1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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II Chronicles 1:1 And *Solomon, the son of David, was strengthened in his kingdom, and the Lord, his God, was with him, and magnified him to a high degree.

4: 2 Kings 6:17.; 1 Paralipomenon 16:1.
Year of the World 2990, Year before Christ 1014.; 3 Kings iii.
II Chronicles 1:2 And Solomon gave orders to all Israel, to the captains of thousands, and of hundreds, and to the rulers, and to the judges of all Israel, and the heads of the families:

II Chronicles 1:3 And he went with all the multitude to the high place of Gabaon, where was the tabernacle of the covenant of the Lord, which Moses, the servant of God, made in the wilderness.

II Chronicles 1:4 *For David had brought the ark of God from Cariathiarim to the place which he had prepared for it, and where he had pitched a tabernacle for it; that is, in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 1:5 And the altar of brass, *which Beseleel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, had made, was there before the tabernacle of the Lord: and Solomon and all the assembly sought it.

Exodus 38:8.
Sought it: went (Menochius) to offer sacrifice, (Tirinus) in the second year of his reign, the year before Christ 1013.
II Chronicles 1:6 And Solomon went up thither to the brazen altar, before the tabernacle of the covenant of the Lord, and offered upon it a thousand victims.

Victims. Hebrew, "holocausts," either with his own hand, or by the ministry of the priests. See 1 Kings 13:12. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 1:7 And behold that night God appeared to him, saying: Ask what thou wilt, that I should give thee.

Night, after the victims had been offered. On this occasion, Solomon made this prayer, and was heard, 3 Kings 3:5. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 1:8 And Solomon said to God: Thou hast shewn great kindness to my father, David: and hast made me king in his stead.

II Chronicles 1:9 Now, therefore, O Lord God, let thy word be fulfilled, which thou hast promised to David, my father: for thou hast made me king over thy great people, which is as innumerable as the dust of the earth.

II Chronicles 1:10 *Give me wisdom and knowledge, that I may come in and go out before thy people: for who can worthily judge this thy people, which is so great?

Wisdom 9:10.
People, as a king ought to do. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 1:11 And God said to Solomon: Because this choice hath pleased thy heart, and thou hast not asked riches, and wealth, and glory, nor the lives of them that hate thee, nor many days of life: but hast asked wisdom and knowledge, to be able to judge my people, over which I have made thee king.

II Chronicles 1:12 Wisdom and knowledge are granted to thee: and I will give thee riches, and wealth, and glory, so that none of the kings before thee, nor after thee, shall be like thee.

II Chronicles 1:13 Then Solomon came from the high place of Gabaon to Jerusalem, before the tabernacle of the covenant, and reigned over Israel.

Before. Hebrew and Septuagint, "from before the tabernacle," which was at Gabaon. There was another at Jerusalem, where (Haydock) Solomon rendered homage to the Lord. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 1:14 *And he gathered to himself chariots and horsemen, and he had a thousand four hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen: and he placed them in the cities of the chariots, and with the king, in Jerusalem.

3 Kings 10:26.
Chariots. See 3 Kings 4:26. No king of Israel kept such a multitude of horses. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 1:15 And the king made silver and gold to be in Jerusalem as stones, and cedar-trees as sycamores, which grow in the plains in great multitude.

Sycamores are trees of small value, and not good for building. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 1:16 And there were horses brought him from Egypt, and from Coa, by the king's merchants, who went, and bought at a price,

Coa may signify either some city, (Mariana) or an "emporium," where things are sold, as kuch means "a collection." (Tirinus) (3 Kings 10:28.) Neglecting the points of the Masorets, we may well understand Coa, a city of Egypt, or an island of the Mediterranean. The Masorets read Mikve, instead of Micoa. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 1:17 A chariot of four horses for six hundred pieces of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty: in like manner market was made in all the kingdoms of the Hethites, and of the kings of Syria.

II Chronicles 2:0 Solomon's embassage to Hiram, who sends him a skilful workman and timber.

II Chronicles 2:1 And Solomon determined to build a house to the name of the Lord, and a palace for himself.

Himself, worthy of his great empire. He deemed that which David had built too mean, though that pious king had been ashamed to dwell in such a magnificent palace, while the ark of God was under skins, 2 Kings 7:2. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 2:2 And he numbered out seventy thousand men to bear burdens, and eighty thousand to hew stones in the mountains, and three thousand six hundred to oversee them.

Numbered, of the proselytes, ver. 17. (Tirinus) --- Hew. The stones were made ready for use, as well as the wood, before it was brought to the temple, 3 Kings 6:7. --- Six. Only three are mentioned [in] 3 Kings 5:16. (Calmet) --- But three hundred overseers of higher order are here included. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 2:3 *He sent also to Hiram, king of Tyre, saying: As thou didst with David, my father, and didst send him cedars, to build him a house, in which he dwelt:

3 Kings 5:2.
II Chronicles 2:4 So do with me, that I may build a house to the name of the Lord, my God, to dedicate it to burn incense before him, and to perfume with aromatical spices, and for the continual setting forth of bread, and for the holocausts, morning and evening, and on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and the solemnities of the Lord, our God, for ever, which are commanded for Israel.

II Chronicles 2:5 For the house which I desire to build, is great: for our God is great above all gods.

II Chronicles 2:6 Who then can be able to build him a worthy house? if heaven, and the heavens of heavens cannot contain him: who am I, that I should be able to build him a house? but to this end only, that incense may be burnt before him.

Before him. For this purpose do I design to build. (Menochius) --- Temples are more for our use than for God's, as none can be worthy of him. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 2:7 Send me, therefore, a skilful man, that knoweth how to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, and in iron, in purple, in scarlet, and in blue, and that hath skill in engraving, with the artificers, which I have with me in Judea and Jerusalem, whom David, my father, provided.

Purple. Hebrew argevan, (Haydock) a Chaldean word, of the same import as argueman, in Exodus. --- Scarlet and blue were also species of purple. The finest sort was found between Tyre and Carmel. See Vitruvius 7:13.
II Chronicles 2:8 Send me also cedars, and fir-trees, and pine-trees from Libanus: for I know that thy servants are skilful in cutting timber in Libanus, and my servants shall be with thy servants,

Pine. Hebrew algum, which rather denotes a species of fir, than the juniper-tree; though the domestic kind was tall, and used in edifices. (Calmet) --- Arceuthina, "juniper," is taken from the Septuagint. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 2:9 To provide me timber in abundance. For the house which I desire to build, is to be exceedingly great, and glorious.

Exceedingly. Hebrew, "wonderfully great." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 2:10 And I will give thy servants, the workmen that are to cut down the trees, for their food twenty thousand cores of wheat, and as many cores of barley, and twenty thousand measures of wine, and twenty thousand measures of oil.

Wheat. Hebrew adds, "beaten." --- Barley and wine are not specified [in] 3 Kings 5:11. (Calmet) --- Measures, like the Roman amphora, contained 960 ozs. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Hebrew has, "batim," in both places; but [in] 3 Kings we find, "twenty cores of oil." The satum, "measure," was only one-third of the bath or epha. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 2:11 And Hiram, king of Tyre, sent a letter to Solomon, saying: Because the Lord hath loved his people, therefore he hath made thee king over them.

II Chronicles 2:12 And he added, saying: Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who made heaven and earth, who hath given to king David a wise and knowing son, endued with understanding and prudence, to build a house to the Lord, and a palace for himself.

II Chronicles 2:13 I therefore have sent thee my father, Hiram, a wise and most skilful man,

Father. Hebrew Abi, is considered by some as the surname of Hiram. (Pagnin, etc.) --- But he might have that title in consideration of his great skill, as Solomon gives it him, 2 Paralipomenon 4:16. We use master in the same sense. Septuagint have, "servant," (Greek: paida) except the Roman edition, which agrees with the Hebrew and reads, Greek: patera. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "of Huram, my father's;" (Haydock) supply servant, or architect. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 2:14 The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, whose father was a Tyrian, who knoweth how to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, and in iron, and in marble, and in timber, in purple also, and violet, and silk, and scarlet: and who knoweth to grave all sort of graving, and to devise ingeniously all that there may be need of in the work with thy artificers, and with the artificers of my lord, David, thy father.

Dan, the city, as the widow as of the tribe of Nephthali. (Du Hamel) --- Whose. Hebrew, "and his father," (Haydock) or "this Abi." (Calmet) See 3 Kings 7:14. --- Silk. Hebrew, "byssus," which is the silk extracted from a fish, and not the fine linen of Egypt, or cotton which as sometimes this appellation, 1 Paralipomenon 15:27. --- My lord, a term of civility.
II Chronicles 2:15 The wheat, therefore, and the barley, and the oil, and the wine, which thou, my lord, hast promised, send to thy servants.

II Chronicles 2:16 And we will cut down as many trees out of Libanus, as thou shalt want, and will convey them in floats by sea to Joppe: and it will be thy part to bring them thence to Jerusalem.

Floats. So the Septuagint well express the Hebrew raphsodoth, which seems to be borrowed from the Greek Rapsodia, which denotes a collection of verses (Calmet) and was applied to Homer's poems, before they were collected. (Aelian 13:14.) Joppe was a port much used, (Calmet) though dangerous. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 3:15.)
II Chronicles 2:17 And Solomon numbered all the proselytes in the land of Israel, after the numbering which David, his father, had made; and they were found a hundred and fifty-three thousand and six hundred.

Had made, at the commencement of Solomon's reign, when David put such immense treasures into his hands. The second list was taken when the temple was begun. The proselytes were the remnants of the nations of the natives of Chanaan. The Jews foolishly pretend, (Calmet) that no strangers were allowed to embrace the law of Moses, under David and Solomon, for fear lest they might be influenced by self-interest rather than by the love of religion. (Seldon, Syn. 3:2, 5.)
II Chronicles 2:18 And he set seventy thousand of them to carry burdens on their shoulders, and eighty thousand to hew stones in the mountains: and three thousand and six hundred to be overseers of the work of the people.

Six. We read three, 3 Kings 5:16.: people who where strangers, as the Israelites were not forced to work, 2 Paralipomenon 8:9. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 3:0 The plan and ornaments of the temple: the cheruubims, the veil, and the pillars.

II Chronicles 3:1 And *Solomon began to build the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, in Mount Moria, which had been shewn to David, his father, in the place which David had prepared in the **threshing-floor of Ornan, the Jebusite.

3 Kings 6:1. --- ** 2 Kings 24:25.; 1 Paralipomenon 21:26.
Moria, which signifies vision; (Calmet) the place pointed out to Abraham, (Genesis 22:2.; St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] 16:32.) and to David, 1 Paralipomenon 21:15., and 22:1.
II Chronicles 3:2 And he began to build in the second month, in the fourth year of his reign.*

Year of the World 2992. Second. Hebrew adds, (Du Hamel) "in the second day of the second month." (Protestants, etc.) (Haydock)
II Chronicles 3:3 Now these are the foundations, which Solomon laid, to build the house of God, the length by the first measure sixty cubits, the breadth twenty cubits.

By the first, or ancient measure, used before the captivity. The Babylonian cubit was a hand smaller, as Ezechiel (xl. 3.) intimates. (Calmet) --- Solomon used the same cubit as Moses, but doubled the proportions. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 3:4 And the porch in the front, which was extended in length according to the measure of the breadth of the house, twenty cubits: and the height was a hundred and twenty cubits: and he overlaid it within with pure gold.

A hundred. The Arabic and some copies of the Septuagint read only twenty. Capellus and Toinard would substitute, ten cubits. A small change in the Hebrew might occasion these variations. (Calmet) --- In 3 Kings 6:2., we find the height was thirty cubits: but that might be only to the first floor. Many think that the temple was 120 cubits high: but Salien (the year of the world 3024) explains it of the four-square tower, (Menochius) in the front. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 3:5 And the greater house he ceiled with deal boards, and overlaid them with plates of fine gold throughout: and he graved in them palm trees, and like little chains interlaced with one another.

House, between the most holy place and the porch, (Tirinus) or it may comprise all but the porch. Hebrew, "he covered (or boarded) all this great house." (Calmet) --- Deal boards interspersed with those of cedar, 3 Kings 6:9. (Tirinus) --- Fine, (obrizi.) Hebrew, "of Parvaim, which is probably the same as Sepharvaim, Ophir, etc., not far from Media and Colchis. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 3:6 He paved also the floor of the temple with most precious marble, of great beauty.

II Chronicles 3:7 And the gold of the plates with which he overlaid the house, and the beams thereof, and the posts, and the walls, and the doors, was of the finest: and he graved cherubims on the walls.

II Chronicles 3:8 He made also the house of the holy of holies: the length of it, according to the breadth of the temple, twenty cubits, and the breadth of it in like manner twenty cubits; and he overlaid it with plates of gold, amounting to about six hundred talents.

Amounting to about, is not in Hebrew. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 3:9 He made also nails of gold, and the weight of every nail was fifty sicles: the upper chambers also he overlaid with gold.

Sicles. This weight seems enormous for each nail. Mariana supposes every nail weighed one sicle. But who will believe that only fifty were used? Hebrew, "And the weight of the nails was fifty," etc. The Syriac and Arabic omit this verse entirely. --- Chambers, or rather "the ceiling."
II Chronicles 3:10 He made also in the house of the holy of holies two cherubims of image-work: and he overlaid them with gold.

Work. Hebrew, "of the work of young men," or resembling them. (Munster) --- Septuagint, "the work of wood." Vulgate literally, "of sculpture work," (Haydock) as Le Clerc renders the original. Some moderns translate, "of a work like men in motion." (Mariana, Buxtorf) --- The cherubims were in an erect posture.
II Chronicles 3:11 The wings of the cherubims were extended twenty cubits, so that one wing was five cubits long, and reached to the wall of the house: and the other was also five cubits long, and reached to the wing of the other cherub.

Cubits, comprising the breadth of their body. Each occupied ten cubits.
II Chronicles 3:12 In like manner the wing of the other cherub was five cubits long, and reached to the wall: and his other wing was five cubits long, and touched the wing of the other cherub.

II Chronicles 3:13 So the wings of the two cherubims were spread forth, and were extended twenty cubits: and they stood upright on their feet, and their faces were turned toward the house without.

Toward. Hebrew, "inward;" looking at each other, (Exodus 25:20.) or towards the altar of holocausts.
II Chronicles 3:14 *He made also a veil of violet, purple, scarlet, and silk: and wrought in it cherubims.

Matthew 27:51.
A veil. Abulensis places it between the court and the holy: but Jansenius would have it before the holy of holies. It seems rather that there was a veil in both places, (Barad. t. 2:b. 3:23.; Menochius) as Josephus ([Antiquities?] 8:2., and 12:10.) clearly intimates; and St. Paul speaks of the second veil, Hebrews 9:3. It is not certain which of them was torn at the death of Jesus Christ, Matthew 27:51. Cherubims; extraordinary figures. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 3:15 *He made also before the doors of the temple two pillars, which were five and thirty cubits high: and their chapiters were five cubits.

Jeremias 52:20.
Five. 3 Kings 7:15., we read each was eighteen cubits. It is probable that each was 17.5 and the other half was for the crown, (Calmet) or cornice. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 3:16 He made also as it were little chains in the oracle, and he put them on the heads of the pillars: and an hundred pomegranates, which he put between the little chains.

In, or "as in." (Sa) (Menochius) --- Protestants supply as. (Haydock) --- Hundred, for one row, or 200 for both, 3 Kings. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 3:17 These pillars he put at the entrance of the temple, one on the right hand, and the other on the left: that which was on the right hand, he called Jachin: and that on the left hand, Booz.

Booz. "Stability and strength" are derived from God alone. Thus Solomon designed to insinuate that God established the harmony of the universe. (Haydock) --- An orrery, or globe, was therefore placed on each of these pillars. (Parkhurst, in con.)
II Chronicles 4:0 The altar of brass: the molten sea upon the twelve oxen: the ten loaves: the candlestick, and other vessels and ornaments of the temple.

II Chronicles 4:1 He made also an altar of brass, twenty cubits long, and twenty cubits broad, and ten cubits high.

Altar of holocausts, much larger than that of Moses. The one which was built after the captivity, was a square of fifteen cubits. This of Solomon was only ten in height. A sloping ascent was made up to it, according to Josephus; (Jewish Wars 6:5., or 5:14.) or the steps were closed in, if we believe others. See Exodus 27:1., and 20:26. It is thought (Calmet) that the inside of the altar was filled with earth, (Menochius) or with rough stones: (Exodus 20:24.; Du Hamel) but that is not certain, with regard to the brazen altar. See 1 Machabees 4:44, 47. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 4:2 *Also a molten sea, of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass: it was five cubits high, and a line of thirty cubits compassed it round about.

3 Kings 7:23.
Sea, or great brazen vessel, and some other things that were not in the tabernacle of Moses, whose plan was followed, but with greater magnificence. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 4:3 And under it there was the likeness of oxen, and certain engravings on the outside of ten cubits, compassed the belly of the sea, as it were with two rows.

