 *That as he went there might be a sound, and a noise made that might be heard in the temple, for a memorial to the children of his people.

Exodus 28:35.
Sirach 45:12 He gave him a holy robe of gold, and blue, and purple, a woven work, of a wise man, endued with judgment and truth:

Man. Beseleel, who made the greatest part. (Calmet) --- Greek, "of an embroiderer, with the rational of judgment, and the signs (manifestation. Calmet) of truth. (Haydock) --- Thus the Septuagint commonly describe the Urim and Thummim, Exodus 28:6. (Calmet)
Sirach 45:13 Of twisted scarlet, the work of an artist, with precious stones cut and set in gold, and graven by the work of a lapidary, for a memorial, according to the number of the tribes of Israel.

Tribes. Greek, "sons." (Haydock) --- Their names were engraven on 12 stones.
Sirach 45:14 And a crown of gold upon his mitre, wherein was engraved Holiness, an ornament of honour: a work of power, and delightful to the eyes for its beauty.

Holiness, or "holy to the Lord," Exodus xxviii. (Calmet) --- Work. Greek, "works very rich." (Haydock) --- This regards all his attire. The high priest only used it in the temple, on grand festivals. (Calmet)
Sirach 45:15 Before him there were none so beautiful, even from the beginning.

Sirach 45:16 No stranger was ever clothed with them, but only his children alone, and his grand-children for ever.

Sirach 45:17 His sacrifices were consumed with fire every day.

His. Complutensian Greek, "their." (Haydock) --- Some of the ordinary priests offered the daily holocausts.
Sirach 45:18 *Moses filled his hands, and anointed him with holy oil.

Leviticus 8:12.
Filled. Consecrated, Leviticus 8:26.
Sirach 45:19 This was made to him for an everlasting testament, and to his seed as the days of heaven, to execute the office of the priesthood, and to have praise, and to glorify his people in his name.

Testament. It prefigured that of Christ, which lasts for ever, Hebrews vii. (Calmet) --- Execute. Greek, "serve him, both by executing the priestly office, and by blessing the people," etc. (Haydock) --- This was one of the high priest's functions, Numbers 6:23. The rest might offer sacrifice and incense, except on the day of expiation, (Leviticus xvi.) and on solemn festivals, though the Scripture is silent on the latter head.
Sirach 45:20 He chose him out of all men living, to offer sacrifice to God, incense, and a good savour, for a memorial to make reconciliation for his people:

Sirach 45:21 And he gave him power in his commandments, in the covenants of his judgments, that he should teach Jacob his testimonies, and give light to Israel in his law.

Law. The most important causes were to be tried before the high priest, who, with his brethren, were the interpreters of the law, Matthew 2:6.
Sirach 45:22 *And strangers stood up against him, and through envy, the men that were with Dathan and Abiron, compassed him about in the wilderness, and the congregation of Core, in their wrath.

Numbers 16:1-3.
Sirach 45:23 The Lord God saw, and it pleased him not, and they were consumed in his wrathful indignation.

Sirach 45:24 He wrought wonders upon them, and consumed them with a flame of fire.

Fire. Thus consuming 250 men, Numbers 16:30.
Sirach 45:25 And he added glory to Aaron, and gave him an inheritance, and divided unto him the first-fruits of the increase of the earth.

Sirach 45:26 He prepared them bread in the first place unto fulness: for the sacrifices also of the Lord they shall eat, which he gave to him, and to his seed.

Eat. The skin of holocausts was alone given to the priests.
Sirach 45:27 But he shall not inherit among the people in the land, and he hath no portion among the people: for he himself is his portion and inheritance.

People. Having only 2,000 cubits round their cities, Numbers xxxv. The priests were thus interested to keep the people to their duty, as their own subsistence depended on the devotion and gifts of the latter. (Calmet) --- They had no distinct territory, like the rest of the tribes. (Worthington)
Sirach 45:28 *Phinees, the son of Eleazar, is the third in glory, by imitating him in the fear of the Lord:

Numbers 25:7.; 1 Machabees 2:26.; 1 Machabees 2:54.
Imitating. Greek, "by shewing a zeal in the fear of the Lord," Numbers 25:11.
Sirach 45:29 And he stood up in the shameful fall of the people: in the goodness and readiness of his soul, he appeased God for Israel.

Sirach 45:30 Therefore he made to him a covenant of peace, to be the prince of the sanctuary, and of his people, that the dignity of priesthood should be to him and to his seed for ever.

Sirach 45:31 And a covenant to David, the king, the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Juda, an inheritance to him and to his seed, that he might give wisdom into our heart to judge his people in justice, that their good things might not be abolished, and he made their glory in their nation everlasting.

That he. Or so he made a covenant with Aaron, that he, etc. (Calmet) --- Greek, "and (Grabe puts according to) the covenant made to David....that the king's son successively should alone inherit, the inheritance of Aaron was for his posterity. May he impart wisdom to your heart," etc. --- He made. Greek, "glory during their age." (Haydock) --- The sacred writer pours forth this prayer for God's ministers, (Calmet) that their good things and glory may never end, as long as the Jewish dispensation should last. He is equally solicitous for the priesthood as for the sceptre of David. In both the families of Aaron and of David children succeeded to their father's dignity, and God had made a covenant for that purpose. (Haydock) --- David assisted the priests, and greatly advanced God's service, 1 Paralipomenon 23. (Worthington) --- His eulogy is given [in] Ecclesiasticus 47.; and he is here only mentioned (Calmet) as a comparison. (Haydock)
Sirach 46:0 The praise of Josue, of Caleb, and of Samuel.

Sirach 46:1 Valiant in war was Jesus, the son of Nave, who was successor of Moses among the prophets, who was great according to his name,

Jesus, the son of Nave. So Josue is named in the Greek Bibles. For Josue and Jesus signify the same thing, viz., a Saviour; (Challoner) and Nave is the Greek pronunciation of Nun; (Haydock) or this is an old fault of transcribers. (Calmet) --- Among. Greek, "in the prophecies." (Haydock) --- He was endued with the prophetic spirit, and was raised up by God as a noble figure of the great prophet, Deuteronomy 18:15. (Calmet) --- He succeeded Moses in the temporal power; the spiritual belonged to the sons of Aaron, Numbers xxvii. (Worthington)
Sirach 46:2 Very great for the saving the elect of God, to overthrow the enemies that rose up against them, that he might get the inheritance for Israel.

