1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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I Chronicles 1:1 Adam, *Seth, Enos,

Genesis 2:7.; Genesis 4:25.; Genesis 5:6, 9.
Seth. Protestants, "Sheth, Enosh, Kenan:" but in Genesis they agree with us, which shews that the translator of the two different books is different, and that there is a want of uniformity in the plan adopted by king James 1:(Haydock) --- The posterity of Cain is neglected, as it all perished in the deluge. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 1:2 Cainan, Malaleel, Jared,

I Chronicles 1:3 Henoc, Mathusale, Lamech,

I Chronicles 1:4 Noe, Sem, Cham, and Japheth.

Noe begot Sem, Cham, and Japheth. (Haydock) See Genesis 10. The author passes lightly over some of the descendants of the two latter, as he had David's genealogy principally in view.
I Chronicles 1:5 The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, Thubal, Mosoch, Thiras.

I Chronicles 1:6 And the sons of Gomer: Ascenez, and Riphath, and Thogorma.

Riphath. Hebrew begins with D. (Calmet) --- But the Protestants correct it (Haydock) according to the book of Genesis and the Septuagint. The two letters are very much alike.
I Chronicles 1:7 And the sons of Javan: Elisa and Tharsis, Cethim and Dodanim.

Dodanim. Hebrew has R, conformably to the Samaritan copy of Genesis, and the Septuagint translate the Rhodians. Yet Dodanim seems more accurate, (Calmet) and is retained by the Protestants. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 1:8 The sons of Cham: Chus, and Mesraim, and Phut, and Chanaan.

I Chronicles 1:9 And the sons of Chus: Saba, and Hevila, Sabatha, and Regma, and Sabathaca. And the sons of Regma: Saba, and Dadan.

I Chronicles 1:10 Now Chus begot *Nemrod: he began to be mighty upon earth.

Genesis 10:8.
Earth, first establishing the monarchy of Babylon, and building the castle. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 1:11 But Mesraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Laabim, and Nephtuim,

I Chronicles 1:12 Phetrusim also, and Casluim: from whom came the Philistines and Caphtorim.

Philistines, a colony from Crete.
I Chronicles 1:13 And Chanaan beget Sidon, his first-born; and the Hethite,

I Chronicles 1:14 And the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite,

I Chronicles 1:15 And the Hevite, and the Aracite, and the Sinite;

I Chronicles 1:16 And the Aradian, and the Samarite, and the Hamathite.

I Chronicles 1:17 The sons of Sem: *Elam, and Assur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Hus, and Hul, and Gether, and Mosoch.

Genesis 10:22.; Genesis 11:10.
Hus and Hul were the immediate sons of Aram, as well as....Mosoch, or Mes; (Genesis 10:23.; Calmet) so that there seems to be here some transposition. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 1:18 And Arphaxad beget Sale, and Sale beget Heber.

Sale. The Roman Septuagint omits ver. 11 to 17, and ver. 18 to 24, having only, (17) "The sons of Sem, Ailam and Assur; (24) and Arphaxad, Sala." (Haydock) --- But the other copies here insert Cainan, as the father of Sale. See Genesis 10:24. (Calmet) --- It is a matter of great doubt whether he ought not to be inserted, Luke 3:(Haydock)
I Chronicles 1:19 And to Heber were born two sons: the name of the one was Phaleg, because in his days the earth was divided; and the name of his brother was Jectan.

I Chronicles 1:20 And Jectan beget Elmodad, and Saleph, and Asarmoth, and Jare,

I Chronicles 1:21 And Adoram, and Huzal, and Decla,

I Chronicles 1:22 And Hebal, and Abimael, and Saba,

I Chronicles 1:23 And Ophir, and Hevila, and Jobab. All these are the sons of Jectan.

I Chronicles 1:24 Sem, Arphaxad, Sale,

Sem begot Arphaxad. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 1:25 Heber, Phaleg, Ragau,

I Chronicles 1:26 Serug, Nachor, Thare,

I Chronicles 1:27 Abram, *this is Abraham.

Genesis 11:26.
I Chronicles 1:28 And the sons of Abraham, Isaac and Ismahel.

I Chronicles 1:29 And these are the generations of them. The first-born of *Ismahel, Nabaioth; then Cedar, and Adbeel, and Mabsam,

Genesis 25:13.
I Chronicles 1:30 And Masma, and Duma, Massa, Hadad, and Thema,

I Chronicles 1:31 Jetur, Naphis, Cedma: these are the sons of Ismahel.

I Chronicles 1:32 And the sons of Cetura, Abraham's concubine, whom she bore: Zamran, Jecsan, Madan, Madian, Jesboc, and Sue. And the sons of Jecsan, Saba, and Dadan. And the sons of Dadan: Assurim, and Latussim, and Laomim.

Concubine. She was his lawful wife, but of an inferior degree, and such were called concubines. (Challoner) --- She has the title of wife, Genesis 25:1. --- And the sons of Dadan, etc., seems to be copied from Genesis, as the addition is not found in many Latin manuscripts, no more than in the Hebrew or Septuagint. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 1:33 And the sons *of Madian: Epha, and Epher, and Henoch, and Abida, and Eldaa. All these are the sons of Cetura.

Genesis 25:4.
I Chronicles 1:34 *And Abraham beget Isaac: and his sons were Esau and Israel.

Genesis 25:19.
I Chronicles 1:35 The sons of *Esau: Eliphaz, Rahuel, Jehus, Ihelom, and Core.

Genesis 36:10.
I Chronicles 1:36 The sons of Eliphaz: Theman, Omar, Sephi, Gathan, Cenez, and by Thamna, Amalec.

And by. This serves to explain the difficulty; as Thamna would otherwise seem to be a daughter of Eliphaz, though we know she was his concubine, Genesis 36:12. (Haydock) --- The Hebrew, Roman Septuagint, Syriac, and Latin, suppose that Thamna was the brother of Amalec; but the Alexandrian Septuagint has, "Now Thamna, the concubine of Eliphaz, bore Amalec." Arabic, "And Thamna, who was the concubine of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, bore him Amalec," which seems to be the true reading. (Kennicott) --- Hebrew, "And Timna and Amalek," (Protestants; Haydock) which confounds the sense. (Mariana) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 1:37 The sons of Rahuel: Nahath, Zara, Samma, Meza.

I Chronicles 1:38 The sons of Seir: Lotan, Sobal, Sebeon, Ana, Dison, Eser, Disan.

Seir, not Esau, but the Horrite, (Genesis 36:20.; Menochius) which is added in order to explain the origin of Thamna. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 1:39 The sons of Lotan: Hori, Homam. And the sister of Lotan was Thamna.

I Chronicles 1:40 The sons of Sobal: Alian, and Manahath, and Ebal, Sephi, and Onam. The sons of Sebeon: Aia and Ana. The son of Ana: Dison.

Dison. We must add Oolibama, Genesis 36:25.
I Chronicles 1:41 The sons of Dison: Hamram, and Eseban, and Jethran, and Charan.

Hamram. In Genesis Hamdan. Two letters have been mistaken since the Chaldean characters have been adopted. (Calmet) --- On this occasion, we may briefly remark, 1. The most learned fathers have admitted such mistakes in Scripture: yet these are not to be corrected by each one's private judgment, but we must all abide by the determination of the Church, which is plainly appointed for our guide in the infallible word of God. 2. To obviate the objections of infidels, respecting the apparent contradictions of Scripture, particularly in these books, we must observe that many people and places had different names; 3. And those who had the same were really distinct. 4. Frequently also grandchildren, and those who have been adopted, are mentioned as the immediate offspring. 5. Some mysterious numbers are specified, as fourteen in the genealogy of Christ, though the history allows more. 6. Odd numbers are sometimes neglected. 7. Often a part is put for the whole, or on the contrary; as Christ is said to have been dead three days, though he was only one whole day and part of two others: and in the reigns of different kings, in the same year, the different parts are assigned to each, as a whole year. 8. Sometimes two reigned together, as Joathan ruled while Ozias was still living, (4 Kings xv.) and so both reigns are sometimes counted, and, at other times, their respective years. 9. The interregnums are either omitted in calculations, or added to the years of the next ruler. 10. Only the years that a person governed well are sometimes noticed, as Saul is said to have reigned two years, (1 Kings xiii.) though his administration continued much longer. Some of these rules may be applied to most of the scriptural difficulties, as the spirit of God could not dictate any falsehood. At the same time we must be forced to acknowledge that the Scriptures are hard to be understood, 2 Peter 1:20., (Worthington) and 3:16.; and this may serve to exercise the genius, and to humble the pride of man. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 1:42 The sons of Eser: Balaan, and Zavan, and Jacan. The sons of Disan: Hus and Aran.

I Chronicles 1:43 Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there was a king over the children of Israel: Bale, the son of Beor: and the name of his city was Denaba.

Israel. The same remark had been made in Genesis 36:31. It is wonderful that the author of this work gives us no further information, when so many revolutions had since occurred. (Calmet) --- But he might content himself with repeating the words of Moses. (Haydock) --- The eight kings here specified must have reigned each 50 years, which is not impossible. David conquered the country under Adad.
I Chronicles 1:44 And Bale died, and Jobab, the son of Zare, of Bosra, reigned in his stead.

I Chronicles 1:45 And when Jobab also was dead, Husam, of the land of the Themanites, reigned in his stead.

I Chronicles 1:46 And Husam also died, and Adad, the son of Badad, reigned in his stead; and he defeated the Madianites, in the land of Moab: and the name of his city was Avith.

I Chronicles 1:47 And when Adad also was dead, Semla, of Masreca, reigned in his stead.

I Chronicles 1:48 Semla also died, and Saul, of Rohoboth, which is near the river, reigned in his stead.

River. Euphrates is commonly so designated. See Genesis 10:11. (Calmet) --- Pagnin translates, "from the river Rohoboth." (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 1:49 And when Saul was dead, Balanan, the son of Achobor, reigned in his stead.

I Chronicles 1:50 He also died, and Adad reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Phau, and his wife was called Meetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezaab.

Mezaab. It is unusual for the Scripture to mark so particularly the genealogy of a woman. We might translate the Hebrew, "a native, or who was a native of Mezaab," which is probably the same with Dizahab, "abundance of gold," Deuteronomy 1:1. Mezaab signifies, "waters of gold," (Calmet) or "whose is gold," whence some infer that the woman was very rich, (Lyranus) or had discovered the art of drawing gold thread. (Abulensis) --- It is more probably a proper name. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 1:51 And after the death of Adad, there began to be dukes in Edom, instead of kings: duke Thamna, duke Alva, duke Jetheth,

Kings. Hebrew, "Adad also died, and the dukes of Edom were duke Thamna, etc. (Haydock) --- This, and the following names, designate the place of their residence. (Menochius) --- The same forms of government prevailed in Idumea, as among the Hebrews, who had judges or dukes, then kings, and, after the captivity, dukes, till the time of the Machabees. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 1:52 Duke Oolibama, duke Ela, duke Phinon,

I Chronicles 1:53 Duke Cenez, duke Theman, duke Mabsar,

I Chronicles 1:54 Duke Magdiel, duke Hiram. These are the dukes of Edom.

I Chronicles 2:0 The twelve sons of Israel. The genealogy of Juda, down to David. Other genealogies of the tribe of Juda.

I Chronicles 2:1 And *these are the sons of Israel: Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Juda, Issachar, and Zabulon,

Genesis 29:32.; Genesis 30:5.; Genesis 35:22.
Israel, "seeing, or valiant with God," was before called Jacob, or "a supplanter," Genesis xxxv. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 2:2 Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Nephthali, Gad, and Aser.

Aser. They are not placed in the order of their birth. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 2:3 The sons of *Juda: Her, Onan and Sela. These three were born to him of the Chanaanitess, the daughter of Sue. And Her, the first-born of Juda, was wicked in the sight of the Lord, and he slew him.

Genesis 38:3.; Genesis 46:12.
Her. The crime for which he was punished is not specified in Scripture. (Calmet) --- The Rabbins say that he was so enamoured of the beauty of his wife, that he treated her in the same manner as Onan did afterwards. (Cassian 8:11.) --- It is supposed that he was slain by a devil, (Calmet) like the (Tirinus) impure husbands of Sarai, Tobias 6:14. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 2:4 *And Thamar, his daughter-in-law, bore him Phares and Zara. So all the sons of Juda were five.

1 Paralipomenon 4:1.; Matthew 1:3.
I Chronicles 2:5 And the sons of Phares, were Hesron and Hamul.

I Chronicles 2:6 And the sons also of Zara: Zamri, and Ethan, and Eman, and Chalchal, and Dara, five in all.

Zamri, or Zabdi, Josue 7:1. --- Etham. Similar names occur [in] 3 Kings 4:30. But they seem to have been different persons.
I Chronicles 2:7 And the sons of *Charmi: Achar, who troubled Israel, and sinned by the theft of the anathema.

Josue 7:1.
Achar, alias Achan, (Josue vii.; Challoner) which was his real name, as the former was given him (Calmet) in consequence of his having "troubled" Israel. (Du Hamel) --- One letter may have been mistaken. (Worthington) --- It may seem more probable that Achar, which appears invaribly in the Vatican Septuagint and Syriac, is the proper name. (Kennicott) --- Anathema, the thing devoted or accursed, viz., the spoils of Jericho. (Challoner)
I Chronicles 2:8 The sons of Ethan: Azarias.

I Chronicles 2:9 And the sons of *Hesron that were born to him: Jerameel, and Ram, and Calubi.

Ruth 4:19.
I Chronicles 2:10 And Ram beget Aminadab; and Aminadab beget Nahasson, prince of the children of Juda.

Ram. He is commonly called Aram. But it is to be observed here, once for all, that it was a common thing among the Hebrews for the same person to have different names: and that it is not impossible among so many proper names, as here occur in the first nine chapters of this book, that the transcribers of the ancient Hebrew copies may have made some slips in the orthography. (Challoner) --- Juda. Probably the first, appointed by Moses in the desert, Numbers 1:7., and 7:12.
I Chronicles 2:11 And Nahasson beget Salma, the father of Booz.

Salma. Septuagint have "Salmon," as it is written [in] Ruth 4:20., and Matthew 1:4.
I Chronicles 2:12 And Booz beget Obed, and Obed beget Isai.

I Chronicles 2:13 *And Isai beget Eliab, his first-born, the second Abinadab, the third Simmaa,

1 Kings 16:6.; 1 Kings 8:9.; 1 Kings 17:12.
I Chronicles 2:14 The fourth, Nathanael, the fifth Raddai,

I Chronicles 2:15 The sixth, Asom, the seventh, David.

Seventh. Syriac and Arabic add, "Eliu, (chap. 27:18.) and the eighth David." It appears, in effect, the Isai had eight sons, and that David was the youngest, 1 Kings 16:10., and 17:12. The Rabbins suppose that one was only adopted, namely, Jonathan, the son of Samma, noted for his prudence and valour, 2 Kings 13:3., and 21:21. (Calmet) --- One might die in his youth, and be therefore omitted, (Tirinus) as he had done nothing memorable. (Du Hamel) --- The Scripture does not always specify the full number. (Abulensis)
I Chronicles 2:16 And their sisters were Sarvia, and Abigail. The sons of Sarvia: Abisai, Joab, and Asael; three.

Sarvia. The honour shewn to the sisters of David is unusual. The father of the three valiant children of Sarvia is no where specified.
I Chronicles 2:17 And Abigail bore Amasa, whose father was Jether, the Ismahelite.

Ismahelite, or more correctly, "Jethra, of Jezrahel;" (2 Kings 17:25.) though the Hebrew and Septuagint in that place read "Israelite," which would be a trifling remark; and it is improbable that Isai would give his daughter to a descendant of Ismahel. (Calmet) --- The person might, however, have resided among them. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 2:18 And Caleb, the son of Hesron, took a wife named Azuba, of whom he had Jerioth: And her sons were, Jaser, and Sobab, and Ardon.

Caleb, alias Calubi, ver. 9. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- He is different from Caleb, the son of Jephone. --- Took, etc. Hebrew, "begot Azuba, Ischa, and Jerioth;" or rather with the Septuagint, "took to wife Gazuba and Jerioth." (Calmet) --- Syriac and Arabic, "Caleb had Jerioth by his wife Azuba." We know that the latter was his wife, (ver. 19.) and this seems to be the true reading. As ath signifies "of or from," (Noldius) the Hebrew only requires a small correction. As it stands at present, it means, "Caleb begot Azuba, a woman, (or wife) and Jerioth." Protestants supply, "begat children of Azuba, his wife, and of Jerioth." (Kennicott) --- Her sons. The original determines us to read her, instead of "his," as ejus would as naturally be understood. If Jerioth was not the wife, she seems to have been the daughter of Caleb; as Jaser, etc., were his sons. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 2:19 And when Azuba was dead, Caleb took to wife Ephrata; who bore him Hur.

I Chronicles 2:20 And Hur beget Uri, and Uri beget Bezeleel.

Bezeleel, the famous artist, (Exodus 31:2.; Calmet) or a different person. (Du Hamel) --- The Rabbins, who confound Caleb with the son of Jephone, say that he espoused Ephrata, or Mary, the sister of Moses, when he was ten years old, that Ur and Uri had each a child at eight, and the Bezeleel began to work at the tabernacle before he was nine years old. (Lyranus) --- But this is extravagant, and the Bezeleel here mentioned was of the family of Hesron. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 2:21 And afterwards Hesron went in to the daughter of Machir, the father of Galaad, and took her to wife, when he was threescore years old: And she bore him Segub.

Machir, grandson of Joseph, whose descendants occupied part of Galaad, (Haydock) of which he is styled the father, or prince. (Menochius) --- The daughter of Machir was probably an heiress, and Segub dwelt with his mother's tribe. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 2:22 And Segub beget Jair, and he had three and twenty cities in the land of Galaad.

I Chronicles 2:23 And he took Gessur, and Aram, the towns of Jair, and Canath, and the villages thereof, threescore cities. All these are the sons of Machir, father of Galaad.

Aram. Protestants add "with the towns of Jair from them," the former possessors; (Haydock) or Gessur assisted Aram (Syria) in attacking Israel, 4 Kings 10:32. (Calmet) --- All these villages. Protestants supply, "belonged to the sons." Septuagint, "were of the sons." All these were dependencies of Machir, "prince" of Galaad; in which sense father is taken, ver. 24. (Menochius) --- Sons often denote nephews, etc. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 2:24 And when Hesron was dead, Caleb went in to Ephrata. Hesron also had to wife Abia, who bore him Ashur, the father of Thecua.

Hesron. Perhaps it ought to be Azuba, ver. 19. Hebrew, "and after Hesron was dead, in Caleb-ephrata, then Abia, the wife of Hesron, bore him a (posthumous) son, Ashur, the father of those who dwelt at Thecua." He could not reside there himself no more than Caleb did at Bethlehem, which some, without proof, pretend was called Caleb-ephrata. The Septuagint agree with the Vulgate. They may signify that Caleb went to the town of Ephrata. But the son of Hebron[Hesron?] certainly never resided at Bethlehem. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 2:25 And the sons of Jerameel, the first-born of Hesron, were Ram, his first-born, and Buna, and Aram, and Asom, and Achia.

And, is not in Hebrew. Achia, which may also signify "her sister." Septuagint, "brother." Others take (Calmet) Achia to be the first wife of Jerameel. (Jansenius)
I Chronicles 2:26 And Jerameel married another wife, named Atara, who was the mother of Onam.

I Chronicles 2:27 And the sons of Ram, the first-born of Jerameel, were Moos, Jamin, and Achar.

I Chronicles 2:28 And Onam had sons, Semei, and Jada. And the sons of Semei: Nadab and Abisur.

I Chronicles 2:29 And the name of Abisur's wife was Abihail, who bore him Ahobban, and Molid.

I Chronicles 2:30 And the sons of Nadab were Saled, and Apphaim. And Saled died without children.

I Chronicles 2:31 But the son of Apphaim was Jesi: and Jesi beget Sesan. And Sesan beget Oholai.

Oholai, a daughter, (ver. 34.; Tirinus) unless this son died before his father. (Vatable)
I Chronicles 2:32 And the sons of Jada, the brother of Semei, were Jether, and Jonathan. And Jether also died without children.

I Chronicles 2:33 But Jonathan beget Phaleth, and Ziza. These were the sons of Jerameel.

I Chronicles 2:34 And Sesan had no sons, but daughters: and a servant, an Egyptian, named Jeraa.

I Chronicles 2:35 And he gave him his daughter to wife: and she bore him Ethei.

I Chronicles 2:36 And Ethei begot Nathan, and Nathan beget Zabad.

I Chronicles 2:37 And Zabad beget Ophlal, and Ophlal beget Obed,

I Chronicles 2:38 Obed beget Jehu, Jehu beget Azarias,

I Chronicles 2:39 Azarias beget Helles, and Helles begot Elasa,

I Chronicles 2:40 Elasa beget Sisamoi, Sisamoi beget Sellum,

I Chronicles 2:41 Sellum beget Icamia, and Icamia begot Elisama.

I Chronicles 2:42 Now the sons of Caleb, the brother of Jerameel, were Mesa, his first-born, who was the father of Ziph: and the sons of Maresa, father of Hebron.

Caleb, or Calubi, ver. 9. Ziph, Maresa, and Hebron, are the names of towns, as well as of men. The descendants of Mesa inhabited Ziph, and those of Maresa dwelt at Hebron. The same remark will hold good in other places, where the names of places are put for those who occupied them. (Calmet) --- And the sons. Hebrew, "and of the sons of Maresa." (Vatable) --- But it may be as well explained in the sense of the Vulgate. Septuagint, "Marisa, his first-born. He was the father of Ziph, and the sons of Marisa, of the father of Hebron." --- Father. Literally, "of the father," patris Hebron. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 2:43 And the sons of Hebron, Core, and Thaphua, and Recem, and Samma.

I Chronicles 2:44 And Samma beget Raham, the father of Jercaam, and Recem beget Sammai.

I Chronicles 2:45 The son of Sammai, Maon: and Maon, the father of Bethsur.

I Chronicles 2:46 And Epha, the concubine of Caleb, bore Haran, and Mosa, and Gezez. And Haran beget Gezez.

I Chronicles 2:47 And the sons of Jahaddai, Regom, and Joathan, and Gesan, and Phalet, and Epha, and Saaph.

Jahaddai. His name occurs not before. Some suppose he was the son of Mosa: perhaps a verse may be lost, as the Syriac and Arabic pass over this and the two following verses.
I Chronicles 2:48 And Maacha, the concubine of Caleb, bore Saber, and Tharana.

I Chronicles 2:49 And Saaph, the father of Madmena, beget Sue, the father of Machbena, and the father of Gabaa. And the daughter of Caleb was Achsa.

Achsa, different from Axa, the grand-daughter of Jephone, Judges 1:12. (Haydock) --- Both had daughters of the same name. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 2:50 These were the sons of Caleb, the son of Hur, the first-born of Ephrata; Sobal, the father of Cariathiarim,

Caleb, grandson of Calubi. (Vatable, etc.) --- Sobal, his descendant, was prince of those who established themselves at Cariathiarim. (Calmet) --- The Alexandrian Septuagint seems rather to assert that he was son of Hur, as well as those who follow. "The sons of Hur....Sobal....Salomon, father of Baithlammon, father of Bethleem." But the editions vary. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 2:51 Salma, the father of Bethlehem, Hariph, the father of Bethgader.

I Chronicles 2:52 And Sobal, the father of Cariathiarim had sons: He that saw half of the places of rest.

He that saw, etc. The Latin interpreter seems to have given us here, instead of the proper names, the meaning of those names in the Hebrew. He has done in like manner, ver. 55., (Challoner) and in many other places. (Du Hamel) --- Hebrew, "had sons, haroe cha hamenuchoth, (Haydock) or Raia, Roeh, (chap. 4:2.) and Chazi of the canton of Menuchat, near Gabaa, 1 Paralipomenon 8:6., and Judges 20:43. Septuagint mention Manocho, Josue 15:60. --- We may also translate "the father of Cariathiarim, the prince of half Manuchat, had sons who peopled different cities." It seems too harsh to call a man "half the place of rest," or "seeing from the moiety of rest," though the Hebrew has this literal signification. The Septuagint give proper names, (Calmet) "Araa, Esei, Ammanith," (but [in] ver. 55, half of Manath) and the Protestants, "Haroeh and half of the Manahattites." (Haydock) --- Sobal left to his descendants half the country which he had quietly occupied.
I Chronicles 2:53 And of the kindred of Cariathiarim, the Jethrites, and Aphuthites, and Semathites, and Maserites. Of them came the Sarites, and Esthaolites.

Kindred. Septuagint, "Oumasphas." (Haydock) --- Esthaolites. All these places were in Juda, (Calmet) or perhaps (Haydock) the two last in Dan, (Menochius) or occupied by both tribes. (Abulensis, q. 8.)
I Chronicles 2:54 The sons of Salma, Bethlehem, and Netophathi, the Crowns of the house of Joab, and half of the place of rest of Sarai.

Salma, or Salmon's descendants, peopled Bethlehem, etc. --- Crowns. Valiant heroes who assisted Joab to gain crowns. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "Hateroth," the house (Alexandrian Septuagint, of the house of Jobab) of Joab; (Haydock) perhaps the famous general who had land near Absalom's, on the frontiers of Ephraim, where Ataroth was situated. --- And half. Hebrew, "half of the Manahethites." Protestants (Haydock) or "of Menuchat, towards Zarai." The author seems purposely to mention to whom the cities at first belonged, that the right owners might be reinstated in their possessions, at their return from Babylon. (Calmet) --- This verse may specify six towns, Bethlehem and Netophat, (Haydock) Beth-Joab, Chatsi, Manachti, and Atsothi.
I Chronicles 2:55 And the families of the scribes, that dwell in Jabes, singing and making melody, and abiding in tents. These are the Cinites, who came of Calor, (Chamath) father of the house of Rechab.

Scribes, learned in the law. (Menochius) --- Singing, etc. The different professions of the Rechabites are here given, instead of proper names, (Calmet) which the Vatican Septuagint retains---Thargathiim and Samathiim, Sochathim. --- Hebrew Tirhathim, "porters;" (Chaldean) Shimhathim, "the obedient;" Sucathim, "the inhabitants of tents;" Calor, "the heat," as the Hebrew Chamath (Protestants, Hemath) signifies. The Cinites dwelt on the south of Juda, for which reason they are probably here mentioned, though some of them also inhabited Jabes Galaad, while the Rechabites dwelt in tents, (Haydock) and were perhaps employed as porters in the temple. (Calmet) (Jeremias 35:5, 19.)
I Chronicles 3:0 The genealogy of the house of David.

I Chronicles 3:1 Now *these were the sons of David, that were born to him in Hebron: the first-born, Amnon, of Achinoam, the Jezrahelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail, the Carmelitess;

2 Kings 3:2.
Hebron, during the seven years that he reigned there over Juda. (Menochius) --- Jezrahel, a city of Juda, less noted than the one in Issachar. --- Daniel, or Cheliab, 2 Kings 3:3.
I Chronicles 3:2 The third, Absalom, the son of Maacha, the daughter of Tolmai, king of Gessur; the fourth, Adonias, the son of Aggith;

Aggith. The mother of Adonias is styled Haggith elsewhere in the Vulgate. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 3:3 The fifth, Sephatias, of Abital; the sixth, Jethrahem, of Egla, his wife.

His wife also. (Tirinus) --- This title refers to all the preceding. (Sanctius)
I Chronicles 3:4 So six sons were born to him in Hebron, where he reigned seven years and six months. And in Jerusalem he reigned three and thirty years.

I Chronicles 3:5 *And these sons were born to him in Jerusalem: Simmaa, and Sobab, and Nathan, and Solomon, four of Bethsabee, the daughter of Ammiel,

2 Kings 5:14.
Solomon is put last, though the eldest, because of his genealogy is to be continued. Some think that the three others were the sons of Urias, adopted by David, as Solomon styles himself an only son; (Proverbs 4:3.) but that only means singularly beloved, and an heir, (Calmet) as David had certainly another child by Bethsabee, who died in his infancy. (Tirinus) --- Bethsabee. Syriac and Arabic, "Bersabee." Hebrew, "Bathshuah," all erroneously. --- Ammiel, or Eliam, (2 Kings 11:3.) as the same man had two names, (Calmet) or, in this instance, we must allow a transposition. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 3:6 Jebaar also, and Elisama,

Elisama, or Elisua, 1 Paralipomenon 14:5. (Calmet) --- Hebrew substitutes Elishama and Eliphelet, and Nogah, the last name being "an evident corruption of Nepheg, and the two former being taken in too soon, and still repeated, "in their proper places." The Vatican Septuagint is likewise interpolated, (2 Kings 5:14., etc.) by the insertion of eleven names from another version, and two names are twice repeated, so that we have 24 sons of David instead of 11. (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 3:7 And Eliphaleth, and Noge, and Nepheg, and Japhia,

Noge; called Noga, (chap. 14:6.) and omitted entirely in the book of Kings. Eliphaleth being twice mentioned in this book, has made some conclude that David's first son of this name died in his youth; (Calmet) which may be said of Elisama also. (Sa)
I Chronicles 3:8 And Elisama, and Eliada, and Elipheleth, nine.

Eliada, or Elioda, (2 Kings 5:16.) styled Baaliada, (chap. 14:7.; Calmet) as both have the same meaning, "God's, or the Lord's knowledge." (Haydock) --- Nine, excluding the children of Bethsabee. In 2 Kings there are only seven, or, with the sons of Bethsabee, eleven. There must be a mistake in one place, unless the book of Kings only specifies those who were then alive. (Vatable) (Calmet)
I Chronicles 3:9 All these were sons of David, beside the sons of the concubines: and they had a sister, Thamar.

The concubines. The inferior wives. (Challoner) --- Some of the preceding sons were born of such, ver. 6., etc. --- Thamar. She is the only one whose name is mentioned, but David had other daughters, 2 Kings 5:13.
I Chronicles 3:10 And Solomon's son was Roboam: whose son, Abia beget Asa. And his son was Josaphat,

I Chronicles 3:11 The father of Joram: and Joram begot Ochozias, of whom was born Joas:

I Chronicles 3:12 And his son, Amasias, begot Azarias. And Joathan, the son of Azarias,

I Chronicles 3:13 Beget Achaz, the father of Ezechias, of whom was born Manasses.

I Chronicles 3:14 And Manasses beget Amon, the father of Josias.

I Chronicles 3:15 And the sons of Josias were, the first-born, Johanan, the second, Joakim, the third, Sedecias, the fourth, Sellum.

Johanan, who is not mentioned in 4 Kings 23., and 24. Some think that he died young, (Tostat) or in battle with his father, against Pharao. (Pradus.) --- Joakim, or Eliacim, possessed the throne after Joachaz, or Sellum, (Calmet) which name signifies "confusion," and was given to all the sons of Josias. (St. Jerome) --- Then came Joachin and Sedecias, whose proper name was Matthanias. (Haydock) --- Joakim is passes over by St. Matthew. (St. Jerome, ibid.)
I Chronicles 3:16 *Of Joakim was born Jechonias, and Sedecias.

Matthew 1:11.
Jechonias, who is called also Joakim, (Worthington) and Cenias in Hebrew, Jeremias 22:28. (Calmet) --- Both the son and the grandson of Josias go under the name of Jechonias, Matthew 1:11. (Barradius 1:5. 16.) (Menochius) --- Sedecias. If this be the same with the king, was born must signify succeeded, as we know that Joakim was not the father of Sedecias. (Grotius, etc.)
I Chronicles 3:17 The sons of Jechonias were Asir, Salathiel,

Asir, means a "prisoner," so that we might translate, Hebrew ,"and the sons of Jechonias, the prisoner, (at Babylon, 4 Kings 24:15.) were Salathiel." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Assir, Salathiel his son." (Haydock) --- Some think that the following were the adopted children, or successors of Jechonias; as St. Luke 3:24. insinuates that Neri was the father of Salathiel, and Jeremias (xxii. 30.) seems to declare that Jechonias should have no children. But he means such as should sit on the throne, as he explains himself, and St. Matthew (1:12.) expressly says, Jechonias begot Salathiel.
I Chronicles 3:18 Melchiram, Phadaia, Senneser, and Jecemia, Sama, and Nadabia.

Melchiram, etc., born of Salathiel. (Calmet) --- Sama. Septuagint, "Osamo and Nabadias." Protestants, "Hosahama," etc. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 3:19 Of Phadaia were born Zorobabel and Semei. Zorobabel beget Mosollam, Hananias, and Salomith, their sister:

Phadaia, called also Salathiel, (Matthew 1:12.) or these two brothers had each a son named Zorobabel. The grandson of Salathiel was called Abiud, and that of Phadaia, Mosollam, (Menochius) unless these were the same person. (Sa) --- Phadaia, son of Salathiel, and father of Zorobabel, left his son to the care of his brother Salathiel, who was therefore accounted the father of Zorobabel too. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 3:20 Hasaban also, and Ohol, and Barachias, and Hasadias, and Josabhesed, five.

I Chronicles 3:21 And the son of Hananias, was Phaltias, the father of Jeseias, whose son was Raphaia. And his son was Arnan, of whom was born Obdia, whose son was Sechenias.

Son. Hebrew, "sons of Hananias, Phaltias, and Jesacias, the sons of Raphias, the sons of Arnan,...(22) the sons of Sechenias, Semeia, etc." But the Septuagint and Syriac have read in a more intelligible manner, (Calmet) intimating that these people were lineally descended from each other, (Haydock) while the Hebrew leaves us ignorant of the names of the sons of Rephaias, etc. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 3:22 The son of Sechenias, was Semeia: whose sons were Hattus, and Jegaal, and Baria, and Naaria, and Sephat, six in number.