Oxen. In 3 Kings 7:24., we read Hebrew, "knops," (Haydock) or "apples." --- Of ten. Hebrew, "ten in a cubit." Hence there must have been 600 heads of oxen, as the sea was thirty cubits in circumference, and there were two rows. (Calmet) --- Others suppose that there were only five in each row, or only one in each cubit. See Vatable and 3 Kings. The Septuagint and Syriac omit this verse. (Calmet) --- Yet it is found in the best editions of the Septuagint. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 4:4 And the oxen were cast, and the sea itself was set upon the twelve oxen, three of which looked towards the north, and other three towards the west, and other three towards the south, and the other three that remained toward, the east, and the sea stood upon them: and the hinder parts of the oxen were inward under the sea.

Cast. Hebrew adds, "when it (the sea) was cast." (Haydock) --- They were done at the same time, (Tirinus) and were perhaps intended to let out the water. The twelve oxen, which supported the sea, were not cast along with it. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 4:5 Now the thickness of it was a handbreadth, and the brim of it was like the brim of a cup, or of a crisped lily: and it held three thousand measures.

Three. 3 Kings two, may specify the usual quantity that was contained, though the vessel would absolutely hold a thousand measures, or baths, more. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 4:6 He made also ten lavers, and he set five on the right hand, and five on the left, to wash in them all such things, as they were to offer for holocausts: but the sea was for the priests to wash in.

Holocaust, as well as all the necessary utensils. --- Priests. They did not bathe in the sea, but drew water into other vessels. The Chaldean supposes that the work of Beseleel was for the high priest alone. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 4:7 And he made ten golden candlesticks, according to the form which they were commanded to be made by: and he set them in the temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left.

II Chronicles 4:8 Moreover also ten tables: and he set them in the temple, five on the right side, and five on the left. Also a hundred bowls of gold.

II Chronicles 4:9 He made also the court of the priests, and a great hall, and doors in the hall, which he covered with brass.

Hall, (basilicam.) Septuagint use the same term (aule) as just before is rendered court; and the Protestants make no distinction, though the Hebrew terms be different. Septuagint render chatsar, "the court" of the people. There, we know, that Solomon had his tribune, 2 Paralipomenon 6:13. Ezechiel (xliii. 14.) distinguishes two; the great, lower or outward, (Calmet chatsar) or court, and that of the priests, (Haydock) which he styles the less, etc. The principal door lay to the east.
II Chronicles 4:10 And he set the sea on the right side, over-against the east, towards the south.

Right, though to the left of those who entered the temple.
II Chronicles 4:11 And Hiram made cauldrons, and flesh-hooks, and bowls, and finished all the king's work in the house of God;

II Chronicles 4:12 That is to say, the two pillars, and the pommels, and the chapiters, and the net-work to cover the chapiters over the pommels.

Pommels, (epistylia.) Hebrew, "cordons," or rows of pomegranates, (3 Kings 7:18.) each consisting of one hundred; so that as the two pillars were adorned with a double row, both together would have four hundred. (Calmet) --- The precise number is fixed at ninety-six for each row, Jeremias 52:23. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 4:13 And four hundred pomegranates, and two wreaths of net-work, so that two rows of pomegranates were joined to each wreath, to cover the pommels and the chapiters of the pillars.

II Chronicles 4:14 He made also bases and lavers, which he set upon the bases:

II Chronicles 4:15 One sea, and twelve oxen under the sea;

II Chronicles 4:16 And the caldrons, and flesh-hooks, and bowls. All the vessels did Hiram, his father, make for Solomon, in the house of the Lord, of the finest brass.

His father. Hebrew Abib, which is considered by some as a surname, (Menochius) or the title may be given to Hiram, on account of his skill. (Calmet) --- He is so called by the king of Tyre, (chap. 2:13.) for having instructed him in the true faith. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 4:17 In the country near the Jordan, did the king cast them, in a clay ground between Sochot and Saredatha.

Saredatha, or Sarthan, (3 Kings 7:46.) not far from Bethsan, 3 Kings 4:12. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 4:18 And the multitude of vessels was innumerable, so that the weight of the brass was not known.

II Chronicles 4:19 And Solomon made all the vessels for the house of God, and the golden altar, and the tables, upon which were the loaves of proposition.

II Chronicles 4:20 The candlesticks also of most pure gold, with their lamps, to give light before the oracle, according to the manner.

II Chronicles 4:21 And certain flowers, and lamps, and golden tongs: all were made of the finest gold.

Flowers. They represented lilies or other flowers (Tirinus) full-blown, when the lamps were burning. All the branches were of pure gold. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 4:22 The vessels also for the perfumes, and the censers, and the bowls, and the mortars, of pure gold. And he graved the doors of the inner temple, that is, for the holy of holies: and the doors of the temple without were of gold. And thus all the work was finished, which Solomon made, in the house of the Lord.

Mortars, to hold the fine flour. (Menochius) --- And thus. Here the fifth chapter commences, in Hebrew and Septuagint.
II Chronicles 5:0 The ark is brought with great solemnity into the temple: the temple is filled with the glory of God.

II Chronicles 5:1 Then *Solomon brought in all the things that David, his father, had vowed, the silver, and the gold, and all the vessels he put among the treasures of the house of God.

3 Kings 7:51.
God, under the care of Selemith. See 1 Paralipomenon 26:26. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 5:2 *And after this he gathered together the ancients of Israel, and all the princes of the tribes, and the heads of the families of the children of Israel, to Jerusalem, to bring the ark of the covenant of the Lord out of the city of David, which is Sion.

3 Kings 8:1.;
Year of the World 3001, Year before Christ 1003. Ark. Another was not made, as that was most sacred and excellent. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 5:3 And all the men of Israel came to the king in the solemn day of the seventh month.

Day, the eighth, 3 Kings 8:2.
II Chronicles 5:4 And when all the ancients of Israel were come, the Levites took up the ark,

Levites, with the priests alternately; (3 Kings 8:2.) or the latter were all Levites, (Calmet) though higher in dignity, in the same manner as our bishops are priests.
II Chronicles 5:5 And brought it in, together with all the furniture of the tabernacle. And the priests with the Levites carried the vessels of the sanctuary, which were in the tabernacle.

With the. "And" is omitted in Hebrew but supplied by Protestants, etc., from 3 Kings. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 5:6 And king Solomon, and all the assembly of Israel, and all that were gathered together before the ark, sacrificed rams, and oxen without number: so great was the multitude of the victims.

II Chronicles 5:7 And the priests brought in the ark of the covenant of the Lord into its place, that is, to the oracle of the temple, into the holy of holies under the wings of the cherubims:

II Chronicles 5:8 So that the cherubims spread their wings over the place, in which the ark was set, and covered the ark itself and its staves.

II Chronicles 5:9 Now the ends of the staves wherewith the ark was carried, because they were something longer, were seen before the oracle: but if a man were a little outward, he could not see them. So the ark has been there unto this day.

Oracle, pushing out the veil, (Haydock) in the tabernacle of Moses, but not in the temple, which was of larger dimensions. (Calmet) --- But if. Hebrew, "but they were not seen without. And there it is till this day."
II Chronicles 5:10 And there was nothing else in the ark but the two tables which Moses put there at Horeb when the Lord gave the law to the children of Israel, at their coming out of Egypt.

Ark. See 3 Kings 8:9. (Haydock) --- The other things which had been placed in, or at least on the side of the ark, were now removed to the treasury rooms. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 5:11 Now when the priests were come out of the sanctuary, (for all the priests that could be found there, were sanctified: and as yet at that time the courses and orders of the ministers were not divided among them,)

Sanctified; free from all legal impediments to offer sacrifice. (Haydock) --- Divided. Hebrew, "observed." (Tirinus) --- Protestants, "and they did not then wait by course," which was the case also with the singers, etc., on this solemn occasion; as the number regulated by David for each week, would not have been sufficient. (Haydock) --- The regulation had not yet been reduced to practice. (Menochius) (Calmet) --- As yet (Du Hamel) at that time, is omitted (Haydock) by the Septuagint (Du Hamel) and Hebrew.
II Chronicles 5:12 Both the Levites and the singing men, that is, both they that were under Asaph, and they that were under Heman, and they that were under Idithun, with their sons, and their brethren, clothed with fine linen, sounded with cymbals, and psalteries, and harps, standing on the east side of the altar, and with them a hundred and twenty priests, sounding with trumpets.

Linen, or "robes of silk." Protestants, "white linen." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 5:13 So when they all sounded together, both with trumpets, and voice, and cymbals, and organs, and with divers kind of musical instruments, and lifted up their voice on high: the sound was heard afar off, so that when they began to praise the Lord, and to say: Give glory to the Lord, for he is good, for his mercy endureth for ever: the house of God was filled with a cloud.

II Chronicles 5:14 Nor could the priests stand and minister by reason of the cloud. For the glory of the Lord had filled the house of God.

Cloud. See 3 Kings 8:10. (Menochius) --- It is called the glory of the Lord, because its appearance was luminous and awful, being a symbol of the divine presence. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 6:0 Solomon's blessing and prayer.

II Chronicles 6:1 Then *Solomon said: The Lord promised that he would dwell in a cloud.

3 Kings 8:12.
Year of the World 3001. Cloud: literally, "darkness." (Haydock) --- The promise had been made to Moses, Exodus 16:10., and 40:32. (Calmet) --- God thus manifested his presence. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 6:2 But I have built a house to his name, that he might dwell there for ever.

II Chronicles 6:3 And the king turned his face, and blessed all the multitude of Israel, (for all the multitude stood attentive) and he said:

II Chronicles 6:4 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who hath accomplished in deed that which he spoke to David, my father, saying:

II Chronicles 6:5 From the day that I brought my people out of the land of Egypt, I chose no city among all the tribes of Israel, for a house to be built in it to my name: neither chose I any other man, to be the ruler of my people, Israel.

II Chronicles 6:6 But I chose Jerusalem, that my name might be there: and I chose David, to set him over my people, Israel.

II Chronicles 6:7 And whereas David, my father, had a mind to build a house to the name of the Lord, the God of Israel,

II Chronicles 6:8 The Lord said to him: Forasmuch as it was thy will to build a house to my name, thou hast done well indeed in having such a will:

II Chronicles 6:9 But thou shalt not build the house, but thy son, who shall come out of thy loins, he shall build a house to my name.

II Chronicles 6:10 The Lord, therefore, hath accomplished his word which he spoke: and I am risen up in the place of David, my father, and sit upon the throne of Israel, as the Lord promised: and have built a house to the name of the Lord God of Israel.

II Chronicles 6:11 And I have put in it the ark, wherein is the covenant of the Lord, which he made with the children of Israel.

II Chronicles 6:12 And he stood before the altar of the Lord, in presence of all the multitude of Israel, and stretched forth his hands.

Hands. Such external gestures promote attention in prayer; and hence were much used by holy people, at all times. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 6:13 For Solomon had made a brazen scaffold, and had set it in the midst of the temple, which was five cubits long, and five cubits broad, and three cubits high: and he stood upon it: then kneeling down in the presence of all the multitude of Israel, and lifting up his hands towards heaven,

Scaffold, (basim.) The Hebrew (kiyor) is used for "a shell, (concha.; Tirinus) or bowl," as the throne was probably of the same form, and was placed on a square pedestal, at the higher end of the court of the people, (Calmet) which is here styled the temple, (basilicae) or "hall," 2 Paralipomenon 4:9. Septuagint aules. Hebrew chatsar, which denotes that great court where (Haydock) the body of the people stood bare-headed, before the Lord, (Grotius, etc.; 2 Paralipomenon 20:5.) in the open air. (Du Hamel) --- We are assured that the king himself never sat in his tribune. (Calmet) --- Others reserve that privilege to him alone. (Haydock) --- While he addressed the people, he turned towards them.
II Chronicles 6:14 *He said: O Lord God of Israel, there is no God like thee in heaven nor in earth: who keepest covenant and mercy with thy servants, that walk before thee with all their hearts:

2 Machabees 2:8.
II Chronicles 6:15 Who hast performed to thy servant David, my father, all that thou hast promised him: and hast accomplished in fact, what thou hast spoken with the mouth, as also the present time proveth.

II Chronicles 6:16 Now then, O Lord God of Israel, fulfil to thy servant, David, my father, whatsoever thou hast promised him, saying: There shall not fail thee a man in my sight, to sit upon the throne of Israel: yet so that thy children take heed to their ways, and walk in my law, as thou hast walked before me.

II Chronicles 6:17 And now, Lord God of Israel, let thy word be established which thou hast spoken to thy servant, David.

II Chronicles 6:18 Is it credible then that God should dwell with men on the earth? If heaven and the heavens of heavens do not contain thee, how much less this house, which I have built?

II Chronicles 6:19 But to this end only it is made, that thou mayest regard the prayer of thy servant, and his supplication, O Lord, my God: and mayst hear the prayers which thy servant poureth out before thee.

End. Temples are erected for the convenience of men. (Calmet) --- Solomon hopes that God will reward his good intentions.
II Chronicles 6:20 That thou mayst open thy eyes upon this house day and night, upon the place wherein thou hast promised that thy name should be called upon,

II Chronicles 6:21 And that thou wouldst hear the prayer which thy servant prayeth in it: hearken then to the prayers of thy servant, and of thy people, Israel. Whosoever shall pray in this place, hear thou from thy dwelling-place, that is, from heaven, and shew mercy.

II Chronicles 6:22 If any man sin against his neighbour, and come to swear against him, and bind himself with a curse before the altar in this house:

Altar; thus solemnly consenting to be punished by God, if he swear falsely. (Haydock) --- This practice was not prescribed by the law, but took place when witnesses could not be procured, or when it was necessary to rely on the word of the accused.
II Chronicles 6:23 Then hear thou from heaven, and do justice to thy servants, so as to requite the wicked by making his wickedness fall upon his own head, and to revenge the just, rewarding him according to his justice.

II Chronicles 6:24 If thy people, Israel, be overcome by their enemies, (for they will sin against thee) and being converted shall do penance, and call upon thy name, and pray to thee in this place,

II Chronicles 6:25 Then hear thou from heaven, and forgive the sin of thy people, Israel, and bring them back into the land, which thou gavest them, and their fathers.

II Chronicles 6:26 If the heavens be shut up, and there fall no rain by reason of the sins of the people, and they shall pray to thee in this place, and confess to thy name, and be converted from their sins, when thou dost afflict them,

II Chronicles 6:27 Then hear thou from heaven, O Lord, and forgive the sins of thy servants and of thy people, Israel, and teach them the good way, in which they may walk: and give rain to thy land which thou hast given to thy people to possess.

II Chronicles 6:28 *If a famine arise in the land, or a pestilence or blasting, or mildew, or locusts, or caterpillars; or if their enemies waste the country, and besiege the cities; whatsoever scourge or infirmity shall be upon them:

2 Paralipomenon 20:9.
Blasting, or mildew, (aerugo et aurugo.) The first has the colour of brass, the other of gold. Both have nearly the same import. (Menochius) --- One of the terms is rendered, corrupt air; (3 Kings 8:37.; Calmet) as this is one of the great causes why both plants and animals do not thrive. Septuagint, "corruption of the air and king's evil, or yellow jaundice:" ikteros. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 6:29 Then if any of thy people, Israel, knowing his own scourge and infirmity, shall pray, and shall spread forth his hands in this house,

Any. Hebrew adds, "man, or thy people." Septuagint, "and (that is) to thy." See ver. 32. (Haydock) --- Both strangers and Israelites may there sue for mercy, and obtain it. (Calmet) --- From this chapter, as well as from many other passages, it is evident that places consecrated to God, are more acceptable to him than other places; (Worthington) and here the prayers of the faithful are sooner heard, as they testify their unity. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 6:30 Hear thou from heaven, from thy high dwelling-place, and forgive, and render to every one according to his ways, which thou knowest him to have in his heart: (for thou only knowest the hearts of the children of men:)

II Chronicles 6:31 That they may fear thee, and walk in thy ways all the days that they live upon the face of the land which thou hast given to our fathers.

Fear thee, being filled with awe at the sight of thy judgments. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 6:32 If the stranger also, who is not of thy people, Israel, come from a far country, for the sake of thy great name, and thy strong hand, and thy stretched out arm, and adore in this place:

II Chronicles 6:33 Hear thou from heaven, thy firm dwelling-place, and do all that which that stranger shall call upon thee for: that all the people of the earth may know thy name, and may fear thee, as thy people, Israel, and may know, that thy name is invoked upon this house, which I have built.

House, that they may know that this is not only called, but is, in effect, the temple of the Lord, where he will display his power and goodness. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 6:34 If thy people go out to war against their enemies, by the way that thou shalt send them, and adore thee towards the way of this city, which thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built to thy name;

II Chronicles 6:35 Then hear thou from heaven their prayers, and their supplications, and revenge them.

II Chronicles 6:36 And if they sin against thee, *(for there is no man that sinneth not) and thou be angry with them, and deliver them up to their enemies, and they lead them away captive to a land either afar off, or near at hand,

3 Kings 8:46.; Ecclesiastes 7:21.; 1 John 1:8.
II Chronicles 6:37 And if they be converted in their heart in the land to which they were led captive, and do penance, and pray to thee in the land of their captivity, saying: We have sinned, we have done wickedly, we have dealt unjustly:

II Chronicles 6:38 And return to thee with all their heart, and with all their soul, in the land of their captivity, to which they were led away, and adore thee towards the way of their own land, which thou gavest their fathers, and of the city, which thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built to thy name:

Name. Hence arose the custom of turning towards Jerusalem and the temple, when the Jews poured forth their supplications, in any country, 3 Kings 8:44.
II Chronicles 6:39 Then hear thou from heaven, that is, from thy firm dwelling-place, their prayers, and do judgment, and forgive thy people, although they have sinned:

II Chronicles 6:40 For thou art my God: let thy eyes, I beseech thee, be open, and let thy ears be attentive to the prayer that is made in this place.