Israel. He led the people into Chanaan, and divided it among them.
Sirach 46:3 How great glory did he gain when he lifted up his hands, and stretched out swords against the cities?

Hands. To pray, (Vatable) or fight, (Bossuet) or to give a signal, Josue 8:26. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Stretched. Literally, threw (Haydock) darts, romphoeas.
Sirach 46:4 Who before him hath so resisted? for the Lord himself brought the enemies.

The. Greek, "he conducted the wars of the Lord." (Calmet) --- Other editions agree with us.
Sirach 46:5 *Was not the sun stopped in his anger, and one day made as two?

Josue 10:14.
In. Greek, "by his hand," (Haydock) and order, so that the day-light continued 24 hours.
Sirach 46:6 He called upon the most high Sovereign, when the enemies assaulted him on every side, and the great and holy God heard him by hailstones of exceeding great force.

Sirach 46:7 He made a violent assault against the nation of his enemies, and in the descent he destroyed the adversaries,

Adversaries. The hail destroyed more than the sword, Josue 10:11.
Sirach 46:8 That the nations might know his power, that it is not easy to fight against God. And he followed the mighty one:

Power. Greek, "complete armour for his warfare was before the Lord, since he," etc. They found it was impossible to resist such weapons. (Haydock) --- One. "Follow God," was a maxim of the ancient sages, which they even attributed to Apollo. Josue and Caleb did so in opposition to the rebels, Numbers 14:24. (Calmet) --- The rest all perished, (Worthington) if we except those who were not 20 years old, or who did not join in the murmurs of the seditious. (Haydock)
Sirach 46:9 *And in the days of Moses he did a work of mercy, he and Caleb, the son of Jephone, in standing against the enemy, and withholding the people from sins, and appeasing the wicked murmuring.

Numbers 14:6.
Mercy, and piety, (Calmet) endeavouring to prevent the murmurs of the people, which would draw upon them destruction, as the event shewed. (Haydock)
Sirach 46:10 And they two being appointed, were delivered out of the danger, from among the number of six hundred thousand men on foot, to bring them into their inheritance, into the land that floweth with milk and honey.

Sirach 46:11 And the Lord gave strength also to Caleb, and his strength continued even to his old age, so that he went up to the high places of the land, and his seed obtained it for an inheritance:

Land. Hebron, when he was 85 years old, Josue 14:6. (Haydock)
Sirach 46:12 That all the children of Israel might see, that it is good to obey the holy God.

Sirach 46:13 Then all the judges, every one by name, whose heart was not corrupted: who turned not away from the Lord,

Lord. Abimelec must be excepted, (Calmet) as he was only an usurper. (Haydock) --- The Judges were all saved, though some have been great sinners. (Worthington)
Sirach 46:14 That their memory might be blessed, and their bones spring up out of their place,

Place. At the resurrection, which the Jews firmly believed, Ezechiel 37:3.
Sirach 46:15 And their name continue for ever, the glory of the holy men remaining unto their children.

Sirach 46:16 Samuel, the prophet of the Lord, the beloved of the Lord, his God, established a new government, and anointed princes over his people.

People. Though he disapproved of their resolution, 1 Kings 8:6., and Osee 13:11.
Sirach 46:17 By the law of the Lord he judged the congregation, and the God of Jacob beheld, and by his fidelity he was proved a prophet.

And the. Sixtus V, etc., read, "and he beheld the God," 1 Kings 3:7. (Calmet) --- Vulgate may signify also, "God beheld Jacob," (Greek) with a favourable eye, and enabled Samuel to restore their fallen state, and to recover the ark. (Haydock)
Sirach 46:18 And he was known to be faithful in his words, because he saw the God of light:

Because. Greek has not faithful, or what follows. (Calmet) --- Yet Grabe's copy retains pistos oraseos, "faithful in seeing" into futurity; so that his predictions were always verified, and he acquired the confidence of all, 1 Kings 3:20. Prophets were formerly styled seers: yet they could not behold God, as he inhabits light inaccessible, 1 Timothy 6:16. (Haydock) --- Light. St. James 1:17. seems to allude to this passage. (Menochius)
Sirach 46:19 *And called upon the name of the Lord Almighty, in fighting against the enemies who beset him on every side, when he offered a lamb without blemish.

1 Kings 7.
Without. Greek, "fed with milk," 1 Kings 7:6. The Philistines were discomfited, and continued peaceable during the rest of Samuel's government.
Sirach 46:20 And the Lord thundered from heaven, and with a great noise made his voice to be heard.

Sirach 46:21 And he crushed the princes of the Tyrians, and all the lords of the Philistines:

Tyrians, who were auxiliaries, or in league with the Philistines. (Calmet)
Sirach 46:22 *And before the time of the end of his life in the world, he protested before the Lord, and his anointed; money, or any thing else, *even to a shoe, he had not taken of any man, and no man did accuse him.

1 Kings 12. --- ** Genesis 14:23.
Shoe. So Abraham declared he would not receive the latchet of a shoe from the king of Sodom, Genesis 14:23. --- Him. All confessed his integrity, before he delivered up the sovereign power to Saul, 1 Kings xii.
Sirach 46:23 And after this he slept, *and he made known to the king, and shewed him the end of his life, and he lifted up his voice from the earth in prophecy, to blot out the wickedness of the nation.

1 Kings 28:18.
Nation. Foretelling that Israel should be defeated. Some doubt whether the soul of Samuel appeared; but it seems clear from this passage, (1 Kings 28:18.; Calmet, Diss.) as he could not otherwise be praised for it. (Worthington)
Sirach 47:0 The praise of Nathan, of David, and of Solomon: of his fall and punishment.

Sirach 47:1 Then Nathan, *the prophet, arose in the days of David.

1 Kings 12:1.
Nathan. Many other prophets lived at the same time. But he was most conspicuous, and crowned Solomon. (Calmet) --- Greek, "and after him Nathan arose to prophesy," (Haydock) and keep up the succession.
Sirach 47:2 And as the fat taken away from the flesh, so was David chosen from among the children of Israel.

Flesh. Greek, "peace-offering." The fat was deemed most delicate.
Sirach 47:3 *He played with lions as with lambs: and with bears he did in like manner as with the lambs of the flock, in his youth.

1 Kings 17:31.
Played. Tearing them to pieces with the greatest ease, 1 Kings 17:34. (Calmet)
Sirach 47:4 *Did not he kill the giant, and take away reproach from his people?