Six. Counting the father in the number. (Challoner) --- Hebrew shisha, or "six." Sixtus V with several manuscripts, Gothic edition, etc., take it improperly for the name of a man. (Calmet) --- Semeia and his five sons are attributed to Sechenias. (Worthington) --- Others think that a name has been lost. (Castalion)
I Chronicles 3:23 The sons of Naaria: Elioenai, and Ezechias, and Ezricam, three.

I Chronicles 3:24 The sons of Elioenai: Oduia, and Eliasub, and Pheleia, and Accub, and Johanan, and Dalaia, and Anani, seven.

Oduia, the 12th from Zorobabel, which shews that this has been inserted since the time of Esdras, and that the author was very careful to preserve the genealogical tables, as it was not known from what family of the descendants of David the Messias should be born. (Calmet) --- St. Matthew gives us a different genealogy. (Du Hamel) (Calmet)
I Chronicles 4:0 Other genealogies of Juda and of Simeon, and their victories.

I Chronicles 4:1 The *sons of Juda: Phares, Hesron, and Charmi, and Hur, and Sobal.

Genesis 38:3.; Genesis 46:12.; 1 Paralipomenon 2:4.; Matthew 1:3.
Charmi, the great-grandson of Juda, by Zara and Zamri, Josue 7:1. --- Junius takes him to be the same with Calubi, (chap. 2.) father of Sobal. This seems to be transcribed from another ancient register of the family of Juda, and designed to shew where the principal men had resided. (Calmet) --- Only the chiefs are specified. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 4:2 And Raia the son of Sobal, beget Jahath, of whom were born Ahumai, and Laad. These are the families of Sarathi.

Sarathi, who peopled Saraa. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 4:3 And this is the posterity of Etom: Jezrahel, and Jesema, and Jedebos: and the name of their sister was Asalelphuni.

Posterity. So all the ancient versions seem to have read boni, instead of the present Hebrew abi, which literally means, "and these are the father of Etam." If words ever wanted sense, they do so here. (Kennicott) --- Etham is perhaps the name of a town. (Malvenda)
I Chronicles 4:4 And Phanuel, the father of Gedor, and Ezar, the father of Hosa: these are the sons of Hur, the first-born of Ephrata, the father of Bethlehem.

I Chronicles 4:5 And Assur, the father of Thecua, had two wives, Halaa and Naara:

I Chronicles 4:6 And Naara bore him Oozam, and Hepher, and Themani, and Ahasthari: these are the sons of Naara.

I Chronicles 4:7 And the sons of Halaa: Sereth, Isaar, and Ethnan.

Ethnan. Some would insert "and Cos," to connect this with the following.
I Chronicles 4:8 And Cos begot Anob, and Soboba, and the kindred of Aharehel, the son of Arum.

Cos. Perhaps (Calmet) the same with Cenez, ver. 13. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 4:9 And Jabes was more honourable than any of his brethren, and his mother called his name Jabes, saying: Because I bore him with sorrow.

Jabes. That is, sorrowful. (Challoner) --- There seems to be something wanting, as we are not informed who were the brethren of Jabes. (Calmet) --- This name he received from his mother, while his father Cos, called him Othoniel. (Estius)
I Chronicles 4:10 And Jabes called upon the God of Israel, saying: If blessing thou wilt bless me, and wilt enlarge my borders, and thy hand be with me, and thou save me from being oppressed by evil. And God granted him the things he prayed for.

For. To reward his piety and vow. Othoniel obtained Cariath-sepher, and Axa, the daugher of Caleb, Josue 15:17. (Calmet) --- Jabes imitated holy Jacob, (Genesis xxviii.) and both desired temporal blessings, for their advancement in virtue. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 4:11 And Caleb, the brother of Sua, beget Mahir, who was the father of Esthon.

Caleb. Hebrew, "Celub," different both from Calubi and the son of Jephone, ver. 15. (Calmet) --- Brother, etc. Septuagint, "father of Ascha," which would seem to make him the same with the latter.
I Chronicles 4:12 And Esthon beget Bethrapha, and Phesse, and Tehinna, father of the city of Naas: These are the men of Recha.

City. Hebrew, "Hir-Nachash." (Haydock) --- The latter term denotes "copper or a serpent." We know not where this city was situated, no more than Recha. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 4:13 And the sons of Cenez, were Othoniel, and Saraia. And the sons of Othoniel, Hathath, and Maonathi.

Othoniel, first judge. (Haydock) --- He was brother, or rather cousin, of Caleb. See Josue 15:17.
I Chronicles 4:14 Maonathi beget Ophra, and Saraia begot Joab, the father of the valley of Artificers: for artificers were there.

Artificers. Hebrew Charashim, which means various sorts of "workmen," (Calmet) or "father (prince.; Menochius) of Ge-Harasim, for," etc. (Calmet) --- Under this lord the artificers dwelt who built the temple. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 4:15 And the sons of Caleb, the son of Jephone, were Hir, and Ela, and Naham. And the son of Ela: Cenez.

Caleb, so memorable (Calmet) for this fidelity, Numbers 12:30., and 32:12. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 4:16 The sons also of Jaleleel, Ziph, and Zipha, Thiria, and Asrael.

I Chronicles 4:17 And the sons of Esra: Jether, and Mered, and Epher, and Jalon, and he beget Mariam, and Sammai, and Jesba, the father of Esthamo.

I Chronicles 4:18 And his wife, Judaia, bore Jared, the father of Gedor, and Heber, the father of Socho, and Icuthiel, the father of Zanoe. And these are the sons of Bethia, the daughter of Pharao, whom Mered took to wife.

Judaia, a second wife, of his own nation. By the first, from Egypt, Mered had Miriam, etc. Some words seem to be lost, which render it doubtful to whom Judaia was married.
I Chronicles 4:19 And the sons of his wife Odaia, the sister of Naham, the father of Ceila, were Garmi, and Esthamo, who was of Machathi.

Odaia, perhaps the same with Judaia, (Calmet) as the Septuagint read. --- Who was. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Machatha," (Haydock) a place to the north of Basan, far from the limits of Juda, whence we should, perhaps, read Menuchat, as 1 Paralipomenon 2:52, 54.
I Chronicles 4:20 The sons also of Simon: Amnon, and Rinna, the son of Hanan, and Thilon. And the sons of Jesi: Zoheth and Benzoheth.

I Chronicles 4:21 The sons of *Sela, the son of Juda: Her, the father of Lecha, and Laada, the father of Maresa, and the families of the house of them that wrought fine linen in the house of Oath.

Genesis 38:5.
Her. Hitherto we have seem the possessions of the descendants of Phares. Those of Her inhabited the country rendered famous by the exploits of Samson with the jaw bone, Judges 15:9. (Calmet) --- The first-born of Sela was called Her, after his unfortunate uncle, Genesis 38:7. (Haydock) --- That wrought. Septuagint take it for a proper name, "Ebdath." Hebrew, Beth-habodath habuts, "the house of the byssus, or fine linen manufacturers in Beth-Ashbáah," (Haydock) which is, perhaps, the same with Beersabee, "the well of swearing," Genesis 21:31. (Calmet) --- Oath. The Latin word juramenti, might be retained here, as well as Calor, 1 Paralipomenon 2:55. See 2 Kings 21:19. Septuagint read, "Esoba," as the proper name of a place. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 4:22 And He, that made the sun to stand, and the men of Lying, and Secure, and Burning, who were princes in Moab, and who returned into Lahem. Now these are things of old.

He, that made, etc. viz., Joazim, the meaning of whose name in Hebrew, is, he that made the sun to stand. In like manner the following names, Lying, (Cozeba) Secure, (Joash) and Burning, (Saraph) are substituted in place of the Hebrew names of the same signification. (Challoner) --- The first etymology is not perfectly accurate, as Jokim means simply, "he made to stand;" Jachin, the pillar which Solomon erected, has the same import. (Haydock) --- Some injudicious person seems to have placed the sun in the margin, whence it has crept into the text. (Tirinus) --- It might be occasioned by the fable of the Rabbins, who assert (Haydock) that Elimelech wrought the like miracle as Josue, to convince the people of Bethlehem of the necessity of being converted; but, finding them incorrigible, denounced a famine, which forced him to retire with his family into the country of Moab. (St. Jerome, Trad., etc.) --- Elimelech died in that country; but these four descendants of Sela retired, probably, along with him, and returned afterwards to Lehem, or Bethlehem, as it is customary to omit a part of a word. (Tirinus) --- This town was peopled by different branches of Juda's family, ver. 4., and 1 Paralipomenon 2:54. (Calmet) --- Lahem, etc. Septuagint seem to leave the original terms: "he made them return to Abedderim Athoukiim." --- Who returned, is also left as a proper name by the Protestants, (Haydock) etc. "And Jasubi Lehem." (Vatable) (Menochius) --- It is not easy to decide, when the Hebrew words should be translated. --- Old. Hebrew, "and ancient words;" (Haydock) records, shewing where these families resided, (Calmet) unless this be also the name (Haydock) of a place. (Septuagint)
I Chronicles 4:23 These are the potters, and they dwelt in Plantations and Hedges, with the king for his works, and they abode there.

Potters. Hebrew yotserim, may also designate some family, as it seems improbable that the princes, in Moab, should be reduced to so mean a condition. But we have many examples of such a fall; (Haydock) and it is supposed, that these descendants of Sela were employed by the king of Babylon, at Nethaim and Gadera. (Calmet) --- Hedges. These are the proper names of the places where they dwelt. In Hebrew, Netahim and Gedera. (Challoner) --- Septuagint, "Ataim and Gadera." (Haydock) --- The correct Roman edition of the Vulgate prints these words, plantationibus et Sepibus, with large letters, to imply as much. (Menochius) --- King; David. (Sa) (Menochius) --- Many of the tribe of Juda attended David, while he was forced to flee before Saul, and to hide himself in unfrequented places. Some of them might be these Yotserim, or they might follow the profession of potters. (Haydock) --- "With the king they were powerful in his kingdom, and dwelt there." (Septuagint) (Haydock) --- The Vulgate often gives the meaning of proper names. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 4:24 The sons of *Simeon: Namuel, and Jamin, Jarib, Zara, Saul:

Genesis 46:10.
Namuel, or Jamuel, Genesis 46:10. --- Jarib; perhaps the same with Sohar, (Menochius) unless the latter be Zara, or Zare, Numbers 26:12. These genealogies seem different; but the same person (Calmet) might have many names. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 4:25 Sellum his son, Mapsam his son, Masma his son.

I Chronicles 4:26 The sons of Masma: Hamuel his son, Zachur his son, Semei his son.

I Chronicles 4:27 The sons of Semei were sixteen, and six daughters: but his brethren had not many sons, and the whole kindred could not reach to the sum of the children of Juda.

Juda, probably, not even in the following cities, which they inhabited along with them. This tribe of Simeon was always the weakest, and kept close to Juda. See Numbers 26:14.
I Chronicles 4:28 And they dwelt in Bersabee, and Molada, and Hasarsuhal,

I Chronicles 4:29 And in Bala, and in Asom, and in Tholad,

I Chronicles 4:30 And in Bathuel, and in Horma, and in Siceleg,

Bathuel appears to be the same with Bethulia, Judith 6:7. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 4:31 And in Bethmarchaboth, and in Hasarsusim, and in Bethberai, and in Saarim. These were their cities unto the reign of David.

David, who had Siceleg given to him, 1 Kings 27:6. (Haydock) --- After the schism, Juda straitened the tribe of Simeon; so that it was forced to seek for other habitations in Gador, under Ezechias, ver. 39., etc. (Calmet) --- It could no longer reside among those of the tribe of Juda, (Du Hamel) and acknowledge another king. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 4:32 Their towns also were Etam, and Aen, Remmon, and Thochen, and Asan, five cities.

I Chronicles 4:33 And all their villages round about these cities as far as Baal. This was their habitation and the distribution of their dwellings.

Baal, or Ballath, Josue 19:1. --- Distribution. Hebrew and Septuagint, "and their genealogy." (Menochius) --- Katalogismos, may as well have the former signification, "their class;" (Haydock) though the sequel seems to determine it in the latter sense. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 4:34 And Mosabab, and Jemlech, and Josa, the son of Amasias,

Mosabab. This and the following princes joined their forces, to conquer fresh territories from Gador, (Haydock) or Gadara, near Joppe, (Strabo xvi.) which had been long in the possession (Haydock) of the Egyptians, (ver. 40.; Calmet) or Philistines. (Malvenda)
I Chronicles 4:35 And Joel, and Jehu, the son of Josabia, the son of Saraia, the son of Asiel,

I Chronicles 4:36 And Elioenai, and Jacoba, and Isuhaia, and Isaia, and Adiel, and Ismiel, and Banaia;

I Chronicles 4:37 Ziza also, the son of Sephei, the son of Allon, the son of Idaia, the son of Semri, the son of Samaia.

I Chronicles 4:38 These were named princes in their kindreds, and in the houses of their families were multiplied exceedingly.

I Chronicles 4:39 And they went forth to enter into Gador, as far as the east side of the valley, to seek pastures for their flocks.

I Chronicles 4:40 And they found fat pastures, and very good, and a country spacious, and quiet, and fruitful, in which some of the race of Cham had dwelt before.

Cham. It is not certain that the Philistines, who came from the country of the Casluim, were descendants of Mezraim, Genesis 10:14. But it is very clear that the Egyptians sprung from Cham, Psalm 77:51.
I Chronicles 4:41 And these, whose names are written above, came in the days of Ezechias, king of Juda: and they beat down their tents, and slew the inhabitants that were found there, and utterly destroyed them unto this day: and they dwelt in their place, because they found there fat pastures.

Inhabitants. Septuagint, "and the Mineans." Hebrew meyenim, "the inhabitants of Maon," in Arabia. See Judges 10:11. Syriac and Arabic, "the fountains."
I Chronicles 4:42 Some also of the children of Simeon, five hundred men, went into Mount Seir, having for their captains, Phaltias and Naaria, and Raphaia, and Oziel, the sons of Jesi:

Jesi; perhaps Asaia, by the transposition of one letter; (ver. 36.; Calmet) or these chiefs were remote descendants of Jesi, ver. 20. (Haydock) --- The expedition probably took place about the same time as the preceding, to avoid the attack of the Assyrians, or of Juda, by retiring farther into Arabia. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 4:43 And they slew the remnant of the Amalecites, who had been able to escape, and they dwelt there in their stead unto this day.

Escape the arms of Saul, or of David. (Du Hamel) --- Day. It seems, therefore, that they escaped captivity, having abandoned their own country; or this was taken from a record, which had been made before that event, and is here inserted by Esdras; though, when he wrote, these Simeonites might have experienced the fate of their brethren, who were led captives in the 6th year of Ezechias. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 5:0 Genealogies of Ruben and Gad: their victories over the Agarites: their captivity.

I Chronicles 5:1 Now the sons of Ruben, the first-born of Israel, (for he was his first-born: but forasmuch as *he defiled his father's bed, his first birth-right was given to the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel, and he was not accounted for the first-born.

Genesis 35:22.; Genesis 49:4.
First-born, Genesis 49:4. (Worthington) --- He gives this reason for not beginning with him. (Calmet) --- And he. Protestants, "and the genealogy is not to be reckoned after the birth-right." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 5:2 But of the race of Juda, who was the strongest among his brethren, came the princes: but the first birth-right was accounted to Joseph.)

Accounted to Joseph, viz., as to the double portion, which belonged to the first-born: but the princely dignity was given to Juda, and the priesthood to Levi. (Challoner) --- Yet it is not certain that the latter dignity formed a part of the birth-right, (Genesis 25:31.) and the author takes no notice of it. (Calmet) --- The double portion seems to have been all the privilege, Deuteronomy 21:17. Septuagint, "the blessing or gift was Joseph's." Hebrew also does not specify princes, but "the leader," (Haydock) the Messias, (Syriac, etc.) and kings, from David till the captivity. (Calmet) (Genesis 49:4.) (Worthington)
I Chronicles 5:3 The sons then *of Ruben, the first-born of Israel, were Enoch, and Phallu, Esron, and Charmi.

Genesis 46:9.; Exodus 6:14.; Numbers 26:5.
I Chronicles 5:4 The sons of Joel: Samia his son, Gog his son, Semei his son,

Joel. It does not appear whether he was the son of the last, or of Henoch.
I Chronicles 5:5 Micha his son, Reia his son, Baal his son,

I Chronicles 5:6 Beera his son, whom Thelgathphalnasar, *king of the Assyrians, carried away captive, and he was prince in the tribe of Ruben.

4 Kings 15:29.
Beera, This tribe continued to have princes of their own, after the division of the kingdom. Beera was in power when Thelgathphalnasar, or Theglathphalasar, took five tribes into captivity, 4 Kings 15:29. Only twelve generations are mentioned to fill up about 750 years, from the leaving of Egypt. (Calmet) --- But Enoch must have lived much sooner, as the Israelites continued in that country at least 215 years. The princes are probably not all specified, as on other occasions. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 5:7 And his brethren, and all his kindred, when they were numbered by their families, had for princes Jehiel, and Zacharias.

Families, when they were led captive into Assyria; (Menochius) or before, when the tribe was in a most flourishing condition. --- Princes. Hebrew and Septuagint, "prince." --- Jehiel. Septuagint, "Joel," ver. 4.
I Chronicles 5:8 And Bala, the son of Azaz, the son of Samma, the son of Joel, dwelt in Aroer, as far as Nebo, and Beelmeon.

And. So Hebrew, etc., as f he was one of the princes. But the Vulgate seems to begin a new sentence, Porro, "now Bala." The possessions of this man must have been very extensive, from the Euphrates till (Haydock) Baal-meon, within nine miles of Hesebon, (Eusebius) almost (Calmet) as far as the Jordan. (Tirinus) --- Bala, or his descendants, extended their conquests as far as the Euphrates, which had been promised to Israel; and, under Saul, conquered the Agarites, who sprung from Agar. Syriac, etc., "the Arabs of Sacca," or the Scenites, "dwelling under tents," and inhabiting the Desert Arabia. The details of this war are probably given, ver. 19., etc. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 5:9 And eastward he had his habitation as far as the entrance of the desert, and the river Euphrates. For they possessed a great number of cattle in the land of Galaad.

Cattle, for which reason they desired to have this country, Numbers 32:4. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 5:10 And in the days of Saul they fought against the Agarites, and slew them, and dwelt in their tents in their stead, in all the country that looketh to the east of Galaad.

I Chronicles 5:11 And the children of Gad dwelt over-against them in the land of Basan, as far as Selcha:

Selcha, not far from Jabok, Deuteronomy 3:10. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 5:12 Johel, the chief, and Saphan, the second: and Janai, and Saphat, in Basan.

Chief, (in capite.) Septuagint, "first-born." (Haydock) --- This list was made under Joathan, king of Juda, when Joel was at the head of the tribe of Gad. (Calmet) --- Basan, the capital city, ver. 16. (Sa) (Menochius)
I Chronicles 5:13 And their brethren, according to the houses of their kindreds, were Michael, and Mosollam, and Sebe, and Jorai, and Jacan, and Zie, and Heber, seven.

I Chronicles 5:14 These were the sons of Abihail, the son of Huri, the son of Jara, the son of Galaad, the son of Michael, the son of Jesesi, the son of Jeddo, the son of Buz.

I Chronicles 5:15 And their brethren, the sons of Abdiel, the son of Guni, chief of the house, in their families.

And, etc. Hebrew also, "Achi, son of Abdiel." --- Chief, like the preceding, each in their respective families. (Calmet) --- They were relations (Haydock) of the same tribe. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 5:16 And they dwelt in Galaad, and in Basan, and in the towns thereof, and in all the suburbs of Saron, unto the borders.

Saron, in Basan; (Josue 12:18.) different from those vallies near Joppe, (Calmet) and between Thabor and Tiberias. (Eusebius)
I Chronicles 5:17 All these were numbered in the days of Joathan, king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam, king of Israel.

Israel. Jeroboam II had been dead two years before Joathan was born: unless some of the numbers be incorrect; which seems very probable, 4 Kings 15:5. Yet these registers might be made at different times, and one, perhaps, under Jeroboam I, as when any war seemed to threaten, the number of soldiers was to be known. (Calmet) --- It does not appear why the king of Juda is mentioned, as the people were not under his dominion, unless (Haydock) he was contemporary with Jeroboam II, as some assert. (Menochius) --- Yet the following expedition seems to have taken place while Israel was still faithful to God. (Haydock) By faith they overcame kingdoms, Hebrews xi. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 5:18 The sons of Ruben, and of Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasses, fighting men, bearing shields, and swords, and bending the bow, and trained up to battles, four and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore, that went out to war.

I Chronicles 5:19 They fought against the Agarites: but the Itureans, and Naphis, and Nodab

But, etc. Hebrew, "and Jetur, etc., (20) and they were helped by God against them." (Haydock) --- Septuagint, "they prevailed over them, and the Agarites," etc. The ancient, or higher Iturea, lay between Hermon and Manasses; but the lower, which Josephus includes under this name, took in the deserted possessions of that half tribe. (Calmet) --- The former (Haydock) extended from Jordan by Libanus, to the mountains of Tyre. (Menochius) --- And Naphis, sons of Ismael, Genesis 25:13. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 5:20 Gave them help. And the Agarites were delivered into their hands, and all that were with them, because they called upon God in the battle: and he heard them, because they had put their faith in him.

I Chronicles 5:21 And they took all that they possessed, of camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men a hundred thousand souls.

I Chronicles 5:22 And many fell down slain: for it was the battle of the Lord. And they dwelt in their stead till the captivity.

Lord. Very dreadful, and in obedience to God's orders. --- Captivity, ver. 6. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 5:23 And the children of the half tribe of Manasses possessed the land, from the borders of Basan unto Baal, Hermon, and Sanir, and Mount Hermon; for their number was great.

Basan, which belonged to Gad. (Haydock) --- In Josue (xvii. 5.) Basan and Galaad seem to be given to Manasses; but the former there denotes all the level country, from the Jabok to the Jordan, as Galaad is put for the mountains on the East. (Calmet) --- Great. It would take thirty hours to travel from the torrent Jabok to Baal Hermon. (Adrichomius) (Menochius)
I Chronicles 5:24 And these were the heads of the house of their kindred, Epher, and Jesi, and Eliel, and Esriel, and Jeremia, and Odoia, and Jediel; most valiant and powerful men, and famous chiefs in their families.

I Chronicles 5:25 But they forsook the God of their fathers, and went astray after the gods of the people of the land, whom God destroyed before them.

I Chronicles 5:26 And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Phul, *king of the Assyrians, and the spirit of Thelgathphalnasar, king of Assur: and he carried away Ruben, and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses, and brought them to Lahela, and to Habor, and to Ara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day.

4 Kings 15:19, 29.
Assur. These princes were scourges in the hand of God, to punish the guilty. (Haydock) --- The former forced Israel to pay tribute; the latter carried many into captivity, 4 Kings 15:19, 29., and 16:7. (Calmet) --- Lahela, or Hala and Haber, cities watered by the river Gozan. --- Ara; perhaps Rages, Tobias 1:16, etc. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 6:0 The genealogies of Levi, and of Aaron: the cities of the Levites.

I Chronicles 6:1 The *sons of Levi were, Gerson, Caath, and Merari.

Genesis 46:11.; 1 Paralipomenon 23:6.
Levi. The genealogy of the Levites is given with more exactitude than any of the preceding. Caath formed two branches, 1. the priests, descended from Aaron; 2. all his other children, who were simply Levites. (Calmet) --- Hence they are placed after the priests. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 6:2 The sons of Caath: Amram, Isaar, Hebron, and Oziel.

Isaar, or Aminadab, ver. 22.
I Chronicles 6:3 The children of Amram: Aaron, Moses, and Maria. The sons of Aaron: Nadab and Abiu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

Abiu. These died without children. The genealogy of Eleazar is given, as his family enjoyed the pontificate a long time, while that of Ithamar is neglected, (Calmet) as only Heli and a few others were raised to that dignity. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 6:4 Eleazar begot Phinees, and Phinees begot Abisue;

Eleazar. The nine following generations to Sadoc may be immediate. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 6:5 And Abisue begot Bocci, and Bocci begot Ozi;

Abisue. He is mentioned no where else. Josephus ([Antiquities?] V. ultra) calls him Abiezer. (Calmet) --- Many of these high priests were very obscure. (Menochius) --- Ozi, after whom Heli is supposed to have reigned, so that Zaraias and the three following were excluded, (Calmet) while Heli, and four of the same family of Ithamar, were acknowledged as high priests. (Tirinus) --- Abiathar was then forced to give place to Sadoc, (3 Kings 2:26.; Haydock) whose family was in power at the captivity, ver. 15. (Tirinus) --- Nicephorus (II. 4.) and Josephus ([Antiquities?] 10:11.) mention other high priests besides these. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 6:6 Ozi begot Zaraias, and Zaraias begot Merajoth;

I Chronicles 6:7 And Merajoth begot Amarias, and Amarias begot Achitob;

I Chronicles 6:8 Achitob begot Sadoc, and Sadoc begot Achimaas;

I Chronicles 6:9 Achimaas begot Azarias, Azarias begot Johanan;

Azarias. Perhaps the same who is called Amarias, (2 Paralipomenon 19:11.) as Johanan is probably the illustrious Joiada, 4 Kings 11:4.
I Chronicles 6:10 Johanan begot Azarias. This is he that executed the priestly office in the house which Solomon built in Jerusalem.

This may refer to either. (Calmet) --- The Holy Ghost gives an encomium to Joiada, for re-establishing the divine worship, (Junius) or to Azarias, for withstanding the impious attempt of king Osias. (Estius; Tirinus, etc.) (2 Paralipomenon 26:17. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 6:11 And Azarias begot Amarias, and Amarias begot Achitob;

I Chronicles 6:12 And Achitob begot Sadoc, and Sadoc begot Sellum;

Sellum, or Mosollam, chap 9:11. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:13 Sellum begot Helcias, and Helcias begot Azarias;

I Chronicles 6:14 Azarias begot Saraias, and Saraias begot Josedec.

I Chronicles 6:15 Now Josedec went out, when the Lord carried away Juda, and Jerusalem by the hands of Nabuchodonosor.

Went out, into captivity, while his father was slain, 4 Kings 25:18. More than 22 priests would be requisite to fill up near 900 years. See Salien.
I Chronicles 6:16 So the sons *of Levi were, Gerson, Caath, and Merari.

Exodus 6:16.
Gerson. Hebrew here reads Gersom, though it had Gerson before, ver. 1.
I Chronicles 6:17 And these are the names of the sons of Gerson: Lobni and Semei.

I Chronicles 6:18 The sons of Caath: Amram, and Isaar, and Hebron, and Oziel.

The, etc. This verse is repeated from ver. 2., as the author is now going to continue the genealogy of the Levites, in their natural order, (Haydock) to Samuel. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 6:19 The sons of Merari: Moholi and Musi. And these are the kindred of Levi according to their families;

I Chronicles 6:20 Of Gerson; Lobni, his son, Jahath, his son, Zamma, his son,

Jahath. See ver. 42, 43. --- Zamma springs from Semei, Jeth, Gerson, and has a son named Ethan, who has Adaia; as Zara begot Athanai, ver. 41. Almost all the names are rather different
I Chronicles 6:21 Joah, his son, Addo, his son, Zara, his son, Jethrai. his son.

I Chronicles 6:22 The sons of Caath: Aminadab, his son, Core, his son, Asir, his son,

Asir. While Core perished, his children were preserved, Numbers 16:30., and 26:11. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 6:23 Elcana, his son, Abiasaph, his son, Asir, his son,

Asir. This name seems superfluous (ver. 36., and Exodus 6:24.; Calmet) perhaps taken from the preceding verse. (Haydock) --- The two former were sons of Core, ver. 25, 37. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:24 Thahath, his son, Uriel, his son, Ozias, his son, Saul, his son.

I Chronicles 6:25 The sons of Elcana: Amasai, and Achimoth,

I Chronicles 6:26 And Elcana. The sons of Elcana: Sophai, his son, Nahath, his son,

Sophai, Nahath, and Eliab, are called Suph, Thohu, (ver. 34.; Calmet) and Eliel. (Haydock) --- Sophai may be a surname of Elcana. (Poole) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 6:27 Eliab, his son, Jeroham, his son, Elcana, his son;

Elcana, his son. It seems necessary to supply, "Samuel, his son," (Haydock) as he descended from the 3d Elcana. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 6:28 The sons of Samuel: the first-born, Vasseni, and Abia.

Vasseni. Some Latin copies subjoin "Joel," who was the first-born, (ver. 33.) (La Haye) --- Vasseni means, "and the second;" which can hardly be considered as the name of the eldest son, tough some have taken it as such, in like manner as they have explained six, 1 Paralipomenon 3:22. But then the v ought at least to be omitted, (Calmet) as it is in the Vatican and Alexandrian Septuagint, "Sani and Abia." (Haydock) --- Other editions insert "Joel," with the Syriac and Arabic. (Calmet) --- This person had therefore either two names, or Joel has been omitted, and we should translate "Joel and the second, Abia." (Menochius) --- These brothers acted so ill as judges, that the people took occasion to demand a king, 1 Kings 8:3.
I Chronicles 6:29 And the sons of Merari: Moholi, Lobni, his son. Semei, his son, Oza, his son,

I Chronicles 6:30 Samaa, his son, Haggia, his son, Asaia, his son.

I Chronicles 6:31 These are they, whom David set over the singing men of the house of the Lord, after that the *ark was placed:

2 Kings 6:1.; 2 Kings 6:17.
Year of the World 2959, Year before Christ 1045. The singing. Hebrew, "the hands or places of the canticle," the two tribunes on each side of the altar. Heman presided over the band in the middle, while Asaph directed those on the right, and Ethan those on the left, ver. 33, 39, and 44. (Calmet) --- Placed. Hebrew, "rested," as before David's time it had been carried about. He erected a tabernacle for it on Sion, and directed the Levites to attend in order, (chap. 25.) so that some should be present every day (Menochius) to honour God, both by instruments and vocal music, while the priests performed their sacred functions with the utmost decency.
I Chronicles 6:32 And they ministered before the tabernacle of the testimony with singing, until Solomon built the house of the Lord in Jerusalem; and they stood according to their order in the ministry.

I Chronicles 6:33 And these are they that stood with their sons, of the sons of Caath, Heman, a singer, the son of Joel, the son of Samuel,

Heman. Some families among the Levites were more distinguished than the rest, having authority to regulate the singers, and to give the tune. Hence many psalms are addressed to these masters of music. Yet from those titles we cannot surely infer that those psalms were composed by Asaph, etc. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:34 The son of Elcana, the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Thohu,

Eliel. Many of the genealogies do not seem to agree in these first 10 chapters, as some more obscure names have been passed over, (Menochius) or the people had different names, or, through the fault of transcribers, some alteration has taken place, which could hardly be avoided, without a constant miracle. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 6:35 The son of Suph, the son of Elcana, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai,

I Chronicles 6:36 The son of Elcana, the son of Johel, the son of Azarias, the son of Sophonias,

I Chronicles 6:37 The son of Thahath, the son of Asir, the son or Abiasaph, the son of Core,

I Chronicles 6:38 The son of Isaar, the son of Caath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel.

I Chronicles 6:39 And his brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, Asaph, the son of Barachias, the son of Samaa,

Brother, or relation, though of the family of Gerson. He also followed the same profession as Ethan did, ver. 44.
I Chronicles 6:40 The son of Michael, the son of Basaia, the son of Melchia,

I Chronicles 6:41 The son of Athanai, the son of Zara, the son of Adaia,

I Chronicles 6:42 The son of Ethan, the son of Zamma, the son of Semei,

I Chronicles 6:43 The son of Jeth, the son of Gerson, the son of Levi.

I Chronicles 6:44 And the sons of Merari, their brethren, stood on the left hand, Ethan, the son of Cusi, the son of Abdi, the son of Maloch,

Ethan is also called Idithun (chap. 25:1, 8.[6.?]) in the Psalms. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:45 The son of Hasabia, the son of Amasia, the son of Helcias,

I Chronicles 6:46 The son of Amasai, the son of Boni, the son of Somer,

I Chronicles 6:47 The son of Moholi, the son of Musi, the son of Merari, the son of Levi.

I Chronicles 6:48 Their brethren also, the Levites, who were appointed for all the ministry of the tabernacle of the house of the Lord.

Brethren. All the other Levites, who were not Cantors. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 6:49 But Aaron and his sons offered burnt-offerings upon the altar of holocaust, and upon the altar of incense, and were for every work of the holy of holies: and to pray for Israel, according to all that Moses, the servant of God, had commanded.

Offerings, which is here the meaning of incensum; as "incense" was not burnt on this altar, but only victims, Exodus 29:13.
I Chronicles 6:50 And these are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar, his son, Phinees, his son, Abisue, his son,

I Chronicles 6:51 Bocci, his son, Ozi, his son, Zarahia, his son,

I Chronicles 6:52 Meraioth, his son, Amarias, his son, Achitob, his son,

I Chronicles 6:53 Sadoc, his son, Achimaas, his son.

Sadoc. By God's ordinance Heli had been appointed. But the dignity still subsisted in Aaron's family. (Worthington) --- Achimaas, who was pontiff in the days of Solomon. This genealogy had been brought down to the Captivity, ver, 3, etc.) which shews that the author give extracts from different records.
I Chronicles 6:54 And these are their dwelling places by the towns and confines; to wit, of the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Caathites: for they fell to them by lot.