II Chronicles 6:41 *Now, therefore, arise, O Lord God, into thy resting-place, thou and the ark of thy strength: Let thy priests, O Lord God, put on salvation, and thy saints rejoice in good things.

Psalm 131:8.
Now, therefore. This is taken from Psalm 131:8, 9, 10., (Menochius) almost word for word. We do not find that Solomon spoke this, 3 Kings. (Calmet) --- Place: literally, "rest." (Haydock) --- Come, O Lord, and dwell here. --- Strength, by which thy wonders shine forth, and thy enemies are dismayed. The ark is styled the strength of Israel, Psalm 77:61., and 62:3.; and in the parallel passage we read, Thou and the ark of thy sanctification, or sanctuary, which is its highest ornament, and which thou hast sanctified, or required to be treated with respect. --- Salvation, or justice, (Psalm cxxxi.) which is the surest method of obtaining happiness.
II Chronicles 6:42 O Lord God, turn not away the face of thy anointed: remember the mercies of David, thy servant.

Anointed. Cover not with shame the king, whom thou hast appointed, (Haydock) nor reject my prayer. (Tirinus) --- Mercies, which thou hast shewn, or rather (Calmet) the acts of virtue which thy servant displayed. (Syriac, etc.) For thy servant David's sake, turn not away the face of thy anointed, Psalm cxxxi. In consideration of his merits, grant my request. (Calmet) --- Even Solomon, though at this time the object of God's complacency, disdains not to screen himself under the merits of the departed saints. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 7:0 Fire from heaven consumeth the sacrifices. The solemnity of the dedication of the temple. God signifieth his having heard Solomon's prayer: yet so if he continue to serve him.

II Chronicles 7:1 And *when Solomon had made an end of his prayer, fire came down from heaven, and consumed the holocausts and the victims: and the majesty of the Lord filled the house.

Year of the World 3001.
II Chronicles 7:2 *Neither could the priests enter into the temple of the Lord, because the majesty of the Lord had filled the temple of the Lord.

2 Machabees 2:8.
Majesty; the cloud. For some time the priests were obliged to keep at a distance. They afterwards offered up many victims. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 7:3 Moreover, all the children of Israel saw the fire coming down, and the glory of the Lord upon the house: and falling down with their faces to the ground, upon the stone pavement, they adored and praised the Lord: because he is good, because his mercy endureth for ever.

Glory. The same word was before rendered majesty. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 7:4 And the king and all the people sacrificed victims before the Lord.

Victims, by the hands of the priests: or they slew them themselves, and presented the blood and fat to be placed on the altar by the priests.
II Chronicles 7:5 *And king Solomon offered a sacrifice of twenty-two thousand oxen, and one hundred and twenty thousand rams: and the king and all the people dedicated the house of God.

3 Kings 8:63.
Rams, including sheep and goats. --- People, each in their proper sphere. The priests had the chief part, as the ministers of religion. The solemnity continued for a week, and many altars were erected in the court. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 7:6 And the priests stood in their offices: and the Levites with the instruments of music of the Lord, which king David made to praise the Lord: because his mercy endureth for ever, singing the hymns of David by their ministry: and the priests sounded with trumpets before them, and all Israel stood.

Which music, or Psalms, (carminum) David had composed. (Haydock) --- Because. This was the chorus of the 135th Psalm, which was sung on this occasion by some, while others played on their musical instruments. (Calmet) --- Literally, "singing by their hands." Protestants, "when David praised by their ministry." (Haydock) --- As the temple was chosen by God for the place of prayer, so special forms of blessing, etc., are more agreeable to him. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 7:7 Solomon also sanctified the middle of the court before the temple of the Lord: for he offered there the holocausts, and the fat of the peace-offerings: because the brazen altar, which he had made, could not hold the holocausts, and the sacrifices and the fat:

II Chronicles 7:8 And Solomon kept the solemnity at that time seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great congregation, from the entrance of Emath to the torrent of Egypt.

II Chronicles 7:9 And he made on the eighth day a solemn assembly, because he had kept the dedication of the altar seven days, and had celebrated the solemnity seven days.

Solemnity of tabernacles, (Menochius) which ensued after the dedication was ended.
II Chronicles 7:10 So on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month he sent away the people to their dwellings, joyful and glad for the good that the Lord had done to David, and to Solomon, and to all Israel, his people.

Day. He had given them leave to depart, the day before, 3 Kings 8:66.
II Chronicles 7:11 *And Solomon finished the house of the Lord, and the king's house, and all that he had designed in his heart to do, in the house of the Lord, and in his own house, and he prospered.

3 Kings 9:1.
II Chronicles 7:12 And the Lord appeared to him by night, and said: I have heard thy prayer, and I have chosen this place to myself for a house of sacrifice.

II Chronicles 7:13 If I shut up heaven, and there fall no rain, or if I give orders, and command the locust to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among my people:

II Chronicles 7:14 And my people, upon whom my name is called, being converted, shall make supplication to me, and seek out my face, and do penance for their most wicked ways: then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sins, and will heal their land.

Face, to appease me, that I may look down upon them in mercy. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 7:15 My eyes also shall be open, and my ears attentive to the prayer of him that shall pray in this place.

II Chronicles 7:16 For I have chosen, and have sanctified this place, that my name may be there for ever, and my eyes and my heart may remain there perpetually.

II Chronicles 7:17 And as for thee, if thou walk before me, as David, thy father, walked, and do according to all that I have commanded thee, and keep my justices and my judgments:

II Chronicles 7:18 I will raise up the throne of thy kingdom, as I promised to David, thy father, saying: There shall not fail thee a man of thy stock to be ruler in Israel.

II Chronicles 7:19 But if you turn away, and forsake my justices, and my commandments, which I have set before you, and shall go and serve strange gods, and adore them,

II Chronicles 7:20 I will pluck you up by the root out of my land which I have given you: and this house, which I have sanctified to my name, I will cast away from before my face, and will make it a bye-word, and an example among all nations.

II Chronicles 7:21 And this house shall be for a proverb to all that pass by, and they shall be astonished and say: Why hath the Lord done thus to this land, and to this house?

II Chronicles 7:22 And they shall answer: Because they forsook the Lord, the God of their fathers, who brought them out of the land of Egypt, and laid hold on strange gods, and adored them, and worshipped them: therefore all these evils are come upon them.

II Chronicles 8:0 Solomon's buildings and other acts.

II Chronicles 8:1 And *at the end of twenty years after Solomon had built the house of the Lord, and his own house:

3 Kings 9:10.
Year of the World 3012, Year before Christ 992. After. Septuagint, "in which."
II Chronicles 8:2 He built the cities which Hiram had given to Solomon, and caused the children of Israel to dwell there.

Given back (Tirinus) as he refused to accept of the present. Some think that (Calmet) Hiram gave these cities in exchange for the others. (Salien) (Menochius)
II Chronicles 8:3 He went also into Emath Suba, and possessed it.

Emath, or Emesa, on the Orontes. This city had belonged to Thou, who cultivated the friendship of David, 2 Kings 8:9. But after the death of these princes, it had given some offence to Solomon, who took it, as well as Palmira, or Thadmor, though not perhaps in person.
II Chronicles 8:4 And he built Palmira, in the desert, and he built other strong cities in Emath.

Strong. Hebrew, "the cities of tents," Exodus 1:11. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "store-cities," (Haydock) for corn, etc.
II Chronicles 8:5 And he built Bethhoron the upper, and Bethhoron the nether, walled cities, with gates, and bars, and locks.

II Chronicles 8:6 Balaath also, and all the strong cities that were Solomon's, and all the cities of the chariots, and the cities of the horsemen. All that Solomon had a mind, and designed, he built in Jerusalem, and in Libanus, and in all the land of his dominion.

II Chronicles 8:7 All the people that were left of the Hethites, and the Amorrhites, and the Pherezites, and the Hevites, and the Jebusites, that were not of the stock of Israel:

II Chronicles 8:8 Of their children, and of the posterity, whom the children of Israel had not slain, Solomon made to be the tributaries, unto this day.

Tributaries. Hebrew also, "to work," at cutting stones, etc., 1 Paralipomenon 22:2. Some of their descendants returned from captivity, 1 Paralipomenon 9:2.
II Chronicles 8:9 But of the children of Israel he set none to serve in the king's works: for they were men of war, and chief captains, and rulers of his chariots and horsemen.

II Chronicles 8:10 And all the chief captains of king Solomon's army were two hundred and fifty, who taught the people.

Fifty. These were different from the 550 overseers, 3 Kings 9:23.
II Chronicles 8:11 And he removed the daughter of Pharao from the city of* David, to the house which he had built for her. For the king said: My wife shall not dwell in the house of David, king of Israel: for it is sanctified: because the ark of the Lord came into it.

3 Kings 3:1.
Into it. It was deemed improper for a pagan woman to reside in the same place. (Calmet) --- She had perhaps pretended, at first, to be converted, but had lately given some signs of relapse. (Salien) --- Solomon was as yet far from communicating with infidels. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 8:12 Then Solomon offered holocausts to the Lord upon the altar of the Lord, which he had built before the porch,

II Chronicles 8:13 That every day an offering might be made on it, according to the ordinance of Moses, in the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the festival days three times a year, that is to say, in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles.

II Chronicles 8:14 And he appointed, according to the order of David, his father, the offices of the priests in their ministries: and the Levites in their order, to give praise, and minister before the priests, according to the duty of every day: and the porters, in their divisions, by gate and gate: for so David, the man of God, had commanded.

And gate, at their respective posts. See 1 Paralipomenon xxvi. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 8:15 And the priests and Levites departed not from the king's commandments, as to any thing that he had commanded, and as to the keeping of the treasures.

Treasures. The regulations of David were exactly observed. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 8:16 Solomon had all charges prepared, from the day that he founded the house of the Lord, until the day wherein he finished it.

II Chronicles 8:17 Then Solomon went to Asiongaber, and to Ailath, on the coast of the Red Sea, which is in the land of Edom.

Asiongaber, which was called Bernice, (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 8:2.) and now Suez. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 8:18 And Hiram sent him ships by the hands of his servants, and skilful mariners; and they went with Solomon's servants to Ophir, and they took thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold, and brought it to king Solomon.

Ships; not perhaps from Tyre, but from the Red Sea. (Calmet) --- Others think that he sent them by a canal, which opened a communication between the Mediterranean and Suez, (Huet) the distance of about ninety miles. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 2:68.) --- But this canal seems to have been made after the age of Solomon. Hence others imagine that the ships were taken in pieces, or conveyed by land, as has been sometimes done. Mahomet II transported ships across the isthmus of Corinth. Alexander the Great conveyed on chariots the ships which had been used to cross the Indus, as far as the Hydaspes. (Arrian vii.) (Calmet) --- Skilful mariners. They were the most expert, and the inventers of navigation. Prima ratem ventis tradere docta Tyrus. (Tibul.) See Wisdom 14:6. --- Ophir, the kingdom of Pegu, in the East Indies, (Tirinus) or some other distant land. (Haydock) --- Fifty. Thirty are omitted, 3 Kings 9:28., as they were expended in the voyage. (Calmet) --- Yet the Hebrew letters for twenty and fifty are extremely similar. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 9:0 The queen of Saba admireth the wisdom of Solomon. His riches and glory. His death.

II Chronicles 9:1 And *when the queen of Saba heard of the fame of Solomon, she came to try him with hard questions, at Jerusalem, with great riches and camels, which carried spices, and abundance of gold, and precious stones. And when she was come to Solomon, she proposed to him all that was in her heart.

3 Kings 10:1.; Matthew 12:42.; Luke 11:31.
Saba. See 3 Kings 10:1. This queen resided in Arabia or Abyssinia. (Haydock) --- Questions. They were not of a trifling nature, as she is commended by Christ. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 9:2 And Solomon explained to her all that she proposed: and there was not any thing that he did not make clear unto her.

II Chronicles 9:3 And when she had seen these things, to wit, the wisdom of Solomon, and the house which he had built,

House; the royal palace, or rather the temple, which was much more magnificent than any thing in the East.
II Chronicles 9:4 And the meats of his table, and the dwelling-places of his servants, and the attendance of his officers, and their apparel, his cup-bearers also, and their garments, and the victims which he offered in the house of the Lord, there was no more spirit in her, she was so astonished.

II Chronicles 9:5 And she said to the king: The word is true which I heard in my country, of thy virtues and wisdom.

Virtues. Hebrew, "words," or of what regards thee (Calmet) and thy exploits. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 9:6 I did not believe them that told it, until I came, and my eyes had seen it, and I had proved that scarce one half of thy wisdom had been told me: thou hast exceeded the fame with thy virtues.

Fame. Hebrew and Septuagint, "the fame which I had heard." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 9:7 Happy are thy men, and happy are thy servants, who stand always before thee, and hear thy wisdom.

II Chronicles 9:8 Blessed be the Lord, thy God, who hath been pleased to set thee on his throne, king of the Lord, thy God. Because God loveth Israel, and will preserve them for ever: therefore hath he made thee king over them, to do judgment and justice.

King of the Lord. Hence the style, "By the grace of God, king of England," etc., has been adopted. Those deserve the name, who rule according to God's will. (Worthington) --- The kings of the Jews were more properly lieutenants of God, as the government was a theocracy, 2 Paralipomenon 13:8., etc.
II Chronicles 9:9 And she gave to the king a hundred and twenty talents of gold, and spices in great abundance, and most precious stones: there were no such spices as these which the queen of Saba gave to king Solomon.

II Chronicles 9:10 And the servants also of Hiram, with the servants of Solomon, brought gold from Ophir, and thyine-trees, and most precious stones:

Thyine-trees, very odoriferous. (Calmet) --- Hebrew algumim: 3 Kings almugim, as the letters are frequently transposed in Hebrew. (Du Hamel) --- Huet thinks these were citron-trees, which did not produce fruit, but were used to make costly tables, and were a species of cedar.
II Chronicles 9:11 And the king made of the thyine-trees stairs in the house of the Lord, and in the king's house, and harps and psalteries for the singing men: never were there seen such trees in the land of Juda.

Stairs. Hebrew, "hands," (Du Hamel) or banisters, from the palace to the temple. (Junius)
II Chronicles 9:12 And king Solomon gave to the queen of Saba all that she desired, and that she asked, and many more things than she brought to him: so she returned, and went to her own country, with her servants.

And many. Hebrew, "besides that which she had brought unto the king." (Protestants) It is however certain that Solomon made use of many of her presents, and therefore he returned her others in greater profusion, or, as it is expressed, 3 Kings, besides what he offered her of himself of his royal bounty. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 9:13 And the weight of the gold that was brought to Solomon every year, was six hundred and sixty-six talents of gold:

Gold, each worth 5475l. (Arbuthnot) so that this part of the revenue alone would amount to 3,646,350l. sterling, annually. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 9:14 Beside the sum which the deputies of divers nations, and the merchants were accustomed to bring, and all the kings of Arabia, and the lords of the lands, who brought gold and silver to Solomon.

Beside. Hebrew, "besides that which chapmen and merchants brought." (Protestants) The deputies appear to be the tax-gatherers, 3 Kings 10:15. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 9:15 And king Solomon made two hundred golden spears, of the sum of six hundred pieces of gold, which went to every spear:

II Chronicles 9:16 And three hundred golden shields, of three hundred pieces of gold, which went to the covering of every shield: and the king put them in the armoury, which was compassed with a wood.

Pieces. In 3 Kings, we read, three pounds. --- Wood; or, "in the palace of the forest of Libanus," (3 Kings 10:17.; Calmet) as it is expressed in the Septuagint. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 9:17 The king also made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with pure gold.

II Chronicles 9:18 And six steps to go up to the throne, and a footstool of gold, and two arms, one on either side, and two lions standing by the arms:

Arms. Protestants, "stays." (Haydock) --- Hebrew in 3 Kings seems clearer and more correct. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 9:19 Moreover twelve other little lions standing upon the steps on both sides: there was not such a throne in any kingdom.

II Chronicles 9:20 And all the vessels of the king's table were of gold, and the vessels of the house of the forest of Libanus, were of the purest gold. For no account was made of silver in those days.

Days. We sometimes find the figure, hyperbole, used in Scripture for things unusual, 2 Paralipomenon 1:16. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 9:21 For the king's ships went to Tharsis, with the servants of Hiram, once in three years: and they brought thence gold and silver, and ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Tharsis. Any distant place was so called. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 9:22 And Solomon was magnified above all the kings of the earth for riches and glory.

II Chronicles 9:23 And all the kings of the earth desired to see the face of Solomon, that they might hear the wisdom which God had given in his heart.

II Chronicles 9:24 And every year they brought him presents, vessels of silver and of gold, and garments, and armour, and spices, and horses, and mules.

II Chronicles 9:25 And Solomon had forty thousand horses in the stables, and twelve thousand chariots, and horsemen, and he placed them in the cities of the chariots, and where the king was in Jerusalem.