1 Kings 17:49.
Sirach 47:5 In lifting up his hand, with the stone in the sling, he beat down the boasting of Goliath:

Sirach 47:6 For he called upon the Lord, the Almighty, and he gave strength in his right hand, to take away the mighty warrior, and to set up the horn of his nation.

Nation. Who were no longer under the control of the Philistines. (Haydock)
Sirach 47:7 *So in ten thousand did he glorify him, and praised him in the blessings of the Lord, in offering to him a crown of glory:

1 Kings 18:7.
Thousand. This was sung in the cities, (1 Kings 18:7.; Calmet) and excited the envy of Saul, who nevertheless could not prevent David's exaltation. (Haydock) --- Did he, or the people who praised the Lord and David. (Calmet)
Sirach 47:8 For he destroyed the enemies on every side, and extirpated the Philistines, the adversaries unto this day: he broke their horn for ever.

Horn. Power and glory. (Haydock) --- For ever, is not in Greek. David defeated the Philistines at the beginning of his reign. (Calmet)
Sirach 47:9 In all his works he gave thanks to the holy One, and to the Most High, with words of glory.

Glory. Contained in the Psalms. (Haydock) --- He was always very grateful. (Calmet) --- His pure and sincere heart pleased God more than his other works. (Worthington)
Sirach 47:10 With his whole heart he praised the Lord, and loved God that made him: and he gave him power against his enemies.

Sirach 47:11 And he set singers before the altar, and by their voices he made sweet melody.

Altar. Of holocausts. Moses had not appointed singing.
Sirach 47:12 And to the festivals he added beauty, and set in order the solemn times, even to the end of his life, that they should praise the holy name of the Lord, and magnify the holiness of God in the morning.

Set. Literally, "adorned the times." --- Of his. Greek, "while they praised his holy name, and sounded forth holiness early." (Haydock) --- David strove to give all perfection to the sacred ceremonies of religion, that the people might be attracted to the tabernacle, (Calmet) and serve the Lord with gladness. (Haydock)
Sirach 47:13 *The Lord took away his sins, and exalted his horn for ever: and he gave him a covenant of the kingdom, and a throne of glory in Israel.

2 Kings 12:13.
Sins. Remitting the punishment, (2 Kings 12:13.; Calmet) and the guilt also, (Haydock) in consequence of his repentance. --- Covenant. Engaging that his posterity should enjoy the throne (2 Kings 7:12.; Calmet) if they continued faithful, Psalm 131:11., and supra [Ecclesiasticus] Ecclesiasticus 45:31.
Sirach 47:14 After him arose up a wise son, and for his sake he cast down all the power of the enemies.

Enemies. The piety of David was thus rewarded. (Haydock) --- It must have been the greatest satisfaction to him, to see so wise a son on the throne, and all in perfect peace, 3 Kings 1:48., and 4:24. (Calmet) --- These blessings were a reward of his virtue. (Worthington)
Sirach 47:15 *Solomon reigned in days of peace, and God, brought all his enemies under him, that he might build a house in his name, and prepare a sanctuary for ever: O how wise wast thou in thy youth!

3 Kings 3:1.
Youth. When other are less informed. This serves to place the apostacy of Solomon in a more striking light. (Calmet) --- The author seems astonished both at the wisdom and at the folly of this prince, (Haydock) and apostrophises him. (Worthington)
Sirach 47:16 *And thou wast filled as a river with wisdom, and thy soul covered the earth.

3 Kings 4:31.
Earth. Or explored all the secrets of nature, retexit, 3 Kings 4:29.
Sirach 47:17 And thou didst multiply riddles in parables: thy name went abroad to the islands far off, and thou wast beloved in thy peace.

Sirach 47:18 The countries wondered at thee for thy canticles, and proverbs, and parables, and interpretations,

Interpretations of riddles. Hence people praised the Lord, 3 Kings 10:24.
Sirach 47:19 And at the name of the Lord God, whose surname is, God of Israel.

Sirach 47:20 *Thou didst gather gold as copper, and didst multiply silver as lead,

3 Kings 10:27.
Copper, (aurichalcum.) Greek, "tin," 2 Paralipomenon 9:13.
Sirach 47:21 And thou didst bow thyself to women: and by thy body thou wast brought under subjection.

Thyself. Literally, "thy thighs." Greek, "sides." Syriac, "strength." --- Subjection. Literally, "thou hadst power over thy body," (Haydock) using it as if it belonged not to God. He was guilty of excess in marrying a thousand wives, and yielding to idolatry, (Calmet) fearing to displease those whom he loved to his own ruin." (St. Augustine, de Gen. ad lit. 11:42.) --- Dreadful infatuation! (Haydock)
Sirach 47:22 Thou hast stained thy glory, and defiled thy seed, so as to bring wrath upon thy children, and to have thy folly kindled,

Defiled. Consecrating some even to Moloch, (Pineda 7:11.) or having children by those whom the law prohibited, Deuteronomy 7:2., and 23:2. (Calmet) --- His sins were punished: yet God's mercy preserved his posterity. (Worthington) (Psalm lxxxviii.)
Sirach 47:23 That thou shouldst make the kingdom to be divided, *and out of Ephraim a rebellious kingdom to rule.

3 Kings 12:16.
Rebellious. Greek literally, "hard." (Haydock) --- Jeroboam was at the head of it, 3 Kings 12:14. (Calmet)
Sirach 47:24 But God will not leave off his mercy, and he will not destroy, nor abolish his own works, neither will he cut up by the roots the offspring of his elect: and he will not utterly take away the seed of him that loveth the Lord.

Lord. David's piety caused the sceptre to be still preserved in his family, (Haydock) though Solomon's conduct deserved to lose it. (Calmet)
Sirach 47:25 Wherefore he gave a remnant to Jacob, and to David, of the same stock.

Of the. Greek, "a root from him," to govern a part, while Jeroboam reigned over the other tribes of Jacob. (Haydock) --- God fulfilled his promises to Jacob and David. (Menochius)
Sirach 47:26 And Solomon had an end with his fathers.

Fathers. Some would hence infer, that Solomon died penitent. (Haydock)
Sirach 47:27 And he left behind him of his seed, the folly of the nation,

Folly. A most imprudent prince, despised by the whole nation. He answered the people roughly, and lost the ten tribes; but idolatry was his greatest folly, and from this he was never reclaimed, 3 Kings 14:22. (Calmet)
Sirach 47:28 Even Roboam, that had little wisdom, who turned away the people through his counsel:

Sirach 47:29 *And Jeroboam, the son of Nabat, who caused Israel to sin, and shewed Ephraim the way of sin, and their sins were multiplied exceedingly.