I Chronicles 6:55 And they gave them Hebron, in the land of Juda, and the suburbs thereof round about:

Suburbs, or 2000 cubits round the city. See Josue xx., and xxi. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:56 But the fields of the city, and the villages, to Caleb, son of Jephone.

I Chronicles 6:57 And to the sons of Aaron they gave of the cities for refuge, Hebron, and Lobna, and the suburbs thereof;

Of, is not authorized by the Vulgate civitates, but is added, to signify that all these 13 cities were not thus privileged. (Haydock) --- There were only six cites of refuge, of which Hebron was one. See Josue 20:7. (Calmet) (Menochius) --- Protestants, "And to the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of Juda, namely, Hebron, the city of refuge." But "such a licence to insert words at pleasure, cannot be allowed." Hebrew literally, "they gave cities of Hebrew refuge, Hebron," etc. The "sense absolutely disallows the word Judah," which is omitted , (Josue 21:13.) as well as in some Hebrew manuscripts in the Bamberg and Complutensian editions, and in those of Jablonski and Michaelis. --- Hari, "cities," ought to be hir, "a city," as only one is meant. We should also add with the Arabic and Syriac, and the parallel passage in Josue, "and her suburbs," after Hebron. (Kennicott) --- "Juda" is not found in the Septuagint, etc.: and Buxtorf acted with little wisdom, when he thought he had sufficiently answered Capellus, by observing that the Masora declared the word to be authentic. (Anticrit.) It is a great misfortune that most of the printed Hebrew editions have been given under such influence; and that the Masorets have defaced so many manuscripts by their corrections. (Haydock) --- Hence they probably burnt all the first edition of Naples, 1487, except part of a single copy, comprising the Cethubim given to Eton college by Dr. Pellet, which omits the word Juda. (Kennicott, Dis. 1:p. 520-2)
I Chronicles 6:58 And Jether, and Esthemo, with their suburbs, and Helon, and Dabir, with their suburbs:

I Chronicles 6:59 Asan also, and Bethsemes, with their suburbs.

Asan, perhaps Jethnan, or Ain, Josue 15:23., and 21:15. Syriac adds Ethra. (Calmet) --- Bethsemes. Alexandrian Septuagint subjoins, "Baither and its suburbs." (Haydock) --- All these cities were in the tribes of Juda and of Simeon. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 6:60 And out of the tribe of Benjamin: Gabee, and its suburbs, Almath, with its suburbs, Anathoth also with its suburbs: all their cities throughout their families, were thirteen.

Almath. Josue, Almon. --- Thirteen; but Geta and Gabaon are not here expressed, Josue 21:16, 17. (Calmet) --- Alexandrian Septuagint inserts, "Labee," before, and "Anchos, with its suburbs," after Anathoth, thus making 14; but these additional cities were not sacerdotal. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 6:61 And to the sons of Caath, that remained of their kindred, they gave out of the half tribe of Manasses, ten cities in possession.

Out of. We may supply, "the tribe of Dan, Ephraim, etc.," as only two cities belonged to Manasses, Josue 21:25. (Calmet) --- Double that number was taken from the two other tribes. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 6:62 And to the sons of Gerson, by their families, out of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Aser, and out of the tribe of Nephthali, and out of the tribe of Manasses, in Basan, thirteen cities.

I Chronicles 6:63 And to the sons of Merari, by their families, out of the tribe of Ruben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zabulon, they gave by lot twelve cities.

I Chronicles 6:64 And the children of Israel gave to the Levites the cities, and their suburbs:

I Chronicles 6:65 And they gave them by lot, out of the tribe of the sons of Juda, and out of the tribe of the sons of Simeon, and out of the tribe of the sons of Benjamin, these cities, which they called by their names,

Them. The priests, ver. 54. (Du Hamel) --- Names. Some being styled of the priests, (Calmet) other of the Levites, (Menochius) whose dominion as thus asserted. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:66 And to them, that were of the kindred of the sons of Caath, *and the cities in their borders were of the tribe of Ephraim.

Josue 21:21.
The cities, or rather "some cities," as all were not in the tribe of Ephraim. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 6:67 And they gave of the cities of refuge, Sichem, with its suburbs, in Mount Ephraim, and Gazer, with its suburbs,

Of the. Literally, "cities to flee to, (or of refuge) Sichem," (Haydock) which might induce some to suppose that all these cities were of this description; but, in reality, only Sichem had that privilege. (Calmet) --- Septuagint is liable to the same ambiguity. See ver. 57., (Haydock) Josue 20:7., and 21:21.
I Chronicles 6:68 Jecmaan also, with its suburbs, and Bethhoron, in like manner;

Jecmaan, or Cibsaim, (Josue) as Helon is put for Aialon below. And of the tribe of Dan, Eltheco and Gabathon is omitted. See Josue 21:23.
I Chronicles 6:69 Helon also, with its suburbs, and Gethremmon, in like manner:

I Chronicles 6:70 And out of the half tribe of Manasses, Aner, and its suburbs, Baalam, and its suburbs: to wit, to them that were left of the family of the sons of Caath.

Aner and Baalam, perhaps the same as Thanach and Gethremmon, which were given to the children of Caath of the inferior degree, (Josue 21:26.; Calmet) or, who were left out of the rank of priests, (Menochius) or before unprovided for, as the partition was made at different times. --- Baalam. Hebrew, "Balaam." Septuagint, "Iblaam" is the Jeblaam, Josue 17:11.
I Chronicles 6:71 And to the sons of Gersom, out of the kindred of the half tribe of Manasses, Gaulon, in Basan, and its suburbs, and Astharoth, with its suburbs.

Astharoth, or Bosra. (Calmet) --- Hebrew Hashtaroth, Josue 21:27. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 6:72 Out of the tribe of Issachar, Cedes, and its suburbs, and Dabereth, with its suburbs,

Cedes....Ramoth, and Anem, are Cesion, Jaramoth, and Engannim, Josue 21:28, 29.
I Chronicles 6:73 Ramoth also, and its suburbs, and Anem with its suburbs.

I Chronicles 6:74 And out of the tribe of Aser, Masal, with its suburbs, and Abdon, in like manner,

I Chronicles 6:75 Hucac also, and its suburbs, and Rohob, with its suburbs.

Hucac....Hamon, and Cariathaim, are Helcath, Hammoth-Dor, and Carthan.
I Chronicles 6:76 And out of the tribe of Nephthali, Cedes, in Galilee, and its suburbs, Hamon, with its suburbs, and Cariathaim, and its suburbs.

I Chronicles 6:77 And to the sons of Merari that remained, out of the tribe of Zabulon, Remmono, and its suburbs, and Thabor, with its suburbs:

Remmono and Thabor, or, Jecham and Cartha. (Haydock) --- Damna and Naalol are here omitted, Josue 21:35. There was formerly a town on Thabor, perhaps called Ceselet Thabor, Josue 19:12., and Judges 4:6. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 6:78 Beyond the Jordan also, over-against Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, out of the tribe of Ruben, Bosor, in the wilderness, with its suburbs, and Jassa, with its suburbs.

I Chronicles 6:79 Cademoth also, and its suburbs, and Mephaath, with its suburbs.

I Chronicles 6:80 Moreover also out of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth, in Galaad, and its suburbs, and Manaim, with its suburbs,

I Chronicles 6:81 Hesebon also, with its suburbs, and Jezer, with its suburbs.

I Chronicles 7:0 Genealogies of Issachar, Benjamin, Nephthali, Manasses, Ephraim, and Aser.

I Chronicles 7:1 Now *the sons of Issachar were, Thola, and Phua, Jasub, and Simeron, four.

Genesis 46:13.
Jasub, or Job. See Genesis 46:13., and Numbers 26:23. (Calmet) --- Simeron, elsewhere Samron and Semran; (Menochius) which shews, either that the names have been differently pronounced, or that the transcribers have erred. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 7:2 The sons of Thola: Ozi, and Raphaia, and Jeriel, and Jamai, and Jebsem, and Samuel, chiefs of the houses of their kindreds. Of the posterity of Thola, were numbered in the days of David, two and twenty thousand six hundred most valiant men.

Chiefs. They were at the head of distinct families. (Menochius) --- David. We know that David took an account of his fighting men, 2 Kings xxiv. But it is not certain that this register was made at that time; as we read that Benjamin was not numbered, 1 Paralipomenon 21:6. These lists were probably made when some expedition was intended by David. The author was not, perhaps, able to recover the accounts of Nephthali, Manasses, and Ephraim, no more that the genealogies of Dan (ver. 12) and Zabulon, which do not appear in this book. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:3 The sons of Ozi: Izrahia, of whom were born Michael, and Obadia, and Joel, and Jesia, five, all great men.

Sons, for "the son." (Du Hamel) --- Izrahia. He alone deserved to be mentioned. See ver. 6, where only three sons of Benjamin appear, though there were more, 1 Paralipomenon 8:2. (Tirinus) --- Five, comprizing Israhia, "all chiefs," (Haydock) men of note, (Du Hamel) or one name may be lost. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:4 And there were with them by their families and peoples, six and thirty thousand most valiant men ready for war: for they had many wives and children.

Children, who had numerous offspring; (Haydock) so that, in the days of David, these descendants of Thola, amounted to so many. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 7:5 Their brethren also throughout all the house of Issachar, were numbered fourscore and seven thousand most valiant men for war.

War. In all, this tribe could muster 145,600 men, at that time. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:6 The sons of *Benjamin were, Bela, and Bechor, and Jadihel, three.

Genesis 46:13.
Benjamin; a man, perhaps, of the tribe of Issachar. See ver. 10. Or the patriarch had originally ten sons, (Genesis 46:21.) or grandsons, five of whom only had children, and perhaps two of their families perished entirely in the war with the other tribes; (Judges 20:46.) so that, under David, only three branches were acknowledged. (Calmet) --- Jadihel, or Asbel in Genesis.
I Chronicles 7:7 The sons of Bela: Esbon, and Ozi, and Ozial, and Jerimoth, and Urai, five chiefs of their families, and most valiant warriors, and their number was twenty-two thousand and thirty-four.

Urai, a grandson, called Hir, ver. 12. (Calmet) --- Five chiefs, but inferior to the seven original families, (Numbers 26:38.; Menochius) unless the fortune of war had made great changes, or some of the lists be imperfect. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:8 And the sons of Bechor were, Zamira, and Joas, and Eliezer, and Elioenai, and Amri, and Jerimoth, and Abia, and Anathoth, and Almath: all these were the sons of Bechor.

I Chronicles 7:9 And they were numbered by the families, heads of their kindreds, most valiant men for war, twenty thousand and two hundred.

I Chronicles 7:10 And the son of Jadihel: Balan. And the sons of Balan: Jehus, and Benjamin, and Aod, and Chanana, and Zethan, and Tharsis, and Ahisahar.

I Chronicles 7:11 All these were sons of Jadihel, heads of their kindreds, most valiant men, seventeen thousand and two hundred, fit to go out to war.

I Chronicles 7:12 Sepham also, and Hapham, the sons of Hir: and Hasim, the sons of Aher.

And Hapham; called Mophim and Ophim, (Genesis xlvi.) and Suphim and Hupham, Numbers 26:39. --- Aher, in Hebrew means, "another" son, called Hazim: or more probably Aher ought to be Dan, the father of Husim, (Genesis 46:23.) as Dan and Nephthali had both the same mother, Bala, ver. 13. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:13 *And the sons of Nephthali; were Jasiel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Sellum, sons of Bala.

Genesis 46:21.
I Chronicles 7:14 And the son of Manasses, Ezriel: and his concubine, the Syrian, bore Machir, the father of Galaad.

Son. Hebrew, "sons....Ezriel, whom she bare." This seems imperfect. The Hebrews seldom name the mother. (Calmet) --- Septuagint intimate that the Syrian wife was mother of both. (Haydock) --- Galaad, whose posterity enjoyed the country of the same name, (Numbers 22:29., and 32:41.) only Machir in mentioned as the son of Manasses.
I Chronicles 7:15 And Machir took wives for his sons Happhim, and Saphan, and he had a sister, named Maacha: the name of the second was Salphaad, and Salphaad had daughters.

And Saphan. St. Jerome seems to have taken them for women. If they were the sons of Hir, (ver. 12) Machir probably adopted them. Hebrew, "Machir took a wife from Happhim," etc. But does one woman marry two men? Syriac and Arabic, "Machir took a wife one of the sisters of Huphim and Suphim, (the great and powerful) named Maacha." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "the sister of Huppim....whose sister's name was Maachah." (Haydock) --- Hebrew may have this sense, with a small alteration. (Calmet) --- Le Clerc thinks that the name of the woman has been lost, and the text altered. --- Second. This also seems defective, as no first had been mentioned. (Calmet) --- Two intervened between Machir and Salphaad, namely, Galaad and Hepher, (Numbers 26:29., and 27:1.; Menochius) so that Salphaad was his great-grandson. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 7:16 And Maacha, the wife of Machir, bore a son, and she called his name Phares; and the name of his brother was Sares: and his sons were, Ulam and Recen.

I Chronicles 7:17 And the son of Ulam, Badan. These are the sons of Galaad, the son of Machir, the son of Manasses.

Badan, perhaps the same with Jair; (Judges 10:3., and 1 Kings 12:11.; Calmet) or rather in this last place, the Syriac, etc., read more correctly Barac, and Samson instead of Samuel, who was then speaking. See Hebrews 11:32. There was no such deliverer as Badan, but the word has been corrupted from Barac. (Septuagint) (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 7:18 And his sister, named Queen, bore Goodlyman, and Abiezer, and Mohola.

Queen. Hebrew, "Moleceth bore Ishehod." St. Jerome and the Latin Church translate these names. (Worthington) --- Protestants, "Hammoleketh bore Ishod." (Haydock) --- The proper names might have been as well retained, (Calmet) as in the Septuagint. (Haydock) --- Some suppose that the mother of Josue, or Debora, may be designated. (Rabbins) --- Abiezer, (19) Leci, are the Jeser and Chelek, Numbers 26:30.
I Chronicles 7:19 And the sons of Semida were, Ahin, and Sechem, and Leci and Aniam.

I Chronicles 7:20 And the sons of Ephraim: were Suthala, Bared, his son, Thahath, his son, Elada, his son, Thahath, his son, and his son Zabad,

Bared, Thahath, probably called Becher and Theken, in Numbers. Three alone are there mentioned, though the other thirteen, whose names are given, seem to have been all the immediate sons of Ephriam, (Calmet) since he mourns for them, (ver. 22.; Menochius) and has other children afterwards. (Haydock) --- The dreadful slaughter made of them, is perhaps the reason why only three are mentioned in Numbers, and none in Genesis.
I Chronicles 7:21 And his son, Suthala, and his son, Ezer, and Elad: and the men of Geth, born in the land, slew them, because they came down to invade their possessions.

Son, Ezer. Hebrew, "and Ezer and Elad." His son, after each, seems to be twice omitted, as these were in the same degree as the rest. Septuagint agree with the Vulgate. (Haydock) --- Because they, the sons of Ephraim, (Calmet, etc.) or the men of Geth. (Syriac and Arabic) (Du Hamel) (Menochius) (Tirinus) --- The text is ambiguous, but the former supposition seems more rational, (Haydock) and more generally received. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:22 And Ephraim, their father, mourned many days, and his brethren came to comfort him.

I Chronicles 7:23 And he went in to his wife: and she conceived, and bore a son, and he called his name Beria; because he was born when it went evil with his house:

Beria. This name signifies, in evil, or in affliction. (Challoner) --- Briáe, "in howling." (Menochius)
I Chronicles 7:24 And his daughter was Sara, who built Bethoron, the nether and the upper, and Ozensara.

Daughter, or great grand-daughter, repaired these three cities. (Calmet) --- The last, probably, was called after her. (Haydock) --- But its situation is unknown. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:25 And Rapha was his son, and Reseph, and Thale, of whom was born Thaan,

Thale. Hebrew, "and Thale, his son, and Thaan, his son." These seem to have been the sons of Ephraim. The following were their descendants. (Haydock) --- At least Elisama was prince in the wilderness, (Calmet) under Moses; (Numbers 1:10.; Haydock) and Josue, the sixth from Ephraim, was 54 years old, when the Israelites left Egypt. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:26 Who begot Laadan: and his son was Ammiud, who begot Elisama,

I Chronicles 7:27 Of whom was born Nun, who had Josue for his son.

I Chronicles 7:28 And their possessions and habitations were Bethel, with her daughters, and eastward Noran, and westward Gazer and her daughters, Sichem also, with her daughters, as far as Asa, with her daughters.

I Chronicles 7:29 And by the borders of the sons of Manasses, Bethsan, and her daughters, Thanach, and her daughters, Mageddo, and her daughters, Dor, and her daughters: in these dwelt the children of Joseph, the son of Israel.

Daughters. Septuagint, "villages." --- Joseph, by Ephraim and Manasses, west of the Jordan. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 7:30 The children of *Aser were, Jemna, and Jesua, and Jessui, and Baria, and Sara, their sister.

Genesis 46:24.
I Chronicles 7:31 And the sons of Baria: Heber, and Melchiel: he is the father of Barsaith.

I Chronicles 7:32 And Heber begot Jephlat, and Somer, and Hotham, and Suaa, their sister.

I Chronicles 7:33 The sons of Jephlat: Phosech, and Chamaal, and Asoth: these are the sons of Jephlat.

I Chronicles 7:34 And the sons of Somer: Ahi, and Roaga, and Haba, and Aram.

Aram. Add, "and Helem," (Calmet) unless Helem was the first-born (ver. 35) of Ahi, which signifies "brother." Perhaps Helem was brother of Somer, called Hotham, ver. 32.
I Chronicles 7:35 And the sons of Helem, his brother: Supha, and Jemna, and Selles, and Amal.

I Chronicles 7:36 The sons of Supha: Sue, Harnapher, and Sual, and Beri, and Jamra,

I Chronicles 7:37 Bosor, and Hod, and Samma, and Salusa, and Jethran, and Bera.

Jethran. Septuagint, Jether," as in the following verse, ver. 38. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 7:38 The sons of Jether: Jephone, and Phaspha, and Ara.

Jephone. The father of Caleb was of the tribe of Juda. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 7:39 And the sons of Olla: Aree, and Haniel, and Resia.

I Chronicles 7:40 All these were sons of Aser, heads of their families, choice and most valiant captains of captains: and the number of them that were of the age that was fit for war, was six and twenty thousand.

Of captains; a Hebrew idiom, to denote the most excellent. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "chief of the princes." All mentioned from ver. 30, were at the hand of their tribe, in succession, and led their brethren to battle. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 8:0 The posterity of Benjamin is further declared down to Saul. His issue.

I Chronicles 8:1 Now *Benjamin begot Bale, his first-born, Asbel, the second, Ahara, the third,

Genesis 46:21.; 1 Paralipomenon 7:6.
Benjamin. Some farther particulars of his genealogy are given, for the honour of Saul; (Calmet) and many of those, who returned from captivity, are mentioned, 1 Esdras 10:11. (Sanctius) --- Bale, etc., are called Bela, (Menochius; 1 Paralipomenon 7:6.) Jadiel, and Ahiram, or Echi, Numbers 26:36., and Genesis xlvi.
I Chronicles 8:2 Nohaa, the fourth, and Rapha, the fifth.

Nohaa is probably styled Bechor; and Rapha, Ros, in Genesis.
I Chronicles 8:3 And the sons of Bale were: Addar, and Gera, and Abiud,

Addar, Ared or Hered. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 8:4 And Abisue, and Naaman, and Ahoe,

I Chronicles 8:5 And Gera, and Sephuphan, and Huram.

I Chronicles 8:6 These are the sons of Ahod, heads of families that dwelt in Gabaa, who were removed into Manahath.

Ahod, the judge, Judges 3:15. --- Manahath; the Menuchat, in the tribe of Juda, (chap. 2:54.) after the captivity. (Calmet) --- Abulensis thinks Manahath was in Moab, ver. 8. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 8:7 And Naaman, and Achia, and Gera, he removed them, and begot Oza, and Ahiud.

And. Literally, "but," autem. (Haydock) --- The sentence is clearer without this particle. (Menochius) --- Naaman was the first-born of Ahod; and Gera prevailed on his brethren to leave Gabaa, (Tirinus) and was probably the father of Oza. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 8:8 And Saharim begot in the land of Moab, after he sent away Husim and Bara, his wives.

Saharim. His father is not specified: but his was a Benjamite. (Menochius) --- Some force the Hebrew text to say that Ahod had three sons, whom he sent to form a colony at Manahath, and afterwards he had three others by his two wives, and at last, by Rodes, he had Jobab, etc. (Calmet) --- Begot. Protestants, "children in the country of Moab, after he had sent them away: Hushim and Baara were his wives." But the Septuagint intimate, that "Saharim begot....after he had sent away Osim, and his wife Baara, and he begot of Ada," etc. (Haydock) --- He had perhaps retired into Moab, at the same time as Elimelech, Ruth 1:(Tirinus) --- Those who were sent away were men, (eos) according to the Hebrew, unless (Haydock) the word should be eas. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 8:9 And he begot of Hodes, his wife, Jobab, and Sebia, and Mosa, and Molchom,

I Chronicles 8:10 And Jehus, and Sechia, and Marma. These were his sons, heads of their families.

I Chronicles 8:11 And Mehusim begot Abitob, and Elphaal.

Mehusim. Hebrew and Septuagint, "of Husim (ver. 8) he begot."
I Chronicles 8:12 And the sons of Elphaal: were Heber, and Misaam, and Samad: who built Ono, and Lod, and its daughters.

Ono was three miles from Lod, or Diospolis, (Lightfoot) built after the return from Babylon, (1 Esdras 2:23.; Calmet) in the territory of Benjamin. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 8:13 And Baria, and Sama, were heads of their kindreds that dwelt in Aialon: these drove away the inhabitants of Geth.

And Sama. They are supposed to have been sons of Elphaal. (Calmet) --- Aialon belonged to Dan, Josue 19:42. But it was near Benjamin, (Menochius) and was probably occupied by people chiefly of that tribe. (Haydock) --- Geth. We know not at what period.
I Chronicles 8:14 And Ahio, and Sesac, and Jerimoth,

I Chronicles 8:15 And Zabadia, and Arod, and Heder,

I Chronicles 8:16 And Michael, and Jespha, and Joha, the sons of Baria,

Baria, son of Elphaal. Whether the following were his brothers does not appear certain, as it seems more natural to have placed all his father's children together, ver. 12., and 18.
I Chronicles 8:17 And Zabadia, and Mosollam, and Hezeci, and Heber,

I Chronicles 8:18 And Jesamari, and Jezlia, and Jobab, sons of Elphaal,

I Chronicles 8:19 And Jacim, and Zechri, and Zabdi,

I Chronicles 8:20 And Elioenai, and Selethai, and Elial,

I Chronicles 8:21 And Adaia, and Baraia, and Samareth, the sons of Semei.

Semei; perhaps Sama, ver. 13. (Calmet) --- Septuagint read, Samai. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 8:22 And Jespham, and Heber, and Eliel,

I Chronicles 8:23 And Abdon, and Zechri, and Hanan,

I Chronicles 8:24 And Hanania, and Elam, and Anathothia,

I Chronicles 8:25 And Jephdaia, and Phanuel the sons of Sesac.

Sesac, probably mentioned in ver. 14. (Calmet) --- Septuagint have "Sosek," in both places.
I Chronicles 8:26 And Samsari, and Sohoria, and Otholia,

I Chronicles 8:27 And Jersia, and Alia, and Zechri, the sons of Jeroham.

I Chronicles 8:28 These were the chief fathers, and heads of their families, who dwelt in Jerusalem.

Families. Hebrew, "These were heads of the fathers by their generations, chief men." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Jerusalem, probably after the captivity. We find none of these names from ver. 14, in the days of Josue; and it was not easy for people to establish themselves at Jerusalem, till David had expelled the Jebusites. (Calmet) --- Yet we find that the tribes of Juda and Benjamin had seized the lower city long before, Josue 18:28. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 8:29 And *at Gabaon dwelt Abigabaon, and the name of his wife was Maacha:

1 Paralipomenon 9:35.
Dwelt. Literally, "they dwelt." But Hebrew and Septuagint, "in Gabaon, dwelt the father of Gaboan," (Haydock) who was called Jehiel, (chap. 9:35.) or Abiel, 1 Kings 9:1. (Calmet) --- The following verses are repeated in the next chapter, (Haydock) and seem to have been originally the same; though now many variations occur, which shew that "every Hebrew letter" has not been preserved. (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 8:30 And his first-born son Abdon, and Sur, and Cis, and Baal, and Nadab,

Baal. Add, "and Ner," (ver. 33., and 1 Paralipomenon 9:36.) as the Septuagint have it here also.
I Chronicles 8:31 And Gedor, and Ahio, and Zacher, and Macelloth.

Zacher, or Zacharias, 1 Paralipomenon 9. Hebrew omits the following name, as well as (Haydock) the end of the preceding one. (Kennicott) --- The Alexandrian Septuagint has the same faults. But the Vatican retains Macelloth. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 8:32 And Macelloth begot Samaa: and they dwelt over-against their brethren in Jerusalem, with their brethren.

Over-against, in the vicinity, while some remained at Gabaon. See Genesis 16:12. (Calmet) --- The family of Cis resided at Gabaa, 1 Kings 10:26. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 8:33 *And Ner begot Cis, and Cis begot Saul. And Saul begot Jonathan and Melchisua, and Abinadab, and Esbaal.

1 Kings 14:51.; 1 Paralipomenon 9:39.
Ner, son of Abiel, or of Jeheil, prince of Gabaon, ver. 29. (Haydock) --- From Aphia sprung Bechorah, Seror, Abiel, (1 Kings ix.) who is also called Ner and Jehiel. He had Ner, the father of Abner, and Cis, father of Saul. (Menochius) --- Abinadab, or Jessui, 1 Kings 14:49. (Calmet) --- Esbaal, alias Isboseth. (Challoner) --- The Hebrews avoid pronouncing the name of the idol, and substitute boseth, "confusion." (Calmet) --- Hence it is clear that many had two names. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 8:34 And the son of Jonathan was Meribbaal: and Meribbaal begot Micha.

Meribbaal, alias Mephiboseth, 2 Kings 4:4., (Challoner) and 2 Kings ix. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 8:35 And the sons of Micha, were Phithon, and Melech, and Tharaa, and Ahaz.

I Chronicles 8:36 And Ahaz begot Joada: and Joada begot Alamath, and Azmoth, and Zamri: and Zamri begot Mosa,

Joada, or Jara, 1 Paralipomenon 9:42. (Calmet) --- "Strange mistakes these!" (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 8:37 And Mosa begot Banaa, whose son was Rapha, of whom was born Elasa, who begot Asel.

I Chronicles 8:38 And Asel had six sons, whose names were Ezricam, Bochru, Ismahel, Saria, Obdia, and Hanan. All these were the sons of Asel.

I Chronicles 8:39 And the sons of Esec, his brother, were Ulam, the first-born, and Jehus, the second, and Eliphalet, the third.

I Chronicles 8:40 And the sons of Ulam were most valiant men, and archers of great strength: and they had many sons and grandsons, even to a hundred and fifty. All these were children of Benjamin.

Archers, particularly the natives of Gabaa, Judges 20:16. Jonathan is praised for his skill, 2 Kings 1:22. (Menochius) --- Benjamin. We might hence conclude that here ended the genealogy of that family. Yet we find it partly repeated in the following chapter, ver. 35. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 9:0 The Israelites, Priests, and Levites, who first dwelt in Jerusalem after the captivity. A repetition of the genealogy of Saul.

I Chronicles 9:1 And all Israel was numbered: and the sum of them was written in the Book of the kings of Israel and Juda: and they were carried away to Babylon for their transgression.

Israel. These registers were preserved by those who fled from the arms of Salmanasar, into the kingdom of Juda. Such records were preserved with the utmost care, and were collected by the author; who could give an account of what happened during and after the captivity, as he was an irreproachable eye-witness; not to mention the divine inspiration, which places his testimony out of the reach of criticism. (Calmet) --- And Juda; perhaps by some historian. (Menochius) --- Babylon, while Israel was removed elsewhere, by the Assyrians. (Haydock) --- The genealogies of Israel being hitherto recited, now those who came back from captivity appear. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 9:2 Now the first that dwelt in their possessions, and in their cities, were the Israelites, and the priests, and the Levites, and the Nathineans.

First. He only treats of those who returned first, (Tirinus) under Esdras. (Haydock) --- Nehemias brought back others, and more returned afterwards. Many also retook possession of their lands, which they had enjoyed before the captivity, 1 Esdras 3:12. --- Nathineans. These were the posterity of the Gabaonites, whose office was to bring wood, water, etc., for the service of the temple. (Challoner) (Josue 9:27.) --- David and Solomon consigned others of the Chanaanites, whose lives they spared, to perform the same office. They were like public slaves. The number of those who returned was so small, that days were appointed for all the people to help to carry wood for the temple. At Jerusalem the Nathineans, "or people given," resided on the east side of the city; (2 Esdras 2:26.) and other towns were assigned them, 1 Esdras 2:70. (Calmet) --- The people continued to be divided into four classes, as they had been before the captivity. (Malvenda)
I Chronicles 9:3 And in Jerusalem dwelt of the children of Juda, and of the children of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim, and of Manasses.

Manasses. People from these tribes particularly, (Haydock) as well as from others, had fled to the kingdom of Juda, when the Assyrians took their brethren prisoners; and these returned to Jerusalem. (Menochius) --- Cyrus gave a general leave for all Israel to return. The country was too spacious for them; and it was found necessary to force the tenth part of the people, by lot, to repair to Jerusalem, as it wanted inhabitants, 2 Esdras 11:1.
I Chronicles 9:4 Othei, the son of Ammiud, the son of Amri, the son of Omrai, the son of Bonni, of the sons of Phares, the son of Juda;

Othei; perhaps Hathaia, son of Husias. The Hebrew names are differently pronounced. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 9:5 And of Siloni: Asaia, the first-born, and his sons:

Siloni may mean a native of Silo, or a descendant of Sela. See Numbers 26:20., and 2 Esdras 11:5. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 9:6 And of the sons of Zara: Jehuel, and their brethren, six hundred and ninety.

I Chronicles 9:7 And of the sons of Benjamin: Salo, the son of Mosollam, the son of Oduia, the son of Asana.

Oduia, or Johed, or Juda, 2 Esdras xi., and 7:9. (Junius)
I Chronicles 9:8 And Jobania, the son of Jeroham: and Ela, the son of Ozi, the son of Mochori: and Mosallam, the son of Saphatias, the son of Rahuel, the son of Jebania:

I Chronicles 9:9 And their brethren by their families, nine hundred and fifty-six. All these were heads of their families by the houses of their fathers.

I Chronicles 9:10 And of the priests: Jedaia, Joiarib, and Jachin:

I Chronicles 9:11 And Azarias, the son of Helcias, the son of Mosollam, the son of Sadoc, the son of Maraioth, the son of Achitob, high priest of the house of God.

Azarias, or Saraias, ibid. 11.[2 Esdras 11:11.?] --- Mosollam, or Sellum, 1 Paralipomenon 6:12. (Calmet) --- High is not expressed in Pontifex; and this Azarias was only (Haydock) one of the principal families; (Menochius; Du Hamel) perhaps the second in dignity; (4 Kings 25:18.) while Jesus was the successor of Aaron, 1 Esdras 3:8. (Calmet) --- Hebrew and Septuagint, "the ruler," (Haydock) or "captain of the guard of the house." (Calmet) --- They were styled pontiffs, or princes of the priests. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 9:12 And Adaias, the son of Jeroham, the son of Phassur, the son of Melchias: and Maasai, the son of Adiel, the son of Jezra, the son of Mosollam, the son of Mosollamith, the son of Emmer.

Phassur, Pheshur, (Haydock) or Phetur. From him sprung Zacharias, Amsi, Phelelia, Jehoram; so that the last was only the great-grandson of Phassur, 2 Esdras 11:12. --- Maasai. In Esdras 5:13 Amassai, the son of Azreel, the son of Ahazi.
I Chronicles 9:13 And their brethren, heads in their families, a thousand seven hundred and threescore; very strong and able men for the work of the ministry in the house of God.

I Chronicles 9:14 And of the Levites: Semeia, the son of Hassub, the son of Ezricam, the son of Hasebia, of the sons of Merari.

Levites, established at Jerusalem.
I Chronicles 9:15 And Bacbacar, the carpenter, and Galal, and Mathania the son of Micha, the son of Zachri, the son of Asaph:

Carpenter. Hebrew Cheresh, is taken by some to be a surname. Septuagint, "And Ares." It is asserted that the priests and Levites could follow no mechanical profession, (Abulensis) and the Bacbacar only presided over the carpenters, who wrought in the temple. (Menochius) (Tirinus) --- But why might not people of this order employ themselves in such arts and labours, which were never deemed degrading among the Hebrews, nor incompatible with the sacred ministry, during the leisure hours? (Calmet) --- St. Paul did not disdain to make tents. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 9:16 And Obdia, the son of Semeia, the son of Galal, the son of Idithun: and Barachia, the son of Asa, the son of Elcana, who dwelt in the suburbs of Netophati.

Suburbs, or "courts," atriis. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "villages." (Menochius) --- Netophati was a town of Juda. The ancient regulations could not be observed exactly. (Calmet) --- The priests received the Levites into their cities. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 9:17 And the porters were, Sellum, and Accub, and Telmon, and Ahimam: and their brother, Sellum, was the prince.

Sellum had the superintendency over all the porters. (Haydock) --- He was also at the head of one of the four bands which guarded the doors, east, west, north, and south of the temple, with various apartments, ver. 26. (Calmet) --- Brother. Hebrew, "brethren," or bands. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 9:18 Until that time, in the king's gate eastward, the sons of Levi waited by their turns.