Thousand. In 3 Kings, we read, 1400 chariots; and here Hebrew has, "4000 stables, (Calmet) or stalls for horses and chariots;" (Protestants) and the Septuagint, "4000 mares for the chariots, and 12,000 horsemen." (Haydock) --- There might be ten horses in each stable. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 9:26 And he exercised authority over all the kings from the river Euphrates to the land of the Philistines, and to the borders of Egypt.

II Chronicles 9:27 And he made silver as plentiful in Jerusalem as stones: and cedars as common as the sycamores, which grow in the plains.

II Chronicles 9:28 And horses were brought to him out of Egypt, and out of all countries.

II Chronicles 9:29 Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are written in the words of Nathan, the prophet, and in the books of Ahias, the Silonite, and in the vision of Addo, the seer, against Jeroboam, the son of Nabat.

Seer. The works of these three are not extant. (Menochius) --- The fall of Solomon is recorded, 3 Kings xi. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 9:30 And Solomon reigned in Jerusalem, over all Israel, forty years.

II Chronicles 9:31 And he slept *with his fathers: and they buried him in the city of David: and Roboam, his son, reigned in his stead.

Year of the World 3029, Year before Christ 975.
II Chronicles 10:0 Roboam answereth his people roughly: upon which ten tribes revolt.

II Chronicles 10:1 And *Roboam went to Sichem: for thither all Israel were assembled, to make him king.

3 Kings 12:1.;
Year of the World 3029.
II Chronicles 10:2 And when Jeroboam, the son of Nabat, who was in Egypt, (for he was fled thither from Solomon) heard it, forthwith he returned.

II Chronicles 10:3 And they sent for him, and he came with all Israel, and they spoke to Roboam, saying:

II Chronicles 10:4 Thy father oppressed us with a most grievous yoke; do thou govern us with a lighter hand than thy father, who laid upon us a heavy servitude, and ease something of the burden, that we may serve thee.

II Chronicles 10:5 And he said to them: Come to me again after three days. And when the people were gone,

II Chronicles 10:6 He took counsel with the ancients, who had stood before his father, Solomon, while he yet lived, saying: What counsel give ye to me, that I may answer the people?

II Chronicles 10:7 And they said to him: If thou please this people, and sooth them with kind words, they will be thy servants for ever.

Please. 3 Kings xii., "serve." By a little condescension, thou mayst establish thy throne. (Calmet) --- The people did not complain, till they saw the riches of the nation wasted on wicked women (Tirinus) and idols. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 10:8 But he forsook the counsel of the ancients, and began to treat with the young men, that had been brought up with him, and were in his train.

II Chronicles 10:9 And he said to them: What seemeth good to you? or what shall I answer this people, who have said to me: Ease the yoke which thy father laid upon us?

II Chronicles 10:10 But they answered as young men, and brought up with him in pleasures, and said: Thus shalt thou speak to the people that said to thee: Thy father made our yoke heavy; do thou ease it: thus shalt thou answer them: My little finger is thicker than the loins of my father.

II Chronicles 10:11 My father laid upon you a heavy yoke, and I will add more weight to it: my father beat you with scourges, but I will beat you with scorpions.

Scorpions; thorns, or scourges armed with hooks. (Columella 3:10.) --- Roboam had not sense to despise the foolish advice of the young men. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 10:12 So Jeroboam, and all the people came, to Roboam the third day, as he commanded them.

II Chronicles 10:13 And the king answered roughly, leaving the counsel of the ancients.

II Chronicles 10:14 And he spoke according to the advice of the young men: My father laid upon you a heavy yoke, which I will make heavier: my father beat you with scourges, but I will beat you with scorpions.

II Chronicles 10:15 And he condescended not to the people's requests: for it was the will of God, that his word might be fulfilled, *which he had spoken by the hand of Ahias, the Silonite, to Jeroboam, the son of Nabat.

3 Kings 11:29.
Will of God: not that the king should act foolishly, or the people rebel, but to effect what he had promised. (Haydock) --- Syriac has well expressed the sense: "because this rebellion happened by the divine permission, that they might behold the truth of the prediction of Ahias;" (Calmet) and that the fault of Solomon might be punished. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 10:16 And all the people upon the king's speaking roughly, said thus unto him: We have no part in David, nor inheritance in the son of Isai. Return to thy dwellings, O Israel, and do thou, O David, feed thy own house. And Israel went away to their dwellings.

People. Hebrew, "and when all Israel saw that the king would not hearken unto them, the people answered the king, saying: What portion have we in David?" (Protestants) --- Dwellings. Many ancient Latin manuscripts here insert 3 Kings 12:20. (Lyranus, etc.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 10:17 But Roboam reigned over the children of Israel, that dwelt in the cities of Juda.

II Chronicles 10:18 And king Roboam sent Aduram, who was over the tributes, and the children of Israel stoned him, and he died: and king Roboam made haste to get up into his chariot, and fled into Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 10:19 And Israel revolted from the house of David, unto this day.

II Chronicles 11:0 Roboam's reign. His kingdom is strengthened.

II Chronicles 11:1 And *Roboam came to Jerusalem, and called together all the house of Juda, and of Benjamin, a hundred and fourscore thousand chosen men and warriors, to fight against Israel, and to bring back his kingdom to him.

3 Kings 12:21.
Year of the World 3030, Year before Christ 974. Chosen. Septuagint, "young," (Haydock) as the Hebrew term also signifies. (Tirinus) --- His. Hebrew, "the kingdom again to Roboam."
II Chronicles 11:2 And the word of the Lord came to Semeias, the man of God, saying:

II Chronicles 11:3 Speak to Roboam, the son of Solomon, the king of Juda, and to all Israel, in Juda and Benjamin:

II Chronicles 11:4 Thus saith the Lord: You shall not go up, nor fight against your brethren: let every man return to his own house, for by my will this thing has been done. And when they heard the word of the Lord, they returned, and did not go against Jeroboam.

Will, to punish the disorders of Solomon, etc. See 3 Kings 12:24., and Genesis 45:8. God knows how to draw good out of evil, without approving the misconduct of men. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 11:5 And Roboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built walled cities in Juda.

Juda. This was now become a frontier country, and both kings were forced to erect fortifications, 3 Kings 12:25.
II Chronicles 11:6 And he built Bethlehem, and Etam, and Thecue,

Etam, famous for fine waters and gardens, (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 8:2.) about ten miles from Jerusalem, on the road to Hebron. It was fortified against the inroads of Simeon and Dan. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 11:7 And Bethsur, and Socho, and Odollam,

II Chronicles 11:8 And Geth, and Maresa, and Ziph,

II Chronicles 11:9 And Aduram, and Lachis, and Azecha,

II Chronicles 11:10 Saraa also, and Aialon, and Hebron, which are in Juda and Benjamin, well fenced cities.

II Chronicles 11:11 And when he had enclosed them with walls, he put in them governors and storehouses of provisions, that is, of oil and of wine.

Governors, of a military character. Hebrew, "captains, (Tirinus) and store of provisions, (wheat) and of oil," etc., such as would be requisite in a siege.
II Chronicles 11:12 Moreover, in every city he made an armoury of shields and spears, and he fortified them with great diligence, and he reigned over Juda and Benjamin.

II Chronicles 11:13 And the priests and Levites, that were in all Israel, came to him out of all their seats,

II Chronicles 11:14 Leaving their suburbs, and their possessions, and passing over to Juda, and Jerusalem, because Jeroboam and his sons had cast them off, from executing the priestly office to the Lord.

Off. This was done at different times; so that almost all the Levites took refuge in the dominions of Juda. Yet some prevaricated. Ezechiel (xliv. 12.) only exempts the family of Sadoc. (Calmet) --- The rest set before us a noble example to endure temporal loss, rather than to neglect the practice of religion, or to conform to a false one. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 11:15 And he made to himself priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made.

Devils. Hebrew, "goats." (Calmet) --- Septuagint express this by two names, "for the idols, and for the fools." (Haydock) --- The Mendesians of Egypt, solemnly worshipped the goat; and Pan was represented nearly in the same form. Yet it is probable that the Hebrews style the idols by this name out of derision, 3 Kings 15:2. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 11:16 Moreover, out of all the tribes of Israel, whosoever gave their heart to seek the Lord, the God of Israel, came into Jerusalem to sacrifice their victims before the Lord, the God of their fathers.

II Chronicles 11:17 And they strengthened the kingdom of Juda, and established Roboam, the son of Solomon, for three years: for they walked in the ways of David and of Solomon, only three years.

They, the pious refugees. (Tirinus) (Chap. 15:9.) --- Solomon, while virtuous. --- Only is not expressed in Hebrew or Septuagint, but it is sufficiently implied.
II Chronicles 11:18 And Roboam took to wife Mahalath, the daughter of Jerimoth, the son of David: and Abihail, the daughter of Eliab, the son of Isai.

Daughter. Hebrew ban, "the son." But bath, "daughter," (Haydock) occurs properly in some manuscripts, as in the ancient versions. Leusden has here this very odd note: "perhaps by ban, (with a pathah) here both sexes may be understood." Forte per ban hic intelligitur uterque sexus. (Kennicott) --- Protestants substitute, "daughter." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 11:19 And they bore him sons, Jehus, and Somorias, and Zoom.

II Chronicles 11:20 And after her he married Maacha, the daughter of Absalom, who bore him Abia, and Ethai, and Ziza, and Salomith.

Daughter, or grand-daughter, by Thamar, 3 Kings 15:2. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 11:21 And Roboam loved Maacha, the daughter of Absalom, above all his wives and concubines: for he had married eighteen wives, and threescore concubines: and he beget eight and twenty sons, and threescore daughters.

II Chronicles 11:22 But he put at the head of them Abia, the son of Maacha, to be the chief ruler over all his brethren: for he meant to make him king,

Head. Septuagint, "prince." (Haydock) --- Grotius maintains that Abia was the eldest. But all others are of a contrary opinion, and believe that Roboam derogated from the law, (Deuteronomy 21:16.; Calmet) as David had done, unless it was left to the option of the king to appoint whom he pleased for his successor. (Haydock) --- Meant. Protestants supply, "he thought" which is found in the Septuagint.
II Chronicles 11:23 Because he was wiser and mightier than all his sons, and in all the countries of Juda, and of Benjamin, and in all the walled cities: and he gave them provisions in abundance, and he sought many wives.

Because. Septuagint, "And he was magnified above....and he gave them (cities, autais) abundance," etc. This may be all understood of Abia. But Hebrew rather speaks of his father: "And he acted wisely, and dispersed all his other children, throughout the countries of Juda;" (Haydock) keeping them at a distance, to prevent any commotion, (Calmet) but making ample provision and procuring wives for them, perhaps at no small cost, as few might wish to be thus prisoners at large. (Tirinus) --- It was probably then the custom to educate the royal children in the noblest families. See 4 Kings 10:1. (Calmet) --- This would also tend to increase their father's influence, and to make them better acquainted with the country, that they might be able to communicate all necessary intelligence. (Haydock) --- Pagnin and Vatable insinuate, that Roboam "caused to be educated and dispersed some of all his children, throughout all the lands of Juda." (Menochius)
II Chronicles 12:0 Roboam, for his sins, is delivered up into the hands of the king of Egypt: who carrieth away all the treasures of the temple.

II Chronicles 12:1 And *when the kingdom of Roboam was strengthened and fortified, he forsook the law of the Lord, and all Israel with him.

Year of the World 3032. Israel, in his dominions. The kingdom of Jeroboam had long before apostatized, though there were still many true servants of God, who would not bend the knee before Baal, ver. 12. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 12:2 And in the fifth year *of the reign of Roboam, Sesac, king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem (because they had sinned against the Lord)

3 Kings 14:25.
Year of the World 3033, Year before Christ 971.
II Chronicles 12:3 With twelve hundred chariots, and threescore thousand horsemen: and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt; to wit, Lybians, and Troglodites, and Ethiopians.

Troglodites, who dwell in caverns, near the Red Sea. Pliny ([Natural History?] 5:8., and 6:29.) speaks of the city Suca, which in Hebrew means a tent, as here we read succiyim, (Haydock) "dwelling in tents;" which some explain of the Arabs, who are called Scenites, on the same account. (Tirinus) --- People of this description, without any fixed abode, inhabited the Stony as well as the Desert Arabia, 2 Paralipomenon 14:14.
II Chronicles 12:4 And he took the strongest cities in Juda, and came to Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 12:5 And Semeias, the prophet, came to Roboam, and to the princes of Juda, that were gathered together in Jerusalem, fleeing from Sesac, and he said to them: Thus saith the Lord: You have left me, and I have left you in the hand of Sesac.

II Chronicles 12:6 And the princes of Israel, and the king, being in a consternation, said: The Lord is just.

II Chronicles 12:7 And when the Lord saw that they were humbled, the word of the Lord came to Semeias, saying: Because they are humbled, I will not destroy them, and I will give them a little help, and my wrath shall not fall upon Jerusalem by the hand of Sesac.

A little help. I will not suffer them to be quite destroyed. Hebrew also signifies, "shortly." (Calmet) --- Fall, (stillabit) like drops of water, even to the last. (Haydock) --- How soon is God appeased! (Tirinus) --- Even when he punishes, he does not let the whole flood of his indignation fall upon the guilty. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 12:8 But yet they shall serve him, that they may know the difference between my service, and the service of a kingdom of the earth.

II Chronicles 12:9 So Sesac, king of Egypt, departed from Jerusalem, taking away the treasures of the house of the Lord, and of the king's house, and he took all with him, and the golden shields that Solomon had made,

II Chronicles 12:10 Instead of which the king made brazen ones, and delivered them to the captains of the shield-bearers, who guarded the entrance of the palace.

Bearers. Hebrew, "runners," as the guards attended the king on foot.
II Chronicles 12:11 And when the king entered into the house of the Lord, the shield-bearers came and took them, and brought them back again to their armoury.

II Chronicles 12:12 But yet, because they were humbled, the wrath of the Lord turned away from them, and they were not utterly destroyed: for even in Juda there were found good works.

For even. Protestants, "and also in Judah things went well;" (Haydock) or, "he spoke good words even to Juda." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "for even in Juda there were good words, and in all pleasing." Words are often put for works. (Haydock) --- The Lord regarded the fidelity of some, and the humility of the princes. (Calmet) --- This advantage was derived from tribulation, that the king entered into himself, at least for a time: (Haydock) but he was not constant, ver. 14. After the scourge was withdrawn, he presently relapsed. He had betrayed great cowardice, as even his son confessed; and had probably been treated with great indignity, (Tirinus) as it was the custom with Sesac, or Sesostris, to chain the conquered princes to his triumphal car, and to leave obscene representations of women in the country. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 8:4.) (Herodotus ii.) --- Sesostris proceeded to the conquest of Asia. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 12:13 *King Roboam, therefore, was strengthened in Jerusalem, and reigned: he was one and forty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the Lord chose out of all the tribes of Israel, to establish his name there: and the name of his mother was Naama, an Ammonitess.

3 Kings 14:21.
II Chronicles 12:14 But he did evil, and did not prepare his heart to seek the Lord.

Lord, with sincerity, being actuated only by a servile fear. He died impenitent. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 12:15 Now the acts of Roboam, first and last, are written in the books of Semeias, the prophet, and of Addo, the seer, and diligently recorded: and there was war between Roboam and Jeroboam, all their days.

And diligently. Hebrew, "in their genealogical accounts." (Haydock) See 2 Paralipomenon 13:22.
II Chronicles 12:16 And Roboam slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David. And Abia, his son, reigned in his stead.

II Chronicles 13:0 Abia's reign: his victory over Jeroboam.

II Chronicles 13:1 In *the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam, Abia reigned over Juda.

3: 3 Kings 15:7.;
Year of the World 3046, Year before Christ 958.; 3 Kings xv. Year of the World 3047.
II Chronicles 13:2 Three years he reigned in Jerusalem, and his mother's name was Michaia, the daughter of Uriel, of Gabaa: and there was war between Abia and Jeroboam.

Michaia, alias Maacha. Her father had also two names; viz., Absalom or Abessalom, and Uriel. (Challoner) --- Many had two names. (Tirinus) --- Of Gabaa, may refer to the women.
II Chronicles 13:3 *And when Abia had begun battle, and had with him four hundred thousand most valiant and chosen men, Jeroboam put his army in array against him, eight hundred thousand men, who were also chosen, and most valiant for war.