3 Kings 12:28.
Jeroboam. Though not of his seed, as we only find Roboam mentioned of all the thousand wives of Solomon. He left behind him Jeroboam, notwithstanding his desire to have him slain; and this man brought ruin on the nation. (Haydock) --- Sin. This is the usual title given to this introducer of idolatry. He engaged the ten tribes in the worship of the golden calves, which ruined the state and religion of Israel.
Sirach 47:30 They removed them far away from their land.

Sirach 47:31 And they sought out all iniquities, till vengeance came upon them, and put an end to all their sins.

Vengeance, (defensio) and put, etc., in not in Greek. Theglatphalasar and Salmanasar carried the tribes away into captivity, 1 Paralipomenon 5:26., and 4 Kings xiv., and 17:6. (Calmet) --- Many hereupon opened their eyes, (Menochius) as we may hope. Those who returned with the rest of the Jews relapsed not, at least into idolatry, in such an open manner. (Haydock)
Sirach 48:0 The praise of Elias, of Eliseus, of Ezechias, and of Isaias.

Sirach 48:1 And *Elias, the prophet, stood up, as a fire, and his word burnt like a torch.

3 Kings 17:1.
Torch. He was animated with a burning zeal, (Menochius) like John the Baptist, admonishing kings, etc., John 5:35., and Luke 1:17. (Calmet)
Sirach 48:2 He brought a famine upon them, and they that provoked him in their envy, were reduced to a small number, for they could not endure the commandments of the Lord.

And they. Greek, "and by his zeal he diminished them. By," etc. (Haydock) --- He slew the priests of Baal, and many perished by famine, 4 Kings xviii. (Grotius) (Calmet)
Sirach 48:3 *By the word of the Lord he shut up the heaven, and he brought down fire from heaven thrice.

3 Kings 17:1.; 4 Kings 1:10-12.
Heaven. That it should not rain for three years and a-half, 3 Kings 17:1. --- Thrice. First upon his sacrifice, and twice to destroy fifty soldiers, Ibid.[3 Kings xvii.] 38., and 4 Kings 1:10. (Calmet) (Worthington)
Sirach 48:4 Thus was Elias magnified in his wondrous works. And who can glory like to thee?

Sirach 48:5 *Who raisedst up a dead man from below, from the lot of death, by the word of the Lord God.

3 Kings 17:22.
Man. The son of the widow of Sarepta.
Sirach 48:6 Who broughtest down kings to destruction, and brokest easily their power in pieces, and the glorious from their bed.

Destruction. The prophets are said to perform what they foretell; to indicate the certainty of the event. Elias denounced death to Achab, Jezabel, Ochozias, and the two Jorams, 4 Kings 9:12., and 2 Paralipomenon 21:12., etc. (Calmet) --- Brokest. Greek, "those in honour from," etc., alluding to (Haydock) Ochozias and Joram, 4 Kings 1:16., and 1 Paralipomenon 21:15. (Calmet)
Sirach 48:7 Who hearest judgment in Sina, and in Horeb the judgments of vengeance.

Judgment. Greek, "the reprimand of the Lord," for betraying fear, (3 Kings 19:3, 9, 12.; Haydock) or the reprimand regarded Israel. (Calmet)
Sirach 48:8 Who anointedst kings to penance, and madest prophets successors after thee.

Penance. Greek, "reward," (Haydock) or punish the guilty. Hazael and Jehu were anointed by Eliseus, though by order of Elias. --- Thee. Eliseus was called from the plough, and adhered to his master, who governed the sons of the prophets in large communities.
Sirach 48:9 *Who wast taken up in a whirlwind of fire, in a chariot of fiery horses.

4 Kings 2:11.
Sirach 48:10 Who art registered in the judgments of times to appease the wrath of the Lord, *to reconcile the heart of the father to the son, and to restore the tribes of Jacob.

Malachias 4:6.
Jacob. Protestants reject the authority of this book, partly (Haydock) on account of this (Worthington) ancient tradition. Enoch and Elias will appear in the days of antichrist, to convert many. The Jews will then agree with the Patriarchs, and embrace the religion of Christ. (Calmet) --- Elias came in the person of John the Baptist, at the first coming of our Saviour, but he will come in person before his second appearance. (Haydock) --- The application which Christ makes of the prediction of Malachy (Malachias 4:6.) to John the Baptist, does not exclude this more distant accomplishment. Elias is still alive in some part of the world, as well as Enoch, whom St. Augustine styles "the first-born (primogenitor) of our resurrection." (City of God 15:19.) (4 Kings 2:11.)
Sirach 48:11 Blessed are they that saw thee, and were honoured with thy friendship.

Friendship. Like Eliseus, or the disciples of both. (Calmet) --- Greek, "who slept in love, for we also shall live indeed; (13.) Elias," etc. (Haydock) --- When we shall witness thy return, if we prove faithful, we may expect an immortal name, and not otherwise. (Calmet) --- He speaks in the person of those who shall live at that time. (Haydock)
Sirach 48:12 For we live only in our life, but after death our name shall not be such.

Sirach 48:13 *Elias was indeed covered with the whirlwind, and his spirit was filled up in Eliseus: in his days he feared not the prince, and no man was more powerful than he.

4 Kings 2:12.
Eliseus. Who received his double spirit, with his garment, 4 Kings 2:15. --- Prince. Joram, 4 Kings 3:14., and 6:32.
Sirach 48:14 No word could overcome him, *and after death his body prophesied.

4 Kings 13:21.
Overcome. Or "escape." (Greek; Syriac) He knew what Giezi and the Syrians were doing, at a distance, 4 Kings 5:26., and 6:12. --- Prophesied. Or raised the dead to life, 4 Kings 13:21. (Calmet) --- On his death-bed (ver. 15.) he also foretold the victory of Joas, ibid. 14.[4 Kings 13:14.?] (Vatable, etc.) --- The miracle wrought by his relics (Haydock) shewed that he was a true prophet. (Worthington)
Sirach 48:15 In his life he did great wonders, and in death he wrought miracles.

Sirach 48:16 For all this the people repented not, neither did they depart from their sins, till they were cast out of their land, and were scattered through all the earth.

Sirach 48:17 And there was left but a small people, and a prince in the house of David.

Sirach 48:18 Some of these did that which pleased God: but others committed many sins.