Time. Hebrew, "and hitherto." This custom has been observed at the king's gate, who entered his tribune by the eastern gate of the temple, 4 Kings 16:18. So far the ancient records reach. Some would infer from this passage, that a guard was still kept at the king's gate, even though there was none sitting upon the throne after the captivity. (Calmet) --- Protestants, ("who hitherto waited in the king's gate eastward.) They were porters in the companies of the children of Levi." (Haydock) --- These different bands attended by turns. (Menochius) --- But the captains were on duty every day, ver. 25, and 26, and 34.
I Chronicles 9:19 But Sellum, the son of Core, the son of Abiasaph, the son of Core, with his brethren, and his father's house, the Corites, were over the works of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle: and their families in turns were keepers of the entrance of the camp of the Lord.

Service, to keep watch. (Calmet) --- Families. Hebrew, "fathers over the host, (Haydock) or camp of the Lord: keepers of the entry." The Corites, though not perhaps alone, performed what their fathers had done before the tabernacle, in the desert, and in the temple of Solomon; which were considered as the camp of the great king.
I Chronicles 9:20 And Phinees, the son of Eleazar, was their prince before the Lord;

Before. Hebrew, "the Lord with him," an usual form of blessing, (Calmet) or of wishing well (Haydock) to the deceased. (Calemt) --- This Phinees lived after the captivity, (Menochius) and possessed the same power as Eleazar and Joiada, 1 Paralipomenon 12:27., and Numbers 3:32. It is not necessary to refute the fables of the Rabbins, who pretend that the famous Phinees was an angel, who appeared at different times, and particularly at the return from Babylon. (Calmet) --- Hebrew may refer to the ancient Phinees: "And Phinees....was ruler over them formerly, and the Lord was with him." (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 9:21 And Zacharias, the son of Mosollamia, was porter of the gate of the tabernacle of the testimony.

Gate, leading to the holy place, which corresponded with the tabernacle.
I Chronicles 9:22 All these that were chosen to be porters at the gates, were two hundred and twelve: and they were registered in their proper towns: whom David, and Samuel, the seer, appointed in their trust;

Towns, where they resided, when they were not on duty. (Menochius) --- Seer, or prophet. (Haydock) --- We read not of his making any such regulation. But he probably made it after the misconduct of the sons of Heli, and when the ark was brought back. (Calmet) --- He might also give private instructions to David for the same purpose; (Haydock) as Gad and Nathan did, 2 Paralipomenon 29:25. The same plans were still adopted, though the number of Levites was smaller. (Calmet) --- Trust, while they were at the head of affairs, and acting by God's authority. Literally, "in their faith;" (Haydock) enlightened from above, and regulating matters according to the dispositions, which they discovered in the sacred ministers: or rather Hebrew, "in their established employment," which was to subsist in future ages. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 9:23 As well them as their sons, to keep the gates of the house of the Lord, and the tabernacle, by their turns.

I Chronicles 9:24 In four quarters were the porters: that is to say, toward the east, and west, and north, and south.

Quarters: literally, "by the four winds."
I Chronicles 9:25 And their brethren dwelt in villages, and came up on their sabbath-days from time to time.

Up on. Hebrew, "after seven days....with them," to take their place for a week.
I Chronicles 9:26 To these four Levites were committed the whole number of the porters, and they were over the chambers, and treasures of the house of the Lord.

To these. Hebrew, "for these Levites, (Sellum, etc.; ver. 17) four chief porters were in their set office," for life, or as long as they were able to serve, and did not change every week like the rest. --- Lord: the apartments of the priests, and the storehouses, (Haydock) where all precious ornaments, wine, etc., were kept. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 9:27 And they abode in their watches round about the temple of the Lord: that when it was time, they might open the gates in the morning.

I Chronicles 9:28 And some of their stock had the charge of the vessels for the ministry: for the vessels were both brought in and carried out by number.

I Chronicles 9:29 Some of them also had the instruments of the sanctuary committed unto them, and the charge of the fine flour, and wine, and oil, and frankincense, and spices.

I Chronicles 9:30 And the sons of the priests made the ointments of the spices.

Priests. They alone were allowed to make the composition, which no mortal was permitted to use (Calmet) for his own pleasure. (Haydock) (Exodus 30:34.)
I Chronicles 9:31 And Mathathias, a Levite, the first-born of Sellum, the Corite, was overseer of such things as were fried in the frying-pan.

Pan, to be offered on the altar of holocausts, (Leviticus 2:4., and 7:12.) or to be eaten by the priests, Ezechiel 46:20. Mathathias was to take care that all this was done with decency, (Calmet) and to look after the utensils.
I Chronicles 9:32 And some of the sons of Caath, their brethren, were over the leaves of proposition, to prepare always new for every sabbath.

Proposition. Hebrew, "of arrangement;" (Exodus 35:13.) "of faces." These loaves were made by the Levites, but arranged upon the golden table every week (Calmet) before the ark. See 1 Paralipomenon 23:92.
I Chronicles 9:33 These are the chief of the singing men, of the families of the Levites, who dwelt in the chambers, by the temple, that they might serve continually, day and night, in their ministry.

These; probably Sellum, etc., (ver. 17) though it is not certain that the chief porters presided also over the singers, 1 Paralipomenon 15.; 1 Paralipomenon 16. Hebrew, "And these are the singers, chief of the families (Calmet; or fathers) of the Levites, in the chambers (of the temple) free" from all other avocations, (Haydock) that they may watch over the porters and musicians. Septuagint is clearer: (Calmet) "And these are the masters of music over the bands of Levites, observing their daily courses, because they are day and night over them in the works." (Haydock) --- The sons of Caath seem to be chiefly specified, (ver. 32) though other families sung, 1 Paralipomenon 6:39. --- Chambers, at a distance from their wives, to trim the lamps in the evening, and to see that none were extinguished, (Menochius) as also to teach music, etc. The Synagogues were used afterwards. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 9:34 The heads of the Levites, princes in their families, abode in Jerusalem.

Jerusalem, having no substitute; (chap. 16.) (Haydock) or the chiefs of each family resided there. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 9:35 And *in Gabaon dwelt Jehiel, the father of Gabaon, and the name of his wife was Maacha.

1 Paralipomenon 8:29.
And in. These verses are repeated from the last chapter, in order to bring us to the death of Saul, (Menochius) and the reign of David. (Calmet) --- "Tis difficult to account for the repetition, provided they were repeated originally; but if they have been repeated through the blunder of a transcriber, the existence of the same words" before them may be the reason. (Kennicott) --- The father of Gabaon. This is the explanation of Abigabaon, 1 Paralipomenon 8:29. (Haydock) --- Wife. So the former chapter, and all the ancient versions, with some Hebrew manuscripts, read, instead of the printed Hebrew, "sister," (Kennicott) which seems to be corrupted; (Calmet) and the Protestants venture to correct it. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 9:36 His first-born son, Abdon, and Sur, and Cis, and Baal, and Ner, and Nadab,

I Chronicles 9:37 Gedor also, and Ahio, and Zacharias, and Macelloth.

I Chronicles 9:38 And Macelloth begot Samaan: these dwelt over-against their brethren in Jerusalem, with their brethren.

I Chronicles 9:39 *Now Ner begot Cis, and Cis begot Saul, and Saul begot Jonathan, and Melchisua, and Abinadab, and Esbaal.

1 Paralipomenon 8:33.
I Chronicles 9:40 And the son of Jonathan was Meribbaal: and Meribbaal begot Micha.

I Chronicles 9:41 And the sons of Micha, were Phithon, and Melech, and Tharaa, and Ahaz.

Tharaa. Hebrew, "Tachrea." (Kennicott) e, is substituted for a. (Haydock) --- And Ahaz, is omitted in Hebrew, (Kennicott) and Septuagint.
I Chronicles 9:42 And Ahaz begot Jara, and Jara begot Alamath, and Azmoth, and Zamri. And Zamri begot Mosa:

Jara. Hebrew Yahra instead of Jeuáde, or Johada, (Calmet) 1 Paralipomenon 8:36, twice. Septuagint, Jada here, and Joiada above. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 9:43 And Mosa begot Banaa: whose son Raphaia begot Elasa: of whom was born Asel.

Raphaia, called Rapha before. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 9:44 And Asel had six sons whose names are, Ezricam, Bochru, Ismahel, Saria, Obdia, Hanan: these are the sons of Asel.

These. All is omitted, though it is found [in] 1 Paralipomenon 8:38, and in manuscript 2:(Kennicott) --- These remarks, which may appear to some minute, shew that all Hebrew manuscripts are not absolutely alike, as some once pretended; and that the Hebrew Bible is not printed from the best copies. (Haydock) --- "The sacred volume in Hebrew has, therefore, been published with such carelessness, as no other printed copy with which I am acquainted." (Houbigant, prol. p. 2.) --- Yet this is the copy, which alone Protestants hold up as the standard of perfection, and the Rule of Faith! (Haydock)
I Chronicles 10:0 Saul is slain for his sins: he is buried by the men of Jabes.

I Chronicles 10:1 Now *the Philistines fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down wounded in Mount Gelboe.

1 Kings 31:1.
Now. Septuagint, "and." (Haydock) --- This has no connexion with what goes before. (Calmet) --- This history is given more at large, 1 Kings xxxi., and 2 Kings 1:(Menochius)
I Chronicles 10:2 *And the Philistines drew near, pursuing after Saul and his sons, and they killed Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchisua, the sons of Saul.

Year of the World 2949, Year before Christ 1055.
I Chronicles 10:3 And the battle grew hard against Saul, and the archers reached him, and wounded him with arrows.

Reached: literally, "found." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, or "attacked him, and he feared the archers. He was not, at least, mortally wounded, when he took the desperate resolution to destroy himself, through fear and consternation. (Calmet) Yet the original will admit the sense of the Vulgate and Saul might have received some wounds. Septuagint, "Archers found him with bows, and in labours, and he laboured on account of (or to avoid) the bows." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 10:4 And Saul said to his armour-bearer: Draw thy sword, and kill me: lest these uncircumcised come, and mock me. But his armour-bearer would not; for he was struck with fear: so Saul took his sword, and fell upon it.

Fear and reverence for his master, (Calmet) as well as concern for his own safety. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 10:5 And when his armour-bearer saw it, to wit, that Saul was dead, he also fell upon his sword, and died.

I Chronicles 10:6 So Saul died, and his three sons, and all his house fell together.

Fell. Hebrew, "died." (Calmet) --- But, though the house of Saul was fallen from its former glory, on this fatal day, when so many of his courtiers perished; yet he left Isboseth to bewail his fate, (Haydock) and some others who were not of age to go to battle. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 10:7 And when the men of Israel, that dwelt in the plains, saw this, they fled: and Saul and his sons being dead, they forsook their cities, and were scattered up and down: and the Philistines came, and dwelt in them.

I Chronicles 10:8 And the next day, the Philistines taking away the spoils of them that were slain, found Saul and his sons lying on Mount Gelboe.

I Chronicles 10:9 And when they had stripped him, and cut off his head, and taken away his armour, they sent it into their land, to be carried about, and shewed in the temples of the idols, and to the people.

To be. Hebrew, "to carry tidings to their idols, (sorrows) and to the people." They exposed the spoils in the temples, and gave thanks to their idols for the victory.
I Chronicles 10:10 And his armour they dedicated in the temple of their god, and his head they fastened up in the temple of Dagon.

Head, while his body was hung on the walls of Bethsan, 1 Kings 31:10. (Calmet) --- The temple of Dagon was contiguous to the wall. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 10:11 And when the men of Jabes Galaad had heard this, to wit, all that the Philistines had done to Saul,

I Chronicles 10:12 All the valiant men of them arose, and took the bodies of Saul and of his sons, and brought them to Jabes, and buried their bones under the oak that was in Jabes, and they fasted seven days.

Oak, well known at Jabes. Elsewhere the word is translated, the grove. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 10:13 So Saul died for his iniquities, because he transgressed the *commandment of the Lord, which he had commanded, and kept it not: **and moreover consulted also a witch,

Exodus 17:14.; 1 Kings 15:3. --- ** 1 Kings 28:8.
For. Septuagint, "in his iniquities." (Haydock) --- See 1 Kings 13:9., and 15:23. Saul offered sacrifice unlawfully, and spared some of the Amalecites. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 10:14 And trusted not is the Lord: therefore he slew him, and transferred his kingdom to David, the son of Isai.

I Chronicles 11:0 David is made king. He taketh the castle of Sion. A catalogue of his valiant men.

I Chronicles 11:1 Then *all Israel gathered themselves to David in Hebron, saying: We are thy bone, and thy flesh.

2 Kings 5:1.;
Year of the World 2957. David. This name is written without i, in the books composed before the captivity, (the year before Christ 588) but i is inserted in the latter works, which is an argument against the antiquities of [Canticle of] Canticles, where the i is found. Yet the manuscripts vary so, that great stress is not laid on this (Kennicott) proof, and it is not sufficient weight to stand against the general opinion, which attributes that work to Solomon. (Haydock) --- Hebron, after the death of Isboseth, 2 Kings 5. (Calmet) --- Flesh; related, as the children of Jacob.
I Chronicles 11:2 Yesterday also, and the day before, when Saul was king, thou wast he that led out and brought in Israel: for the Lord thy God said to thee: Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over them.

I Chronicles 11:3 So all the ancients of Israel came to the king, to Hebron, and David made a covenant with them before the Lord: and they anointed him king over Israel, according to the word of the Lord, which he spoke in the hand of Samuel.

Which he spoke, is not expressed in Hebrew or Septuagint. Samuel complied with the injunction, by anointing David, 1 Kings 16:13. He also wrote an account of this memorable transaction, which translated the sceptre from one family to another. (Haydock) --- It is, on this account, that the author here takes particular notice of God's decree. (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 11:4 And David, and all Israel, went to Jerusalem,* which is Jebus, where the Jebusites were the inhabitants of the land.

2 Kings 5:6.;
Year of the World 2957, Year before Christ 1047.
I Chronicles 11:5 And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David: Thou shalt not come in here. But David took the castle of Sion, which is the City of David.

Here. In 2 Kings 5:6, the passage is much fuller, and attended with many difficulties. Kennicott would correct and translate it: "And they spake unto David, saying, Thou shalt not come hither: for the blind and the lame shall keep thee off, by saying, David shall not come hither. But David took the stronghold of Sion," (different from the citadel. Josephus) "which is the city of David. And David said, on that day, whosoever (first) smiteth the Jebusites, and, through the subterraneous passage, reacheth the blind and the lame, which are hated of David's soul, because the blind and the lame continued to say, he shall not come into this house---shall be head and captain. So Joab, the son of Zeruiah, went up first, and was head."
I Chronicles 11:6 And he said: Whosoever shall first strike the Jebusites, shall be the head and chief captain. And Joab, the son of Sarvia, went up first, and was made the general.

I Chronicles 11:7 And David dwelt in the castle, and therefore it was called the City of David.

I Chronicles 11:8 And he built the *city round about, from Mello all round, and Joab built the rest of the city.

Year of the World 2958. Round. He made a complete inclosure or fortification, as Mello denotes perfection, or completion, (Haydock) by building houses from the castle to the town beneath it. David begun at the very house (or citadel, 4 Kings 12:20.) from which the blind and the lame thought to have excluded him, and built all round, so as to make an entire communication. (Kennicott) --- Built. Protestants, "repaired." Hebrew yechaye, (Haydock) "saved alive." (Syriac, etc.; Poole's Synop.) But probably shear is now written instead of shor, and jéje ought to be jeje. The long and the short e are easily confounded, (Haydock) and a is frequently thus inserted. (Watson) --- "He built....round to the beginning of that circuit. And Joab was made governor of the city." (Kennicott) --- "And surrounding it with a wall, he appointed Joab superintendant of the walls." (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 7:3.) --- The position of the vowel points in these words, might naturally cause this mistake, (Haydock) as it seems to have done on other occasions. Thus shor, "an ox," should be sar, "a prince," Genesis 49:6., and Osee 12:11. Shevarim, "oxen," has been read sarim, "princes," by the Septuagint. The former passage might admit of some corrections. "In their anger they slew the men, and in their fury (vabrothom; instead of vabrotsnom, which is always explained in a good sense) they destroyed the princes. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their fury, for it was inflexible."
I Chronicles 11:9 And David went on growing and increasing, and the Lord of hosts was with him.

Lord. 2 Kings adds God, more properly, as it seems always to have been inserted, though it is now wanting in two hundred places. (Kennicott, Dis. 1:p. 62 and 525.)
I Chronicles 11:10 *These are the chief of the valiant men of David, who helped him to be made king over all Israel, according to the word of the Lord, which he spoke to Israel.

2 Kings 23:8.
These. Besides the help which David received immediately from God, he derived great assistance from Joab, the captain-general, from the six more renowned valiant men, and from the body of Thirty, as well as from fifteen others of less note, who are mentioned here. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:11 And this is the number of the heroes of David: Jesbaam, the son of Hachamoni, the chief among the thirty: he lifted up his spear, against three hundred, wounded by him at one time.

Number. 2 Kings 23:8., the names. But the two authors do not always use the same terms. (Kennicott) --- Thirty, or three, (2 Kings) more correctly. (Du Hamel) --- Three. 2 Kings, eight; (Haydock) probably by mistake. --- Wounded, or rather soldiers. He encountered singly a whole regiment, though he might not kill them all; much less did he attack them, when already wounded. (Kennicott) -- Numbers have often been expressed by letter in Hebrew, as well as in Greek and other languages. Our numeral figures are not liable to fewer mistakes. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "This is the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, (the son of Zabdiel) the Hachmonite, chief of three. He lifted up his spear against three hundred soldiers at one time." (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 11:12 And after him was Eleazar, his uncle's son, the Ahohite, who was one of the three mighties.

His. Hebrew, "the son of Dodi."
I Chronicles 11:13 He was with David in Phesdomim, when the Philistines were gathered to that place to battle: and the field of that country was full of barley, and the people fled from before the Philistines.

And. "Who could have discovered that thirty-four words are here omitted, if they had not been preserved in 2 Kings 23.," though with some inaccuracy? We should read, "And when the men of Israel were fled, he arose and smote the Philistines, until his hand was weary, and his hand clave unto the sword. And the Lord wrought a great deliverance that day; and the people returned after him only to spoil. And after him was Shammah, the son of Agee, the Hararite: And the Philistines were gathered together at Lechi, where was a piece of ground full of barley....14. But he placed himself in the midst of the field, (of barley) and saved it, and smote the Philistines; and the Lord wrought a great deliverance." (Kennicott) --- The name of Semma must have been omitted by the transcriber. (Calmet) --- Without it, how will the number 37 be made out?
I Chronicles 11:14 But these men stood in the midst of the field, and defended it; and they slew the Philistines; and the Lord gave a great deliverance to his people.

These men. Septuagint speak only of one: "And he stood," etc., (Haydock) and the verbs are singular, 2 Kings 23:12. --- Gave. Hebrew vayahas (ibid.[2 Kings 23:12.?]) is more correct than vayosha, "saved." (Kennicott) --- Protestants are forced to add, "saved them by a great deliverance." But there is nothing in the original signifying by. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:15 *And three of the thirty captains went down to the rock, wherein David was, to the cave of Odollam, when the Philistines encamped in the valley of Raphaim.

2 Kings 23:13.
Captains. This is not rightly expressed in any of the ancient versions, no more than in the Protestant, which has, ""Three of the Thirty chief;" marginal note, "Three captains over the Thirty." The latter signification comes much nearer to the truth. It should be, "And there went down three captains, (Jesbaam, Eleazar, and Semma. Haydock) who were over Thirty." There were properly seven captains, or "heads of the other Thirty." --- Rock, (hatsur) which seems preferable to katsir, "in the time of harvest," 2 Kings. (Kennicott) (Calmet)
I Chronicles 11:16 *And David was then in a hold, and the garrison of the Philistines in Bethlehem.

2 Kings 23:14.
Garrison, or advanced guard.
I Chronicles 11:17 And David longed, and said: O that some man would give me water of the cistern of Bethlehem, which is in the gate.

O that. Hebrew, "Who will." David wished to see his native country freed from the troops of the Philistines. --- In. Hebrew, "by the gate."
I Chronicles 11:18 And these three broke through the midst of the camp of the Philistines, and drew water out of the cistern of Bethlehem, which was in the gate, and brought it to David to drink: and he would not drink of it, but rather offered it to the Lord,

These. Hebrew, "The three (or perhaps, three of the mighty men) brake through the host of the Philistines....by the gate, and took, and brought it to David. But David would not drink it; and he poured it out unto the Lord," by way of prayer, (Kennicott) or of thanksgiving. (Josephus)
I Chronicles 11:19 Saying: God forbid that I should do this in the sight of my God, and should drink the blood of these men: for with the danger of their lives they have brought me the water. And therefore he would not drink. These things did the three most valiant.

In the. Hebrew, "thing! Shall I drink the blood of these men, with their lives? for at the hazard of their lives they have brought it! And he would not drink it. These things did these three mighty men," (Kennicott) forming the first ternary. (Tirinus) --- Among these heroes there were different degrees of excellence. (Calmet) --- Protestants acknowledge the superlative, "mightiest:" but "mighty" would do better, as they were not still equal to Joab. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:20 And Abisai, the brother of Joab, he was chief of three, and he lifted up his spear against three hundred, whom he slew, and he was renowned among the three,

Abisai. His name is written without the middle i, in all this book. --- Three. Alexandrian Septuagint alone reads, "six." --- He was. Hebrew adds, "not;" evidently mistaking lo, "not," for lo, "ei." See 4 Kings 8:10. "He lifted up his spear against 300 soldiers, and had a name among Three." (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 11:21 And illustrious among the second three, and their captain: but yet he attained not to the first three.

Second and (Haydock) first occur not in Hebrew and Septuagint. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "Of the three he was more honourable than two; therefore he was their captain: and yet he attained not unto the first three." (Kennicott) --- First is indeed the sense, but it is not expressed in the original. We have here the exact order of these mighty men sufficiently marked out. Abisai is the first captain (Haydock) of the second ternary. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 11:22 Banaias, the son of Joiada, a most valiant man, of Cabseel, who had done many acts; he slew the two ariels of Moab; and he went down, and killed a lion in the midst of a pit, in the time of snow.

Two ariels. That is, two lions, or lion-like men; for ariel, in Hebrew, signifies "a lion (Challoner) of God," the strongest compound word for "a man of valour. The courage of a lion is so singular, that a man of extraordinary heroism is frequently called a lion, by way of emphasis; and the word God is frequently applied in Scripture to things particularly great." (Kennicott) --- V is wanting at the beginning and end of the name of Banaias, (here Benaia, instead of Ubenaiahu and Banaias, 2 Kings.) The last letter (ver. 24) serves to distinguish this third captain in waiting on the king, from the eleventh, ver. 31., and 1 Paralipomenon 27:5., and 14. (Haydock) -- Hebrew, "And Benaihu, the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man of Kabzeel, mighty in exploits; he slew two men of Moab, who were stouter than lions. He also went down and slew a lion in a pit, in a snowy day." (Kennicott) --- We have observed, that "And" is not found in the printed Hebrew nor is it in the Protestant, "Benaiah....slew two lion-like men, of Moad." Literally, "ariels;" (Septuagint) that is, "lions of God," or two of Moab equal to (Haydock) the strongest lions. (Worthington) --- Yet it is not certain whether these were not real lions, as well as the following. (Haydock) --- St. Jerome translates, two lions of Moab, 2 Kings 23:20. (Calmet) --- Lion: ari is written arih, 2 Kings. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:23 And he slew an Egyptian, whose stature was of five cubits, and who had a spear like a weaver's beam: and he went down to him with a staff, and plucked away the spear, that he held in his hand, and slew him with his own spear.

Cubits. 2 Kings, "a man of great aspect." --- Ones. Hebrew, "and he had a name among three mighty men." (Kennicott) --- Shelosha, "three," has the u omitted, (2 Kings) as it is frequently on other occasions. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:24 These things did Banaias, the son of Joiada, who was renowned among the three valiant ones,

I Chronicles 11:25 And the first among the thirty, but yet to the first three he attained not: and David made him of his council.

Among, or rather "above," as he was the second captain of this series, and not one of the body of Thirty. (Kennicott) --- Council. Literally, "placed him at his ear," (Haydock) fecit eum auricularium a secreto; (2 Kings) though the word is the same. (Calmet) --- It seems, however, to have been read differently. (Haydock) --- Septuagint, "he placed him over his family, (Calmet, patrian) or native place." (Haydock) --- Syriac, "guard of his spear, and chief of his heroes." Arabic, "over all his riches." Some would translate, "captain of his guards." (Grotius) --- Banaias was a man of consummate prudence, as well as a great warrior. (Calmet) --- David "gives Banaias the command of his life-guard." (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 7:12.) --- Hebrew, "Behold! he was more honourable than the Thirty; but he attained not unto the first three, and David set him over his guard," the Cerethites, etc., 1 Paralipomenon 18:17. (Kennicott) --- This author adopts the correction of Grotius, as the Protestants do; though he acknowledges there is no impropriety in the present reading, "over his hearing or obedience." He also adds "first," by way of explanation, as [in] ver. 21. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:26 Moreover the most valiant men of the army, were Asahel, brother of Joab; and Elchanan, the son of his uncle, of Bethlehem;

Moreover. Nothing particular is here recorded of Asahel, and therefore he is barely mentioned with the rest. But the Book of Kings had been more particular in determining their rank, and had said, "Asahel, brother of Joab, was over the Thirty," being the last of the second ternary. The preposition b (Kennicott) frequently means, "over." (Nold., etc.) --- Arabic, "head of Thirty, whose names are these." (Kennicott) --- Elchanan; probably the son of Jair, 2 Kings 21:18. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 11:27 Sammoth, an Arorite; Helles, a Phalonite;

Arorite, or Harodite, (2 Kings) to distinguish him from Shammah. Eliza, who follows in 2 Kings is here universally omitted, as he is supposed to have died soon, and to have been replaced by Zabad, (ver. 41.) who completes the number of 30. (Kennicott) --- Phalonite; not Paltite, as 2 Kings, where t has been formed of the two letters un. So Septuagint have read Adni, "my lord," perhaps correctly, (Kennicott) instead of Adan, "any man's," (1 Kings 17:32.) as the two letters might easily be mistaken for one. (Kennicott) --- Helles was the captain for the seventh month, as the following was for the sixth, and Abiezer for the ninth, 1 Paralipomenon 27:10. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:28 Ira, the son of Acces, a Thecuite; Abiezer, an Anathothite;

I Chronicles 11:29 Sobbochai, a Husathite; Ilai, an Ahohite;

Sobbochai, rather than Mobonnai, (2 Kings) where s and m have been mistaken for m and n, which are very similar in Hebrew. The Septuagint (Aldi) has there also Sabouchai. He was the eighth captain, 1 Paralipomenon 27. --- Ilai, or Selmon, 2 Kings. Septuagint have the same variation in some copies; but others lead us to suppose that Ilai was the true name. Neither occur any where else in Scripture.
I Chronicles 11:30 Maharai, a Netophathite; Heled, the son of Baana, a Netophathite;

Maharai, the tenth captain, 1 Paralipomenon 27. Heled was the twelfth.
I Chronicles 11:31 Ethai, the son of Ribai, of Gabaath, of the sons of Benjamin; Banaia, a Pharathonite;

Ethai. Not the famous prince of Geth, (2 Kings 15:19.; Kennicott) though the name is written alike, (2 Kings 23:29.) an i being omitted. (Haydock) --- This captain contributed to make David king, ver. 10. --- Banaia. 2 Kings xxiii., a v is added, which makes the name like that of the second general; (ver. 22.) but it ought to form part of the e, which is wanting in the following word.
I Chronicles 11:32 Hurai, of the torrent Gaas; Abiel, an Arbathite; Azmoth, a Bauramite; Eliaba, a Salabonite;

Hurai, rather than Heddai, (2 Kings.; Kennicott) though there is some doubt which is to be preferred. (Haydock) --- Syriac and Arabic have Hiddai; but the Septuagint declare for Hurai here, and the Aldine copy has Ouri also, 2 Kings. (Kennicott) --- Torrent. Hebrew, "of the torrents or vales of Gaas." (Calmet) --- Abiel. 2 Kings Abialbon, which seems to be the right word, as a transcriber may omit letters more easily than he can insert them. Bun and the end seems to have been written separate, and to have been translated "the son of," by Syriac and Arabic. The particles al and al, have also been frequently mistaken on account of their nearly similar pronunciation. --- Bauramite. Hebrew habacharumi, 2 Kings habarchumi, where two letters are transposed, and v is omitted, as usual, in the latter book. (Haydock) --- The former reading appears to be more correct, as the hero probably came from Bahurim, (berim, 2 Kings 3:16.) and the Syriac and Arabic seem to have read properly. --- Salabonite. Septuagint Salabonites (2 Kings) Salaboni. (Kennicott) --- The translator of the latter book gives the Hebrew termination throughout, instead of the Greek; (Haydock) "whence the learned have drawn an unanswerable argument against that version's being the work of the same author." (Kennicott) --- They might as well prove that St. Jerome did not translate both these books. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:33 The sons of Assem, a Gezonite; Jonathan, the son of Sage, an Ararite;

Gezonite. We know not the meaning of this epithet. (Calmet) --- In 2 Kings, we read of the sons of Jassen, Jonathan, and Semma; (K.) but both seem to be incorrect; instead of Septuagint, "the son," or supposing m to be lost, at the beginning, "of the sons of Assem, Gouni," as Septuagint read, instead of Gezonite, which would leave this hero without any name. See 1 Paralipomenon 5:15. E is prefixed to this name, as it is to that of Manasses, Josue 1:12. --- Sage, should be Shamha, (Kennicott) or Jonathan, the son of Samaa, the brother of David. He slew the monstrous giant, (chap. 20:7.) as Sabachai did another. Jonathan is mentioned also along with Asahel (2 Kings xxi.) so that he deserves a place here among David's heroes.
I Chronicles 11:34 Ahiam, the son of Sachar, an Ararite;

Sachar, mentioned [in] 1 Paralipomenon 26:4.
I Chronicles 11:35 Eliphal, the son of Ur;

Eliphal should be Eliphelet, the son of Aasbai, the son of Machati, (Haydock) or of the country of Maacha, 4 Kings 25:23. (Kennicott) --- Eliphal and Hepher cannot constitute two heroes, as that would derange the number 37, 2 Kings 23:39. The copies of the Septuagint vary much. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 11:36 Hepher, a Mecherathite; Ahia, a Phelonite;

Ahia, or rather "Eliam, the son of Achitophel, the Gilonite," 2 Kings. The name of the hero is lost here; and the latter part of his father's name (p) has also been mistaken for g, which it resembles.
I Chronicles 11:37 Hesro, a Carmelite; Naarai, the son of Azbai;

Hesro ends with u in the Hebrew. Yet some read more properly with i, "Hetzrai," as all the ancient versions have it, except the Vulgate, (Kennicott) some copies of which read Asra. (Blanchini, Vind. 1740.) --- Carmelite. Septuagint Karmedi. The D might easily be mistaken for L, as the Greek bibles (Kennicott) for some ages after Origen were written in capital letters, without accents. (Montfaucon, Pref. to Hexap. p. 44.) --- Azbai seems preferable to Arbi, as the proper name seems also more correct than Pharai, 2 Kings. (Haydock) --- The Vatican Septuagint confounds both words in one "Ouraiverchi." We may apply to many of the proper names that severe censure which St. Jerome has passed upon the transcribers of the book of Chronicles. Ita in Graecis et Latinis cod: hic nominum liber vitiosus est, ut non tam Hebraea quam Barbara quaedam et Sarmatica nomina conjecta arbitrandum eit, etc. (ep. ad Domn.) If this epistle be not genuine, the same doctor complains at least of the incorrect state of the Septuagint. (Pref. in Paral.)
I Chronicles 11:38 Joel, the brother of Nathan; Mibahar, the son of Agarai;

Joel seems better than Igaal, (2 Kings; Haydock) as we know there were some of this name [who] lived under David, (chap. 26:22., and 27:20.) and all the versions agree here, but vary much [in] 2 Kings. It is, therefore, more natural for us to adhere to that copy which has the greatest authority from the ancient versions. (Kennicott) --- Brother, relation, adopted child, (Du Hamel) or son, (2 Kings) which seems more correct, as this is an usual expression. (Calmet) --- This reason may rather lead us to conclude that the mistake being more natural, has been made by the transcriber of that book; particularly as we no where else read of Joel being the son of Nathan, but rather of Pedaiah, etc. --- Mibahar, or rather "Nathan of Tzoba." --- The son, ought to be the proper name, "Bonni, (of Gadi, 2 Kings) or the Gadite." (Kennicott)
I Chronicles 11:39 Selec, an Ammonite; Naharai, a Berothite, the armour-bearer of Joab, the son of Sarvia;

I Chronicles 11:40 Ira, a Jethrite; Gareb, a Jethrite;

I Chronicles 11:41 Urias, a Hethite; Zabad, the son of Oholi;

Zabad. This name, with the following, is not found [in] 2 Kings, where Elica occurs, though not mentioned here. (Calmet) --- We have observed that Zabad took his place, and completed the number 37, ver. 27.
I Chronicles 11:42 Adina, the son of Siza, a Rubenite, the prince of the Rubenites, and thirty with him;

With him. Hebrew, "above him," (Septuagint, Junius, Montanus) which must be applied to the rest of these 15 less valiant men. (Kennicott) --- Protestants agree with the Vulgate (Haydock) and Delany looks upon these 30 as a forth order of commanders in chief. But 30 with him would make 31, and why are only 15 mentioned? We have a regular gradation of officers, descending from Joab, the captain general. (Kennicott) --- These heroes are supplementary to those in the Book of Kings, and were stationed (Calmet) on the east of the Jordan, (Du Hamel) in their native country; (Calmet) which is true, at least (Haydock) with respect to several of them. Maacha, Ashtaroth, and Aroer were in these parts, (Josue 13:9, 13.; Kennicott) as well as Mathana, Numbers 21:18. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 11:43 Hanan, the son of Maacha; and Josaphat, a Mathanite;

I Chronicles 11:44 Ozia, an Astarothite; Samma, and Jehiel, the sons of Hotham, an Arorite;

Jehiel. The Masorets read so in the margin; but in the text they substitute u for i, improperly. See Septuagint and 1 Paralipomenon 5:7, 8.
I Chronicles 11:45 Jedihel, the son of Samri; and Joha, his brother, a Thosaite.