War. The author of the new edition of St. Jerome mentions two manuscripts and there are several printed editions, which reduce these numbers to one half. Castalio adopts this correction, asserting that the Greek and Josephus are on his side, which is not true. (Calmet) --- We must however observe, that there is some doubt with respect to Josephus, (Haydock) as some of the oldest Latin editions acknowledge the smaller numbers; and Vignoles (I. 29.) conjectures, that the Greek copies did the same formerly, since Aborbanel "accuses Josephus of having made Jeroboam's loss no more than 50,000, contrary to the Hebrew text," ver. 17. This learned author is of opinion, that the Jews sometimes expressed their numbers by figures, (Kennicott) analogous to those which the later Arabs borrowed from the Indians; though, in more ancient times, the letters of the alphabet had been used. Both customs seem to have prevailed; (Erpenius) and this may account for many variations, as the omission of a single cypher, resembling our period (.), might easily occasion much confusion. Kennicott (Diss. i., and ii.) seems to suspect, that the ancient versions have been made to agree with the corrupted Hebrew, no less than Josephus; and that many of the large numbers, recorded in Scripture, (which might countenance what we here read) are incorrect. See 2 Paralipomenon 17:13, 19., and 14:8., comp.[compare] with 16:1., and 25:6., comp.[compare] with 4 Kings 13:7. It is certain (Haydock) many Latin manuscripts confirm the edition of Sixtus V, which has the smaller numbers; and this is the case with most of the older manuscripts and editions. How St. Jerome expressed it, we cannot easily determine. The editor of his works has been guided chiefly by the Memmian canon. See 2 Kings 15:7. Lyranus quotes St. Jerome, as reading 50,000; (ver. 7) and it is so expressed in the Paris editions of 1534 and (Haydock) 1546, of the Hebrew questions on Paralipomenon. But Erasmus doubts whether this be the genuine work of St. Jerome, (Kennicott) or in the state in which he left it. If we consult the more ancient manuscripts and editions, prior to that of Clement VIII, we shall allow that they are more favourable to the smaller numbers, on this occasion; and are more likely to exhibit the pure version of the holy doctor, (Haydock) as the later editions have had "the Hebrew fountains" also in view. (Kennicott) --- If however we adhere to the received numbers, (Haydock) we must remember that kings, at that time, led forth to battle all their subjects who were able to bear arms. Under Moses there were 600,000. David found 1,100,000 in Israel, and 470,000 in Juda, exclusive of Levi and Benjamin; (chap. 21:5.) or, at least, as it is expressed [in] 2 Kings 24:9., in all, 1,300,000. Asa was at the head of 580,000, 2 Paralipomenon 14:8., etc.
II Chronicles 13:4 And Abia stood upon Mount Semeron, which was in Ephraim, and said: Hear me, O Jeroboam, and all Israel:

Semeron, on which Samaria was afterwards built. Hebrew reads, "Mount Tsemaraim." There was a city of this name in Benjamin. (Calmet) --- But this was a mount. Hebrew, "in Mount Ephraim." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 13:5 Do you not know that the Lord God of Israel gave to David the kingdom over Israel for ever, to him and to his sons, by a covenant of salt?

A covenant of salt. That is, a firm and perpetual covenant. See Numbers 18:19. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- It seemed this covenant was to be inviolable; and it had its effect, notwithstanding the crimes of many of the kings. The Arabs still regard the partaking of bread and salt as the most sacred covenant. (Calmet) --- "The ancients prayed when they placed salt before their guests, that, as salt partook of two natures, so they might be cemented together in concord." (Tzetzez on Lycoph.) (Haydock) --- Abia speaks with much prudence, and with an air of piety, though his heart was corrupt, 3 Kings 15:3. That of his adversary was still more so; and God granted victory to the former, to reward even the appearance of virtue in the king, and the sincere piety of some of his followers.
II Chronicles 13:6 And Jeroboam, the son of Nabat, the servant of Solomon, the son of David, rose up: *and rebelled against his lord.

3 Kings 11:26.
II Chronicles 13:7 And there were gathered to him vain men, and children of Belial: and they prevailed against Roboam, the son of Solomon: for Roboam was unexperienced, and of a fearful heart, and could not resist them.

Vain. The same term is used as in Matthew 5:22. (Calmet) --- Rekim, "stupid men." (Haydock) --- Septuagint, "pestiferous." Syriac, "impious." --- Heart. Protestants, "young and tender-hearted." (Haydock) --- But Roboam was not very young; (3 Kings 14:21.) and we may adhere to the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "he was a youth, and timid." (Haydock) --- Abia speaks of his father with little respect, and seems to have forgotten that he had laid down his arms in obedience to God's order. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 13:8 And now you say that you are able to withstand the kingdom of the Lord, which he possesseth by the sons of David, and you have a great multitude of people, and golden calves, which Jeroboam hath made you for gods.

And golden. These idols will enervate and render your great numbers useless. (Haydock) --- We have a just cause and religion is on our side. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 13:9 *And you have cast out the priests of the Lord, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites: and you have made you priests, like all the nations of the earth: whosoever cometh and consecrateth his hand with a bullock of the herd, and with seven rams, is made a priest of those who are no gods.

3 Kings 12:31.
Rams. These were sacrificed by the false priests, who acted in a very different manner from those of the Lord, Leviticus viii., and ix. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 13:10 But the Lord is our God, whom we forsake not; and the priests, who minister to the Lord, are the sons of Aaron, and the Levites are in their order.

II Chronicles 13:11 And they offer holocausts to the Lord, every day, morning and evening, and incense, made according to the ordinance of the law, and the loaves are set forth on a most clean table, and there is with us the golden candlestick, and the lamps thereof, to be lighted always in the evening: for we keep the precepts of the Lord, our God, whom you have forsaken.

Table. It is hence inferred, that Sesac had only left one: (Lyranus; Torniel.) but this does not follow. (Calmet) (Salien)
II Chronicles 13:12 Therefore, God is the leader in our army, and his priests, who sound with trumpets, and resound against you: O children of Israel, fight not against the Lord, the God of your fathers, for it is not good for you.

II Chronicles 13:13 While he spoke these things, Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind him. And while he stood facing the enemies, he encompassed Juda, who perceived it not, with his army.

II Chronicles 13:14 And when Juda looked back, they saw the battle coming upon them, both before and behind, and they cried to the Lord: and the priests began to sound with the trumpets.

Trumpets, to invoke God's aid, Numbers 10:9. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 13:15 And all the men of Juda shouted: and behold when they shouted, God terrified Jeroboam, and all Israel that stood against Abia and Juda.

Terrified. Septuagint, "struck;" God caused the victory to declare in favour of those who were only half the number. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 13:16 And the children of Israel fled before Juda, and the Lord delivered them into their hand.

II Chronicles 13:17 And Abia, and his people, slew them with a great slaughter, and there fell wounded of Israel five hundred thousand valiant men.

Five. Some Latin editions have 50,000, (Calmet) which number is found in some manuscripts of Epiphanius. (Hudson's Josephus) --- Hentenius has the same, and only remarks five manuscripts which had the greater number. See ver. 3. (Haydock) --- We do not read of such a slaughter in any one battle. But Israel made no resistance, and God assisted the four hundred thousand. (Menochius) --- Valiant. Protestants, "chosen." See chap 14:13. (Haydock) --- So many were either slain or wounded. (Du Hamel) --- Protestants intimate all were "slain." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 13:18 And the children of Israel were brought down, at that time, and the children of Juda were exceedingly strengthened, because they had trusted in the Lord, the God of their fathers.

II Chronicles 13:19 And Abia pursued after Jeroboam, and took cities from him; Bethel, and her daughters, and Jesana, with her daughters, Ephron also, and her daughters.

Bethel, the head of the calf worship; though Abulensis thinks it was another city, otherwise it would not have been spared. The calf continued there till the reign of Jehu, 4 Kings 10:29. (Menochius) --- Jesana; perhaps Senna, (Numbers 34:4.; Calmet) seven miles north of Jericho. (Eusebius) --- The versions read differently. --- Ephron. The Masorets have Ephraim. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Ephraim, with the towns thereof." (Haydock) --- Josue (xv. 9.) places Mount Ephron between Juda and Ephraim; and we find a town of the name, (1 Machabees 5:46.) but on the other side of the Jordan.
II Chronicles 13:20 And Jeroboam was not able to resist any more, in the days of Abia: and the Lord struck him, and he died.

Him. Some think Abia, as Jeroboam survived him two years: but others, (Calmet) with greater probability, (Du Hamel) suppose that the latter is here specified, and that he fell a victim to the divine wrath, as the prophet Ahias had foretold. (Calmet) --- (Salien, the year of the world 3081.)
II Chronicles 13:21 But Abia, being strengthened in his kingdom, took fourteen wives: and begot two and twenty sons, and sixteen daughters.

II Chronicles 13:22 And the rest of the acts of Abia, and of his ways and works, are written diligently in the book of Addo, the prophet.

Works. Protestants, "sayings are written in the story of the prophets Iddo." (Haydock) --- Modross properly means "researches," and was the title of the genealogical work of this prophet, from which this account is probably taken, 2 Paralipomenon 12:15. (Calmet) --- The entire work is not extant. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 14:0 The reign of Asa: his victory over the Ethiopians.

II Chronicles 14:1 And *Abia slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city of David: and Asa, his son, reigned in his stead; in his days, the land was quiet ten years.

Year of the World 3049, Year before Christ 955.; 3 Kings xv. Year of the World 3063, Year before Christ 941. Years, dating from the fifth; as in the fifteenth year of his reign, Asa offered many victims, which had been taken from the enemy, 2 Paralipomenon 15:10. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 14:2 And Asa did that which was good and pleasing in the sight of his God, and he destroyed the altars of foreign worship, and the high places;

God, with respect to the external worship of the true God, (Haydock) though he had some faults, 3 Kings 15:14. --- Places, while he tolerated those which were intended for the service of the Lord, (Calmet) though illegally; and he even left the buildings erected by Solomon standing, (4 Kings 23:13.; Tirinus) thinking they might be no longer dangerous. (Salien) --- Several other pious kings did the like, for which they deserved some reprehension; as they could not be ignorant, that this was considered as wrong by the more enlightened, Ecclesiasticus 49:5. (Tirinus) --- It was the king's duty to destroy the exterior practices of idolatry, while the priests and prophets were to instruct. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 14:3 And broke the statues, and cut down the groves.

II Chronicles 14:4 And he commanded Juda to seek the Lord, the God of their fathers, and to do the law, and all the commandments.

II Chronicles 14:5 And he took away out of all the cities of Juda the altars, and temples, and reigned in peace.

Altars. Hebrew, "high places, and the Chamanim," or temples of the sun, Leviticus 26:30. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "images." (Haydock) --- Asa was encouraged to perfect the work which he had begun, by the exhortation of Azarias, 2 Paralipomenon 15:8. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 14:6 He built also strong cities in Juda, for he was quiet, and there had no wars risen in his time, the Lord giving peace.

Time, as yet. (Tirinus) --- Admirable lesson for all to prepare for war in time of quiet! (Haydock)
II Chronicles 14:7 And he said to Juda: Let us build these cities, and compass them with walls, and fortify them with towers, and gates, and bars, while all is quiet from wars, because we have sought the Lord, the God of our fathers, and he hath given us peace round about. So they built, and there was no hinderance in building.

II Chronicles 14:8 And Asa had in his army of men that bore shields and spears; of Juda, three hundred thousand; and of Benjamin, that bore shields and drew bows, two hundred and eighty thousand, all these were most valiant men.

II Chronicles 14:9 *And Zara, the Ethiopian, came out against them, with his army of ten hundred thousand men, and with three hundred chariots: and he came as far as Maresa.

Ethiopian. Some think Zara was a successor of Sesac; and the Rabbins say, that he "restored the spoils which the latter had taken." (Seder. xvi.) --- He at least, made the Jews some compensation for that loss. Perhaps he had been present in the expedition of Sesac, and was now animated with the same ambition. (Tirinus) --- It would be difficult for a foreign king to traverse Egypt with so large an army, (Calmet) unless he had conquered or intimidated the king of the country. (Haydock) --- Hence some believe that the Ethiopia here in question, was a part of Arabia. (Calmet) (Torniel.) --- But it is more probable that it lay south of Egypt, as the troops of Zara are joined with the Lybians, 2 Paralipomenon 16:8. (Salien, the year of the world 3094.) (Tirinus) --- A king of Arabia would hardly have had so many subjects. (Calmet) --- Three. Some would read thirteen, as Anani takes notice of the great number of chariots, 2 Paralipomenon 16:8. (Junius) (Malvenda) (Calmet) --- But surely the number here specified is sufficient. The minds of men are very different. In the former chapter we find them complaining of the too great numbers! (Haydock)
II Chronicles 14:10 And Asa went out to meet him, and set his army in array for battle in the vale of Sephata, which is near Maresa:

Meet him, fearing lest he should lay waste his dominions, as Sesac had done. (Menochius) --- Sephata, or Sephala, a great valley to the west of Maresa, (Calmet) which is a city of Juda. (Menochius) --- Septuagint have, "in the vale north of Maresa." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 14:11 And he called upon the Lord God, and said: *Lord, there is no difference with thee, whether thou help with few, or with many: help us, O Lord, our God: for with confidence in thee, and in thy name, we are come against this multitude. O Lord, thou art our God, let not man prevail against thee.

1 Kings 14:6.
Help. Hebrew, "to help; whether with many, or with those who have no power." The same sentiment was expressed by Jonathas, 1 Kings 14:6. Those who have God with them are secure of victory. (Calmet) --- If God be with us, who is against us?
II Chronicles 14:12 And the Lord terrified the Ethiopians before Asa and Juda: and the Ethiopians fled.

Terrified. Hebrew and Septuagint, "struck," as he had done Jeroboam, 2 Paralipomenon 13:15. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 14:13 And Asa, and the people that were with him, pursued them to Gerara: and the Ethiopians fell even to utter destruction; for the Lord slew them, and his army fought against them, and they were destroyed. And they took abundance of spoils,

Gerara was on the southern borders, twenty-three miles from Maresa. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- The Ethiopians were pursued perhaps for many days. (Tirinus) --- Destruction. Protestants, "that they could not recover themselves." Hebrew, "there was no quarter given;" or, "so that none were left alive." (Calmet) --- If this were the case, the number of the slain far exceeded that the Jeroboam's army, 2 Paralipomenon 13. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 14:14 And they took all the cities round about Gerara: for a great fear was come upon all men: and they pillaged the cities, and carried off much booty.

Gerara. The adjacent territory is now uncultivated, Josue 13:3. --- Great. Hebrew, "a fear of the Lord;" (ver. 12) an extraordinary (Calmet) panic. (Haydock) --- The Philistines had assisted the enemy, and therefore their cities were invaded; (Menochius) or these belonged to Zara. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 14:15 And they destroyed the sheep-cotes, and took an infinite number of cattle, and of camels: and returned to Jerusalem.

Destroyed. Hebrew, "smote also the tents of cattle." Septuagint, "they cut in pieces the tents of cattle, the Amazons;" or, according to the Vatican copy, (Haydock) "the Alimazonians," as they seem to have read aeli manim, which may be well rendered, "the tents of the Mineans," a people of Arabia, 2 Paralipomenon 20:1., and 26:7., and Judges 10:11. (Calmet) --- If these nations came to punish Asa, for banishing their foreign worship, (ver. 12) as the Sieur de Folard thinks the sacred penman insinuates, (ver. 5) we need not wonder that they met with such ill success, and that not one of them was spared, as God avenged his own cause, ver. 12, 13. (Haydock) --- We read of no cavalry here, though it is mentioned, 2 Paralipomenon 16:8. It seems not to have been considerable, as the people of Asia, the Greeks and Romans, trusted more to their infantry; and, in effect, no species of warfare is more costly to a state, nor less useful, than a multitude of horses, which were introduced in barbarous times. (De Folard)
II Chronicles 15:0 The prophecy of Azarias. Asa's covenant with God. He deposeth his mother.

II Chronicles 15:1 And *the spirit of God came upon Azarias, the son of Oded,

Year of the World 3063. Azarias is called Oded in Hebrew, ver. 8. (Calmet) --- But he was his son. (Haydock) --- There was a high priest of the name of Azarias, about the same time. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 15:2 And he went out to meet Asa, and said to him: Hear ye me, Asa, and all Juda and Benjamin: The Lord is with you, because you have been with him. If you seek him, you shall find: but if you forsake him, he will forsake you.

With him. He will continue thus to protect you, if you prove faithful. The Pelagians hence inferred, that man was to prepare his own heart for the reception of grace. But the text only speaks of external aid; and though it were understood of internal grace, (Calmet) we may merit an increase of grace, by a faithful co-operation (Worthington) with that with which God has presented us. (Estius) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 15:3 And many days shall pass in Israel, without the true God, and without a priest a teacher, and without the law.

Shall pass, is not found in Hebrew, etc., and many supply, "had been." (Du Hamel) --- The Jews, and some interpreters, would explain all this of what had passed already; (Calmet) and this is the idea of the Protestants, "Now, for a long season, Israel hath been without," etc. (Haydock) --- But the conclusion convinces us that this is a prediction; (ver. 7) take courage. You shall not be involved in these miseries. Some explain the whole of the kingdom of Israel, which, from its commencement till after its final ruin, persevered in its rebellion against the true God. (Sanctius) --- Others think the kingdom of Juda was also concerned, and its state of captivity at Babylon foretold. (Lyranus) --- But its full completion includes the latter ages, particularly after the murder of the Messias, (Tirinus) and seems of the same nature as the prophecy of Osee 3:4., as our Saviour himself insinuates, Matthew 24:6, 9, 13. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 15:4 And when in their distress, they shall return to the Lord, the God of Israel, and shall seek him, they shall find him.

And when. Septuagint, "and he shall convert them to the Lord,...and shall be found by them." (Haydock) --- This will be verified in the last days, Romans 11:26. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 15:5 At that time, there shall be no peace to him that goeth out and cometh in, but terrors on every side, among all the inhabitants of the earth.