Sirach 48:19 Ezechias fortified his city, and brought in water into the midst thereof, and he digged a rock with iron, and made a well for water.

Thereof. From Gehon, a fountain on the west, 2 Paralipomenon 32:30. (Calmet)
Sirach 48:20 *In his days Sennacherib came up, and sent Rabsaces, and lifted up his hand against them, and he stretched out his hand against Sion, and became proud through his power.

4 Kings 18:13.
Lifted. Greek, "removed from Lachis, and, "etc., 4 Kings xviii., etc.
Sirach 48:21 Then their hearts and hands trembled: and they were in pain as women in travail.

Sirach 48:22 And they called upon the Lord, who is merciful, and spreading their hands, they lifted them up to heaven: and the holy Lord God quickly heard their voice.

Sirach 48:23 He was not mindful of their sins, neither did he deliver them up to their enemies, but he purified them by the hand of Isaias, the holy prophet.

He was. Greek, "and he purified (Haydock; or redeemed, Calmet) them by the hand (ministry) of Isaias. (24.) He," etc. (Haydock) --- Prayer prevailed when troops were insufficient, 4 Kings xix. (Worthington)
Sirach 48:24 *He overthrew the army of the Assyrians, and the angel of the Lord destroyed them.

4 Kings 19:35.; Tobias 1:21.; Isaias 37:36.; 1 Machabees 7:41.; 2 Machabees 8:19.
Sirach 48:25 For Ezechias did that which pleased God, and walked valiantly in the way of David, his father, which Isaias, the great prophet, and faithful in the sight of God, had commanded him.

Sight. Greek, "vision." All his predictions were verified. (Calmet)
Sirach 48:26 *In his days the sun went backward, and he lengthened the king's life.

4 Kings 20:11.; Isaias 38:8.
Life. Fifteen years, Isaias xxxviii., and 4 Kings 40:11. (Haydock)
Sirach 48:27 With a great spirit he saw the things that are to come to pass at last, and comforted the mourners in Sion.

At last. After the captivity, (Isaias 2:2.; Calmet) or in the days of the Messias. (Menochius)
Sirach 48:28 He shewed what should come to pass for ever, and secret things before they came.

Sirach 49:0 The praise of Josias, of Jeremias, Ezechiel, and the twelve prophets. Also of Zorobabel, Jesus, the son of Josedech, Nehemias, Enoch, Joseph, Seth, Sem, and Adam.

Sirach 49:1 The *memory of Josias is like the composition of a sweet smell made by the art of a perfumer:

4 Kings 22:1.
Perfumer. The Scripture reproaches this king alone with no fault. (Calmet)
Sirach 49:2 His remembrance shall be sweet as honey in every mouth, and as music at a banquet of wine.

Sirach 49:3 He was directed by God unto the repentance of the nation, and he took away the abominations of wickedness.

Directed. Greek, "prosperous in converting the people," 4 Kings xxii., and 2 Paralipomenon xxxiv. (Haydock) --- He began when he was only eight years old: but set to work more effectually ten years afterwards. The prophets complain of the disorders which prevailed before that period. (Calmet)
Sirach 49:4 And he directed his heart towards the Lord, and in the days of sinners he strengthened godliness.

Sinners. Or "sins," when iniquity was become fashionable. He consulted no false policy, (Haydock) but boldly exerted himself in God's service, and even invited the Israelites out of his dominions to come and celebrate the passover, 2 Paralipomenon 34:6. (Calmet) --- They belonged, in effect to him, as the twelve tribes were all promised to David's family, and the kingdom of Jeroboam was only a rebellion, Ecclesiasticus 47:23. (Haydock)
Sirach 49:5 Except David, and Ezechias, and Josias, all committed sin.

Sin. The two former effaced their sins by repentance, and never tolerated idolatry, which even Josaphat and Asa did, (3 Kings 22:43., etc.; Calmet) not destroying the high places. Many others yielded not to idol worship. (Worthington)
Sirach 49:6 For the kings of Juda forsook the law of the Most High, and despised the fear of God.

Despised. Greek, "they failed," and lost the crown.
Sirach 49:7 So they gave their kingdom to others, and their glory to a strange nation.

They gave. Achaz called in to his assistance the king of Assyria, who afterwards claimed the kingdom as tributary to him, 4 Kings 18:7, 14. Greek, "He (God, Calmet; Alexandrian copy has They) gave their horn," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 49:8 *They burnt the chosen city of holiness, and made the streets thereof desolate, according to the prediction of Jeremias.

4 Kings 25:9.
Holiness. Jerusalem, which was styled holy, in the sicles of Simon. --- Desolate. No one came to the festivals, Lamentations 1:4.
Sirach 49:9 For they treated him evil, who was consecrated a prophet from his mother's womb, to overthrow, and pluck up, and destroy, and to build again, and renew.

Renew. To foretell the destruction and establishment of kingdoms, Jeremias 1:5, 10.
Sirach 49:10 *It was Ezechiel that saw the glorious vision, which was shewn him upon the chariot of cherubims.

Ezechiel 1:4.
Cherubims. Ezechiel 1:4., and 8:1., and 10:1.
Sirach 49:11 For he made mention of the enemies under the figure of rain, and of doing good to them that shewed right ways.

Rain. Denoting great misery, Ezechiel 13:11., and 38:22. (Calmet) --- And of. Literally, "to do good," (Haydock) or to announce the liberation of the penitent captives, Ezechiel 18:21., and 23:16., etc.
Sirach 49:12 And may the bones of the twelve prophets spring up out of their place: for they strengthened Jacob, and redeemed themselves by strong faith.

Place. Ecclesiasticus 45:15. The Pharisees adorned the tombs of the prophets, Matthew 23:29. Daniel is not mentioned among them, because he lived at court.
Sirach 49:13 *How shall we magnify Zorobabel? for he was as a signet on the right hand:

1 Esdras 3:2.; Aggeus 1:14.; Aggeus 2:3-5, 22-23
Hand. Most precious, Jeremias 22:24., and Canticle of Canticles 8:6.
Sirach 49:14 *In like manner Jesus, the son of Josedec? who in their days built the house, and set up a holy temple to the Lord, prepared for everlasting glory.

Zacharias 3:1.
Josedec. He was a noble figure of Christ, and helped to build the temple, Aggeus 1:2., and 2:3., and Zacharias 3:1., and 6:11.
Sirach 49:15 And let Nehemias be a long time remembered, who raised up for us our walls that were cast down, and set up the gates and the bars, who rebuilt our houses.