Samri. Protestants, "Shimri," or, margin, "the Shimrite," as they deem the expression to be equivalent. But Shimri was rather the father of Jedihel or Jediael, and Joha.
I Chronicles 11:46 Eliel, a Mahumite; and Jeribai, and Josaia, the sons of Elnaim; and Jethma, a Moabite; Eliel, and Obed, and Jasiel, of Masobia.

Mahumite. Protestants, "Mahavite." Kennicott would translate these last verses according to his corrections. (42) ..."Zabad, the son of Ahlai; (43) Adina, the son of Shiza, the Reubenite, and head of the Reubenites: But the thirty were his superiors. (44) Hanan, the son of Maacah; and Josaphat, the Mithnite. (45) Urzia, the Ashtarothite; Shema and Jehiel, the sons of Hotham, the Aroerite. (46) Jediel, the son of Shimri; and Joha, his brother, the Titzite. (47) Jeliel and Mahavite, and Jeribai and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam; and Ithmah, the Moabite; (48) Eliel, and Obed and Jashiel, the Metzobaites." It will be easily perceived that this author frequently recedes from the Protestant version, as well as from the printed Hebrew, both of which are frequently erroneous. Perhaps the critical examination of these proper names, may appear to some unimportant. But the question respecting the perfect integrity of the Hebrew text deserves to be seriously considered; and every part of sacred history requires our attention. If the Protestant rule of faith be incorrect, what security can they have? We are not exposed to the same inconvenience, even though the Vulgate be susceptible of farther improvement. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 12:0 Who followed David when he fled from Saul. And who came to Hebron to make him king.

I Chronicles 12:1 Now these are they that came to David to Siceleg, *while he yet fled from Saul, the son of Cis, and they were most valiant and excellent warriors,

1 Kings 27:2.;
Year of the World 2948, Year before Christ 1056. Siceleg, which had been given to David for a retreat. Hither many brave men came to join him. --- Fled. Hebrew, "was shut up through fear." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "was under anxiety." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 12:2 Bending the bow, and using either hand in hurling stones with slings, and shooting arrows: of the brethren of Saul and Benjamin.

Hand, like Aod, Judges 3:15. (Menochius) --- Brethren, of the same tribe. The opinion which they entertained of David, must have been very great, to make them expose themselves to such dangers. In adversity, true friendship and virtue shine the most. (Calmet) --- The hand of providence is here conspicuous. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 12:3 The chief was Ahiezer, and Joas, the sons of Samaa, of Gabaath, and Jaziel, and Phallet, the sons of Azmoth, and Beracha, and Jehu, an Anathothite.

I Chronicles 12:4 And Samaias, of Gabaon, the stoutest amongst the thirty and over the thirty; Jeremias, and Jeheziel, and Johanan, and Jezabad, of Gaderoth;

Thirty. Hebrew sheloshim, denotes "the officers" of the army. (Calmet) --- Protestants style this hero "Ismaiah."
I Chronicles 12:5 And Eluzai, and Jerimuth, and Baalia, and Samaria, and Saphatia, the Haruphite;

I Chronicles 12:6 Elcana, and Jesia, and Azareel, and Joezer, and Jesbaam, of Carehim:

Jesbaam. Probably the second after Joab, 1 Paralipomenon 11:11. (Haydock) --- Of Carehim. Hebrew, "the Korhites." (Kennicott) --- So also the Septuagint. There[They?] were Levites, descendants of Core. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 12:7 And Joela, and Zabadia, the sons of Jeroham, of Gedor.

I Chronicles 12:8 From Gaddi also there went over to David, when he lay hid in the wilderness, most valiant men, and excellent warriors, holding shield and spear; whose faces were like the faces of a lion, and they were swift like the roebucks on the mountains.

Gaddi, a city of the tribe of Gad, (2 Kings xxiii.) from which many went to join David, when he was in the country of Moab, (Menochius) as others of the Gadites did, ver. 14. --- Mountains. A fierce countenance and swiftness were much commended in soldiers. "The eyes are always first conquered." Primi in omnibus praeliis oculi vincuntur, says Tacitus, Mor. Germ. (Calmet) See Proverbs 30:30., and 2 Kings 2:18. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 12:9 Ezer the chief, Obdias the second, Eliab the third,

I Chronicles 12:10 Masmana the fourth, Jeremias the fifth.

I Chronicles 12:11 Ethi the sixth, Eliel the seventh,

I Chronicles 12:12 Johanan the eighth, Elzebad the ninth,

I Chronicles 12:13 Jerenias the tenth, Machbani the eleventh,

I Chronicles 12:14 These were of the sons of Gad, captains of the army: the least of them was captain over a hundred soldiers, and the greatest over a thousand.

Thousand, after David had ascended the throne. (Calmet) --- At Siceleg he had only 600. (Menochius) --- Some suppose that each of these officers was worth 100 men, etc. (Vatable)
I Chronicles 12:15 These are they who passed over the Jordan in the first month, when it is used to flow over its banks: and they put to flight all that dwelt in the vallies, both toward the east and toward the west.

Month, Nisan. (Tirinus) --- Banks. This circumstance enhances their courage. Maundrel (Alep. p. 136) went to see the Jordan, 13th March, 1697, but the river was nine feet from the banks. Its rapidity has perhaps made its bed so much deeper, that it does not overflow so frequently at present. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 12:16 And there came also of the men of Benjamin, and of Juda, to the hold in which David abode.

Hold, in Moab, (1 Kings 22:4.; Du Hamel; Menochius) or to Siceleg. The people of Benjamin come with those of Juda, to avoid suspicion. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 12:17 And David went out to meet them, and said: If you are come peaceably to me to help me, let my heart be joined to you: but if you plot against me for my enemies, whereas I have no iniquity in my hands, let the God of our fathers see, and judge.

Hands. At that time he had done no injury to any man. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 12:18 But the spirit came upon Amasai, the chief among thirty, and he said: We are thine, O David, and for thee, O son of Isai: peace, peace be to thee, and peace to thy helpers. For thy God helpeth thee. So David received them, and made them captains of the band.

Spirit of God (Calmet; or good will, Du Hamel) prompted Amasai, the chief of "the officers." (Calmet) --- Band, or "of a company." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 12:19 And there were some of Manasses, that went over to David, when he came with the Philistines against Saul to fight: but he did not fight with them: *because the lords of the Philistines taking counsel, sent him back, saying: With the danger of our heads he will return to his master, Saul.

1 Kings 29:4.
Fight. They joined him after he had left the Philistines. (Calmet) --- But he. Hebrew, "they helped them not." Neither David nor his partizans were involved in this danger, which might have caused their fidelity to be suspected, 1 Kings xxix. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 12:20 So when he went back to Siceleg, *there fled to him of Manasses, Ednas, and Jozabad, and Jedihel, and Michael, and Ednas, and Jozabad, and Eliu, and Salathi, captains of thousands in Manasses.

Year of the World 2949. Thousands: heads of the principal cities, Micheas 5:2. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 12:21 These helped David against the rovers: for they were all most valiant men, and were made commanders in the army.

Rovers of Amalec, 1 Kings 30:1.
I Chronicles 12:22 Moreover, day by day there came some to David to help him, till they became a great number, like the army of God.

Of God; very great, (Calmet) particularly when Isboseth was slain, 2 Kings 5:1. (Haydock) --- The angels are to us innumerable, Job xxv. An army in concord is compared to them. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 12:23 And this is the number of the chiefs of the army who came to David, when he was in Hebron, *to transfer to him the kingdom of Saul, according to the word of the Lord.

2 Kings 5.
Year of the World 2956.
I Chronicles 12:24 The sons of Juda, bearing shield and spear, six thousand eight hundred, well appointed to war.

I Chronicles 12:25 Of the sons of Simeon, valiant men for war, seven thousand one hundred.

I Chronicles 12:26 Of the sons of Levi, four thousand six hundred.

I Chronicles 12:27 And Joiada, prince of the race of Aaron, and with him three thousand seven hundred.

Joiada had the post of Eleazar over the Levites, (Numbers 3:32.) and was at the head of the warriors of his tribe, while Abiathar was high priest. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 12:28 Sadoc also, a young man of excellent disposition, and the house of his father, twenty-two principal men.

Of excellent. Hebrew, "of great valour." Saul had appointed him in the place of Achimelec, and David permitted him to retain his dignity.
I Chronicles 12:29 And of the sons of Benjamin, the brethren of Saul, three thousand: for hitherto a great part of them followed the house of Saul.

Followed. Hebrew, "kept guard at the palace." These guards submitted to David, like the rest, after the death of Isboseth. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 12:30 And of the sons of Ephraim, twenty thousand eight hundred, men of great valour, renowned in their kindreds.

I Chronicles 12:31 And of the half tribe of Manasses, eighteen thousand, every one by their names came to make David king.

Manasses, west of the Jordan. See ver. 37. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 12:32 Also of the sons of Issachar, men of understanding, that knew all times to order what Israel should do, two hundred principal men: and all the rest of the tribe followed their counsel.

Should, in agricultural pursuits, in which those of Issachar excelled, Genesis 49:14. Countrymen have often more skill about the weather, than the greatest astronomers, Virgil, Georg. I. (Menochius) (Tirinus) --- Others think that these men could calculate when the festivals would occur, (St. Jerome, Trad.) or they were well versed in politics, etc. See Esther 1:13.
I Chronicles 12:33 And of Zabulon, such as went forth to battle, and stood in array well appointed with armour for war, there came fifty thousand to his aid, with no double heart.

I Chronicles 12:34 And of Nephthali, a thousand leaders; and with them seven and thirty thousand, furnished with shield and spear.

I Chronicles 12:35 Of Dan also, twenty-eight thousand six hundred prepared for battle.

I Chronicles 12:36 And of Aser, forty thousand, going forth to fight, and challenging in battle.

I Chronicles 12:37 And on the other side of the Jordan, of the sons of Ruben, and of Gad, and of the half of the tribe of Manasses, a hundred and twenty thousand, furnished with arms for war.

I Chronicles 12:38 All these men of war, well appointed to fight, came with a perfect heart to Hebron, to make David king over all Israel: and all the rest also of Israel, were of one heart, to make David king.

I Chronicles 12:39 And they were there with David three days, eating and drinking: for their brethren had prepared for them.

I Chronicles 12:40 Moreover they that were near them, even as far as Issachar, and Zabulon, and Nephthali, brought loaves on asses, and on camels, and on mules, and on oxen, to eat: and meal, figs, raisins, wine, oil, and oxen, and sheep, in abundance; for there was joy in Israel.

Nephthali. All, both far and near, contributed to regale the deputies. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 13:0 The ark is brought from Cariathiarim. Oza, for touching it, is struck dead.

I Chronicles 13:1 And David consulted with the captains of thousands, and of hundreds, and with all the commanders,

Consulted. David wished to give religion due splendour and authority, in his dominions; and he prudently contrives to obtain the general consent. (Haydock) --- "Where there is no liberty, there is no religion;" and no change in religious matters should be attempted, without the consent of the Church. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 13:2 And he said to all the assembly of Israel: If it please you, and if the words which I speak come from the Lord our God, let us send to the rest of our brethren, into all the countries of Israel, and to the priests, and the Levites, that dwell in the suburbs of the cities, to gather themselves to us:

To us. In the first assembly, David's motion was adopted, and a more general meeting, particularly of the priests, was convoked. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 13:3 And let us bring again the ark of our God to us: for we sought it not in the days of Saul.

Sought. Protestants, "inquired not at it." Yet it is certain that many resorted to the ark, at that time. But is was not treated with such honours as David now wished. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 13:4 And all the multitude answered that it should be so: for the word pleased all the people.

I Chronicles 13:5 So David assembled all Israel, from Sihor of Egypt, even to the entering into Emath, *to bring the ark of God from Cariathiarim.

2 Kings 6:2.
Emath, from "the troubled river" Nile, (Josue 13:3.; Calmet) or Rhinocorura, (Tirinus; Menochius) to the northern extremities of the promised land, (Haydock) near Emesa.
I Chronicles 13:6 And David went up with all the men of Israel to the hill of Cariathiarim, which is in Juda, to bring thence the ark of the Lord God sitting upon the Cherubims, where his name is called upon.

Hill. Hebrew, "to Baalah," which was another name, as well as "Baalim," for Cariathiarim, 1 Kings 7:2. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 13:7 And they carried the ark of God upon a new cart, out of the house of Abinadab, and Oza and his brother drove the cart.

Brother. Hebrew, "Acho," which has the same meaning. (Tirinus) --- Septuagint, Syriac, etc., "his brethren." (Calmet)
I Chronicles 13:8 And David and all Israel played before God with all their might, with hymns, and with harps, and with psalteries, and timbrels, and cymbals, and trumpets.

I Chronicles 13:9 And when they came to the floor of Chidon, Oza put forth his hand, to hold up the ark; for the ox being wanton, had made it lean a little on one side.

Chidon. Alias, Nachon. (Challoner) (2 Kings vi.) --- He had perhaps two names. (Du Hamel) --- Syriac and Arabic, "of Ramim." (Calmet) --- The ox. Protestants, "the oxen stumbled."
I Chronicles 13:10 And the Lord was angry with Oza, and struck him, because he had touched the ark: and he died there before the Lord.

I Chronicles 13:11 And David was troubled, because the Lord had divided Oza: and he called that place the breach of Oza to this day.

Divided. Slain. See 1 Paralipomenon 14:11., 1 Kings 15:32., and 2 Kings 6:7. (Haydock) --- The soul of brutes perishes; that of man is only divided from the body by death.
I Chronicles 13:12 And he feared God at that time, saying: How can I bring in the ark of God to me?

I Chronicles 13:13 And therefore he brought it not home to himself, that is, into the city of David, but carried it aside into the house of Obededom, the Gethite.

Obededom. A Levite was judged more proper to guard the ark, 1 Paralipomenon 15:18. --- Gethite. Because he had dwelt in Geth. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 13:14 And the ark of God remained in the house of Obededom three months: and the Lord blessed his house, and all that he had.

I Chronicles 14:0 David's house, and children; his victories over the Philistines.

I Chronicles 14:1 And *Hiram, king of Tyre, sent messengers to David; and cedar-trees, and masons, and carpenters, to build him a house.

2 Kings 5:11.
Hiram. This embassy, and the war with the Philistines, took place before the ark was removed. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 14:2 And David perceived that the Lord had confirmed him king over Israel, and that his kingdom was exalted over his people, Israel.

Perceived, by divine revelation, or by his constant success, (Menochius) as well as by the presents of "the king of Tyre, and the unanimity" of all the people. (Du Hamel) --- Over his. Hebrew and Septuagint, on account of his people. Kings are more for their subjects than for themselves. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 14:3 *And David took other wives in Jerusalem: and he begot sons, and daughters.

2 Kings 5:13.
I Chronicles 14:4 Now these are the names of them that were born to him in Jerusalem: Samua, and Sobad, Nathan, and Solomon,

I Chronicles 14:5 Jebahar, and Elisua, and Eliphalet,

Eliphalet and Noga are not mentioned, 2 Kings 5:15. (Calmet) See chap 3:9. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 14:6 And Noga, and Napheg, and Japhia,

I Chronicles 14:7 Elisama, and Baaliada, and Eliphalet.

Baaliada, probably the same with Eliada. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 14:8 *And the Philistines hearing that David was anointed king over all Israel, went all up to seek him: and David heard of it, and went out against them.

2 Kings 5:17.;
Year of the World 2957, Year before Christ 1047. Seek him, with a design to oppress him, before his throne was established. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 14:9 And the Philistines came and spread themselves in the vale of Raphaim.

I Chronicles 14:10 And David consulted the Lord, saying: Shall I go up against the Philistines, and wilt thou deliver them into my hand? And the Lord said to him: Go up, and I will deliver them into thy hand.

I Chronicles 14:11 And when they were come to Baalpharasim, David defeated them there, and he said: God hath divided my enemies by my hand, as waters are divided: and therefore the name of that place was called Baalpharasim.

Baalpharasim, "the god or master of divisions." (Calmet) --- The place was so called afterwards. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 14:12 And they left there their gods, and David commanded that they should be burnt.

Burnt, conformably to Deuteronomy 7:25. These idols were commonly made of wood, and covered with plates of gold, etc. The Philistines took them along with them to battle, as the Hebrews carried the ark on many occasions. The Greeks, at the siege of Troy, had their gods on board their vessels; (Homer, Iliad ix.) and the Romans had theirs on their ensigns, in their wars.
I Chronicles 14:13 Another time also the Philistines made an irruption, and spread themselves abroad in the valley.

I Chronicles 14:14 And David consulted God again, and God said to him: Go not up after them, turn away from them, and come upon them over-against the pear-trees.

Pear or mulberry trees, (2 Kings 5:23.; Calmet) on the side where the idols were. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 14:15 And when thou shalt hear the sound of one going in the tops of the pear-trees, then shalt thou go out to battle. For God is gone out before thee, to strike the army of the Philistines.

Tops, or on the height. God sent an invisible army to David's assistance.
I Chronicles 14:16 And David did as God had commanded him, and defeated the army of the Philistines, slaying them from Gabaon to Gazera.

Gazera, on the borders of the Philistines, near Azotus. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 14:17 And the name of David became famous in all countries, and the Lord made all nations fear him.

All countries and nations, in the vicinity. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 15:0 The ark is brought into the city of David, with great solemnity. Michol derideth David's devotion.

I Chronicles 15:1 He made also houses for himself in the city of David: and built a place for the ark of God, and pitched a tabernacle for it.

Houses, or magnificent palaces, which afterwards caused him to be ashamed, seeing the ark was lodged under skins, 2 Kings 7:10. --- For it, entirely new. The old tabernacle was left at Gabaon. (Calmet) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 15:2 Then David said: No one ought to carry the ark of God, but the Levites; whom the Lord hath chosen to carry it, and to minister unto himself for ever.

Levites, of the family of Caath, ver. 13., and Numbers 4:5. He was rendered more cautious by the death of Oza. (Calmet) --- For ever, as long as this law subsists. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 15:3 And he gathered all Israel together into Jerusalem, that the ark of God might be brought into its place, which he had prepared for it.

I Chronicles 15:4 And the sons of Aaron also, and the Levites.

I Chronicles 15:5 Of the children of Caath, Uriel was the chief: and his brethren a hundred and twenty.

Brethren. Relations. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 15:6 Of the sons of Merari, Asaia, the chief: and his brethren two hundred and twenty.

I Chronicles 15:7 Of the sons of Gersom, Joel, the chief: and his brethren a hundred and thirty.

I Chronicles 15:8 Of the sons of Elisaphan, Semeias, the chief: and his brethren two hundred.

Elisaphan, a Caathite, (Exodus 6:18, 22.) as well as Hebron and Oziel. (Calmet) --- Perhaps Caath was also called by the first name. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 15:9 Of the sons of Hebron, Eliel, the chief: and his brethren eighty.

I Chronicles 15:10 Of the sons of Oziel, Aminadab, the chief: and his brethren a hundred and twelve.

I Chronicles 15:11 And David called Sadoc, and Abiathar, the priests, and the Levites, Uriel, Asaia, Joel, Semeia, Eliel, and Aminadab.

I Chronicles 15:12 And he said to them: You that are the heads of the Levitical families, be sanctified with your brethren, and bring the ark of the Lord, the God of Israel, to the place which is prepared for it.

Sanctified. Free from every legal uncleanness, continent, and washed. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 15:13 *Lest as the Lord at first struck us, because you were not present, the same should now also come to pass, by our doing some thing against the law.

1 Paralipomenon 13:10.
Struck us. He partakes in the misfortune of Oza. (Haydock) --- The law, through ignorance. You must attend and give proper directions. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "because we did not seek him with judgment," (Du Hamel) or, "after the due order." (Protestants)
I Chronicles 15:14 So the priests and the Levites were sanctified, to carry the ark of the Lord, the God of Israel.

I Chronicles 15:15 *And the sons of Levi took the ark of God, as Moses had commanded, according to the word of the Lord, upon their shoulders, with the staves.

Numbers 4:15.
I Chronicles 15:16 And David spoke to the chiefs of the Levites, to appoint some of their brethren to be singers with musical instruments; to wit, on psalteries, and harps, and cymbals, that the joyful noise might resound on high.

I Chronicles 15:17 And they appointed Levites, Heman, the son of Joel, and of his brethren Asaph, the son of Barachias: and of the sons of Merari, their brethren, Ethan, the son of Casaia.

Heman, Asaph, and Ethan were masters of the first band of musicians, in the reign of David. They played on cymbals of brass, ver. 19.
I Chronicles 15:18 And with them their brethren: in the second rank, Zacharias, and Ben, and Jaziel, and Semiramoth, and Jahiel, and Ani, and Eliab, and Banaias, and Maasias, and Mathathias, and Eliphalu, and Macenias, and Obededom, and Jehiel, the porters.

Ben. His name is omitted, ver. 20, and in the Septuagint. The Syriac, etc., have "the son of Jaziel:" but we find the 9th Psalm addressed "to Ben, chief of the band of young women," who sung and played on nables, ver. 20. (Calmet) --- And Jaziel, called Oziel, ver. 20, as the Septuagint have here. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 15:19 Now the singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, sounded with cymbals of brass.

I Chronicles 15:20 And Zacharias, and Oziel, and Semiramoth, and Jehiel, and Ani, and Eliab, and Maasias, and Banaias, sung mysteries upon psalteries.

Zacharias, etc., presided over the second band, with nables, and Mathathias over the third, which had instruments of eight strings. The priests sounded the trumpets, (ver. 24.) which Chonenias directed all the music, in this solemn procession. (Calmet) --- Psalteries. Literally, "nables." (Haydock) --- The Vulgate sometimes renders it psalterion, at other times lyra, (Menochius) or symphonia. (St. Jerome, ad Dard.) (Tirinus) --- Some have supposed that the word denotes bagpipes; but it was a stringed instrument made of wood. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "with nebalim over halamoth," concerted things, or virgins, (Psalm 67:26.) who sung the mysterious works of God. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 15:21 And Mathathias, and Eliphalu, and Macenias, and Obededom, and Jehiel, and Ozaziu, sung a song of victory for the octave upon harps.

Ozaziu does not occur before. Septuagint have Ozias both here and [in] ver. 18, after Jehiel. (Haydock) --- Of victory, such as was customary on the like occasions. --- For the octave. Hebrew hasheminith, according to the Jews, means an instrument of eight strings; so when ten is mentioned, the Septuagint frequently supply "strings," Psalm 32:2. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "they had guitars, and presided over the eighth band to intone. All the bands formed four choirs, distinguished by their instruments, the cymbal, nable, cinnor, (or guitar) and trumpets. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 15:22 And Chonenias, chief of the Levites, presided over the prophecy, to give out the tunes: for he was very skilful.

The prophecy. Singing praises to God is here called prophecy: the more, because these singers were often inspired men. (Challoner) --- Hebrew Massa signifies a song, (Haydock) elevation, (Calmet) burden. (Syriac) So the Vulgate has onus Moab, etc., the burden or dreadful prediction against Moab. (Calmet) --- Prophecy often denotes no more than a melodious canticle, 1 Kings 10:10. (Haydock) --- Chonenias directed all this music. Septuagint simply style him "prince of the Levites, prince of the musicians" (Calmet) or archon ton odon (who gave out the songs) "because he was intelligent." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 15:23 And Barachias, and Elcana, were door-keepers of the ark.

I Chronicles 15:24 And Sebenias, and Josaphat, and Nathanael, and Amasai, and Zacharias, and Banaias, and Eliezer, the priests, sounded with trumpets, before the ark of God: and Obededom and Jehias, were porters of the ark.

Jehias is called Jehiel, ver. 18., and 21. He, Obededom, Barachias, and Elcana, (ver. 23.) were probably the four chief porters who attended the ark in arms; and others were, afterwards, stationed at the temple, 1 Paralipomenon 9:17. The two former took part also in the music, ver. 21. (Calmet) --- Perhaps two preceded and two went behind the ark, to keep off the crowd. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 15:25 *So David, and all the ancients of Israel, and the captains over thousands, went to bring the ark of the covenant of the Lord, out of the house of Obededom, with joy.

2 Kings 6:12.
I Chronicles 15:26 And when God had helped the Levites who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, they offered in sacrifice seven oxen, and seven rams.

Rams, in thanksgiving, that they had not been treated like Oza. (Calmet) --- The Jews pretend that the ark was no burden to the Levites. (Tirinus) --- Love makes all duties easy. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 15:27 And David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, and all the Levites that carried the ark, and the singing men, and Chonenias, the ruler of the prophecy among the singers: and David also had on him an ephod of linen.

Linen. Hebrew, "a cloak of byssus," or of the finest white linen. (Du Hamel) --- Byssus has often occurred before in the Vulgate, but we find the Hebrew buts, here for the first time. It probably denotes the brilliant yellow silk taken from the fish pinna, of which St. Basil speaks. (Hexa. vii.) Justinian was clothed with it, on account of its rarity and brightness. (Procopius, de fabric. Yet as it would hardly assume any colour but black, it was not so much sought after as the silk of Persia. Not only David, but all the Levites, were thus richly adorned; as the latter were at the dedication of the temple, 2 Paralipomenon 2:14. There was a manufactory of this byssus established by David, 1 Paralipomenon 4:21. That of Egypt was white, and is called schesch, or "cotton," Exodus 16:4. (Calmet) --- Ephod. Septuagint, "a stole of byssus," or a long silken robe, (Haydock) which has been already expressed; (Tirinus) or rather, the ephod was only a girdle, which was not peculiar to the sacred ministers, 1 Kings 2:18. (Calmet) --- Samuel, though a child, wore one. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 15:28 And all Israel brought the ark of the covenant of the Lord, with joyful shouting, and sounding with the sound of the cornet, and with trumpets, and cymbals, and psalteries, and harps.

I Chronicles 15:29 And when the ark of the covenant of the Lord was come to the city of David, Michol, the daughter of Saul, looking out at a window, saw king David dancing and playing, and she despised him in her heart.

Heart, and reproached him for appearing without his regal ornaments, (Haydock; 2 Kings 6:20.) as if he had been naked. No reproach could have been more unfounded, as we see David had on a robe of byssus, with the ephod. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 16:0 The ark is placed in the tabernacle. Sacrifice is offered. David blesseth the people, disposeth the offices of Levites, and maketh a psalm of praise to God.

I Chronicles 16:1 So *they brought the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tent, which David had pitched for it: and they offered holocausts, and peace-offerings before God.

2 Kings 6:17.;
Year of the World 2959, Year before Christ 1045.
I Chronicles 16:2 And when David had made an end of offering holocausts, and peace-offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord.

Lord, wishing them all felicity, and making them presents, like the master of a family, ver. 43, and 2 Kings 6:18. (Calmet) --- Any superior may bless. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 16:3 And he divided to all and every one, both men and women, a loaf of bread, and a piece of roasted beef, and flour fried with oil.

Oil. The precise signification of the Hebrew Ashisha, is not known. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "a flagon of wine." (Haydock) --- It denotes any thing "exhilarating." (Tirinus) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 16:4 And he appointed Levites to minister before the ark of the Lord, and to remember his works, and to glorify and praise the Lord God of Israel.

Appointed, as a prophet, (Haydock) or by dispensation. The high priest has supreme spiritual power, Deuteronomy 17:18., etc. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 16:5 Asaph, the chief, and next after him Zacharias: Moreover Jahiel, and Semiramoth, and Jehiel, and Mathathias, and Eliab, and Banaias, and Obededom: and Jehiel, over the instruments of psaltery, and harps: and Asaph to sound with cymbals:

Zacharias, at the head of the second band. These played on the nable and kinnor, as the women did not sing in the tabernacle. Jahiel should be Oziel, (chap. 15:18., etc.; Calmet) unless he be the same person, 1 Paralipomenon 15:18. (Haydock) --- Instruments. Literally, "organs." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "the instruments of nables." (Vatable) (Menochius)
I Chronicles 16:6 But Banaias, and Jaziel, the priests, to sound the trumpet continually before the ark of the covenant of the Lord.

Jaziel. We read Eliezer, etc., 1 Paralipomenon 15:24. --- Continually. At the appointed times.
I Chronicles 16:7 In that day David made Asaph, the chief, to give praise to the Lord with his brethren.

Made. Hebrew, "gave first, to thank the Lord, into the hand of Asaph and his brethren this psalm," (Haydock) in order the 104th; and from ver. 23 we find the 95th in the Psalter, with some improvements. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 16:8 *Praise ye the Lord, and call upon his name: make known his doings among the nations.

Psalm 104:1.; Isaias 12:4.
I Chronicles 16:9 Sing to him, yea, sing praises to him: and relate all his wondrous works.

I Chronicles 16:10 Praise ye his holy name: let the heart of them rejoice, that seek the Lord.

I Chronicles 16:11 Seek ye the Lord, and his power: seek ye his face evermore.

Power. The ark was frequently the instrument of God's power; and his people are exhorted to present themselves to pray before it. (Calmet) --- God seemed to dwell there, and often displayed his wonders. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 16:12 Remember his wonderful works, which he hath done: his signs, and the judgments of his mouth.

I Chronicles 16:13 O ye seed of Israel, his servants; ye children of Jacob, his chosen.

Israel. In Psalm civ., Abraham.
I Chronicles 16:14 He is the Lord our God: his judgments are in all the earth.

I Chronicles 16:15 Remember for ever his covenant: the word, which he commanded to a thousand generations.

I Chronicles 16:16 The covenant which he made with Abraham: and his oath to Isaac.

I Chronicles 16:17 And he appointed the same to Jacob for a precept: and to Israel for an everlasting covenant:

I Chronicles 16:18 Saying: To thee will I give the land of Chanaan: the lot of your inheritance.

I Chronicles 16:19 When they were but a small number: very few, and sojourners in it.

I Chronicles 16:20 And they passed from nation to nation: and from one kingdom to another people.

I Chronicles 16:21 He suffered no man to do them wrong: and reproved kings for their sake.

I Chronicles 16:22 *Touch not my anointed: and do no evil to my prophets.

Psalm 104:15.
Prophets. The ancient patriarchs ruled their families as kings, and directed them by word and example, like the most holy prophets. (Calmet) --- Both are frequently styled anointed. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 16:23 *Sing ye to the Lord, all the earth: shew forth from day to day his salvation.

Psalm 95:1.
I Chronicles 16:24 Declare his glory among the Gentiles: his wonders among all people.

I Chronicles 16:25 For the Lord is great and exceedingly to be praised: and is to be feared above all gods.

I Chronicles 16:26 For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the Lord made the heavens.

I Chronicles 16:27 Praise and magnificence are before him: strength and joy in his place.

Place. In Psalm 95:6., holiness and majesty in his sanctuary. Hebrew, "strength and beauty in," etc. God is served in his tabernacle with piety.
I Chronicles 16:28 Bring ye to the Lord, O ye families of the nations: bring ye to the Lord glory and empire.

I Chronicles 16:29 Give to the Lord glory to his name, bring up sacrifice, and come ye in his sight: and adore the Lord in holy beauty.

Sacrifice, of flour and wine. --- Beauty. Hebrew, "in the beauty of his sanctuary." Psalms, Come into his courts: adore ye the Lord in his holy court.
I Chronicles 16:30 Let all the earth be moved at his presence: for he hath founded the world immoveable.

Presence. Here the psalm adds, say ye among, as [in] ver. 31.
I Chronicles 16:31 Let the heavens rejoice, and the earth be glad: and let them say among the nations: The Lord hath reigned.

I Chronicles 16:32 Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof: let the fields rejoice, and all things that are in them.

I Chronicles 16:33 Then shall the trees of the wood give praise before the Lord: because he is come to judge the earth.

I Chronicles 16:34 Give ye glory to the Lord, for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever.

I Chronicles 16:35 And say ye: Save us, O God our saviour: and gather us together, and deliver us from the nations, that we may give glory to thy holy name, and may rejoice in singing thy praise.

And say, etc., is not in the psalm; and it seems not to agree with the flourishing state of David's kingdom: yet he might speak with the spirit of prophecy, or wish that all his subjects might live in happiness and concord under him. (Calmet) --- Others think that Esdras inserted these verses to be sung in the second temple, (Lyranus; Estius) when many still remained in captivity. Yet they may refer to the time of Christ. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 16:36 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel from eternity to eternity: and let all the people say: Amen, and sing a hymn to God.

And sing. Hebrew, "and Alleluia," or, "all....said, (or shall say) truth and praise be to the Lord."
I Chronicles 16:37 So he left there before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, Asaph and his brethren, to minister in the presence of the ark continually, day by day, and in their courses.