Cometh in, in public or private transactions. See Leviticus 26:36.
II Chronicles 15:6 For nation shall fight against nation, and city against city; for the Lord will trouble them with all distress.

Nation, both in the times of Baasa, who fought against Asa, and afterwards. For the same prophecy may be literally explained of more things than one. (Menochius) --- Distress. Our Saviour says, Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, etc. But he that shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved. [Matthew 24:9-13.]
II Chronicles 15:7 Do you, therefore, take courage, and let not your hands be weakened: for there shall be a reward for your work.

II Chronicles 15:8 And when Asa had heard the words, and the prophecy of Azarias, the son of Oded, the prophet, he took courage, and took away the idols out of all the land of Juda, and out of Benjamin, and out of the cities of Mount Ephraim, which he had taken, and he dedicated the altar of the Lord, which was before the porch of the Lord.

Azarias, the son, is omitted in Hebrew and the Vatican Septuagint, which reads Adad, (Haydock) but it is supplied in the other editions, and in the Syriac, (Calmet) as [in] ver. 1. (Haydock) --- Taken: we do not read on what occasion, 2 Paralipomenon 17:2. His father had seized upon Bethel, etc., 2 Paralipomenon 13:19. (Calmet) --- Yet Asa waged war himself with the king of Israel. --- Dedicated. Septuagint, "renewed," as the altar had been neglected, or injured by the continual fire; (Menochius) or this was the extraordinary (Haydock) altar, which Solomon had used at the dedication of the temple. The multitude of Asa's victims required more than one, ver. 11. It is not probable that God's worship had been neglected till the 15th year of this pious king, (ver. 9) since even his wicked father was punctual in this respect, 2 Paralipomenon 13:11. Before, at the higher end of the priests' court, to the east of the altar of holocausts. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 15:9 And he gathered together all Juda and Benjamin, and the strangers with them, of Ephraim, and Manasses, and Simeon: for many were come over to him out of Israel, seeing that the Lord, his God, was with him.

Simeon. This tribe was intimately connected with that of Juda, though many had revolted. Some afterwards returned, as they did from other parts, actuated either by motives of interest or of religion, 2 Paralipomenon 34:6., and 3 Kings 11:13. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 15:10 And when they were come to Jerusalem, in the third month, in the fifteenth year of the reign of Asa,

Month, Sivan, or May, when the feast of Pentecost occurs. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 15:11 They sacrificed to the Lord in that day of the spoils, and of the prey, that they had brought, seven hundred oxen, and seven thousand rams.

Spoils, which they had sold, and now testified their gratitude. (Tirinus) --- Rams. Protestants, "sheep."
II Chronicles 15:12 And he went in to confirm as usual the covenant, that they should seek the Lord, the God of their fathers, with all their heart, and with all their soul.

He went. Hebrew and Septuagint, "They proceeded, according to the covenant, to seek." (Haydock) --- They swore upon the altar, or passed between the divided victims, Genesis 15:9, 17. (Calmet) --- This solemn act was usual, and more necessary in times of trouble. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 15:13 And if any one, said he, seek not the Lord, the God of Israel, let him die, whether little or great, man or woman.

Said he, is not in Hebrew, etc. (Haydock) --- Die, according to Deuteronomy 17:7.
II Chronicles 15:14 And they swore to the Lord with a loud voice, with joyful shouting, and with sound of trumpet, and sound of cornets,

II Chronicles 15:15 All that mere in Juda with a curse: for with all their heart they swore, and with all their will they sought him, and they found him, and the Lord gave them rest round about.

Curse. Hebrew, "oath." (Menochius) --- Septuagint, "all Juda rejoiced on account of the oath." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 15:16 Moreover, Maacha, the mother of king Asa, he deposed from the royal authority, because she had made in a grove an idol of Priapus: and he entirely destroyed it, and breaking it into pieces, burnt it at the torrent Cedron.

Mother, or grandmother. (Calmet) --- There were perhaps two of the name, and Abia had married one as well as Roboam. (Menochius) --- Deposed, etc. Hebrew, "from being queen." Septuagint, "he removed Maacha,...that she should not minister to Astarte; and he cut the idol in pieces, and burnt it," etc. (Haydock) --- Syriac, "because she had celebrated a feast to idols." But it seems she had set up a statue, which Asa burnt. See 3 Kings 15:13. (Calmet) --- Priapus is added by the Vulgate to explain [the] Hebrew, "the idol of, or in, the grove," (Haydock) Asera or Astarte. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 15:17 But high places were left in Israel: nevertheless, the heart of Asa was perfect all his days.

Israel, to the honour only of the true God, 2 Paralipomenon 14:2., and 3 Kings 15:14. (Haydock) --- Perfect, with respect to the external worship, (Tirinus) --- Other altars, besides that at Jerusalem, might be dispensed with, (Worthington) by God's authority. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 15:18 And the things which his father had vowed, and he himself had vowed, he brought into the house of the Lord, gold and silver, and vessels, of divers uses.

Vowed, in the wars against Jeroboam and Zara. See 1 Paralipomenon 26:27.
II Chronicles 15:19 And there was no war unto the five and thirtieth year of the kingdom of Asa.

Year. Usher dates from the separation of the two kingdoms; and this year corresponds with the 15th of Asa, ver. 10. See 3 Kings 15:16. (Calmet) (Torniel, the year of the world 3094.)
II Chronicles 16:0 Asa is reproved for seeking help from the Syrians: his last acts and death.

II Chronicles 16:1 And in the six and thirtieth year of his kingdom, *Baasa, the king of Israel, came up against Juda, and built a wall about Rama, that no one might safely go out or come in, of the kingdom of Asa.

Year of the World 3064, Year before Christ 940. Six and thirtieth year of his kingdom. That is, of the kingdom of Juda, taking the date of it from the beginning of the reign of Roboam. (Challoner) --- It was the 16th of Asa. We read that Baasa died in the 26th year of Asa, 3 Kings 16:8. How then could he fight with him in the 36th? (Tirinus) --- Rama was on an eminence, and commanded the pass below. Baasa wished to cut off all communication with the kingdom of Juda, as he knew many of his subjects had emigrated for the sake of the true religion, 2 Paralipomenon 15:9. (Calmet) --- He had taken the city from the tribe of Benjamin. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 16:2 Then Asa brought out silver and gold, out of the treasures of the house of the Lord, and of the king's treasures, and sent to Benadad, king of Syria, who dwelt in Damascus, saying:

II Chronicles 16:3 There is a league between me and thee, as there was between my father and thy father, wherefore I have sent thee silver and gold, that thou mayst break thy league with Baasa, king of Israel, and make him depart from me.

There is, Hebrew is indeterminate: "a league," etc. Septuagint, "Make a league....behold I have sent thee gold and silver. Come and drive away from me Baasa, king," etc. --- That. Protestants, "go, break thy league." (Haydock) --- Asa induces the king of Damascus to act perfidiously. (Calmet) --- Otherwise it is not unlawful to make use of the arms of infidels, unless where God has forbidden it. (Grotius, Jur. 2:15, 9.) (Masius in Jos. 9:15.) --- David had recourse to Achis, and the Machabees to the Romans. (Calmet) --- Some kings are blamed for making leagues with the princes of Israel, because they had been warned to the contrary; and Asa was severely reprehended, as he had already received such assurances of the divine protection, (chap. 14:12., and 15:7.) that nothing but pusillanimity could have induced him (Haydock) to give away the sacred treasures, in order to obtain this aid of the Syrian king, ver. 7.
II Chronicles 16:4 And then Benadad heard this, he sent the captains of his armies against the cities of Israel: and they took Ahion, and Dan, and Abelmaim, and all the walled cities of Nephthali.

Nephthali. This seem preferable to the Hebrew reading, 3 Kings 15:20. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "all the store-cities." Septuagint, "all the environs." (Haydock) --- Arabic, "all the arsenals of the cities of Nephthali."
II Chronicles 16:5 And when Baasa heard of it, he left off the building of Rama, and interrupted his work.

II Chronicles 16:6 Then king Asa took all Juda, and they carried away from Rama, the stones, and the timber that Baasa had prepared for the building: and he built with them Gabaa, and Maspha.

II Chronicles 16:7 At that time Hanani, the prophet, came to Asa, king of Juda, and said to him: Because thou hast had confidence in the king of Syria, and not in the Lord, thy God, therefore hath the army of the king of Syria escaped out of thy hand.

Syria. It seems more natural to read Israel. (Calmet) --- But we must remember that Benadad was an ally of Israel; and if he had not been bribed, he would have come to the assistance of Baasa, (Haydock) and thus both might have fallen a prey to Asa, as the much greater forces of Zara had done. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 16:8 *Were not the Ethiopians, and the Lybians, much more numerous in chariots, and horsemen, and an exceedingly great multitude: yet because thou trustedst in the Lord, he delivered them into thy hand?

2 Paralipomenon 14:9.
II Chronicles 16:9 For the eyes of the Lord behold all the earth, and give strength to those who with a perfect heart trust in him. Wherefore, thou hast done foolishly; and for this cause, from this time wars shall arise against thee.

Behold. Protestants, "run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to shew himself strong in the behalf of them whose heart is perfect towards him." Septuagint, "to shew power in every heart full, or perfect, in his regard." (Haydock) --- Asa fell on this occasion through human frailty, but rose again by repentance. --- Thee, as they were till the death of Baasa, 3 Kings 15:32.
II Chronicles 16:10 And Asa was angry with the seer, and commanded him to be put in prison: for he was greatly enraged because of this thing: and he put to death many of the people at that time.

Prison. Literally, "in bonds," (nervum) made of leather thongs or nerves, (Haydock) or of iron, to confine either the neck or the feet. (Isidor. orig. 5. ultra) --- Hebrew, "the house of disturbance." Septuagint, etc., "prison." Some explain it (Calmet) of the stocks to enclose the neck. (Vatable) --- Time, either because they expressed the same sentiments as the prophet, (Calmet) or because they disapproved of his imprisonment. (Tirinus) --- Septuagint, "Asa made havoc among the people," etc. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 16:11 But the works of Asa, the first and last, are written in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel.

II Chronicles 16:12 And Asa fell sick in the nine and thirtieth *year of his reign, of a most violent pain in his feet, and yet in his illness he did not seek the Lord, but rather trusted in the skill of physicians.

Year of the World 3087, Year before Christ 917. Most, etc. Hebrew, "till his disease got upwards," (Calmet) to the head (Tirinus) and heart, (Haydock) when the gout generally proves fatal. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Septuagint, "till he was very ill:" (Haydock) a just punishment for his having confined the prophet in fetters; but of a temporal nature, as he sinned through passion, and died penitent, his heart being perfect (chap. 15:17.) all or the most part of his days, particularly in the last. (Worthington) --- Rather. Hebrew and Septuagint simply, "physicians." (Haydock) --- Yet it was not the having recourse to them, with some degree of confidence, that is here reprehended, but the placing too much trust in men, (Calmet) and too little in God, the sovereign arbiter of life and death. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 16:13 And he slept with his fathers: and he died in the one and fortieth year *of his reign.

Year of the World 3090.
II Chronicles 16:14 And they buried him in his own sepulchre, which he had made for himself in the city of David: and they laid him on his bed, full of spices and odoriferous ointments, which were made by the art of the perfumers, and they burnt them over him with very great pomp.

Sepulchre. Hebrew, "sepulchres," as there were many separate apartments in the same cavern. (Calmet) --- Asa had prepared one cell, as David and Solomon had done. (Menochius) (Tirinus) --- Odoriferous (mertriciis.) Such as harlots delight in, (Proverbs 7:16,) to entice the sensual. (Du Hamel) --- Hebrew zenim, may be derived from zana, fornicari. It denotes a mixture of perfumes. (Menochius) --- But here the Vulgate read zunim. (Du Hamel) --- Hebrew and Septuagint, "they laid him on a bed, and filled it with aromatical spices, and with various sorts of perfumers' ointments, and they made him a very great funeral, or (Haydock) burning." (Protestants) --- It is not clear whether the body was placed on a bed of state, and these perfumes were used to remove every disagreeable smell, or the body itself was rather consumed along with them, a practice which seems to have become more common since the days of Asa, Jeremias 34:5., 1 Kings 31:12., and Amos 6:10. Joram was deprived of this honour, 2 Paralipomenon 21:19. (Calmet) --- Sanctius adduces many examples, to prove that the spices were burnt only near the body; (Tirinus) and the Hebrews generally preferred to inter the corpse. Corpora condere quam cremare è more Aegyptio. (Tacitus, Hist. v.)
II Chronicles 17:0 Josaphat's reign: his care for the instruction of his people: his numerous forces.

II Chronicles 17:1 And *Josaphat, his son, reigned in his stead, and grew strong against Israel.

Year of the World 3090, Year before Christ 914. Israel. In consequence of the civil broils, which ensued after the death of Baasa. The two kingdoms had been nearly equal.
II Chronicles 17:2 And he placed numbers of soldiers in all the fortified cities of Juda. And he put garrisons in the land of Juda, and in the cities of Ephraim, which Asa, his father, had taken.

Numbers, who were kept on foot; probably as in the days of David.
II Chronicles 17:3 And the Lord was with Josaphat, because he walked in the first ways of David, his father: and trusted not in Baalim,

First. Before his fall: some copies add, "and last," (La Haye) as the Gothic manuscript used by Mariana does, agreeably to the Scripture style. (Du Hamel) --- David began and ended well. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 17:4 But in the God of his father, and walk in his commandments, and not according to the sins of Israel.

II Chronicles 17:5 And the Lord established the kingdom in his hand, and all Juda brought presents to Josaphat: and he acquired immense riches, and much glory.

Presents, as was customary, (1 Kings 10:27,) or tribute. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 17:6 And when his heart had taken courage for the ways of the Lord, he took away also the high places, and the groves, out of Juda.

When. Hebrew, "And his heart was elevated in the ways of the Lord." He was endued with courage to undertake the great work of banishing all abuses out of his dominions, seeing that the people were well affected, and the Lord urged him forward. (Haydock) --- He trusted no so much to his great army or riches, as to a good conscience, (Tirinus) which made him fear no difficulties; (1 John 3:21,) doubting not but God would grant him success, as he endeavoured to keep his laws. (Calmet) --- Groves of idols, (Menochius) though he tolerated the high places, which had been consecrated to God, 2 Paralipomenon 20:33., and 3 Kings 22:43. (Haydock) --- Good works, rewarded by God, encouraged people to proceed in virtue. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 17:7 And in the third year *of his reign, he sent of his princes Benhail, and Abdias, and Zacharias, and Nathanael, and Micheas, to teach in the cities of Juda:

Year of the World 3092, Year before Christ 912. Princes. Political, (Tirinus) to see that all paid attention to the proper teachers; (Malachias 2:7.; Calmet) and thus to partake in that good work. (Menochius) --- The princes might also give instruction by word (Calmet) and example. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 17:8 And with them the Levites, Semeias, and Nathanias, and Zabadias, and Asael, and Semiramoth, and Jonathan, and Adonias, and Tobias, and Thobadonias, Levites, and with them Elisama, and Joram, priests.

II Chronicles 17:9 And they taught the people in Juda, having with them the book of the law of the Lord: and they went about all the cities of Juda, and instructed the people.

Book. The Pentateuch, or its abridgment, the book of Deuteronomy, (Menochius) which they read and explained. (Calmet) --- People. It was not sufficient to destroy idolatry, (Menochius) unless the people were taught how to serve the true God. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 17:10 And the fear of the Lord came upon all the kingdoms of the lands that were round about Juda, and they durst not make war against Josaphat.

War. They had witnessed the fruitless attempt of Zara, 2 Paralipomenon 14:15. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 17:11 The Philistines also brought presents to Josaphat, and tribute in silver; and the Arabians brought him cattle, seven thousand seven hundred rams, and as many he-goats.

Philistines. Though they had been reduced by David, they had sometimes proved remiss in the payment of tribute. --- Arabians, who lived near the Ethiopians, and the Dead Sea, 2 Paralipomenon 21:19. They had been subdued by Solomon, (3 Kings 10:15.) and were rich in cattle, Ezechiel 27:21. The name is not so comprehensive as we generally make it. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 17:12 And Josaphat grew, and became exceedingly great: and he built in Juda houses like towers, and walled cities.

Houses. Protestants, "castles." Hebrew biraniyoth. Birah is properly a Chaldean word, and is added after susan, to imply that it was a royal castle, (Calmet) or palace. (Haydock) (Esdras 1:1.) --- Septuagint often use baris in the same sense. (Calmet) --- It became a provincial word in Palestine, for a place shut up on all sides and built like a tower. (St. Jerome ad Princep.) --- David calls the temple a palace (habbirah) for God, 1 Paralipomenon 29:1. (Calmet) --- Josaphat employed his immense riches in beautifying the country, and erecting storehouses, ver. 5. --- Walled. Protestants, "cities of store." (Haydock) See 2 Paralipomenon 15:4.
II Chronicles 17:13 And he prepared many works in the cities of Juda: and he had warriors, and valiant men, in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 17:14 Of whom this is the number by the houses, and families, of every one: in Juda captains of the army; Ednas, the chief, and with him three hundred thousand most valiant men.