Houses. He laboured much for the people's welfare, 2 Esdras v.
Sirach 49:16 No man was born upon earth like Henoch: for he also was taken up from the earth.

Henoch. Before the deluge. (Menochius) --- He stood up for the Lord, amid the most corrupt people, and was translated, Ecclesiasticus 44:16. He and Joseph have many advantages over the rest. (Calmet)
Sirach 49:17 *Nor as Joseph, who was a man born prince of his brethren, the support of his family, the ruler of his brethren, the stay of the people:

Genesis 41:40.; Genesis 42:3.; Genesis 45:5.; Genesis 50:20.
Joseph. He has not been named, but designated, Ecclesiasticus 44:27. (Calmet) --- Who. Greek, the "ruler," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 49:18 And his bones were visited, and after death they prophesied.

They prophesied. That is, by their being carried out of Egypt, they verified the prophetic prediction of Joseph, Genesis L. (Challoner) (Carriers.) --- This sentence is omitted in Greek. (Haydock) --- See Ecclesiasticus 48:14. --- Joseph had intimated that the Israelites should leave Egypt. (Worthington)
Sirach 49:19 *Seth, and Sem, obtained glory among men: and above every soul Adam in the beginning.

Genesis 4:25.
Men. The former was the father of the faithful, before the deluge; the latter after. (Calmet) --- Beginning. Greek, "in the creation" was appointed to rule. (Haydock) --- He alone among men was innocent, coming from the hands of God, and he might glory that he had no other father. (Calmet) --- Eve enjoyed the like privileges. (Haydock)
Sirach 50:0 The praises of Simon, the high priest. The conclusion.

Sirach 50:1 Simon, *the high priest, the son of Onias, who in his life propped up the house, and in his days fortified the temple.

1 Machabees 12:6.; 2 Machabees 3:4.
Simon I was "styled the just, on account of his piety towards God, and his good-will to his countrymen." (Josephus, [Jewish Antiquities] 12:2.) Many apply what follows to him. (Eusebius; Salien; Menochius, etc.) --- But Simon II is more probably meant, who opposed the entrance of Philopator into the sanctuary, after he had offered sacrifice for him, in the pompous manner here described. (Bossuet) (iii. Machabees) (Calmet) --- Temple. Which began to want repairs. (Menochius) --- Simon II reigned twenty years. (Calmet) (Josephus, [Jewish Antiquities?] 12:4.) (Haydock) --- The first lived in the time of Ptolemy I of Egypt, when this book was written; and dies before it was translated, under Ptolemy III, about three hundred years before Christ. (Worthington)
Sirach 50:2 By him also the height of the temple was founded, the double building, and the high walls of the temple.

Walls. Greek analemma, "the repairs (or elevated building, Mello. 2 Paralipomenon 22:5.) round the temple," including the court of the Gentiles, which had not been finished, Ezechiel 40:5. It was necessary to build at the edge of the mountain, (Calmet) and the wall was three hundred cubits from the bottom. This was more than double the height of the temple, as it was only one hundred and twenty cubits high. (Menochius)
Sirach 50:3 In his days the wells of water flowed out, and they were filled as the sea above measure.

Out. Of the reservoirs. But he repaired them. (Haydock)
Sirach 50:4 He took care of his nation, and delivered it from destruction.

Destruction. When it was in the most imminent danger from Philopater. (3 Machabees) (Bossuet) (Calmet)
Sirach 50:5 He prevailed to enlarge the city, and obtained glory in his conversation with the people: and enlarged the entrance of the house, and the court.

Enlarge. Greek, "fortify." --- Conversation. Greek, "when in the midst of the people, coming out of the house of the veil. (6.) He," etc. (Haydock) --- Leaving the most holy place, he was surrounded by crowds of sacred ministers, (ver. 14.) or rather on the day of expiation, he came into the court of the people, to purify them. (Calmet)
Sirach 50:6 He shone in his days as the morning star in the midst of a cloud, and as the moon at the full.

Cloud. He was a far superior to the other priests in majestic appearance and attire, as Lucifer is to other stars, etc., ver. 11. (Calmet)
Sirach 50:7 And as the sun when it shineth, so did he shine in the temple of God.

So did. Greek, "on the temple of the Most High," with dazzling effulgence. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 6:6.)
Sirach 50:8 And as the rainbow giving light in the bright clouds, and as the flower of roses in the days of the spring, and as the lilies that are on the brink of the water, and as the sweet smelling frankincense in the time of summer.

Sirach 50:9 As a bright fire, and frankincense burning in the fire.

Sirach 50:10 As a massy vessel of gold, adorned with every precious stone.

Sirach 50:11 As an olive-tree budding forth, and a cypress-tree rearing itself on high, when he put on the robe of glory, and was clothed with the perfection of power.

Forth. Greek adds, "fruits." --- Rearing. Greek, "elevated to the clouds." (Haydock) --- Robe. Stole, or violet tunic. (Calmet) --- Power. That is, with all his vestments, denoting his dignity and authority, (Challoner) and extremely rich, as virtus often implies, Ecclesiasticus 44:3. (Calmet) --- Greek has, "boasting."
Sirach 50:12 When he went up to the holy altar, he honoured the vesture of holiness.

Vesture. Greek, "enclosure of holiness," peribolen. (Haydock) --- His splendid attire of gold and jewels, cast a dazzling light all around. (Calmet) --- He was pleased to offer the peace-offering for the king of Egypt, (Bossuet) to honour him, though another priest might have done it. (Haydock)
Sirach 50:13 And when he took the portions out of the hands of the priests, he himself stood by the altar. And about him was the ring of his brethren: and as the cedar planted in Mount Libanus,

Sirach 50:14 And as branches of palm-trees, they stood round about him, and all the sons of Aaron, in their glory.

Palm. A forest of young ones shoots up from its roots; (Job 29:18.) so the high priest shone among the other children of Aaron. (Calmet)
Sirach 50:15 And the oblation of the Lord was in their hands, before all the congregation of Israel: and finishing his service, on the altar, to honour the offering of the Most High King,

King. Greek, "Almighty" King, pantokratopros. (Haydock) --- He presented an unblemished victim, with all due solemnity, Leviticus 3:1.
Sirach 50:16 He stretched forth his hand to make a libation, and offered of the blood of the grape.