I Chronicles 16:38 And Obededom, with his brethren, sixty-eight: and Obededom, the son of Idithun, and Hosa, he appointed to be porters.

I Chronicles 16:39 And Sadoc, the priest, and his brethren, priests, before the tabernacle of the Lord in the high place, which was in Gabaon;

Sadoc was to minister at Gabaon, with Heman, Idithun, etc., while Abiathar, Asaph, etc., officiated at Jerusalem. (Calmet) --- This regulation continued till towards the end of David's reign, (Haydock) when fresh orders were given, 1 Paralipomenon 23., etc. We find Abiathar and Sadoc were both at Jerusalem, when David was obliged to flee, 2 Kings 15:24., and 3 Kings 1:7. The altar at Gabaon continued some time longer, 3 Kings 3:3.
I Chronicles 16:40 That they should offer holocausts to the Lord upon the altar of holocausts, continually, morning and evening, according to all that is written in the law of the Lord, which he commanded Israel.

I Chronicles 16:41 And after him Heman, and Idithun, and the rest that were chosen, every one by his name to give praise to the Lord: because his mercy endureth for ever.

I Chronicles 16:42 And Heman and Idithun sounded the trumpet, and played on the cymbals, and all kinds of musical instruments, to sing praises to God: and the sons of Idithun he made porters.

I Chronicles 16:43 And all the people returned to their houses: and David to bless also his own house.

Bless, or feast, (Du Hamel) with his family, on part of the sacred victims. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 17:0 David's purpose to build a temple is rewarded by most ample promises: David's thanksgiving.

I Chronicles 17:1 Now *when David was dwelling in his house, he said to Nathan, the prophet: Behold, I dwell in a house of cedar: and the ark of the covenant of the Lord is under skins.

2 Kings 6:17.;
Year of the World 2960, Year before Christ 1044. Cedar. Such were esteemed the most magnificent, ver. 6. See 2 Kings vii.
I Chronicles 17:2 And Nathan said to David: Do all that is in thy heart: for God is with thee.

I Chronicles 17:3 Now that night the word of God came to Nathan, saying:

I Chronicles 17:4 Go, and speak to David, my servant: Thus saith the Lord: Thou shalt not build me a house to dwell in.

I Chronicles 17:5 For I have not remained in a house from the time that I brought up Israel to this day: but I have been always changing places in a tabernacle, and in a tent

I Chronicles 17:6 Abiding with all Israel. Did I ever speak to any one, of all the judges of Israel, whom I charged to feed my people, saying: Why have you not built me a house of cedar?

I Chronicles 17:7 Now, therefore, thus shalt thou say to my servant, David: Thus saith the Lord of hosts: I took thee from the pastures, from following the flock, that thou shouldst be ruler of my people Israel;

I Chronicles 17:8 And I have been with thee whithersoever thou hast gone: and I have slain all thy enemies before thee, and have made thee a name, like that of one of the great ones that are renowned in the earth.

I Chronicles 17:9 And I have given a place to my people Israel: they shall be planted, and shall dwell therein, and shall be moved no more; neither shall the children of iniquity waste them, as at the beginning,

A place permanent and secure, while I have had no fixed abode. (Calmet) --- No more, for a long time: and unless they provoke me by their crimes, as they did afterwards, and were exposed to more severe chastisements. Constant rest is not always expedient. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 17:10 Since the days that I gave judges to my people Israel, and I have humbled all thy enemies. And I declare to thee, that the Lord will build thee a house.

I Chronicles 17:11 And when thou shalt have ended thy days to go to thy fathers, I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons: and I will establish his kingdom.

Seed, even till Christ shall be born of the Blessed Virgin, of the family of David.
I Chronicles 17:12 He shall build me a house, and I will establish his throne for ever.

Ever often means only a long duration. The dominion of Christ shall have no end. (Calmet) --- The Church founded by this true David, (Haydock) falls heir to these promises. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 17:13 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son: and I will not take my mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee.

Thee. The posterity of Saul lost the throne. (Haydock) --- If Solomon was reprobated, his children were permitted to reign. It is also presumed that he did penance; though this is not certain.
I Chronicles 17:14 But I will settle him in my house, and in my kingdom for ever: and his throne shall be most firm for ever.

I Chronicles 17:15 According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Nathan speak to David.

I Chronicles 17:16 And king David came, and sat before the Lord, and said: Who am I, O Lord God, and what is my house, that thou shouldst give such things to me?

I Chronicles 17:17 But even this hath seemed little in thy sight, and therefore thou hast also spoken concerning the house of thy servant, for the time to come: and thou hast made me remarkable above all men, O Lord God.

Men. Who was ever more favoured by God than David? Hebrew, "Thou hast regarded me according to the estate of a man of high degree." (Protestants) (Haydock)
I Chronicles 17:18 What can David add more, seeing thou hast thus glorified thy servant, and known him?

Known him. Treating him with love and tenderness, as a friend. How can David sufficiently testify his gratitude?
I Chronicles 17:19 O Lord, for thy servant's sake, according to thy own heart, thou hast shewed all this magnificence, and wouldst have all these great things to be known.

I Chronicles 17:20 O Lord, there is none like thee: and there is no other God beside thee, of all whom we have heard of with our ears.

I Chronicles 17:21 For what other nation is there upon earth like unto thy people Israel, whom God went to deliver, and make a people for himself, and by his greatness and terrors cast out nations before their face, whom he had delivered out of Egypt?

Himself. Hebrew adds, "and to make thee a name."
I Chronicles 17:22 And thou hast made thy people Israel to be thy own people for ever; and thou, O Lord, art become their God.

I Chronicles 17:23 Now therefore, O Lord, let the word which thou hast spoken to thy servant, and concerning his house, be established for ever, and do as thou hast said.

I Chronicles 17:24 And let thy name remain and be magnified for ever: and let it be said: The Lord of hosts is God of Israel, and the house of David, his servant, remaineth before him.

I Chronicles 17:25 For thou, O Lord, my God, hast revealed to the ear of thy servant, that thou wilt build him a house: and therefore thy servant hath found confidence to pray before thee.

I Chronicles 17:26 And now, O Lord, thou art God: and thou hast promised to thy servant such great benefits.

I Chronicles 17:27 And thou hast begun to bless the house of thy servant, that it may be always before thee: for seeing thou blessest it, O Lord, it shall be blessed for ever.

Begun. Hebrew, "be pleased, (Haydock) or thou hast had the goodness to bless." Syriac, "I pray thee bless."
I Chronicles 18:0 David's victories. His chief officers.

I Chronicles 18:1 And *it came to pass after this, that David defeated the Philistines, and humbled them, and took away Geth, and her daughters, out of the hands of the Philistines:

2 Kings 8:1.;
Year of the World 2960, Year before Christ 1044. Daughters. Villages (See 2 Kings 8:1.; Menochius) and dependant towns. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 18:2 And he defeated Moab, and the Moabites were made David's servants, and brought him gifts.

Gifts. Hebrew mincha, a word used to denote the offerings of bread, etc., Leviticus 2:Here it signifies the tribute (Calmet) imposed on the conquered. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 18:3 At that time David defeated also Adarezer, king of Soba, of the land of Hemath, when he went to extend his dominions as far as the river Euphrates.

Adarezer, or Adadezer, 2 Kings. --- When he, the king of Soba, went to extend. Hebrew, "to strengthened his hand on the," etc. --- Hand often denotes power, extent, possession.
I Chronicles 18:4 And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen, and he houghed all the chariot-horses, only a hundred chariots, which he reserved for himself.

Footmen. Hebrew may well signify, "1000 chariot-horses and 7000 men who mounted the chariots and the horses." We only find 1700 horsemen, 2 Kings 8:4. But soon after it is added, David houghed all the chariot-horses. (Calmet) --- They were thus rendered useless. The king was forbidden to keep many horses. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 18:5 And the Syrians of Damascus came also to help Adarezer king of Soba: and David slew of them likewise two and twenty thousand men.

Damascus. Hebrew, "Aram of Darmesek." Elsewhere the r is omitted.
I Chronicles 18:6 And he put a garrison in Damascus, that Syria also should serve him, and bring gifts. And the Lord assisted him in all things to which he went.

A garrison. Literally, "soldiers." This word has been lost by the neglect of some Hebrew transcriber. (Calmet) --- Protestants supply it. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 18:7 And David took the golden quivers, which the servants of Adarezer had, and he brought them to Jerusalem.

Quivers. Hebrew, "the shields," etc. The term is variously translated, 2 Kings.
I Chronicles 18:8 Likewise out of Thebath and Chun, cities of Adarezer, he brought very much brass, of which Solomon made the brazen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass.

Chun, called probably Betath, and Berothai, 2 Kings.
I Chronicles 18:9 Now when Thou, king of Hemath, heard that David had defeated all the army of Adarezer, king of Soba,

I Chronicles 18:10 He sent Adoram, his son, to king David, to desire peace of him, and to congratulate him that he had defeated and overthrown Adarezer: for Thou was an enemy to Adarezer.

Adoram, or Joram, 2 Kings. --- Desire. Hebrew, "to ask if all went well with him, and to bless him.
I Chronicles 18:11 And all the vessels of gold, and silver, and brass, king David consecrated to the Lord; with the silver and gold which he had taken from all the nations, as well from Edom, and from Moab, and from the sons of Ammon, as from the Philistines, and from Amalec.

Edom, or rather Syria, (Aram) which might easily be exchanged for Edom, 2 Kings viii. David could not satisfy his devotion by building a temple; but he made preparations. Solomon left part of the treasures unconsumed, 1 Paralipomenon 26:26. (Calmet) --- These effects, being destined for sacred uses, are said to be consecrated to the Lord. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 18:12 And Abisai, the son of Sarvia, slew of the Edomites, in the vale of the Saltpits, eighteen thousand:

Edomites. David seems to have been present, and the victory is sometimes attributed to him. Joab afterwards slew 18,000, 3 Kings 11:15., and title of Psalm ix. (St. Jerome, Trad.) (Calmet) --- Pits. This place was fatal to that nation: there Amasias destroyed 20,000, 2 Paralipomenon 25:12. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 18:13 And he put a garrison in Edom, that Edom should serve David: and the Lord preserved David in all things to which he went.

I Chronicles 18:14 So David reigned over all Israel, and executed judgment and justice among all his people.

I Chronicles 18:15 And Joab, the son of Sarvia, was over the army: and Josaphat, the son of Ahilud, recorder:

I Chronicles 18:16 And Sadoc, the son of Achitob, and Achimelech, the son of Abiathar, were the priests; and Susa, scribe.

Abiathar and Achimelech had both names indifferently. Hebrew reads Abimelech, which is a manifest mistake. The name of Abiathar perhaps ought to be in the place of Achimelech; as we know that he was the son of the latter, and the high priest under David. Some would translate, "and Abiathar, son of Achimelech." --- Susa, or Saraias, secretary.
I Chronicles 18:17 And Banaias, the son of Joiada, was over the bands of the Cerethi and the Phelethi: and the sons of David were chief about the king.

About. Literally, "at the hand of the king," to execute his orders, and to assist him. Septuagint, "vicegerents." Syriac, "princes." They are styled priests, 2 Kings 8:18.
I Chronicles 19:0 The Ammonites abuse David's ambassadors: both they and their confederates are overthrown.

I Chronicles 19:1 Now* it came to pass that Naas, the king of the children of Ammon, died, and his son reigned is his stead.

Year of the World 2967, Year before Christ 1037.; 2 Kings x. Year of the World 2968, Year before Christ 1036.
I Chronicles 19:2 And David said: I will shew kindness to Hanon, the son of Naas: for his father did a favour to me. And David sent messengers to comfort him upon the death of his father. But when they were come into the land of the children of Ammon, to comfort Hanon;

I Chronicles 19:3 The princes of the children of Ammon, said to Hanon: Thou thinkest, perhaps, that David, to do honour to thy father, hath sent comforters to thee: and thou dost not take notice, that his servants are come to thee to consider, and search, and spy out thy land.

Land, or city, 2 Kings 10:3. (Calmet) --- What evils proceed from evil counsellors!
I Chronicles 19:4 Wherefore Hanon shaved the heads and beards of the servants of David, and cut away their garments from the buttocks to the feet, and sent them away.

From. Hebrew, "in the midst, above the thighs:" exposing them to derision. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 19:5 And when they were gone, they sent word to David, who sent to meet them, (for they had suffered a great affront) and ordered them to stay at Jericho till their beards grew, and then to return.

I Chronicles 19:6 And when the children of Ammon saw that they had done an injury to David, Hanon, and the rest of the people, sent a thousand talents of silver, to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria, Maacha, and out of Soba.

Done. Hebrew, "made themselves stinking." Septuagint, "that the people of David was covered with confusion." The insult fell on all Israel. --- Mesopotamia is not mentioned [in] 2 Kings, as the troops perhaps did not arrive soon enough for the first battle, ver. 16.
I Chronicles 19:7 And they hired two and thirty thousand chariots, and the king of Maacha, with his people. And they came and camped over-against Medaba. And the children of Ammon gathered themselves together out of their cities, and came to battle.

Chariots. This number seems excessive, and it may have been put for infantry; the number of which, specified [in] 2 Kings, was 33,000. But the troops of Mesopotamia are not there mentioned, and this supplies what was left defective. (Calmet) --- The chariots may signify those who fought upon them, (Menochius) ver. 18., and Isaias 21:7. (Tirinus) --- Sometimes the whole number is specified; at others only a part.
I Chronicles 19:8 And when David heard of it, he sent Joab, and all the army of valiant men:

I Chronicles 19:9 And the children of Ammon came out, and put their army in array before the gate of the city: and the kings that came to their aid, stood apart in the field.

I Chronicles 19:10 Wherefore Joab, understanding that the battle was set against him before and behind, chose out the bravest men of all Israel, and marched against the Syrians.

I Chronicles 19:11 And the rest of the people he delivered into the hand of Abisai, his brother, and they went against the children of Ammon.

I Chronicles 19:12 And he said: If the Syrians be too strong for me, then thou shalt help me: but if the children of Ammon be too strong for thee, I will help thee.

I Chronicles 19:13 Be of good courage, and let us behave ourselves manfully for our people, and for the cities of our God: and the Lord will do that which is good in his sight.

I Chronicles 19:14 So Joab, and the people that were with him, went against the Syrians to the battle: and he put them to flight.

I Chronicles 19:15 And the children of Ammon, seeing that the Syrians were fled, they likewise fled from Abisai, his brother, and went into the city: and Joab also returned to Jerusalem.

I Chronicles 19:16 But the Syrians, seeing that they had fallen before Israel, sent messengers, and brought to them the Syrians that were beyond the river: and Sophach, general of the army of Adarezer, was their leader.

River, in Mesopotamia. Joab did not allow them time to arrive. --- Sophach, or Sobac. Adarezer sent also to collect these forces, 2 Kings.
I Chronicles 19:17 And it was told David; and he gathered together all Israel, and passed the Jordan, and came upon them, and put his army in array against them, and they fought with him.

I Chronicles 19:18 But the Syrians fled before Israel: and David slew of the Syrians seven thousand chariots, and forty thousand footmen, and Sophach, the general of the army.

Chariots. Literally, "chariot." 2 Kings has only 700, and 40,000 horsemen. (Calmet) --- Ten men might be in each chariot. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 19:19 *And when the servants of Adarezer saw themselves overcome by Israel, they went over to David, and served him: and Syria would not help the children of Ammon any more.

Went. Hebrew, "made peace with David." The many petty kings who had hitherto been tributary to Adarezer, submitted now to the conqueror. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 20:0 Rabba is taken. Other victories over the Philistines.

I Chronicles 20:1 And *it came to pass, after the course of a year, at the time that kings go out to battle, Joab gathered together an army, and the strength of the troops, and wasted the land of the children of Ammon: and went and besieged Rabba. But David staid at Jerusalem, when Joab smote Rabba, and destroyed it.

2 Kings 10:7.; 2 Kings 11:1.;
Year of the World 2969, Year before Christ 1035. Year. Hebrew, "at the return of the year," in spring. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 20:2 And David took the crown of Melchom from his head, and found in it a talent weight of gold, and most precious stones; and he made himself a diadem of it: he took also the spoils of the city, which were very great.

Melchom. Septuagint add the explanation, "their king." It may also be referred to the idol of Ammon. (Haydock) --- The massy crown was suspended over David's head. (Tirinus) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 20:3 And the people that were therein he brought out: and made harrows, and sleads, and chariots of iron, to go over them, so that they were cut and bruised to pieces. In this manner David dealt with all the cities of the children of Ammon: and he returned with all his people to Jerusalem.

Harrows. Hebrew, "cut them with saws, and with harrows; (Haydock) or, rollers of iron, and with saws." But some other term was probably used, as we find saws before. (Calmet) --- Protestants have "axes." This exemplary punishment was in consequence of the violation of the law of nations. Abulensis pronounced it lawful. Tirinus accuses David of a grievous sin of cruelty; observing that he was at this time involved in the sin of adultery: and people easily fall from one abyss into another. Cruelty and lust often go together. Yet it seems best to suspend our judgment. (Haydock) --- David might only treat the most guilty in this manner. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 20:4 *After this there arose a war at Gazer, against the Philistines: in which Sabachai, the Husathite, slew Saphai, of the race of Raphaim, and humbled them.

2 Kings 21:18.;
Year of the World 2986, Year before Christ 1018. Gazer, which seems preferable to Gob, 2 Kings 21:18.
I Chronicles 20:5 Another battle also was fought against the Philistines, in which Adeodatus, the son of Saltus, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath, the Gethite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam.

Adeodatus. Hebrew, "Elchanan, the son of Jair, of Lehem;" or, "slew Lechemi, brother of Goliath;" or equal to him in strength. (Calmet) --- Brother is here supplied, as it is wanting, 2 Kings. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 20:6 There was another battle also in Geth, in which there was a man of great stature, whose fingers and toes were four and twenty, six on each hand and foot: who also was born of the stock of Rapha.

I Chronicles 20:7 He reviled Israel: but Jonathan, the son of Samaa, the brother of David, slew him. These were the sons of Rapha, in Geth, who fell by the hand of David and his servants.

Rapha, head of the giants of Palestine. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 21:0 David's sin, in numbering the people, is punished by a pestilence: which ceaseth upon his offering sacrifice in the threshing-floor of Ornan.

I Chronicles 21:1 And *satan rose up against Israel: and moved David to number Israel.

1 Paralipomenon 27:24.
Year of the World 2987.; 2 Kings xxiv. Satan. This shews that the Lord only (Haydock) permitted David's sin, (2 Kings xxiv.; Worthington) and in this sense only he is said to have instigated him; (Du Hamel) though we read this was done by the fury of the Lord, or by an evil spirit. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 21:2 And David said to Joab, and to the rulers of the people: Go, and number Israel from Bersabee even unto Dan, and bring me the number of them, that I may know it.

I Chronicles 21:3 And Joab answered: The Lord make his people a hundred times more than they are: but, my lord the king, are they not all thy servants? why doth my lord seek this thing, which may be imputed as a sin to Israel?

Israel, who will be severely punished. (Calmet) --- Sin is often used in this sense. (Vatable)
I Chronicles 21:4 But the king's word rather prevailed: and Joab departed, and went through all Israel: and returned to Jerusalem.

I Chronicles 21:5 And he gave David the number of them, whom he had surveyed: and all the number of Israel, was found to be eleven hundred thousand men that drew the sword: and of Juda, four hundred and seventy thousand fighting men.

The number, etc. The difference of the numbers here and [in] 2 Kings 24:9., is to be accounted for, by supposing the greater number to be that which was really found, and the lesser to be that which Joab gave in; (Challoner) or the transcribers of this place have been inaccurate. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 21:6 But Levi and Benjamin he did not number: for Joab unwillingly executed the king's orders.

Number. These might therefore escape the pestilence. (Du Hamel) --- For. Hebrew, "because the king's word was abominable to Joab." We read that Benjamin was numbered unto David, 1 Paralipomenon 7:5, 11. But that might be on another occasion; or the register continued in the archives, and was not brought to the king. See 1 Paralipomenon 27:24. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 21:7 And God was displeased with this thing that was commanded: and he struck Israel.

I Chronicles 21:8 And David said to God: I have sinned exceedingly in doing this: I beseech thee, take away the iniquity of thy servant, for I have done foolishly.

Iniquity. David was guilty, though he retained both faith and hope. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 21:9 And the Lord spoke to Gad, the seer of David, saying:

Seer, or prophet, whom David kept at court and consulted. He was endued himself with the prophetic spirit.
I Chronicles 21:10 Go, and speak to David, and tell him: Thus saith the Lord: I give thee the choice of three things: choose one which thou wilt, and I will do it to thee.

Three; a word omitted in Hebrew, but supplied by the Protestants. (Haydock) --- "I will bring three things upon thee." (Septuagint)
I Chronicles 21:11 And when Gad was come to David, he said to him: Thus saith the Lord: Choose which thou wilt:

I Chronicles 21:12 Either three years' famine: or three months to flee from thy enemies, and not to be able to escape their sword: or three days to have the sword of the Lord, and pestilence in the land, and the angel of the Lord destroying in all the coasts of Israel: now, therefore, see what I shall answer him who sent me.

Three years' famine; which joined with the three foregoing years of famine, mentioned [in] 2 Kings xxi., and the seventh year of the land's resting, would make up the seven years proposed by the prophet, 2 Kings 24:13. (Challoner) --- Perhaps it would be as well to acknowledge a mistake, (2 Kings; Haydock) on account of the similitude of the Hebrew words signifying three and seven: (Tirinus) unless the prophet reduced the time from seven to three years; as in Ezechiel 4:15. God mitigates the severity of his first threat. (Sanctius)
I Chronicles 21:13 And David said to Gad: I am on every side in a great strait: but it is better for me to fall into the hands of the Lord, for his mercies are many, than into the hands of men.

Men. Susanna spoke on a different supposition, (Daniel 13:23., and Ecclesiasticus 2:22.) of eternal punishment, in consequence of sin. David prefers to be punished by the hand of a tender father, rather than by that of an enemy; (Tirinus; Estius) and he does not wish to screen himself from suffering in this world, but offers himself to share in the chastisement of his subjects. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 21:14 So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel. And there fell of Israel seventy thousand men.

I Chronicles 21:15 And he sent an angel to Jerusalem, to strike it: and as he was striking it, the Lord beheld, and took pity for the greatness of the evil: and said to the angel that destroyed: It is enough; now stop thy hand. And the angel of the Lord stood by the threshing-floor of Ornan, the Jebusite.

Took. Hebrew, "repented of evil," taking pity of unhappy victims. --- Ornan, or Areuna. (Challoner) --- He had been king of the Jebusites before David took Jerusalem. (Mariana; Tirinus)
I Chronicles 21:16 And David, lifting up his eyes, saw the angel of the Lord standing between heaven and earth, with a drawn sword in his hand, turned against Jerusalem: and both he, and the ancients, clothed in hair-cloth, fell down flat on the ground.

I Chronicles 21:17 And David said to God: Am not I he that commanded the people to be numbered? It is I that have sinned: it is I that have done the evil: but as for this flock, what hath it deserved? O Lord, my God, let thy hand be turned, I beseech thee, upon me, and upon my father's house: and let not thy people be destroyed.

I Chronicles 21:18 And the angel of the Lord commanded Gad to tell David, to go up, and build an altar to the Lord God, in the threshing-floor of Ornan, the Jebusite.

Altar. Hence it appears that holy men erected altars by God's command. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 21:19 And David went up, according to the word of Gad, which he spoke to him in the name of the Lord.

I Chronicles 21:20 Now when Ornan looked up, and saw the angel, he and his four sons hid themselves: for at that time he was threshing wheat in the floor.

Now. Hebrew, "and Ornan turned back." --- Angel. Vatican Septuagint, the king and his four sons with him, along with Achabin." Other editions have, "and his four sons hidden with him." Arabic, "and the king, being come near to Aran, he saw David and his," etc. Syriac reads in like manner; but says nothing of the children either of David or of Ornan. We do not read that Ornan saw the angel, 2 Kings, but this circumstance may be here supplied. It is evident the Septuagint have read melec, "king," instead of malac, "angel." (Calmet) --- Eupolemus says the angel Dianathan shewed David were to build the temple. (Eusebius, Praep. 9:30.)
I Chronicles 21:21 And as David was coming to Ornan, Ornan saw him, and went out of the threshing-floor to meet him, and bowed down to him, with his face to the ground.

I Chronicles 21:22 And David said to him: Give me this place of thy threshing-floor, that I may build therein an altar to the Lord: but thou shalt take of me as much money as it is worth, that the plague may cease from the people.

Worth. Hebrew, "give it me for the full price," or "worth." Septuagint, "the money was weighed."
I Chronicles 21:23 And Ornan said to David: Take it, and let my lord the king do all that pleaseth him: and moreover, the oxen also I give for a holocaust, and the drays for wood, and the wheat for the sacrifice: I will give it all willingly.

I Chronicles 21:24 And king David said to him: It shall not be so: but I will give thee money as much as it is worth: for I must not take it from thee, and so offer to the Lord holocausts free-cost.

I Chronicles 21:25 So David gave to Ornan for the place, six hundred sicles of gold of just weight.

Six hundred sicles, etc. This was the price of the whole place on which the temple was afterwards built: but the price of the oxen was fifty sicles of silver, 2 Kings 24:24. (Challoner) --- Or the fifty sicles were given for the threshing-floor alone. (Calmet) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 21:26 *And he built there an altar to the Lord: and he offered holocausts, and peace-offerings, and he called upon the Lord, and he heard him, by sending fire from heaven upon the altar of the holocaust.

2 Paralipomenon 3:1.
Fire, to testify his approbation. (Worthington; Tirinus) See Genesis 4:4., and 2 Paralipomenon 7:1. (Calmet) --- This altar represented the cross, on which the Victim of our reconciliation [Jesus Christ] was offered. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 21:27 And the Lord commanded the angel: and he put up his sword again into the sheath.

I Chronicles 21:28 And David seeing that the Lord had heard him, in the threshing-floor of Ornan, the Jebusite, forthwith offered victims there.

I Chronicles 21:29 But the tabernacle of the Lord, *which Moses made in the desert, and the altar of holocausts, was at that time in the high place of Gabaon.

Exodus 36:2.
I Chronicles 21:30 And David could not go to the altar, there to pray to God: for he was seized with an exceedingly great fear, seeing the sword of the angel of the Lord.

God. He performed what God had commanded. But he would have offered other voluntary victims at Gabaon, if he had been able. (Calmet) --- The distance shewed the propriety of building the temple at Jerusalem, (Du Hamel) which was nearly in the centre of the country. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 22:0 David having prepared all necessaries, chargeth Solomon to build the temple, and the princes to assist him

I Chronicles 22:1 Then David said: *This is the house of God, and this is the altar for the holocaust of Israel.

2 Paralipomenon 3:1.
The house. Or the place where the temple shall be built. (Menochius) --- The miraculous fire convinced David that God had made choice of this spot.
I Chronicles 22:2 *And he commanded to gather together all the proselytes of the land of Israel, and out of them he appointed stone-cutters, to hew stones and polish them, to build the house of God.

Year of the World 2988, Year before Christ 1016. Proselytes. This is the first time that the word occurs in the Vulgate. See Exodus 12:45. It means "strangers," (Calmet) who were not allowed to live in the country, unless they would observe the natural law, and renounce idolatry. (Rabbins) --- These had embraced the Jewish religion. (Menochius) --- They were the remnants of the people of Chanaan, (3 Kings 9:20,) and were treated as public slaves, which could not have been done, with justice or policy, with regard to those who might barely wish to reside in the country. These strangers prefigured the Gentiles, chosen to build the Christian Church.
I Chronicles 22:3 And David prepared in abundance iron for the nails of the gates, and for the closures and joinings: and of brass an immense weight.

Prepared. Syriac and Arabic, "appointed blacksmiths from among the proselytes, to forge tools for cutting and dressing stone, etc." But most follow the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- Closures is explained by the following word, which alone occurs in Hebrew, etc. --- Immense. Hebrew and Septuagint, "abundance, it was not weighed." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 22:4 And the cedar-trees were without number, which the Sidonians, and Tyrians, brought to David.

Number. Still we find that Solomon ordered more, as the structure was more magnificent than even David had imagined.
I Chronicles 22:5 And David said: Solomon, my son, is very young and tender, and the house which I would have to be built to the Lord, must be such as to be renowned in all countries: therefore I will prepare him necessaries. And therefore, before his death he prepared all the charges.

I Chronicles 22:6 And he called for Solomon, his son: and commanded him to build a house to the Lord, the God of Israel.

Tender, (delicatus) weak and unexperienced. (Calmet) --- Yet he might be 21 when he was crowned. (Tirinus) --- David began his preparations long before. --- Lord. Hebrew, "must be (Haydock) for grandeur, excellence, fame, and beauty, through all countries" a sort of prodigy. --- All. Hebrew, "abundantly."
I Chronicles 22:7 And David said to Solomon: My son, it was my desire to have built a house to the name of the Lord, my God.*

2 Kings 7:1.
I Chronicles 22:8 But the word of the Lord came to me, saying: Thou hast shed much blood, and fought many battles, so thou canst not build a house to my name, after shedding so much blood before me:

Blood, of Urias, (St. Jerome and the Rabbins) or rather, as David had already entertained the desire of building a temple before that event, (Estius) the blood which David had shed in just wars, must be understood; as even that causes a person to be regarded as unclean. The soldiers were obliged to be purified before they could enter the camp, Numbers 31:19. In the Christian Church, those are deemed irregular who have contributed to the death of the guilty, even as judges or witnesses. The Pagans entertained the like sentiments. (Calmet) Aeneas dares not touch the sacred vessels and household gods, when he was stained with blood, shed in his country's defence. Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu, patriosque penates Me bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti Attrectare nefas. (Virgil, Aeneid ii.) --- So. Hebrew, "much blood in my sight." (Haydock) --- This expression enhances (Du Hamel) the greatness of the bloodshed; as when a person is said to be wicked, etc., before the Lord, it means in an extraordinary degree. The wars of David are frequently assigned as the impediment to David's building the temple, 1 Paralipomenon 17:4., and 28:3. (Josephus, etc.) (Calmet) --- They would not suffer him to have sufficient leisure, ver. 18., (Haydock) 3 Kings 5:3. (Salien) (Menochius)
I Chronicles 22:9 But a son, that shall be born to thee, shall be a most quiet man: for I will make him rest from all his enemies round about: and therefore, he shall be called Peaceable: and I will give peace and quietness to Israel all his days.

Peaceable. Hebrew, "Solomon," which has this meaning. (Calmet) --- Herein Solomon was a figure of Christ, who is styled the Prince of peace, Isaias ix. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 22:10 *He shall build a house to my name, and he shall be a son to me, and I will be a father to him: and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever.

2 Kings 7:13.; 3 Kings 5:5.
Name. See 2 Kings 7:13. (Menochius) --- A son. The crimes into which Solomon fell, hinder us from explaining this literally of him. St. Paul refers the expression to Jesus Christ, Hebrews 1:5. (Calmet) --- St. Augustine (de C.[City of God?] 17:8 and 9.) observes that the promises were not perfectly fulfilled in Solomon.
I Chronicles 22:11 Now then, my son, the Lord be with thee, and do thou prosper, and build the house to the Lord, thy God, as he hath spoken of thee.

I Chronicles 22:12 The Lord also give thee wisdom and understanding, that thou mayst be able to rule Israel, and to keep the law of the Lord, thy God.

Understanding, (sensum.) Skill to resolve difficult questions. (Menochius) --- That. Hebrew, "and appoint thee to rule." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 22:13 For then thou shalt be able to prosper, if thou keep the commandments, and judgments, which the Lord commanded Moses to teach Israel: take courage, and act manfully; fear not, nor be dismayed.

I Chronicles 22:14 Behold, I, in my poverty have prepared the charges of the house of the Lord; of gold a hundred thousand talents, and of silver a million of talents; but of brass, and of iron, there is no weight, for the abundance surpasseth all account: timber also, and stones, I have prepared for all the charges.

Poverty. Protestants, "trouble." (Haydock) --- David confesses that the immense sums which he had collected, were nothing in comparison with the greatness of God. He left more than was sufficient for Solomon to perfect the work, with still greater magnificence than he had planned out, ver. 5., 1 Paralipomenon 28:2., and 29:2., etc. (Calmet) --- Million. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 7:14.) reduces these sums to one tenth part, "of gold 10,000 talents, of silver 100,000;" so that it is "extremely probable that a cipher" was added to these numbers, in some very ancient Hebrew copy. Brerewood computes that the sum mentioned here and [in] chap 29:4, would amount to 841,125,000l. and maintains that the whole temple pavement, and all the vessels, might have been made of solid gold, without consuming it all. (De pond, in Walton's Polyglot.) --- "If we take the preceding talents according to bishop Cumberland's computation, the sum total will be somewhat less: but, were we to reduce it to less than one-half, would not the sum of four hundred millions of money be immense and incredible?" (Kennicott) --- A learned Jew has written this marginal note in his Bible, 1661: "It is supposed, these talents are not to be reckoned like the Mosaic, for they would amount to 720 millions. But as the Scripture makes no difference, we have no other computation to go by." See Kennicott, diss. 2:If they were the same, the sum would exceed belief. Some have thought that they were only half. Mariana supposes the talents were only the weight of sicles, or four drachms; so that David left one million for the fabric. (Du Hamel) --- But the relation given by historians of the riches of Sardanapalus, Cyrus, Alexander, Atabalipa, and some kings, who were not more likely to amass such treasures than David, make the account less improbable. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 7:12.) asserts, that "no prince ever left so great riches." He had extended his dominions on all sides, and imposed tribute on the conquered. He was very frugal, and had possession of the mines of Phunon, (Numbers 21:10., and 33:43.) and of Phoenicia, Deuteronomy 33:25. Though the talent seems to have varied in other nations, it always consisted of 3000 sicles among the Hebrews, at least till the captivity, Exodus 38:25, 26. We find from 2 Paralipomenon 25:6., and 4 Kings 15:19., etc., that it formed a very considerable sum. Yet Villalpand calculates that all the gold and silver left by David, would be requisite for the ornaments and vessels of the temple. If, however, we grant that it would have sufficed to build a massive temple of gold, how much must be deducted to pay the workmen? etc. (Calmet, Diss. on the riches left by David, t. ii.) --- For all. Hebrew, Chaldean, Septuagint, "And to these add." (Tirinus) --- He encouraged the princes to contribute; (chap. 39.) and here he exhorts his son to shew his liberality, if any thing should be found deficient. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 22:15 Thou hast also workmen in abundance, hewers of stones, and masons, and carpenters, and of all trades the most skilful in their work,

I Chronicles 22:16 In gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in iron, whereof there is no number. Arise then, and be doing, and the Lord will be with thee.