Ednas was the chief of the five generals, who had under their command 1,160,000, (Calmet) besides the garrison soldiers, ver. 19. (Haydock) --- So great power and riches had not been seen in Juda since the days of Solomon. (Calmet) --- They were not all on duty at the same time, but were able to bear arms (Menochius) when called out.
II Chronicles 17:15 After him Johanan, the captain, and with him two hundred and eighty thousand.

II Chronicles 17:16 And after him was Amasias, the son of Zechri, consecrated to the Lord, and with him were two hundred thousand valiant men.

Consecrated. Hebrew, "a volunteer of the Lord," (Haydock) serving at his own expence, (Tirinus) or with remarkable zeal. (Calmet) --- Perhaps he was of the tribe of Levi, (Menochius) or had taken the vows of the Nazarites, etc.
II Chronicles 17:17 After him was Eliada, valiant in battle, and with him two hundred thousand armed with bow and shield.

After. Hebrew and Septuagint, "And of Benjamin, Eliada, a valiant man of the army." (Haydock) --- It seems all were not chosen from Juda. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 17:18 After him also was Jozabad, and with him a hundred and eighty thousand ready for war.

II Chronicles 17:19 All these were at the hand of the king, beside others, whom he had put in the walled cities, in all Juda.

King, at different times. Septuagint, "waiting upon" him, (Haydock) like the companies which David had appointed, (Calmet) but far more numerous. (Haydock) --- The dominions of Juda were now pretty extensive, and well cultivated. The population must have amounted to near six millions, for whose support recourse must have been had to commerce. Rome had once almost four million inhabitants, and Cairo is said to contain seven millions, while China has two hundred millions. (Calmet) --- We must reflect that many from the other tribes had taken refuge in the kingdom of Juda. (Tirinus) --- It would be too bold to suppose, with Kennicott, that so many numbers have been corrupted. (Haydock) (Chap. 13:3.)
II Chronicles 18:0 Josaphat accompanies Achab in his expedition against Ramoth; where Achab is slain, as Micheas had foretold.

II Chronicles 18:1 Now Josaphat was rich and very glorious, and was joined by affinity to Achab.

Affinity, taking Achab's daughter for his son's wife. (Tirinus) (Chap. 21:6., and 3 Kings xxii.)
II Chronicles 18:2 And he went down to him after some years, *to Samaria: and Achab, at his coming, killed sheep and oxen in abundance, for him and the people that came with him: and he persuaded him to go up to Ramoth-Galaad.

Year of the World 3107, Year before Christ 897.
II Chronicles 18:3 And Achab, king of Israel, said to Josaphat, king of Juda: Come with me to Ramoth-Galaad. And he answered him: Thou art as I am, and my people as thy people, and we will be with thee in the war.

War. Josaphat was too complaisant. He was rebuked by the son of Hanani, as Asa had been by his father; (chap. 16:7.) and, not long after, Eliezer reproached him for joining in alliance with Ochozias, 2 Paralipomenon 20. (Calmet) --- He acted without an ill intention, and was more easily pardoned. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 18:4 And Josaphat said to the king of Israel: Enquire, I beseech thee, at present the word of the Lord.

II Chronicles 18:5 So the king of Israel gathered together of the prophets four hundred men, and he said to them: Shall we go to Ramoth-Galaad to fight, or shall we forbear? But they said: Go up, and God will deliver it into the king's hand.

II Chronicles 18:6 And Josaphat said: Is there not here a prophet of the Lord, that we may enquire also of him?

II Chronicles 18:7 And the king of Israel said to Josaphat: There is one man, of whom we may ask the will of the Lord: but I hate him, for he never prophesieth good to me, but always evil: and it is Micheas, the son of Jemla. And Josaphat said: Speak not thus, O king.

II Chronicles 18:8 And the king of Israel called one of the eunuchs, and said to him: Call quickly Micheas, the son of Jemla.

II Chronicles 18:9 Now the king of Israel, and Josaphat, king of Juda, both sat on their thrones, clothed in royal robes, and they sat in the open court by the gate of Samaria, and all the prophets prophesied before them.

II Chronicles 18:10 And Sedecias, the son of Chanaana, made him horns of iron, and said: Thus saith the Lord: With these shalt thou push Syria, till thou destroy it.

II Chronicles 18:11 And all the prophets prophesied in like manner, and said: Go up to Ramoth-Galaad, and thou shalt prosper, and the Lord will deliver them into the king's hand.

II Chronicles 18:12 And the messenger that went to call Micheas, said to him: Behold the words of all the prophets with one mouth declare good to the king: I beseech thee, therefore, let not thy word disagree with them, and speak thou also good success.

II Chronicles 18:13 And Micheas answered him: As the Lord liveth, whatsoever my God shall say to me, that will I speak.

II Chronicles 18:14 So he came to the king: and the king said to him: Micheas, shall we go to Ramoth-Galaad to fight, or forbear? And he answered him: Go up, for all shall succeed prosperously, and the enemies shall be delivered into your hands.

Hands. He ironically (Calmet) alludes to the declarations of the false prophets. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 18:15 And the king said: I adjure thee again and again to say nothing but the truth to me, in the name of the Lord.

II Chronicles 18:16 Then he said: I saw all Israel scattered in the mountains, like sheep without a shepherd: and the Lord said: These have no masters: let every man return to his own house in peace.

II Chronicles 18:17 And the king of Israel said to Josaphat: Did I not tell thee that this man would not prophesy me any good, but evil?

II Chronicles 18:18 Then he said: Hear ye therefore the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, and all the army of heaven standing by him on the right hand and on the left.

Ye. In 3 Kings, he addresses his discourse chiefly to Achab. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 18:19 And the Lord said: Who shall deceive Achab, king of Israel, that he may go up and fall in Ramoth-Galaad? And when one spoke in this manner, and another otherwise:

II Chronicles 18:20 There came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said: I will deceive him. And the Lord said to him: By what means wilt thou deceive him?

Said. See 3 Kings xxii. The Rabbins pretend that the spirit of Naboth came forth. But it was satan, or an evil spirit. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 18:21 And he answered: I will go out, and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And the Lord said: Thou shalt deceive, and shalt prevail: go out, and do so.

So. The Lord permits evil, but he does not approve of it. (Calmet) --- Homer makes Jupiter send a deluding dream to Agamemnon. (Iliad B.) --- The delusive predictions of impostors, are one great source of calamities. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 18:22 Now, therefor,e behold the Lord hath put a spirit of lying in the mouth of all thy prophets, and the Lord hath spoken evil against thee.

II Chronicles 18:23 And Sedecias, the son of Chanaana, came, and struck Micheas on the cheek and said: Which way went the spirit of the Lord from me, to speak to thee?

II Chronicles 18:24 And Micheas said: Thou thyself shalt see in that day, when thou shalt go in from chamber to chamber, to hide thyself.

II Chronicles 18:25 And the king of Israel commanded, saying: Take Micheas, and carry him to Amon, the governor of the city, and to Joas, the son of Amelech.

Amelech. Septuagint and Syriac, "to Joas, the commander, son of the father. (Haydock) --- He had perhaps the government of affairs at Samaria, during his king." Achab's absence. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 18:26 And say: Thus saith the king: Put this fellow in prison, and give him bread, and water in a small quantity, till I return in peace.

II Chronicles 18:27 And Micheas said: If thou return in peace, the Lord hath not spoken by me. And he said: Hear, all ye people.

People. Mark what I say. The event will quickly prove whether I am a prophet or an impostor. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 18:28 So the king of Israel and Josaphat, king of Juda, went up to Ramoth-Galaad.

II Chronicles 18:29 And the king of Israel said to Josaphat: I will change my dress, and so I will go to the battle, but put thou on thy own garments. And the king of Israel having changed his dress, went to the battle.

Dress. Protestants, "disguised himself, and they went." See 3 Kings 22:30.
II Chronicles 18:30 Now the king of Syria had commanded the captains of his cavalry, saying: Fight ye not with small, or great, but with the king of Israel only.

II Chronicles 18:31 So when the captains of the cavalry saw Josaphat, they said: This is the king of Israel. And they surrounded him, to attack him: but he cried to the Lord, and he helped him, and turned them away from him.

Turned. Hebrew, "moved them from him." They felt that he was under God's protection; and discovered that he was not the king of Israel. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 18:32 For when the captains of the cavalry saw, that he was not the king of Israel, they left him.

II Chronicles 18:33 And it happened that one of the people shot an arrow at a venture, and struck the king of Israel between the neck and the shoulders, and he said to his chariot-man: Turn thy hand, and carry me out of the battle, for I am wounded.

II Chronicles 18:34 And the fight was ended that day: but the king of Israel stood in his chariot against the Syrians until the evening, and died at the sunset.

II Chronicles 19:0 Josaphat's charge to the judges and to the Levites.

II Chronicles 19:1 And* Josaphat, king of Juda, returned to his house in peace to Jerusalem.

Year of the World 3107.
II Chronicles 19:2 And Jehu, the son of Hanani, the seer, met him, and said to him: Thou helpest the ungodly, and thou art joined in friendship with them that hate the Lord, and therefore thou didst deserve indeed the wrath of the Lord:

Thou. Septuagint, "O king Josaphat, if thou helpest the sinner; or, wilt thou befriend one hated by the Lord?" Protestants, "shouldst thou....love them that hate the Lord?" (Haydock) --- The Donatists hence inferred, that it was not lawful to converse with sinners. But St. Augustine (contra ep. Par. 2:18.) replied, that Josaphat was blamed for aiding Achab in the contempt of the true prophet, and for going to battle conformably to the predictions of impostors. Both kings offended, but in a different degree. (Worthington) --- We must also keep at as great a distance as possible from the notorious enemies of God, as their conversation is dangerous. (Tirinus) --- Evil communications corrupt the best of manners. See Psalm cxxxviii., etc.
II Chronicles 19:3 But good works are found in thee, because thou hast taken away the groves out of the land of Juda, and hast prepared thy heart to seek the Lord, the God of thy fathers.

Works. Septuagint, "words." Protestants, "things." (Haydock) --- The merit of Josaphat screened him from punishment. (Tirinus) --- Prepared. Septuagint, "directed." (Menochius) --- Syriac, "disposed." Faith teaches that we can do no good of ourselves, but that we have free will to choose either good or evil.
II Chronicles 19:4 And Josaphat dwelt at Jerusalem: and he went out again to the people from Bersabee to Mount Ephraim, and brought them back to the Lord, the God of their fathers.

Ephraim. This was the northern boundary, as Dan or Emath had been under David and Solomon. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 19:5 And he set judges of the land in all the fenced cities of Juda, in every place.

II Chronicles 19:6 And charging the judges, he said: Take heed what you do: for you exercise not the judgment of man, but of the Lord: and whatsoever you judge, it shall redound to you.

And whatsoever. Hebrew, "who is with you in the judgment." The Lord will confirm your just decisions, and punish your injustice. (Haydock) --- God stood in the synagogue of gods, or judges, Psalm 81:1. Judges ought not so much to regard man as God, when they pass sentence. (Calmet) --- How then will the Anabaptists deny that a man may sit in judgment? (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 19:7 Let the fear of the Lord be with you, and do all things with diligence: for there is no iniquity with the Lord our God, *nor respect of persons, nor desire of gifts.

Deuteronomy 10:17.; Wisdom 6:8.; Ecclesiasticus 35:15.; Acts 10:24.; Romans 2:11.; Galatians 2:6.; Ephesians 6:9.; Colossians 3:25.; 1 Peter 1:17.
Gifts. The contrary is the source of so much corruption. (Haydock) --- It would be proper to inscribe this sentence on the walls of all courts of judicature, or rather on the hearts of all in office. (Tirinus) --- None but the true religion can produce such maxims. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 19:8 In Jerusalem also Josaphat appointed Levites, and priests, and chiefs of the families of Israel, to judge the judgment and the cause of the Lord for the inhabitants thereof.

And the. Hebrew, "of the Lord, and for disputes among the people among themselves, (Haydock) and they returned, (ver. 4) or dwelt at Jerusalem." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "to judge the inhabitants of," etc. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 9:1.) says, "he returned." Syriac, "And being returned....he exhorted."
II Chronicles 19:9 And he charged them, saying: Thus shall you do in the fear of the Lord faithfully, and with a perfect heart.

II Chronicles 19:10 Every cause that shall come to you of your brethren, that dwell in their cities, between kindred and kindred, wheresoever there is question concerning the law, the commandment, the ceremonies, the justifications: shew it them, that they may not sin against the Lord, and that wrath may not come upon you and your brethren: and so doing, you shall not sin.

Cities. He addressed the judges of the capital, to whom appeals might be made. (Calmet) (Menochius) --- Kindred, with respect to inheritances and matrimonial cases. Hebrew, "blood," or murder, whether casual or wilful.
II Chronicles 19:11 And Amarias, the priest, your high-priest, shall be chief in the things which regard God: and Zabadias, the son of Ismahel, who is ruler in the house of Juda, shall be over those matters which belong to the king's office: and you have before you the Levites for masters; take courage and do diligently, and the Lord will be with you in good things.

Amarias, (1 Paralipomenon 6:11.) or rather Azarias, the father of Johanan, 1 Paralipomenon 5:9. --- Office, in civil matters. (Calmet) --- Here is a plain distinction between the spiritual and temporal authority, instituted by God, Deuteronomy xvii., and Numbers xxvii. (Worthington) (Tirinus) --- Masters. Hebrew shoterim, to execute the sentence; (Du Hamel) or "officers." --- You. Protestants, "with the good." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 20:0 The Ammonites, Moabites, and Syrians combine against Josaphat; he seeketh God's help by public prayer and fasting. A prophet foretelleth that God will fight for his people: the enemies destroy one another. Josaphat, with his men, gather the spoils. He reigneth in peace; but his navy perisheth, for his society with wicked Ochozias.

II Chronicles 20:1 After *this the children of Moab, and the children of Ammon, and with them of the Ammonites, were gathered together to fight against Josaphat.

Year of the World 3108, Year before Christ 896. Of the Ammonites; people sprung from them. Those who explain the Psalm lxxxii. of this war, find many nations mentioned. Some of these, not daring to appear openly, assumed the name of Ammonites. Perhaps we should read (Calmet) Mánnim. (Haydock) --- Septuagint, "the Mineans," who dwelt in Arabia Felix, upon the Red Sea, (Pliny, [Natural History?] 6:28.) or rather the Maonians, in the environs of Gaza. (Calmet) --- Some manuscripts and Latin editions have "Idumeans," which is conformable to ver. 10, 23, and St. Jerome, Trad. (Lyranus, etc.) (Menochius)
II Chronicles 20:2 And there came messengers, and told Josaphat, saying: There cometh a great multitude against thee from beyond the sea, and out of Syria, and behold they are in Asasonthamar, which is Engaddi.

Sea of Sodom, (Haydock) or the Red Sea. (Du Hamel) --- Syria, which comprised the country of Ammon. (Menochius) --- Perhaps Edom might rather have been in the text, as we find no Syrians in this war, but many of the Idumeans. (Calmet) --- Adom and Arom, (Syria. Haydock) have often been confounded, 4 Kings 16:6. (Calmet) --- Asasonthamar, "the palm-tree cottage," (Bochart) between Jericho and the Dead Sea.
II Chronicles 20:3 And Josaphat being seized with fear, betook himself wholly to pray to the Lord, and he proclaimed a fast for all Juda.

Juda. The whole kingdom was concerned. Sometimes a fast was proclaimed for one city, 3 Kings 21:9., and Jonas 3:7. (Calmet) --- They were accustomed to fast, not only to subdue the flesh, but also for other necessities. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 20:4 And Juda gathered themselves together to pray to the Lord: and all came out of their cities to make supplication to him.

Protestants, "to ask help of." (Haydock) --- Cities. Here we have an example of a pilgrimage to a holy place, as God is more willing to hear the virtuous in one place than in another, 2 Paralipomenon 6:7., etc. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 20:5 And Josaphat stood in the midst of the assembly of Juda, and Jerusalem, in the house of the Lord before the new court.

New court of the priests. Why it is so called, does not appear. (Calmet) --- Some understand the court for the women; (Salien) others, that for Gentiles. (Le Clerc) --- Probably some of the courts had been found too spacious after the schism, and had been neglected; but now, as many had returned to serve the Lord in the dominions of Josaphat, he had made some repairs. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 20:6 And said: O Lord God of our fathers, thou art God in heaven, and rulest over all the kingdoms of nations; in thy hand is strength and power, and no one can resist thee.

II Chronicles 20:7 Didst not thou, our God, kill all the inhabitants of this land before thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham, thy friend, for ever?

All, or the greatest part. Hebrew, "drive out the inhabitants." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 20:8 And they dwelt in it, and built in it a sanctuary to thy name, saying:

II Chronicles 20:9 If evils fall upon us, the sword of judgment, or pestilence, or famine, we will stand in thy presence before this house, in which thy name is called upon: and we will cry to thee, in our afflictions, and thou wilt hear, and save us.

Sword of. Protestants, "as the sword, judgment, or," etc. Septuagint, "the sword, judgment, death, famine." All these are sent in punishment of sin. (Haydock) --- The sword of the enemy is a judgment of God. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 20:10 *Now, therefore, behold the children of Ammon, and of Moab, and Mount Seir, through whose lands thou didst not allow Israel to pass, when they came out of Egypt, but they turned aside from them, and slew them not:

Deuteronomy 2:1.
II Chronicles 20:11 They do the contrary, and endeavour to cast us out of the possession which thou hast delivered to us.