Grape. Pouring wine upon the fire, Exodus 29:40. (Calmet)
Sirach 50:17 He poured out at the foot of the altar a divine odour to the Most High Prince.

Prince. Greek, "universal king." (Haydock) --- The whole sacrifice was pleasing to him.
Sirach 50:18 Then the sons of Aaron shouted, they sounded with beaten trumpets, and made a great noise, to be heard for a remembrance before God.

God. Greek, "the Highest." He had required these sacrifices, as memorials of his covenant, and sovereign dominion, Leviticus 23:34.
Sirach 50:19 Then all the people together made haste, and fell down to the earth upon their faces, to adore the Lord, their God, and to pray to the Almighty God, the Most High.

Sirach 50:20 And the singers lifted up their voices, and in the great house the sound of sweet melody was increased.

House. Greek (Complutensian) and Grabe, "sound, sweet melody was made."
Sirach 50:21 And the people in prayer besought the Lord, the Most High, until the worship of the Lord was perfected, and they had finished their office.

Office, leitourgian autou, "his service." (Haydock) --- The people prayed for king Ptolemy, to whom they were subject; though the high priest possessed almost sovereign power. The Egyptian monarch was present, (Calmet) and at the end of the sacrifice expressed his resolution to go into the inmost recesses of the temple, from which the people endeavoured to dissuade him. Finding their efforts to be in vain, "they all (addressing themselves to God) said with one accord." (3 Machabees) Grabe substitutes, "wherefore the high priest, Simon, kneeling down before the temple, and stretching forth his hand with solemnity, made this prayer."
Sirach 50:22 Then coming down, he lifted up his hands over all the congregation of the children of Israel, to give glory to God with his lips, and to glory in his name:

Sirach 50:23 And he repeated his prayer, willing to shew the power of God.

Prayer. Greek, "adoration, that they might receive a blessing from the Most High." (Haydock) --- Power. In keeping Philopator out of the temple. God granted his request, (Calmet. litaneios) "and scourged him who was so insolent and bold...throwing him like a reed, unable to move, and speechless on the pavement," 2 Machabees 2:26. After Philopator's guards had removed him, the high priest congratulated the people, (ver. 26.) expressing his abhorrence of their enemies in general, though he only mentions three neighbouring nations which had shewn a particular enmity to the Jews, when a contrary behaviour might have been expected, ver. 28. (Haydock)
Sirach 50:24 And now pray ye to the God of all, who hath done great things in all the earth, who hath increased our days from our mother's womb, and hath done with us according to his mercy:

Now. At the sight of these wonders, the author exhorts the people to be grateful, and full of hope. (Calmet)
Sirach 50:25 May he grant us joyfulness of heart, and that there be peace in our days in Israel for ever:

Sirach 50:26 That Israel may believe that the mercy of God is with us, to deliver us in his days.

His, Simon's, (Menochius) or God's days. When he may judge it convenient. (Haydock)
Sirach 50:27 There are two nations which my soul abhorreth: and the third is no nation, which I hate:

Abhorreth. Viz., with a holy indignation as enemies of God and persecutors of his people. Such were then the Edomites, who abode in Mount Seir, the Philistines, and the Samaritans, who dwelt in Sichem, and had their schismatical temple in that neighbourhood. (Challoner) --- This was the source of continual dissensions. (Josephus, [Jewish Antiquities?] 11:8., and 12:2.) (John 4:20.) --- The Jews and Samaritans are still at variance. The former, in the days of Esdras, pronounced a curse against the latter, forbidding any of them to become converts to their religion, (Grotius) which, if true, shews a very blameable malice. See Deuteronomy 27:4. (Haydock) --- Which, etc., is omitted in Greek. These three nations had evinced the greatest hatred towards the Jews, and thus deserved to be accounted objects of horror, though if the author harboured any ill-will, his conduct is not praised, (Calmet) but only recorded. (Haydock) --- The Samaritans consisted of Assyrians, Jews, etc., and therefore are styled no nation; and they were foolish in mixing idolatry with the true worship. (Worthington)
Sirach 50:28 They that sit on Mount Seir, and the Philistines, and the foolish people that dwell in Sichem.

Seir. Genesis 14:6. All the Greek copies read corruptly "of Samaria." --- Foolish. Thus Christ said, you adore what you know not, John 4:22. (Calmet) See 4 Kings 17:29. (Worthington)
Sirach 50:29 Jesus, the son of Sirach, of Jerusalem, hath written in this book the doctrine of wisdom and instruction, who renewed wisdom from his heart.

Jesus. He declares his name, and concludes with wishing peace to the observers of these maxims. Grotius thinks that this was inserted by the grandson, (Calmet) who translated the work into Greek. (Haydock) --- But there is no reason for this supposition. Solomon puts his name at the beginning and at the end of Ecclesiastes, and he frequently commends his own instructions, as this author does, Ecclesiasticus 33:17,. and 39:16., and 51:19. (Calmet)
Sirach 50:30 Blessed is he that is conversant in these good things: and he that layeth them up in his heart shall be wise always.

Sirach 50:31 For if he do them, he shall be strong to do all things: because the light of God guideth his steps.

Steps. He...shall have the light of life, John 8:12. (Menochius) --- Some Greek copies add, "and to the pious he has given wisdom. Blessed be the Lord for ever. So be it. So be it." (Haydock)
Sirach 51:0 A prayer of praise and thanksgiving.

Sirach 51:1 A prayer of Jesus, the son of Sirach. I will give glory to thee, O Lord, O King, and I will praise thee, O God, my Saviour.

Sirach. This prayer may be in imitation of the book of Wisdom. (Haydock) --- Grotius assigns it to the grandson, without reason; as the author continues to speak of his travels, etc. He seems to have lived under Onias III and under Seleucus and Antiochus Epiphanes, of Syria, to whom he was probably accused, and hence took occasion to retire into Egypt, where Ptolemy Epiphanes was king. (Calmet) --- Others think (Haydock) that he was accused before Ptolemy Lagus, when he took Jerusalem. (Menochius) --- We know too little of his life to decide any thing. (Calmet) See Ecclesiasticus 50:1. (Haydock) --- Saviour. When we are not able to make a return, we must shew greater marks of gratitude, and particularly to God, for the favours which we have not deserved. (Worthington)
Sirach 51:2 I will give glory to thy name: for thou hast been a helper and protector to me.

Sirach 51:3 And hast preserved my body from destruction, from the snare of an unjust tongue, and from the lips of them that forge lies, and in the sight of them that stood by, thou hast been my helper.