I Chronicles 22:17 David also charged all the princes of Israel, to help Solomon, his son,

I Chronicles 22:18 Saying: You see, that the Lord, your God, is with you, and hath given you rest round about, and hath delivered all your enemies into your hands, and the land is subdued before the Lord, and before his people.

Saying is not expressed in Hebrew, "Is not the Lord," etc. --- And hath. Hebrew, "for he hath given the inhabitants of the land into my hand," or power. (Haydock) --- Almost all the neighbouring nations were subjected to David. (Calmet)--- The Lord, who assisted his people, and filled the enemy with terror. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 22:19 Give, therefore, your hearts and your souls, to seek the Lord, your God: and arise, and build a sanctuary to the Lord God, that the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and the vessels consecrated to the Lord, may be brought into the house, which is built to the name of the Lord.

Is on the point of being built. David was convinced that the work would not be much longer retarded, so that he speaks of it as present. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 23:0 David appointeth Solomon king. The distribution of the Levites, and their offices.

I Chronicles 23:1 And *David, being old and full of days, made Solomon, his son, king over Israel.

Year of the World 2988. Full, satisfied, in the last year of his reign, and the 70th of his age. (Du Hamel) --- Cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedit? (Lucretius iii.) --- Israel. This example was much followed by succeeding kings. (Calmet) --- Yet this is controverted. (Houbigant) (Haydock)
I Chronicles 23:2 And he gathered together all the princes of Israel, and the priests and Levites.

Princes, heads of families, or officers of the army, 1 Paralipomenon 25:1. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 23:3 And the Levites were numbered, from the age of thirty years, and upwards: and there were found of them thirty-eight thousand men.

Numbered at the same time, when David caused his son to be crowned, and made these fresh regulations, ver. 27., and 1 Paralipomenon 26:31. --- Upwards, according to the plan given by Moses. David afterwards ordered people of twenty years of age, to begin to serve in the tabernacle, as it was now fixed, and consequently the labours were diminished. This tended to augment the splendour of the religious worship, and to edify the people, who could not attend so constantly, in person.
I Chronicles 23:4 Of these twenty-four thousand were chosen, and distributed unto the ministry of the house of the Lord: and six thousand were the overseers and judges.

Overseers. Hebrew shoterim. Septuagint, "scribes." Others suppose "lictors and executioners," who attended the judges. (Grotius) --- These were functions from which the priests were exempted; (Calmet) so that the Levites alone are meant. (Menochius) --- Judges. They had to decide the causes of the people, 2 Paralipomenon xxix. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 23:5 Moreover, four thousand were porters: and as many singers, singing to the Lord with the instruments which David had made to sing with.

David. Literally, "he." Septuagint, "they." Protestants, "which I made (said David) to praise therewith." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 23:6 *And David distributed them into courses, by the families of the sons of Levi; to wit, of Gerson, and of Caath, and of Merari.

1 Paralipomenon 6:1.
Into 24 courses, like the priests, that each class might serve twice a year for a whole week, 1 Paralipomenon 24:31. (Tirinus) --- God had already made choice of the posterity of Levi; and David, with the princes, Sadoc, etc., disposed of them by lots, (chap. 24:6.) to serve in the tabernacle, and in the future temple. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 23:7 The sons of Gerson were, Leedan and Semei.

Leedan, or Lebni, Numbers 3:18. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 23:8 The sons of Leedan: the chief, Jahiel, and Zethan, and Joel, three.

Chief, head of the rest; (Haydock) or all these three were chiefs, (Junius) no less than the sons of Semei, ver. 9.
I Chronicles 23:9 The sons of Semei: Salomith, and Hosiel, and Aran, three: these were the heads of the families of Leedan.

Semei; perhaps (Calmet) sons of Joel. (Du Hamel) --- The brother of Leedan had four sons, ver. 10. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 23:10 And the sons of Semei were, Leheth, and Ziza, and Jaus, and Baria: these were the sons of Semei, four.

Ziza. Hebrew has "Zina," but reads "Ziza," ver. 11. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 23:11 And Leheth was the first, Ziza the second: but Jaus and Baria had not many children, and therefore they were counted in one family, and in one house.

Children. All together were not more than the children of each of the preceding, so that they only formed one class. (Tirinus) --- It would have been too burdensome for them to have performed the same service with those who were far more numerous: (Haydock) therefore the sons of Semei were joined with the family of Leedan: (Calmet) or rather Jaus and Baria went together, as one family. --- Counted. Hebrew, "in one class, according to their father's house." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 23:12 The sons of Caath were, Amram, and Isaar, Hebron, and Oziel, four.

I Chronicles 23:13 *The sons of Amram, Aaron, and Moses. **And Aaron was separated to minister in the holy of holies, he and his sons, for ever, and to burn incense before the Lord, according to his ceremonies, and to bless his name for ever.

1 Paralipomenon 6:3. --- ** Hebrews 5:4.
Minister. Hebrew, "to sanctify the holy of holies." --- His. Hebrew, "in his name," with solemnity, Numbers 6:23. The Levites might bless the name of the Lord.
I Chronicles 23:14 The sons also of Moses, the man of God, were numbered in the tribe of Levi.

Levi, but not among the priests, (Calmet) though their father was an extraordinary priest, appointed by God to anoint Aaron, Psalm xcviii. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 23:15 The sons *of Moses were, Gersom, and Eliezer:

Exodus 2:22.; Exodus 18:3-4.
Eliezer. His being uncircumcised, had almost proved fatal to his father, Exodus 4:24. (Menochius) --- First. He might have other brothers, (Calmet) though the title may be given to an only son, ver. 17., and Matthew 1:25. Subuel was perhaps (Haydock) chief of a family, (Calmet) and was appointed over the treasury, 1 Paralipomenon 26:24. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 23:16 The sons of Gersom: Subuel, the first.

I Chronicles 23:17 And the sons of Eliezer were, Rohobia, the first: and Eliezer had no more sons. But the sons of Rohobia were multiplied exceedingly.

I Chronicles 23:18 The sons of Isaar: Salomith, the first.

I Chronicles 23:19 The sons of Hebron: Jeriau, the first, Amarias, the second, Jahaziel, the third, Jecmaam, the fourth.

I Chronicles 23:20 The sons of Oziel: Micha, the first, Jesia, the second.

I Chronicles 23:21 The sons of Merari: Moholi, and Musi. The sons of Moholi: Eleazar, and Cis.

I Chronicles 23:22 And Eleazar died, and had no sons, but daughters: and the sons of Cis, their brethren, took them.

I Chronicles 23:23 The sons of Musi: Moholi, and Eder, and Jerimoth, three.

I Chronicles 23:24 These are the sons of Levi, in their kindreds and families, princes by their courses, and the number of every head that did the works of the ministry of the house of the Lord, from twenty years old and upwards.

Old. See ver. 3., and Numbers 4:3. --- And upwards; as long as they were able to serve. They were excused from carrying the tabernacle, etc., at fifty years of age, Numbers 8:25. (Abulensis) (Menochius) --- To those who were turned of thirty, the higher offices were entrusted; while the Levites began at twenty, to exercise themselves in things of less consequence, under the direction of their elder brethren. (Tirinus) --- The kings might declare, by the advice of the Sanhedrim, what laws were of a temporary nature. (Grotius) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 23:25 For David said: The Lord, the God of Israel, hath given rest to his people, and an habitation in Jerusalem, for ever.

Ever. They will not have to carry, the sacred vessels about, as formerly. (Haydock) --- In order that they may not be idle, we must therefore provide them some other employment, ver. 28, etc. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 23:26 And it shall not be the office of the Levites to carry any more the tabernacle, and all the vessels for the service thereof.

I Chronicles 23:27 So according to the last precepts of David, the sons of Levi are to be numbered from twenty years old and upwards.

I Chronicles 23:28 And they are to be under the hand of the sons of Aaron, for the service of the house of the Lord, in the porches, and in the chambers, and in the place of purification, and in the sanctuary, and in all the works of the ministry of the temple of the Lord.

Place. Hebrew, "purifying all that is holy;" (Haydock) keeping clean all that is used about the sacred ministry. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 23:29 And the priests have the charge of the loaves of proposition, and of the sacrifice of fine flour, and of the unleavened cakes, and of the frying-pan, and of the roasting, and of every weight and measure.

And the priests, etc. This is not found in Hebrew or Septuagint. The Levites might prepare these things; though the priests alone were to offer them in sacrifice. (Tirinus) (Chap. 9:32., and Leviticus 24:8.) --- Others think that (Calmet) the priests received flour from the people, and baked it. (Menochius) --- But St. Jerome follows the tradition of the Jews, intimating that the priests sowed the corn, and did every thing about the loaves of proposition, Malachias 1:6. --- Flour, Leviticus 2:1. --- Cakes, Exodus 29:2. --- Roasting the first-fruits, Leviticus 2:14. (Menochius) --- Measure. A standard was kept in the temple, (Exodus 30:13.; Calmet) to prevent any fraud. The Ediles at Rome performed the same office. (Tirinus) --- There were not two measures in the country, as that would have caused confusion. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 23:30 And the Levites are to stand in the morning, to give thanks, and to sing praises to the Lord: and in like manner in the evening,

And the Levites. This also is omitted in Hebrew, "and to stand," etc., as all the preceding offices pertained to the Levites, (Haydock) and priests were bound equally with them to praise the Lord.
I Chronicles 23:31 As well in the oblation of the holocausts of the Lord, as in the sabbaths and in the new moons, and the rest of the solemnities, according to the number and ceremonies prescribed for every thing, continually, before the Lord.

Lord. Music accompanied this service twice a day, as it did the sacrifices which were offered for the prince, or for the nation, Numbers 10:10. (Calmet) --- Rest. Hebrew, "the set festivals, by number, according to the order prescribed unto them continually," etc. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 23:32 And let them keep the observances of the tabernacle of the covenant, and the ceremonies of the sanctuary, and the charge of the sons of Aaron, their brethren, that they may minister in the house of the Lord.

Brethren. Let them follow the directions of the high priests, who are of the same tribe. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 24:0 The divisions of the priests into four and twenty courses, to serve in the temple: the chiefs of the Levites.

I Chronicles 24:1 Now these were the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, and Abiu, and Eleazar, and Ithamar.

I Chronicles 24:2 *But Nadab and Abiu died before their father, and had no children: so Eleazar and Ithamar did the office of the priesthood.

Leviticus 10:2.; Numbers 3:4.
Before. Hebrew, "in the presence of." See Leviticus 10:2. --- Priesthood, under Aaron. Eleazar succeeded him, and the posterity of Ithamar obtained the dignity under Heli.
I Chronicles 24:3 And David distributed them, that is, Sadoc, of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech, of the sons of Ithamar, according to their courses and ministry.

Ahimelech is styled also Achimelech and Abiathar, ver. 6, 21., and 1 Paralipomenon 18:16. (Calmet) --- Courses, twenty-four, which were to serve by lot, that no one might complain, as they were equally princes, ver. 5. Hence St. Dionisius styles Zachary "prince of the priests." But the pontiff was over all. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 24:4 And there were found many more of the sons of Eleazar among the principal men, than of the sons of Ithamar. And he divided them so, that there were of the sons of Eleazar, sixteen chief men, by their families: and of the sons of Ithamar, eight, by their families and houses.

Houses. The descendants of Eleazar were far more numerous.
I Chronicles 24:5 And he divided both the families, one with the other, by lot: for there were princes of the sanctuary, and princes of God, both of the sons of Eleazar, and of the sons of Ithamar.

Of God, great. Elohim also signifies "judges," and we might translate, "princes of the judges." (Grotius) (Du Hamel) --- These men occupied the first dignities of the priesthood, and of the judicature, or they were princes in all sacred affairs. (Calmet) --- They were to offer sacrifice, and to enjoy spiritual jurisdiction, in the house of God. (Worthington) --- As their claims were therefore equal, the decision was left to lots. (Menochius) --- It would have been otherwise difficult for all to be satisfied. See Josue 7:14. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 24:6 And Semeias, the son of Nathanael, the scribe, a Levite, wrote them down before the king and the princes, and Sadoc, the priest, and Ahimelech, the son of Abiathar, and the princes also, of the priestly and Levitical families: one house, which was over the rest, of Eleazar: and another house, which had the rest under it, of Ithamar.

Ithamar. All was done with the utmost order, and the priests took care to observe the regulation, till the end of the republic. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 7:2., and contra Apion i., and ii., and Luke 1:5.) --- The family of Eleazar had many prerogatives over the rest, as it was longer in possession of the high priesthood, and more numerous; but that of Ithamar, gave pontiffs to the nation at the time of this regulation. The Hebrew is very obscure, and is deemed incorrect. (Cap.) (Grotius) (Calmet) --- Protestants, "one principal household being taken for Eleazar, and one taken for Ithamar." --- The insertion of "one," which is in the Septuagint, removes the difficulty. (Haydock) --- The two families were enregistered alternately, (Menochius) till the eight families of Ithamar were done. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 24:7 Now the first lot came forth to Joiarib, the second to Jedei,

I Chronicles 24:8 The third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim,

I Chronicles 24:9 The fifth to Melchia, the sixth to Maiman,

I Chronicles 24:10 The seventh to Accos, the eighth to Abia,

Abia, the progenitor of St. John the Baptist, Luke 1:5. Yet whether his father was "chief of the priests" of his course, as St. Dionisius asserts, or whether he sprung from Eleazar, or from Ithamar, is uncertain. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 24:11 The ninth to Jesua, the tenth to Sechenia,

I Chronicles 24:12 The eleventh to Eliasib, the twelfth to Jacim,

I Chronicles 24:13 The thirteenth to Hoppha, the fourteenth to Isbaab,

I Chronicles 24:14 The fifteenth to Belga, the sixteenth to Emmer,

I Chronicles 24:15 The seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Aphses,

I Chronicles 24:16 The nineteenth to Pheteia, the twentieth to Hezechiel,

I Chronicles 24:17 The one and twentieth to Jachin, the two and twentieth to Gamul,

I Chronicles 24:18 The three and twentieth to Dalaiau, the four and twentieth to Maaziau.

I Chronicles 24:19 These are their courses, according to their ministries, to come into the house of the Lord, and according to their manner, under the hand of Aaron, their father: as the Lord, the God of Israel, had commanded.

Aaron, and his successors. The former might have given some directions, which tradition had preserved. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 24:20 Now, of the rest of the sons of Levi, there was of the sons of Amram, Subael: and of the sons of Subael, Jehedeia.

Subael, grandson of Moses, 1 Paralipomenon 23:16.
I Chronicles 24:21 Also of the sons of Rohobia, the chief, Jesias.

Rohobia was in the same degree, by Eliezer. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 24:22 And the son of Isaar, Salemoth; and the son of Salemoth, Jahath:

I Chronicles 24:23 And his son, Jeriau, the first, Amarias, the second, Jahaziel, the third, Jecmaan, the fourth.

And his. Protestants, "the sons of Hebron, Jeriah, the first." The words underlined, shew what omissions are in the text, (Haydock) which is probably corrupted, as well as the Septuagint. Jeria and Amarias were sons of Hebron, 1 Paralipomenon 23:19., and 26:31. Jahath may, therefore, be the same with Hebron. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 24:24 The son of Oziel, Micha: the son of Micha, Samir.

I Chronicles 24:25 The brother of Micha, Jesia: and the son of Jesia, Zacharias.

I Chronicles 24:26 The sons of Merari: Moholi and Musi: the son of Oziau: Benno.

The son. Hebrew, "the son of Jehasia, or of Oziau...." But the name of this son is lost. It is wonderful that the posterity of Gersom are passed over. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "the sons of Jaaziah; Beno. --- 27. The sons of Merari, by Jaaziah; Beno, and Shoam." (Haydock) --- Septuagint vary, and the original text is supposed to be changed by some transcriber, (Capel. etc.) as we read only of Moholi and Musi, ver. 26., and 1 Paralipomenon 23:21.
I Chronicles 24:27 The son also of Merari: Oziau, and Soam, and Zacchur, and Hebri.

I Chronicles 24:28 And the son of Moholi: Eleazar, who had no sons.

I Chronicles 24:29 And the son of Cis, Jeramael.

I Chronicles 24:30 The sons of Musi: Moholi, Eder, and Jerimoth. These are the sons of Levi, according to the houses of their families.

I Chronicles 24:31 And they also cast lots over-against their brethren, the sons of Aaron, before David, the king, and Sadoc, and Ahimelech, and the princes of the priestly and Levitical families, both the elder and the younger. The lot divided all equally.

Over-against, in imitation of the priests, (Calmet) being likewise divided into twenty-four classes. (Tirinus) --- Both, etc. Hebrew, "the principal fathers over-against their younger brethren." All the rest is omitted. Lots decided the place and functions both of father and children. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 25:0 The number and divisions of the musicians.

I Chronicles 25:1 Moreover David, and the chief .officers of the army, separated for the ministry the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Idithun: to prophesy with harps, and with psalteries, and with cymbals, according to their number, serving in their appointed office.

Army; the chief magistrates of the state and of the church. (Tirinus) (Chap. 24:6, 31.) --- The priests, etc., were all divided into twenty-four classes, each having twelve masters to preside, ver. 7. (Calmet) --- Idithun, or Ethan, chap 6:44., and 15:19., (Worthington) and 3 Kings 4:31. --- The twenty-four sons of these three, who were chief musicians under David and Solomon, presided over the bands: eleven other inferior masters helped to instruct the rest, ver. 9. --- Prophesy, or play on instruments. --- Harps. "Kinnor" means also the "guitar." (Calmet) --- Vulgate has, lyras, 1 Paralipomenon 15:16. --- Psalteries. Hebrew, "nebalim." (Menochius) --- The Jews pretend that the singers were inspired commonly, when they sounded forth God's praises in the temple, as Eliseus was, 4 Kings 3:15. (Lyranus; Estius) --- But they may be said to prophesy, because they sung the composition of the prophets. (Worthington) --- According. Hebrew, "and the number of the workmen, (or experienced musicians) according to their service, was." (Haydock) --- The chiefs of the twenty-four bands were carefully selected.
I Chronicles 25:2 Of the sons of Asaph: Zachur, and Joseph, and Nathania, and Asarela, sons of Asaph: under the hand of Asaph, prophesying near the king.

King, who sat in a separate tribune. Asaph presided in the royal city, at court, and in the tabernacle, while some of the singers were fixed at Gabaon, 1 Paralipomenon 16:7, 37, and 41. (Calmet) --- Hebrew may signify, "at the king's command.["] (Pagnin) --- He sometimes condescended to direct the singers, ver. 6. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 25:3 And of Idithun: the sons of Idithun, Godolias, Sori, Jeseias, and Hasabias, and Mathathias, six, under the hand of their father, Idithun, who prophesied with a harp to give thanks, and to praise the Lord.

Of Idithun; or, altering the punctuation, (Du Hamel) "Now the sons of Idithun were Idithun, the first-born, Godolias (Haydock) Sori, or Isari, ver. 11. Thus, the number six, will be complete: otherwise we much acknowledge that Idithun, the father, is counted with his children; or that a name is lost, perhaps that of Semeias, (ver. 17.; Calmet) as [the] Alexandrian Septuagint has Semei before Hasabias. (Haydock) --- Harp, (kinnor.) This was the distinctive instrument of this band, as the horn was of Heman's. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 25:4 Of Heman also: the sons of Heman, Bocciau, Mathaniau, Oziel, Subuel, and Jerimoth, Hananias, Hanani, Eliatha, Geddelthi, and Romemthiezer, and Jesbacassa, Mollothi, Othir, Mahazioth:

I Chronicles 25:5 All these were the sons of Heman, the seer of the king, in the words of God, to lift up the horn: and God gave to Heman fourteen sons and three daughters.

Seer; a title usually given to the real prophets, who foresee future things. (Menochius) --- Gad has this title, 2 Paralipomenon 24:11. But Heman's office was to proclaim the words of God, with the sound of the horn. This musician had formerly been fixed at Gabaon, 1 Paralipomenon 16:41. (Calmet) --- To lift up the horn, or to sing those psalms, which regarded the kingdom of David, and of Christ, as others were composed for the instruction of the people. (Tirinus) --- Daughters. These are specified, only because they joined with their brethren, in singing in the temple. (Abulensis, q. 14.) (Menochius) --- At least, we find that there were bands of young women, in the solemn procession. (Haydock) (Chap. 15:20., and Psalm 67:26.) (Calmet)
I Chronicles 25:6 All these, under their father's hand, were distributed to sing in the temple of the Lord, with cymbals, and psalteries, and harps, for the service of the house of the Lord, near the king: to wit, Asaph, and Idithun, and Heman.

Near. Hebrew, "under the hand of the king," who presided over a band of musicians, as well as Asaph; (Calmet) or he directed all, particularly giving his instructions to Asaph, etc. --- To wit in not in Hebrew, "by the order of the king to Asaph." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 25:7 And the number of them, with their brethren, that taught the song of the Lord, all the teachers, were two hundred and eighty-eight.

Eight, comprising the twenty-four princes, and the eleven secondary masters of each of the bands, or twelve times twenty-four, ver. 1.
I Chronicles 25:8 And they cast lots by their courses, the elder equally with the younger, the learned and the unlearned together.

Unlearned. Hebrew and Septuagint, "the scholars." (Haydock) --- After the singers had been distributed into twenty-four classes, pretty equal in number, lots decided which of them should serve first, (Menochius) as had been done with the priests, 1 Paralipomenon 24:31. See 1 Paralipomenon 26:13.
I Chronicles 25:9 And the first lot came forth to Joseph, who was of Asaph. The second to Godolias, to him and his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

Asaph. Add, "to him, and (Haydock) to his sons, and his brethren, twelve," who taught the rest. Unless these twelve be admitted, (Tirinus) as in the sequel, (Haydock) the number 288 will not be found, ver. 7. (Tirinus) --- Septuagint is very confused: "And the first (entire) lot of his sons and brethren came out to Asaph, of Joseph, Godolias: the second Enia, his brethren, and his sons, twelve." Hebrew, "the first lot came forth for Asaph to Joseph; the second to," etc. (Protestants) In all the subsequent verses they read, "he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve." Why Asaph should be mentioned any more than Idithun or Heman, does not appear. Their children are placed indiscriminately by lot. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 25:10 The third to Zachur, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:11 The fourth to Isari, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:12 The fifth to Nathania, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:13 The sixth to Bocciau, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:14 The seventh to Isreela, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

Isreela; probably Oziel, ver. 4. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 25:15 The eighth to Jesaia, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:16 The ninth to Mathanias, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:17 The tenth to Semeias, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:18 The eleventh to Azareel, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:19 The twelfth to Hasabi, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:20 The thirteenth to Subael, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:21 The fourteenth to Mathathias, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:22 The fifteenth to Jerimoth, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:23 The sixteenth to Hananias, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:24 The seventeenth to Jesbacassa, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:25 The eighteenth to Hanani, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:26 The nineteenth to Mellothi, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:27 The twentieth to Eliatha, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:28 The one and twentieth to Othir, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:29 The two and twentieth to Geddelthi, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:30 The three and twentieth to Mahazioth, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 25:31 The four and twentieth to Romemthiezer, to his sons, and his brethren, twelve.

I Chronicles 26:0 The divisions of the porters. Offices of other Levites.

I Chronicles 26:1 And the divisions of the porters: of the Corites, Meselemia, the son of Core, of the sons of Asaph.

Porters, who guarded the temple, being stationed at the four gates. They were selected from the families of Core and Merari, (ver. 19.) and were under (Calmet) five captains, two being placed at the gate leading from the palace, ver. 16. (Haydock) --- How many were appointed to follow the directions of these officers, we do not find. But 4,000 porters are mentioned, 1 Paralipomenon 23:5. Some guarded the treasury, etc. After the captivity, the same plan was adopted, 1 Paralipomenon 9. (Calmet) --- Son, or descendant of Core, by Asaph, (Haydock) or Abiasaph, (chap. 6:37.) different from the musician. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 26:2 The sons of Meselemia: Zacharias, the first-born, Jadihel, the second, Zabadias, the third, Jathanael, the fourth.

I Chronicles 26:3 Elam, the fifth, Johanan, the sixth, Elioenai, the seventh.

I Chronicles 26:4 And the sons of Obededom, Semeias, the first-born, Jozabad, the second, Joaha, the third, Sachar, the fourth, Nathanael, the fifth.

I Chronicles 26:5 Ammiel, the sixth, Issachar, the seventh, Phollathi, the eighth: for the Lord had blessed him.

Him. Obededom, by giving him a more numerous posterity, than any here mentioned, ver. 8. See 2 Kings 6:11. (Calmet) (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 26:6 And to Semei, his son, were born sons, heads of their families: for they were men of great valour.

Semei, who is called Semeias, ver. 4., and 7. The last syllable is not lost in Hebrew or Septuagint. (Haydock) --- Valour. Their post was of a military nature, and required strength. Josephus says, some of the gates could hardly be shut by twenty men.
I Chronicles 26:7 The sons then of Semeias were, Othni, and Raphael, and Obed, Elizabad, and his brethren, most valiant men: and Eliu, and Samachias.

I Chronicles 26:8 All these of the sons of Obededom: they, and their sons, and their brethren, most able men for service, sixty-two of Obededom.

I Chronicles 26:9 And the sons of Meselemia, and their brethren, strong men, were eighteen.

I Chronicles 26:10 And of Hosa, that is, of the sons of Merari: Semri, the chief, (for he had not a first-born, and therefore his father made him chief,)

He had not a first-born. That is, his first-born was either dead or not fit to be chief, and therefore he made Semri the chief, (Worthington; Challoner) who was the second son (Tirinus) of Hosa. Hebrew, "for, or though he was not the first-born, yet his father made him chief." Septuagint add, "of the second division," but without reason, as they interpret, "keeping the command," instead of Semri, the chief, which leaves us without a proper name. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 26:11 Helcias, the second, Tabelias, the third, Zacharias, the fourth: all these the sons, and the brethren, of Hosa, were thirteen.

I Chronicles 26:12 Among these were the divisions of the porters, so that the chiefs of the wards, as well as their brethren, always ministered in the house of the Lord.

Lord. The companies succeeded each other every sabbath, but the chiefs were not changed. (Calmet) --- The office of these men was most noble. From them were selected treasurers, overseers, prefects, etc., ver. 16-32. (Tirinus) --- The lot decided only between the heads of families. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 26:13 And they cast lots equally, both little and great, by their families, for every one of the gates.

I Chronicles 26:14 And the lot of the east fell to Selemias. But to his son, Zacharias, a very wise and learned man, the north gate fell by lot.

Selemias: the first syllable is frequently neglected in Hebrew, 1 Paralipomenon 4:24. (Tirinus) --- Zacharias was the first-born of Meselemia, ver. 2. (Haydock) --- A very. Hebrew, "a wise counsellor." (Calmet)
I Chronicles 26:15 And to Obededom, and his sons, that towards the south: in which part of the house was the council of the ancients.

And. Protestants, "To Obededom southward, and to his sons, the house of Asuppim." (Haydock) --- This term may denote the "revenue;" where the offerings, destined for the support of the priests, were collected, Exodus 34:22. We find the same word used for the offerings received at the door of the temple, 2 Esdras 12:15. It may also mean the house "of the assemblies," (Calmet) where the 72 judges of the Sanhedrim met. (Villalpand) (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 26:16 To Sephim, and Hosa, towards the west, by the gate which leadeth to the way of the ascent: ward against ward.

Which. Hebrew Shalecheth, (Calmet) or ssolcoth, (Haydock) "which leads or casts out" the filth from the temple. (Villalpand) (Isaias 6:13.) (Menochius) --- But there were conduits for that purpose; and the meaning of the Vulgate is more accurate. (Calmet) --- The palace lay below the tabernacle and the temple, (Tirinus) on the west. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 15:14.) (Calmet) --- Ward. The centinels where opposite to each other, (Menochius) or at equal distances. All were replaced at the same time. (Calmet) --- Two captains were stationed on this road, for greater respect to the king, (Haydock) and because the concourse and dangers were increased, ver. 18. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 26:17 Now towards the east were six Levites: and towards the north four a day: and towards the south, likewise, four a day: and where the council was, two and two.

Six. This gate was the most frequented, (Calmet) and the king entered by it. --- Council. Hebrew asupim, as [in] ver. 15, "for the offerings two and two," (Haydock) distinct from the porters.
I Chronicles 26:18 In the cells also of the porters, toward the west, four in the way: and two at every cell.

Cell. Hebrew is not clearer: "at the chamber" (Calmet; 'at the house of the instruments' for sacrifice; (Menochius) at Parbar.; Protestants) of the west, at the ascent, two at each chamber." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "at the causey, and two at Parbar." This term is not in Hebrew. It resembles Parvar, or Pharurim, (4 Kings 23:11.) which is said to signify "suburbs," in Chaldean. But it cannot have this meaning here: and these terms are probably borrowed from the Greek, phroura, a military "post;" so that we might translate "There were at the western post, four guards for the ascent, two at each post:" one perhaps was near the temple, (Calmet) the other at the palace gates, 4 Kings 11:6. Septuagint is more diffuse, but throws no light upon this passage. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 26:19 These are the divisions of the porters, of the sons of Core, and of Merari.

I Chronicles 26:20 Now Achias was over the treasures of the house of God, and the holy vessels.

Now. Hebrew and Septuagint add, "the Levites:" the latter translate Achias, "their brethren." (Haydock) --- Vessels. Or vessels of the holy places, or of things holy. Vasa sanctorum. (Challoner) --- Septuagint, "of the consecrated treasures," 1 Paralipomenon 28:12. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 26:21 The sons of Ledan, the sons of Gersonni: of Ledan were heads of the families, of Ledan, and Gersonni, Jehieli.

Ledan is called Leedan, (chap. 23:8.) son of Gerson. His first-born was Jahiel. This person is here styled Jehieli, and was chief of the Gersonites; at least the eldest branch.
I Chronicles 26:22 The sons of Jehieli: Zathan, and Joel, his brethren, over the treasures of the house of the Lord.

Brethren. Hebrew and Septuagint, "brother." In effect, we find that Joel was the son of Leedan, 1 Paralipomenon 23. --- Zathan, whose name ends in m both in Hebrew and Septuagint, may perhaps be his grandson. We often find sons in Hebrew when only one is specified. Jehieli might adopt his two brothers; so that none of his own children are mentioned. (Haydock) --- We may also translate: "(21) These are the sons of Ledan, the Gersonite. Out of Ledan, the Gersonite, came chiefs of families: Jehiel, (22) the sons of Jehiel, Zathan and Joel, his (Jehiel's) brethren, were over," etc. It appears that Jehiel was treasurer, 1 Paralipomenon 29:8.
I Chronicles 26:23 With the Amramites, and Isaarites, and Hebronites, and Ozielites.

Ozielites. These are all the sons of Caath, 1 Paralipomenon 6:18.
I Chronicles 26:24 And Subael, the son of Gersom, the son of Moses, was chief over the treasures.

Moses. Many are passed over; (Calmet) or Subael acted by his children. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 26:25 His brethren also, Eliezer, whose son, Rohabia, and his son, Isaias, and his son, Joram, and his son, Zechri, and his son, Selemith.

I Chronicles 26:26 Which Selemith, and his brethren, were over the treasures of the holy things, which king David, and the heads of families, and the captains over thousands, and over hundreds, and the captains of the host, had dedicated,

Selemith was to guard the treasure, taken in war. (Calmet) --- Dedicated. Literally, "sanctified," by designating for holy uses. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 26:27 Out of the wars, and the spoils won in battles, which they had consecrated to the building and furniture of the temple of the Lord.

Wars. Hebrew, "out of the spoils won in battles, which they had set apart as sacred, to support the house," etc. Septuagint, "that the building of the house of the Lord might not be retarded." (Haydock) --- Yet these spoils remained untouched by Solomon, who imitated this piety, as others did, 3 Kings 14:26. The Romans adored Jupiter Praedator, as he was styled, because part of the plunder was allotted to him. (Servius in Virgil, Aeneid iii.) Irruimus ferro et Divos ipsumque vocamus In praedam partemque Jovem. People vied with each other in the munificence of their presents. (Caesar, Bel. Gall. vi.) (Calmet)
I Chronicles 26:28 And all these things that Samuel, the seer, and Saul, the son of Cis, and Abner, the son of Ner, and Joab, the son of Sarvia, had sanctified: and whosoever had sanctified those things, they were under the hand of Selemith, and his brethren.

Samuel, while he was at the head of affairs. (Menochius) --- Joab. Though these three were not very religious, they concurred in promoting the splendour of the public worship, as that would at least procure them applause. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 26:29 But Chonenias, and his sons, were over the Isaarites, for the business abroad over Israel, to teach them and judge them.

Them. Hebrew, "for officers (shoterim, "scribes," (Haydock) whose power was very great.; Calmet) and judges." The former are often placed first, as more honourable, so that they were not mere heralds or executioners. The administration of justice was chiefly in the hands of the Levitical tribe, 1 Paralipomenon 23:4. The sons of Hebron resided on the east, while those of Isaar and Oziel probably acted as judges on the western side of the Jordan, ver. 30. (Calmet) --- They were not confined to the temple, but taught the people the law of Moses in the cities abroad. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 26:30 And of the Hebronites, Hasabias, and his brethren, most able men, a thousand seven hundred had the charge over Israel beyond the Jordan, westward, in all the works of the Lord, and for the service of the king.

Beyond. Hebrew meheber means, "at the passage, or on either side." Protestants, "on this side Jordan, westward." This would seem to designate the countries nearer Jerusalem. (Haydock) --- But westward may also be understood with reference to Ruben, etc., so as to mean the parts along the river. --- King. To decide both ecclesiastical and civil causes. (Calmet) --- They also inspected the preparations for the temple, and gathered the king's tribute. (Grotius)
I Chronicles 26:31 And the chief of the Hebronites was Jeria, according to their families and kindreds. In the fortieth year of the reign of David, they were numbered, and they were found most valiant men in Jazer Galaad,

Jazer, a city of Gad, in Galaad. (Adrichomius) (Menochius)
I Chronicles 26:32 And his brethren of stronger age, two thousand seven hundred, chiefs of families. And king David made them rulers over the Rubenites and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses, for all the service of God, and the king.

I Chronicles 27:0 The twelve captains for every month: the twelve princes of the tribes. David's several officers.

I Chronicles 27:1 Now the children of Israel, according to their number, the heads of families, captains of thousands and of hundreds, and officers, that served the king according to their companies, who came in and went out every month in the year, under every chief, were four and twenty thousand.

Now. This list is entirely of a political nature. It seems to have been made before David had obtained the throne of Israel, (ver. 7.) though perhaps the monthly division did not comprise 24,000, before that time. This regulation was very excellent, and enabled the king to have an army of 300,000 men, at a short notice. It was not attended with any material inconvenience to the people, as none were on service above a month. --- Hands. Commanders in chief. --- Captains. Twenty-four in number, with 240 centurions under them. --- Officers. Hebrew shoterim. Septuagint, "scribes," whose employment is not well ascertained. They perhaps acted as commissaries, or kept an account of the king's troops, and reviewed them. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "and scribes serving the people, and the king's orders respecting the divisions, both coming in and going out, monthly, throughout the year. One division comprised 24,000 men.
I Chronicles 27:2 Over the first company, the first month, Jesboam, the son of Zabdiel, was chief, and under him were four and twenty thousand.

Jesboam. Hebrew, "Jashobham," as [in] 1 Paralipomenon 11:11. He was the first after Joab, (Haydock) and a descendant of Pharez, like David, and waiting upon the king in the month of Nisan, which almost agrees with our March (Menochius) and April. (Haydock) --- Zabdiel, the Hachmonite, may therefore denote his country; (Kennicott) or Zabdiel might be his ancestor, though the same man has frequently different names. We find several companions of this general in the sequel.
I Chronicles 27:3 Of the sons of Phares, the chief of all the captains in the host, in the first month.

I Chronicles 27:4 The company of the second month was under Dudia, an Ahohite, and after him was another named Macelloth, who commanded a part of the army of four and twenty thousand.

Dudia, or Dodi, the father of Eleazar, 1 Paralipomenon 11:12. (Calmet) --- After him, his substitute. (Tirinus) --- Hebrew, "and Macelloth, chief also of his course, consisting likewise of 24,000." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 27:5 And the captain of the third company, for the third month, was Banaias, the son of Joiada, the priest: and in his division were four and twenty thousand.

Priest. This we read no where else, so that some understand, "a chief officer at court," 2 Kings 8:18. (Calmet) --- But he might be (Haydock) of the tribe of Levi. (Menochius) --- His exploits are mentioned, 1 Paralipomenon 11:21.
I Chronicles 27:6 This is that Banaias, the most valiant among the thirty, and above the thirty. And Amizabad, his son, commanded his company.

Company, in his absence, (Haydock) as lieutenant. (Salien)
I Chronicles 27:7 The fourth, for the fourth month, was Asahel, the brother of Joab, and Zabadias, his son, after him: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

After him. He acted under his father, and succeeded (Menochius) to Asahel's post, after Abner had slain him, 2 Kings 2:23., and 23:24. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 27:8 The fifth captain, for the fifth month, was Samaoth, a Jezerite: and his company were four and twenty thousand.

Samaoth. Perhaps Samma, or Sammoth of Arodi, or Arari; places with which we are not acquainted, unless they denote some of his progenitors. Jazer is well known. (Calmet) --- 1 Paralipomenon 26:34.
I Chronicles 27:9 The sixth, for the sixth month, was Hira, the son of Acces a Thecuite: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Hari. Mentioned as one of David's brave men, 1 Paralipomenon 11:28.
I Chronicles 27:10 The seventh, for the seventh month, was Helles, a Phallonite, of the sons of Ephraim: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Phallonite, or of Phalti, 2 Kings 23:26.
I Chronicles 27:11 The eighth, for the eighth month, was Sobochai, a Husathite, of the race of Zarahi: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Zarahi, or of Zara, the son of Thamar, 1 Paralipomenon 11:29. Sobochai slew the giant Saph, 2 Kings 21:17.
I Chronicles 27:12 The ninth, for the ninth month, was Abiezer, an Anathothite, of the sons of Jemini, and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Jemini, or Benjamin. (Calmet) --- The first syllable is neglected. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 27:13 The tenth, for the tenth month, was Marai, who was a Netophathite, of the race of Zarai: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Marai, or Marahai, sprung from Zara. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 27:14 The eleventh, for the eleventh month, was Banaias, a Pharathonite, of the sons of Ephraim: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ephraim. Pharathon was in this tribe. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 27:15 The twelfth, for the twelfth month, was Holdai, a Netophathite, of the race of Gothoniel: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Holdai, called Heled, the son of Baana, 1 Paralipomenon 11:30., and 2 Kings 23:29. --- Gothoniel. So the Septuagint write Othoniel, (Haydock) so famous in the book of Judges, 1:13., and 3:9.
I Chronicles 27:16 Now the chiefs over the tribes of Israel were these: over the Rubenites, Eliezer, the son of Zechri, was ruler: over the Simeonites, Saphatias, the son of Maacha:

Chiefs, by their birth-right. The former were chosen for merit. (Tirinus) --- The tribes of Aser and of Gad are omitted, either because the list was not in the hands of the author, or it was overlooked by transcribers. (Calmet) --- Rubenites, with whom Em Sa joins the Gadites. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 27:17 Over the Levites, Hasabias, the son of Camuel: over the Aaronites, Sadoc:

I Chronicles 27:18 Over Juda, Eliu, the brother of David: over Issachar, Amri, the son of Michael:

Eliu. Probably the same with Eliab, the eldest son of Isai, (1 Kings 16:7.; Calmet) or the youngest but David, (chap. 2:15.) whose name is preserved by the Syriac, etc.
I Chronicles 27:19 Over the Zabulonites, Jesmaias, the son of Adias: over the Nephthalites, Jerimoth, the son of Ozriel:

I Chronicles 27:20 Over the sons of Ephraim: Osee, the son of Ozaziu: over the half tribe of Manasses, Joel, the son of Phadaia:

I Chronicles 27:21 And over the half tribe of Manasses in Galaad, Jaddo, the son of Zacharias: and over Benjamin, Jasiel, the son of Abner.

I Chronicles 27:22 And over Dan, Ezrihel, the son of Jeroham: these were the princes of the children of Israel.

I Chronicles 27:23 But David would not number them from twenty years old and under: because the Lord had said that he would multiply Israel like the stars of heaven.

Heaven. It would have seemed, therefore, as if David distrusted the divine promise, (Haydock) and attempted what was impossible (Grotius) or useless. (Calmet) --- He had before offended, and hence would now only number those who were wanted. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 27:24 *Joab, the son of Sarvia, began to number, but he finished not: because upon this there fell wrath upon Israel: and therefore the number of them that were numbered, was not registered in the chronicles of king David.

1 Paralipomenon 21:2.;
Year of the World 2987, Year before Christ 1017. Number, those above 20; but he acted with reluctance, (Tirinus) and the wrath of heaven prevented the entire completion of the king's order, 1 Paralipomenon 21:6., and 2 Kings 24:9. --- David. It would hence appear that the list was perfected, but not delivered to the king. The commissioners retained some of the lists; and, perhaps, from these, Esdras has inserted what relates to Benjamin, (chap. 7:6.) as the account was not given in 1 Paralipomenon 21:6. (Calmet) --- This list may, however, have been made at another time; as we are informed that Benjamin and Levi were not numbered. (Haydock) --- The Book of Kings, where we find it, is therefore a different work. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 27:25 And over the king's treasures was Azmoth, the son of Adiel: and over those stores, which were in the cities, and in the villages, and in the castles, was Jonathan, the son of Ozias.

Treasures of gold, etc., as those of provisions had other officers. (Calmet) --- Were in. Hebrew and Septuagint add, "the fields, in the cities," etc. (Haydock) --- This must be understood of corn; wine is mentioned afterwards. Nothing could give us a higher opinion of David's wisdom than these details.
I Chronicles 27:26 And over the tillage, and the husbandmen, who tilled the ground, was Ezri, the son of Chelub:

Ground, for the king. This was done at the expense of the nation, and by the people, no less than the vintage, 2 Kings 8:12. The companions of Daniel were thus appointed to superintend the workmen of Nabuchodonosor, Daniel 2:49. Xenophon (Cyrop. viii.) styles such, ergon epistatas, "men set over the works." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 27:27 And over the dressers of the vineyards, was Semeias, a Romathite: and over the wine-cellars, Zabdias, an Aphonite.

Cellars. Hebrew, "over the increase of the vineyards, for the wine cellars." (Protestants) Wine was formerly kept in cisterns, in the vineyards, till it was taken into large earthen vessels, and placed in cellars.
I Chronicles 27:28 And over the olive-yards and the fig-groves, which were in the plains, was Balanam, a Gederite: and over the oil-cellars, Joas:

I Chronicles 27:29 And over the herds that fed in Saron, was Setrai, a Saronite: and over the oxen in the valleys, Saphat, the son of Adli:

Saron, a fertile region at the foot of the mountains of Galaad; also a vale near the Mediterranean, (Calmet) in Ephraim, extending as far as Joppe. (Adrichomius) (Menochius)
I Chronicles 27:30 And over the camels, Ubil, an Ismahelite: and over the asses, Jadias, a Meronathite:

Ismahelite. People of that nation deal much in camels. (Calmet) --- Ubil had embraced the Jewish religion, or perhaps he was originally an Israelite, but had acquired the title of Ismahelite by some exploit, or by residing long in the country. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 27:31 And over the sheep, Jaziz, an Agarene. All these were the rulers of the substance of king David.

I Chronicles 27:32 And Jonathan, David's uncle, a counsellor, a wise and learned man: he and Jahiel, the son of Hachamoni, were with the king's sons.

Man. Hebrew, "a writer." He was a good politician and lawyer. (Grotius) --- Sons, as tutors. (Du Hamel) (Calmet) --- Jahiel was perhaps the brother of Jesbaam, 1 Paralipomenon 11:11. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 27:33 And Achitophel was the king's counsellor, and Chusai, the Arachite, the king's friend.

Friend. Chusai rendered the most signal service to the king, 2 Kings 16:23., and 17:1. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 27:34 And after Achitophel was Joiada, the son of Banaias, and Abiathar. And the general of the king's army was Joab.

After, inferior, (Salien) as Achitophel's advice was esteemed like an oracle, (Calmet) or Joiada, a chief priest, and Abiathar, the pontiff, succeeded to his place, after he had hung himself. (Tirinus) (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 28:0 David's speech, in a solemn assembly: his exhortation to Solomon. He giveth him a pattern of the temple.

I Chronicles 28:1 And *David assembled all the chief men of Israel, the princes of the tribes, and the captains of the companies, who waited on the king: and the captains over thousands, and over hundreds, and them who had the charge over the substance and possessions of the king, and his sons, with the officers of the court, and the men of power, and all the bravest of the army at Jerusalem.

Year of the World 2989, Year before Christ 1015. Israel. These are more particularly described as princes of the tribes, (Haydock) twelve captains, etc., 1 Paralipomenon 27:1. --- And his. Hebrew, "and of his sons." (Calmet) --- We may also understand this of the preceptors of the royal family, 1 Paralipomenon 27:32. --- Officers. Literally, "eunuchs." (Haydock) --- Bravest; particularly those specified [in] 1 Paralipomenon 21.
I Chronicles 28:2 And the king rising up, and standing, said: Hear me, my brethren, and my people: I had a thought to have built a house, in which the ark of the Lord, and the footstool of our God, might rest: and I prepared all things for the building.

Rising up from his bed, on which he lay, on account of his great age and weakness, while he addressed himself to his son; (3 Kings 1:47.; Calmet) or he rose from his throne, to honor this grand assembly. Hebrew, "stood upon his feet." (Haydock) --- Thought. Hebrew, "I, with my heart, thought to," etc. (Calmet) --- And, or which is the footstool. (Haydock) --- The ark is often so called, because God was considered as sitting upon the wings of the cherubim, over it, Psalm 98:1., etc. --- Building. No doubt what David left would have been sufficient. Yet Solomon thought that he could make something still more magnificent.
I Chronicles 28:3 And God said to me: *Thou shalt not build a house to my name: because thou art a man of war, and hast shed blood.

2 Kings 7:13.
Blood. See 1 Paralipomenon 22:8. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 28:4 But the Lord God of Israel chose me of all the house of my father, to be king over Israel, for ever: for of Juda, he chose the princes: and of the house of Juda, my father's house: and among the sons of my father, it pleased him to choose me king over all Israel.

Ever; for a long time, and to leave the throne to my posterity for many ages, and to the Messias for ever. This expression is not always to be taken in its rigour. (Calmet) --- Princes. Hebrew, "prince, or the ruler." (Haydock) --- This tribe had long possessed the greatest power, (Calmet) and the promise of the sceptre, Genesis xlix. (Worthington) --- The phrase often denotes a long time, but it is best understood of Christ. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 28:5 *And among my sons (for the Lord hath given me many sons) he hath chosen Solomon, my son, to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the Lord, over Israel.

1 Paralipomenon 9:7.
My son, by the mouth of Nathan, 2 Kings 7:13. (Menochius) --- Solomon was a figure of Christ, and his dignity was predicted, 1 Paralipomenon 17:11., and 3 Kings 1:13. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 28:6 And he said to me: Solomon, thy son, shall build my house, and my courts: for I have chosen him to be my son, and I will be a father to him.

I Chronicles 28:7 And I will establish his kingdom for ever, if he continue to keep my commandments, and my judgments, as at this day.

If. The promises of the Old Testament were frequently conditional, and we always find the condition marked in some place; but those made to the Church of Christ, have no such limitation. (Haydock) --- Day. Solomon was once faithful, and afterwards fell; it is uncertain whether ever to rise again. Hence it appears that the true children of God may become wicked. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 28:8 Now then, before all the assembly of Israel, in the hearing of our God, keep ye, and seek all the commandments of the Lord, our God: that you may possess the good land, and may leave it to your children after you, for ever.

Seek. Wilful (Haydock) or supine ignorance will excuse no man. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 28:9 And thou, my son, Solomon, know the God of thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart, and a willing mind: *for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the thoughts of minds. If thou seek him, thou shalt find him: but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever.

Psalm 7:20.
Know, with affection (Haydock) and faith; and him alone must thou serve. (Du Hamel) --- Forsake him, and die impenitent. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 28:10 Now, therefore, seeing the Lord hath chosen thee to build the house of the sanctuary, take courage, and do it.

I Chronicles 28:11 And David gave to Solomon, his son, a description of the porch, and of the temple, and of the treasures, and of the upper floor, and of the inner chambers, and of the house, for the mercy-seat,

Description, impressed by God on David's imagination; (Cajetan) or rather planned out by the hand of God, (ver. 19.; Salien) as the law was written. (Haydock) --- The Jews pretend that this plan was delivered to Moses, and handed down by Josue, etc., to David. (Estius) --- But why might not David receive it immediately from heaven? (Calmet) --- Treasures. Literally, "cellars." (Haydock) --- The original term, Ganzac, is not Hebrew. We find Ganas (Esther 3:9.) to signify a treasure, being derived from the Persian, Gaza. David gave, therefore, a description of the rooms to keep the treasures of the temple, or of the cellars for wine and oil. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "a pattern of the temple and of the houses thereof, and of the Zakcho, and of the upper rooms, and of the inner storehouses," etc. (Haydock) --- Inner, or most retired closets, (3 Kings 20:30.; Calmet) where the Levites slept. (Menochius) --- Seat, where the ark was kept, and God was rendered propitious. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 28:12 As also of all the courts, which he had in his thought, and of the chambers round about, for the treasures of the house of the Lord, and for the treasures of the consecrated things,

I Chronicles 28:13 And of the divisions of the priests, and of the Levites, for all the works of the house of the Lord, and for all the vessels of the service of the temple of the Lord.

Divisions, into twenty-four classes, (Menochius) which was done by God's order. (Haydock) --- For all, that every thing might be done with regularity. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 28:14 Gold by weight for every vessel for the ministry. And silver by weight according to the diversity of the vessels and uses.

Weight, or sufficient for each, ver. 15. (Haydock) --- Some think he only left a memorial of what quantity of gold and silver would be requisite. It does not appear that Solomon used silver for the vessels, as he chose to execute his father's injunctions with still greater magnificence.
I Chronicles 28:15 He gave also gold for the golden candlesticks, and their lamps, according to the dimensions of every candlestick, and the lamps thereof. In like manner also, he gave silver by weight for the silver candlesticks, and for their lamps, according to the diversity of the dimensions of them.

Silver. David probably intended that five candlesticks would be made of this metal: but Solomon made all the ten of gold, 3 Kings 7:49. There was one in the tabernacle, Exodus 25:31. (Calmet) --- But the temple was more spacious, and a greater number was not prohibited. (Menochius) --- According. Hebrew, "for the use of every candlestick."
I Chronicles 28:16 He gave also gold for the tables of proposition, according to the diversity of the tables: in like manner also silver for other tables of silver.

Silver. Yet all the ten were composed of the purest gold, (2 Paralipomenon 4:12.) as silver was too common, ibid.[2 Paralipomenon] 9:20. Moses had only two tables. (Calmet) --- Diversity. Hebrew, "for each table." (Vatable)
I Chronicles 28:17 For flesh-hooks also, and bowls, and censers of fine gold, and for little lions of gold, according to the measure he gave by weight, for every lion. In like manner also, for lions of silver he set aside a different weight of silver.

Lions. St. Jerome seems to have read cephir, instead of the present cephor, which is rendered "a cup, or bowl," 1 Esdras 1:10. (Calmet) --- Alexandrian Septuagint, "and of the flesh-hooks, libation vessels and bowls; and the weight of the golden and silver vessels (kepphoure; a word which they do not translate) of each weight." (Haydock) --- The change of i for u was very easy; and perhaps the basins were ornamented with representations of lions. (Du Hamel) (Menochius) --- We do not find cephor used before, to denote any of the vessels of the tabernacle: but Esdras uses it, (chap. 8:27.) whence it is inferred that it is of Chaldean extraction.
I Chronicles 28:18 And for the altar of incense, he gave the purest gold: and to make the likeness of the chariot of the Cherubim, spreading their wings, and covering the ark of the covenant of the Lord.

Purest. Hebrew, "refined." --- Lord. He was represented as riding in a chariot, drawn by Cherubim, (Calmet) or sitting on their wings. (Haydock) --- Two, particularly, filled up the space between the walls in the most holy place, and covered the ark, and also the Cherubim made by Moses, 3 Kings 7:23.
I Chronicles 28:19 All these things, said he, came to me written by the hand of the Lord: that I might understand all the works of the pattern.

These things, said he, is not in Hebrew. Septuagint, "All in the handwriting of the Lord, did David give to Solomon, according to the knowledge given to him from above, respecting the workmanship of the pattern." (Haydock) --- David saw the pattern in a kind of ecstasy; (Salien; Estius) or some prophet delivered it unto him, (Calmet) marked out by the hand of an angel, (Tirinus) like the tabernacle given to Moses. (Du Hamel)
I Chronicles 28:20 And David said to Solomon, his son: Act like a man, and take courage, and do: fear not, and be not dismayed: for the Lord, my God, will be with thee, and will not leave thee, nor forsake thee, till thou hast finished all the work for the service of the house of the Lord.

Lord. Septuagint add, "and I beheld, or behold, the pattern of the temple, and of the house and the Zakcho thereof, and the upper rooms and inner storehouses, and the house of the propitiation, and the pattern of the house of the Lord: (21) and behold," ver. 11. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 28:21 Behold the courses of the priests and the Levites, for every ministry of the house of the Lord, stand by thee, and are ready, and both the princes and the people know how to execute all thy commandments.

Thee. Hebrew and Septuagint, "for all workmanship, every willing skilful man for any service, also all the princes, and the people entirely at thy commands." (Haydock) --- The willing artificers are distinguished from those who were forced to work, though the former also received pay. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 29:0 David, by word and example, encourageth the princes to contribute liberally to the building of the temple. His thanksgiving, prayer, and sacrifices: his death.

I Chronicles 29:1 And *king David said to all the assembly: Solomon, my son, whom alone God hath chosen, is as yet young and tender: and the work is great, for a house is prepared not for man, but for God.

Year of the World 2989, Year before Christ 1015. Tender, not so much in years, for he was 22, but in comparison with David, and with reference to so great a work. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 29:2 And I, with all my ability, have prepared the expenses for the house of my God. Gold for vessels of gold, and silver for vessels of silver, brass for things of brass, iron for things of iron, wood for things of wood; and onyx-stones, and stones like alabaster, and of divers colours, and all manner of precious stones, and marble of Paros in great abundance:

Onyx, or "emeralds." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "soom," form the Hebrew shoham. --- Alabaster. Hebrew puc. (Haydock) --- The dark paint used for the eyes, has the same name, 4 Kings 9:30., and Jeremias 4:30. Yet the stibium or stimmi, or alabaster, mentioned by Pliny, ([Natural History?] 33:6.) was of a sliver colour, but not transparent. The stone here specified was probably alabaster, as it was used for the pavement. There is a very fine species at Damascus, and in Arabia, which was much sought after to decorate buildings. (Calmet) --- Chaldean has "emeralds." Septuagint, "stones of perfection, rich and various, and every precious stone, and much Parion." (Haydock) --- But [in] Isaias 54:11, they translate the same term, "carbuncle." (Calmet) --- The stone might resemble the agate, which is beautifully shaded with clouds and other fanciful figures. (Tirinus) --- Paros: this is taken from the Septuagint. Hebrew has simply, "and stones of ssiss." (Haydock) --- Whether it denote the isle of Chio, or that of Chitis, in the Red Sea, the former famous for marble, and the latter for the topaz; or it may refer to Sais, a city of Egypt, which had most beautiful porphyry. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 36:7., and 37:8.) --- But Paros, one of the Cyclades, was most renowned for its white marble. (Pliny 36:5.) --- Josephus (Jewish Wars 6:6.) informs us, that the temple was built of large white marble stones; so that it appeared, at a distance, to be covered with snow. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 29:3 Now over and above the things which I have offered into the house of my God, I give of my own proper goods, gold and silver for the temple of my God, beside what things I have prepared for the holy house.

Own. What he had already vowed, he esteemed no longer his. (Worthington) --- Temple. Hebrew, "houses," including the various apartments belonging to the temple. The sum which David had formerly set apart out of the spoils of war, etc., amounted to 825,000,000l. What he now adds, is 16,125,000l. sterling, according to Brerewood, who deems the sums exorbitant; and others have suspected that there is a mistake in the former numbers. We have seen with what foundation, 1 Paralipomenon 22:14. David was so convinced, that the sum which he had been able to collect was too small, that he exhorted the princes to contribute, with all their power, and set them this noble example, which they endeavoured to imitate. (Haydock) --- He had collected some of the gold of Ophir, which was esteemed the best. (Calmet) See 3 Kings 9:28. (Menochius) --- We have before remarked, that Solomon went beyond the expectations of his father, and used no silver.
I Chronicles 29:4 Three thousand talents of gold of the gold of Ophir: and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the temple.

I Chronicles 29:5 And gold for wheresoever there is need of gold; and silver for wheresoever there is need of silver, for the works to be made by the hands of the artificers: now if any man is willing to offer, let him fill his hand to-day, and offer what he pleaseth to the Lord.

Fill his hand, is an expression applied to priests, by which David intimates, that any one may now offer a species of sacrifice to the Lord, Judges 7:5., and Exodus 32:29. (Calmet) (Menochius) --- He wishes them to act with generosity. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 29:6 Then the heads of the families, and the princes of the tribes of Israel, and the captains of thousands, and of hundreds, and the overseers of the king's possessions, promised.

Possessions, mentioned [in] 1 Paralipomenon 27:25.
I Chronicles 29:7 And they gave for the works of the house of the Lord, of gold, five thousand talents, and ten thousand solids; of silver, ten thousand talents; and of brass, eighteen thousand talents; and of iron, a hundred thousand talents.

Solids. Septuagint, "pieces of gold;" chrusous. Hebrew adarcnim, which Protestants render "drachms," (Haydock) after the Syriac, etc. Others think that the Darics, used in Persia, are meant, though they did not exist in David's time. Esdras might reduce the money to correspond with the coin with which his countrymen were then acquainted, 2 Esdras 7:70. (Pelletier) --- The Daric was equivalent to the golden sicle, which was only half the weight of one of silver, though this is not certain. (Calmet) --- A solid was only the sixth part of an ounce, whereas the sicle weighed half an ounce, or four drachms. --- Talents were always of the same weight, 125 Roman pounds. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 29:8 And all they that had stones, gave them to the treasures of the house of the Lord, by the hand of Jahiel, the Gersonite.

Gersonite; who, with his brethren, was treasurer, 1 Paralipomenon 26:22.
I Chronicles 29:9 And the people rejoiced, when they promised their offerings willingly: because they offered them to the Lord with all their heart: and David, the king, rejoiced also with a great joy.

Willingly. Their disposition was perfect: for God loves a cheerful giver, 2 Corinthians 9:7. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 29:10 And he blessed the Lord before all the multitude, and he said: Blessed art thou, O Lord, the God of Israel, our father, from eternity to eternity.

From. Septuagint, "from age to age;" (Pagnin, etc.) that is, throughout eternity: (Menochius) "for ever and ever." (Protestants) Eternity has no parts. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 29:11 Thine, O Lord, is magnificence, and power, and glory, and victory: and to thee is praise: for all that is in heaven, and in earth is thine: thine is the kingdom, O Lord, and thou art above all princes.

Magnificence. Thee we ought to magnify. David uses many words to express the sentiments of his grateful soul. (Menochius)
I Chronicles 29:12 Thine are riches, and thine is glory, thou hast dominion over all, in thy hand is power and might; in thy hand greatness, and the empire of all things.

Thine. Hebrew and Septuagint, "of thee." (Haydock) --- Greatness. Hebrew, "to magnify and strengthen all." (Menochius) --- Our riches are thy gifts; and to thee we return a part, with gladness.
I Chronicles 29:13 Now, therefore, our God, we give thanks to thee, and we praise thy glorious name.

I Chronicles 29:14 Who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to promise thee all these things? all things are thine: and we have given thee what we received of thy hand.

Promise. Hebrew, "to offer so willingly in this manner?" (Haydock) --- He is astonished at the rich display of gifts: but acknowledged that all was originally sent by God. In the same sentiments, we say in the mass, "We offer unto thee of thy own presents and gifts;" or, as the Greek expresses it, ta sa apo ton son. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 29:15 For we are sojourners before thee, and strangers, as were all our fathers. *Our days upon earth are as a shadow, and there is no stay.

Wisdom 2:5.
Strangers. We have nothing but what we have received from thee; and for how short a time! (Calmet) --- No stay. Hebrew, "none abiding, (Haydock; or) no hope" of being able to escape death, (Calmet) when we must leave all. How happy, therefore, are those who sent their treasures before them! (Haydock) --- All are pilgrims, with respect to heaven, Hebrews xiii. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 29:16 O Lord, our God, all this store that we have prepared to build thee a house for thy holy name, is from thy hand, and all things are thine.

I Chronicles 29:17 I know, my God, that thou provest hearts, and lovest simplicity; wherefore I also, in the simplicity of my heart, have joyfully offered all these things: and I have seen, with great joy, thy people which are here present, offer thee their offerings.

Simplicity. Hebrew, "uprightness." Septuagint, "justice;" (Haydock) a pure intention, which our Saviour styled a single eye, Matthew 6:22. (Tirinus)
I Chronicles 29:18 O Lord, God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Israel, our fathers, keep for ever this will of their heart, and let this mind remain always for the worship of thee.

This. Hebrew, "keep this for ever, in the imagination of the thoughts of the heart of thy people, and direct their heart unto thee. Preserve these good dispositions, which thou hast given them." (Calmet)
I Chronicles 29:19 And give to Solomon, my son, a perfect heart, that he may keep thy commandments, thy testimonies, and thy ceremonies, and do all things: and build the house, for which I have provided the charges.

I Chronicles 29:20 And David commanded all the assembly: Bless ye the Lord, our God. And all the assembly blessed the Lord, the God of their fathers: and they bowed themselves, and worshipped God, and then the king.

Then is not in Hebrew or Septuagint. (Haydock) --- The same term is used, to express the outward adoration which they shewed to God, and the civil respect which was due to the king: pari gestu, says Grotius, animo diverso. (Calmet) --- How then will Protestants prove that we are guilty of idolatry, when we bow down before the cross, etc., unless they pretend to know the secrets of hearts? Protestants, they "bowed down their heads, (Septuagint, knees) and worshipped the Lord and the king." (Haydock) --- The exterior set was the same, but the intention determined the application. See Exodus xx. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 29:21 And they sacrificed victims to the Lord: and they offered holocausts the next day, a thousand bullocks, a thousand rams, a thousand lambs, with their libations, and with every thing prescribed, most abundantly for all Israel.

And with. Hebrew and Septuagint, "and their sacrifices of wine and victims, (or peace-offerings, to be eaten by the people.; Calmet) in abundance for all Israel." (Haydock)
I Chronicles 29:22 And they ate, and drank before the Lord that day with great joy. *And they anointed the second time Solomon, the son of David. And they anointed him to the Lord to be prince, and Sadoc to be high priest.

3 Kings 1:34.
The Lord, at Jerusalem, (Menochius) where the ark was then kept. (Haydock) --- Second time: the first had been done with too much precipitation, in consequence of the attempt of Adonias; (3 Kings 1:39.; Tirinus) or this took place after the death of David, that his successor might be invested with full power, (Grotius) and be acknowledged by all. (Haydock) --- Priest. This at least only took place after the death of David, when Abiathar fell into disgrace, 3 Kings 2:35. Both prince and priest must act by God's authority; and those who resist them, resist God himself, Romans 13:1. (Calmet) --- They are ministers of the Lord. (Haydock)
I Chronicles 29:23 And Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord as king, instead of David, his father, and he pleased all: and all Israel obeyed him.

I Chronicles 29:24 And all the princes, and men of power, and all the sons of king David gave their hand, and were subject to Solomon, the king.

Gave. Hebrew, "placed their hands upon Solomon." Septuagint, "were subject to him." (Calmet) --- The latter words in the Vulgate explain the meaning of the ceremony. (Menochius) --- It seems to have been similar to that used when Abraham required an oath of his servant, Genesis 24:2. Vassals placed their hands within those of their Lord, under whom they hold lands; (Calmet) and the descendants of the Germans testify their submission, by putting their hands between a person's knees. --- The nobles took the oath of fidelity to Solomon, by some such method. (Calmet)
I Chronicles 29:25 And the Lord magnified Solomon over all Israel: and gave him the glory of a reign, such as no king of Israel had before him.

I Chronicles 29:26 So David, the son of Isai, reigned over all Israel.

I Chronicles 29:27 *And the days that he reigned over Israel, were forty years: in Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem three and thirty years.

3 Kings 2:11.
I Chronicles 29:28 *And he died in a good age, full of days, and riches and glory. And Solomon, his son, reigned in his stead.

Year of the World 2990, Year before Christ 1014.
I Chronicles 29:29 Now the acts of king David, first and last, are written in the book of Samuel, the seer, and in the book of Nathan, the prophet, and in the book of Gad, the seer;

Gad, the seer "of David," as he is sometimes styled. These three were well acquainted with David, (Calmet) and wrote the two first books of Kings; (Haydock) or at least those books are compiled from their memorials, (Calmet) if their works be lost, (Menochius) which is uncertain. (Worthington)
I Chronicles 29:30 And of all his reign, and his valour, and of the times that passed under him, either in Israel, or in all the kingdoms of the countries.

Under him in various tribulations, towards the end of his reign. (Vatable, etc.) --- Those prophets recorded not only what regarded David, (Haydock) but also what happened of consequence, in other nations, with which he had any connections. --- Of the. Syriac and Arabic, "of his land, or among the kings of his race." (Calmet) --- David reduced under his dominion not only the nations which dwelt in Chanaan, but all those which had been promised to Israel. (Haydock)