By. To accuse me, Zacharias 3:1. (Calmet)
Sirach 51:4 And thou hast delivered me according to the multitude of the mercy of thy name, from them that did roar, prepared to devour.

Sirach 51:5 Out of the hands of them that sought my life, and from the gates of afflictions, which compassed me about:

Gates. Greek, "many." (Haydock) --- He exaggerates the danger to which he was exposed, as he was not miraculously delivered from the flames, etc., (Calmet) though this might be the case. At least he thanks God for preserving him (Haydock) from the various torments which were then in use.
Sirach 51:6 From the oppression of the flame which surrounded me, and in the midst of the fire I was not burnt.

In. Greek, "from the midst of a fire which I did not enkindle," or deserve by any crime.
Sirach 51:7 From the depth of the belly of hell, and from an unclean tongue, and from lying words, from an unjust king, and from a slanderous tongue:

Hell. The grave. I was preserved like Jonas. (Calmet) --- Unjust. Greek, "the accusation was made to the king, by an unjust tongue. My soul approached unto death, and my life," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 51:8 My soul shall praise the Lord even to death:

Sirach 51:9 And my life was drawing near to hell beneath.

Sirach 51:10 They compassed me on every side, and there was no one that would help me. I looked for the succour of men, and there was none.

Sirach 51:11 I remembered thy mercy, O Lord, and thy works, which are from the beginning of the world.

World. Shewn to Noe[Noah], Joseph, etc. (Calmet) --- Nations. Greek, "enemies," ver. 12.
Sirach 51:12 How thou deliverest them that wait for thee, O Lord, and savest them out of the hands of the nations.

Sirach 51:13 Thou hast exalted my dwelling-place upon the earth, and I have prayed for death to pass away.

Thou. Greek, "I raised my supplicating voice from the earth, and I," etc. (Haydock)
Sirach 51:14 I called upon the Lord, the Father of my Lord, that he would not leave me in the day of my trouble, and in the time of the proud, without help.

The Father. Grotius asserts boldly, that it should be, "my Father," and that some Christian has changed this. But his authority may be rejected, when he brings no proof; and Bossuet has solidly refuted him. The passage clearly proves the belief of the second person, and seems to allude to Psalm 109:1. (Drusius; Vatable, etc.) (Calmet)
Sirach 51:15 I will praise thy name continually, and will praise it with thanksgiving, and my prayer was heard.

Sirach 51:16 And thou hast saved me from destruction, and hast delivered me from the evil time.

Sirach 51:17 Therefore, I will give thanks, and praise thee, and bless the name of the Lord.

Sirach 51:18 When I was yet young, before I wandered about, I sought for wisdom openly in my prayer.

When. He now gives some account of himself, and exhorts all to seek for wisdom. (Haydock) --- He was advanced in years, when he fell into the aforesaid danger, after his travels, Ecclesiasticus 34:9. (Calmet) --- Wisdom is most easily acquired, while a person is innocent, Ecclesiastes xii. (Worthington)
Sirach 51:19 I prayed for her before the temple, and unto the very end I will seek after her, and she flourished as a grape soon ripe.

After her. Being convinced that prayer is requisite for the preservation and improvement of such a treasure. See 3 Kings 3:8. (Calmet) --- And. Greek, "from the flower as of a ripening grape. My heart," etc.
Sirach 51:20 My heart delighted in her, my foot walked in the right way, from my youth up I sought after her.

Sirach 51:21 I bowed down my ear a little, and received her.

Sirach 51:22 I found much wisdom in myself, and I profited much therein.

Wisdom. Greek, "instruction for myself." (Haydock)
Sirach 51:23 To him that giveth me wisdom, will I give glory.

Sirach 51:24 For I have determined to follow her: I have had a zeal for good, and shall not be confounded.

Sirach 51:25 My soul hath wrestled for her, and in doing it I have been confirmed.

Wrestled. Against pleasure, idleness, etc. This shews how arduous a task it is to attain wisdom. (Calmet) --- Confirmed. Greek, "in earnest."
Sirach 51:26 I stretched forth my hands on high, and I bewailed my ignorance of her.

Sirach 51:27 I directed my soul to her, and in knowledge I found her.

Knowledge. Greek (Alexandrian), "time of harvest." Grabe substitutes, "in purification," (Haydock) or the practice of virtue, Wisdom 1:4.
Sirach 51:28 I possessed my heart with her from the beginning: therefore I shall not be forsaken.

Heart. Or understanding, as the Hebrew place this in the heart, 3 Kings 3:9.
Sirach 51:29 My entrails were troubled in seeking her: therefore shall I possess a good possession.

Her. I did it, with all solicitude, Canticle of Canticles 5:4., and Jeremias 4:19. (Calmet)
Sirach 51:30 The Lord hath given me a tongue for my reward: and with it I will praise him.

Tongue. Eloquence, (Menochius) which I will exert in praising him.
Sirach 51:31 Draw near to me, ye unlearned, and gather yourselves together into the house of discipline.

Gather. Greek, "dwell in the," etc. (Haydock) --- He addresses those who are walking in the broad road.
Sirach 51:32 Why are ye slow? and what do you say of these things? your souls are exceedingly thirsty.

Sirach 51:33 I have opened my mouth, and have spoken: buy her for yourselves without silver,

Silver. Only good-will is necessary, which all may have, Isaias 55:1., Romans 10:6., and Wisdom 6:13.
Sirach 51:34 And submit your neck to the yoke, and let your soul receive discipline: for she is near at hand to be found.

Sirach 51:35 Behold with your eyes how I have laboured a little, and have found much rest to myself.

Sirach 51:36 Receive ye discipline as a great sum of money, and possess abundance of gold by her.

Gold. The wise man has more opportunities of enriching himself than others; but he despises unnecessary wealth. (Calmet) --- We must labour for wisdom more than for riches, and we shall be rewarded hereafter. (Worthington)
Sirach 51:37 Let your soul rejoice in his mercy, and you shall not be confounded in his praise.

Sirach 51:38 Work your work before the time, and he will give you your reward in his time.

The time. It is never too soon to be wise. In doing good let us not fail, (Galatians 6:9.) in order to obtain that food, which remains for ever, Isaias 6:7. Fear God, and keep his commandments, for this is all man, Ecclesiastes 12:13. (Calmet) --- This is the sum of the sapiential works, and of all the Scriptures: To depart from evil is understanding, Job 28:28. (Haydock)