II Chronicles 20:12 O our God, wilt not thou then judge them? as for us we have not strength enough to be able to resist this multitude, which cometh violently upon us. But as we know not what to do, we can only turn our eyes to thee.

Judge and punish them, as they fight against thee? (Calmet) --- Enough. Yet we read that Josaphat had above a million soldiers; and he knew that his father had discomfited a greater army of Zara with half the forces. He thus puts us in mind that no power can stand against God's will; and he endeavours, by humility, to obtain the protection of heaven. The invading army must, however, have been very numerous, to extort these expressions from a potent king, and to have thrown his whole people into such consternation. It could hardly be less than that of Zara; and thus, in the space of a century, above two millions and a half of idolaters perished by the hand of God, without Juda losing a single man, ver. 29., and 2 Paralipomenon 13:17. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 20:13 And all Juda stood before the Lord, with their little ones, and their wives, and their children.

Children. Even the little infants were deprived of the breasts, on such emergencies, that their cries might be more affecting. (Haydock) (Joel 2:16., and Judith 4:8.) --- The pagans of Ninive even made the cattle also fast, Jonas 3:7. (Calmet) (St. Ambrose, ser. 40.) (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 20:14 And Jahaziel, the son of Zacharias, the son of Banaias, the son of Jehiel, the son of Mathanias, a Levite, of the sons of Asaph, was there, upon whom the Spirit of the Lord came in the midst of the multitude.

Spirit of prophecy. (Menochius) --- Jahaziel is known only by this event. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 20:15 And he said: Attend ye, all Juda, and you that dwell in Jerusalem, and thou king Josaphat: Thus saith the Lord to you: Fear ye not, and be not dismayed at this multitude: for the battle is not yours, but God's.

II Chronicles 20:16 To-morrow you shall go down against them: for they will come up by the ascent named Sis, and you shall find them at the head of the torrent, which is over-against the wilderness of Jeruel.

Six. Some translate "flowry ascent." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "the cliff of Ziz." (Haydock) --- If it had been Zin, we might understand the desert of stony Arabia, where Ptolemy places the town of Ziza. (Calmet) --- But we may recollect that the army was already advanced as far as Engaddi; (ver. 2,) so that it seems to have lain nearer Jerusalem. (Haydock) --- Jeruel, "the fear of God," which name was given to the place, in consequence of the panic with which God struck the enemy. (St. Jerome) (Menochius)
II Chronicles 20:17 It shall not be you that shall fight, but only stand with confidence, and you shall see the help of the Lord over you, O Juda, and Jerusalem: fear ye not, nor be you dismayed: to-morrow you shall go out against them, and the Lord will be with you.

II Chronicles 20:18 Then Josaphat, and Juda, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, fell flat on the ground before the Lord, and adored him.

II Chronicles 20:19 And the Levites of the sons of Caath, and of the sons of Core, praised the Lord, the God of Israel, with a loud voice on high.

High. Rejoicing at the promised deliverance. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 20:20 And they rose early in the morning, and went out through the desert of Thecua: and as they were marching, Josaphat standing in the midst of them, said: Hear me, ye men of Juda, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: believe in the Lord your God, and you shall be secure: believe his prophets, and all things shall succeed well.

Thecua, two mile east of Bethlehem, on the road to Jeruel. (Adrichomius) (Menochius) --- Believe. Faith is the foundation of all good works; (Hebrews xi.) but not alone sufficient, as here the people fasted and prayed, and would have fought, if God had not dispensed with them. See Josue xxiii. (Worthington) --- We may also translate Hebrew "trust."
II Chronicles 20:21 And he gave counsel to the people, and appointed the singing men of the Lord, to praise him by their companies, and to go before the army, and with one voice to say: *Give glory to the Lord, for his mercy endureth for ever.

Psalm 135:1.
Ever. This was usually sung in times of joy, 2 Paralipomenon 5:13. The army seemed thus to be returning victorious. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 20:22 And when they began to sing praises, the Lord turned their ambushments upon themselves, that is to say, of the children of Ammon, and of Moab, and of Mount Seir, who were come out to fight against Juda, and they were slain.

Ambushments, placed by the Moabites, (Menochius) and Ammonites, (Haydock) against Juda. Some detachments of Mount Seir, perhaps, coming suddenly on them, were taken for foes, and slaughtered. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 20:23 For the children of Ammon, and of Moab, rose up against the inhabitants of Mount Seir, to kill and destroy them: and when they had made an end of them, they turned also against one another, and destroyed one another.

II Chronicles 20:24 And when Juda came to the watch-tower, that looketh toward the desert, they saw afar off all the country, for a great space, full of dead bodies, and that no one was left that could escape death.

Tower. Maspha, in the tribe of Benjamin, (Calmet) or some other (Haydock) eminence. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 20:25 Then Josaphat came, and all the people with him, to take away the spoils of the dead, and they found among the dead bodies, stuff of various kinds, and garments, and most precious vessels: and they took them for themselves, insomuch that they could not carry all, nor in three days take away the spoils, the booty was so great.

Insomuch. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Three days passed, while they gathered the spoils, because it was great," (Haydock) "without weight," or estimation. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 20:26 And on the fourth day they were assembled in the valley of Blessing: for there they blessed the Lord, and therefore they called that place the valley of Blessing until this day.

Blessing. Sts. Jerome and Epiphanius place Caphar-barucha, "the field of blessing," near Hebron, on the east. Hither Abraham attended the Lord, when he was going to destroy Sodom. (Epist. Paulae.)
II Chronicles 20:27 And every man of Juda, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, returned, and Josaphat, at their head, into Jerusalem, with great joy; because the Lord had made them rejoice over their enemies.

II Chronicles 20:28 And they came into Jerusalem with psalteries, and harps, and trumpets, into the house of the Lord.

II Chronicles 20:29 And the fear of the Lord fell upon all the kingdoms of the lands, when they heard that the Lord had fought against the enemies of Israel.

Lands, in the vicinity. (Menochius) --- Israel, as he had lately treated Zara, 2 Paralipomenon 14:13. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 20:30 And the kingdom of Josaphat was quiet, and God gave him peace round about.

II Chronicles 20:31 And Josaphat reigned over Juda, *and he was five and thirty years old when he began to reign: and he reigned five and twenty years in Jerusalem: and the name of his mother was Azuba, the daughter of Selahi.

3 Kings 22:41.
II Chronicles 20:32 And he walked in the way of his father, Asa, and departed not from it, doing the things that were pleasing before the Lord.

II Chronicles 20:33 But yet he took not away the high places, and the people had not yet turned their heart to the Lord, the God of their fathers.

Places, erected in honour of God, but displeasing to him, 2 Paralipomenon 17:6. (Haydock) --- The good king perhaps attempted to take these also away, but was obliged to desist by the rebellious people. (Menochius) --- Hence we find that they are here blamed. (Haydock) --- They would not conform exactly to the law, (Leviticus 17:3.; Tirinus) and the king was not able to bring all to perfection. (Worthington) --- "It is better to pass over....vices, than to shew which we cannot subdue." (Tacitus, An. iii.)
II Chronicles 20:34 But the rest of the acts of Josaphat, first and last, are written in the words of Jehu, the son of Hanani, which he digested into the Books of the kings of Israel.

Which. Septuagint, "who wrote a book of the kings of Israel." (Haydock) --- Jehu rebuked Josaphat, 2 Paralipomenon 19. (Calmet) --- His book is not extant. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 20:35 After these things Josaphat, *king of Juda, made friendship with Ochozias, king of Israel, whose works were very wicked.

Year of the World 3108. Things: the victory over Ammon, etc. (Haydock) --- Wicked. See 2 Paralipomenon 16:3.
II Chronicles 20:36 And he was partner with him in making ships, to go to Tharsis: and they made the ships in Asiongaber.

Tharsis; probably Cilicia, (Calmet) or some part of the ocean. --- Asion-gaber was on the Red Sea; and ships would not have been built there, to trade on the Mediterranean, 2 Paralipomenon 9:21. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 20:37 And Eliezer, the son of Dodau, of Maresa, prophesied to Josaphat, saying: Because thou hast made a league with Ochozias, the Lord hath destroyed thy works, and the ships are broken, and they could not go to Tharsis.

II Chronicles 21:0 Joram's wicked reign: his punishment and death.

II Chronicles 21:1 And *Josaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with them in the city of David: and Joram, his son, reigned in his stead.

3 Kings 22:15.
Year of the World 3115, Year before Christ 889.
II Chronicles 21:2 And he had brethren, the sons of Josaphat, Azarias, and Jahiel, and Zacharias, and Azaria, and Michael, and Saphatias; all these were the sons of Josaphat, king of Juda.

Azarias. The only difference between this and the former name is, that the younger brother's (Haydock) has u at the end, (Calmet) Azrieu. Protestants and Septuagint, make no difference, which we should nevertheless expect. (Haydock) --- Juda. Hebrew, "Israel." Septuagint, Syriac, etc., agree with the Vulgate editions, though most of the ancient Latin manuscripts have Israel. Josephat ruled over the principal tribes. Yet it seems probable, from the versions, that the Hebrew formerly read Juda.
II Chronicles 21:3 And their father gave them great gifts of silver, and of gold, and pensions, with strong cities in Juda: but the kingdom he gave to Joram, because he was the eldest.

Pensions. Hebrew, "precious things." Septuagint, "arms."
II Chronicles 21:4 So Joram rose up over the kingdom of his father: and when he had established himself, he slew all his brethren with the sword, and some of the princes of Israel.

Sword. This cruel policy (Haydock) has been very common in the East. (Calmet) --- Israel. They had perhaps opposed his impious plans, animated by his brethren. God presently chastised him with the rebellion of Idumea; and though Joram gained a victory over Seir, (4 Kings 8:21.) he was not able to reduce the nation, being called off by other wars, ver. 16. His own subjects at Lobna, a Levitical city in Juda, also abandoned him. Dreadful evils were denounced in a letter from the prophet Elias, who had been translated to paradise nine years before, and at last the honours of sepulture were denied to the wicked king. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 21:5 Joram was two and thirty years old when he began to reign: and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 21:6 *And he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, as the house of Achab had done: for his wife was a daughter of Achab, and he did evil in the sight of the Lord.

4 Kings 8:16.
Achab. It is supposed by Jezabel. She might be grand-daughter of Amri, 2 Paralipomenon 22:2. The infamous Athalia is blamed for most of the evils which her husband committed.
II Chronicles 21:7 But the Lord would not destroy the house of David: because of the covenant which he had made with him: and because he had promised to give a lamp to him, and to his sons for ever.

Lamp; heir and successor. (Calmet) (Psalm 131:17.)
II Chronicles 21:8 In those days Edom revolted, *from being subject to Juda, and made themselves a king.

Genesis 27:40.
II Chronicles 21:9 And Joram went over with his princes, and all his cavalry with him, and rose in the night, and defeated the Edomites who had surrounded him, and all the captains of his cavalry.

II Chronicles 21:10 However, Edom revolted from being under the dominion of Juda unto this day: at that time Lobna also revolted from being under his hand. For he had forsaken the Lord, the God of his fathers:

Day, when the author lived. See 4 Kings 8:20.
II Chronicles 21:11 Moreover he built also high places in the cities of Juda, and he made the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit fornication, and Juda to transgress.

Fornication; idolatry. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "and compelled Juda." Septuagint, "seduced." Syriac, "dissipated Juda." (Calmet) --- He used every art of seduction and violence to introduce idolatry, to the ruin of his kingdom. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 21:12 And there was a letter brought him from Elias, the prophet, in which it was written: Thus saith the Lord, the God of David, thy father: Because thou hast not walked in the ways of Josaphat, thy father, nor in the ways of Asa, king of Juda,

Elias. Le Clerc would read Eliseus. Grotius supposes that all passed in a dream. Others think that Elias had written the letter before his removal from the conversation of men, some years before, foreseeing the impiety of Joram, and leaving the letter with Eliseus, to be delivered unto him. (Menochius) (Junius) --- But the most common opinion is, that the prophet wrote it in paradise, (Calmet) and sent it to the king by an angel, etc. (Seder. xvii.) (Bellarmine) (Tirinus) --- Elias had been taken away in the 18th year of Josaphat, who reigned 25; so he shewed this special care of Joram and his kingdom, so many years after his assumption. (Worthington) --- Thus the saints in heaven interest themselves in our defence, 2 Machabees 15:11. (Haydock) --- Prophet. Hebrew, "And there came in him a writing of," etc. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 21:13 But hast walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and hast made Juda, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to commit fornication, imitating the fornication of the house of Achab; moreover, also, thou hast killed thy brethren, the house of thy father, better men than thyself;

II Chronicles 21:14 Behold the Lord will strike thee with a great plague, with all thy people, and thy children, and thy wives, and all thy substance:

Thee is not expressed in Hebrew, but it is in the Septuagint and the king was not only afflicted with illness, but with the losses of his people and family. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 21:15 And thou shalt be sick of a very grievous disease of thy bowels, till thy vital parts come out by little and little every day.

By little. Hebrew, "by reason of the sickness, (Haydock) day by day," or in two years time, ver. 19. (Calmet) --- He was probably ill so long. (Haydock) --- Agrippa and Antiochus were treated in the same manner, (Calmet) with a diarrhoea, (Menochius) or dysentery, (Calmet) the vitals being corrupted. (Valesius 40.)
II Chronicles 21:16 And the Lord stirred up against Joram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, who border on the Ethiopians.

Philistines; who, it seems, had been obedient since the days of David. --- Ethiopians, who lay west of the Arabians, from the Red Sea to the lower Egypt and the Nile, (Calmet) bordering on Madian. There was another Ethiopia to the south of Egypt. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 21:17 And they came up into the land of Juda, and wasted it, and they carried away all the substance that was found in the king's house, his sons also, and his wives: so that there was no son left him but Joachaz, who was the youngest.

Joachaz, alias Ochozias, (Challoner) or Azarias, in Hebrew, 2 Paralipomenon 22:1., and 6. (Calmet) --- The variation of names seems to originate in the mistakes of transcribers, very frequently. If we found in some profane author, that Philip had only one son, Ander-alex, left, and that this son, Alex-ander, succeeded him, we should readily allow that the first syllables had been erroneously placed last, (Kennicott) as on this occasion aez-ieu stands for ieu-aez. Septuagint has here Ochozias; as the other versions have also Ochozias, (chap. 22:6.) instead of Azrieu, (Haydock) a name given to Ozias, king of Juda, when it belonged to the priests, as it here belongs to one of the captains, 2 Paralipomenon 23:1. Sometimes we find Aezie, 4 Kings 9:16. Strange inconsistency! (Kennicott) See 4 Kings 14:21.
II Chronicles 21:18 And besides all this, the Lord struck him with an incurable disease in his bowels.

II Chronicles 21:19 And as day came after day, and time rolled on, two whole years passed: then, after being wasted with a long consumption, so as to void his very bowels, his disease ended with his life. *And he died of a most wretched illness, and the people did not make a funeral for him according to the manner of burning, as they had done for his ancestors.

Year of the World 3119, Year before Christ 885. And. Protestants, "And it came to pass that, in process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out, by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases: And his people made no burning for him," etc., (Haydock) not that the body was usually consumed, but no aromatical spices were burned near it, (Sanctius; Tirinus) as in the funeral of Asa, 2 Paralipomenon 16:14. (Calmet) --- The point is controverted. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 21:20 He was two and thirty years old when he began his reign, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. And he walked not rightly, and they buried him in the city of David: but not in the sepulchres of the kings.

Rightly. Septuagint, "unpraised." Hebrew, "without any satisfaction;" or, "he departed unregretted," oppressed with illness, and odious to all. --- Kings. Joas, Achaz, Achab, and Manasses, were disgraced in like manner, after their death. The Hebrews then shewed their resentment, without fear. The like custom prevailed in Egypt, and kept many within bounds. No person could receive the usual honours of burial, if his accusers could maintain their charge against his character before a court of above forty people, assembled for the purpose. Calumny was severely punished. But the kings themselves were to stand their trial, while their corpse was placed in the porch of the monument, and the priest spoke their funeral oration. The people testified their approbation or discontent, "and many of the kings have been deprived of a glorious and legal burial, on account of the opposition of the multitude." (Diodorus 1:and ii.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 22:0 The reign and death of Ochozias. The tyranny of Athalia.

II Chronicles 22:1 And *the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ochozias, his youngest son, king in his place: for the rovers of the Arabians, who had broke in upon the camp, had killed all that were his elder brothers. So Ochozias, the son of Joram, king of Juda, reigned.

4 Kings 8:24.
Year of the World 3119. Arabians and Philistines, 2 Paralipomenon 21:17. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 22:2 Ochozias was forty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem, and the name of his mother was Athalia, the daughter of Amri.

Forty-two, etc. Diverse Greek Bibles read twenty-two, agreeably to 4 Kings 8:18., (Challoner) with the Syriac and Arabic. The Roman (Calmet) and Alexandrian Septuagint have "twenty." (Haydock) --- Ochozias was the youngest son, and his father died at forty years of age, 2 Paralipomenon 21:20. (Calmet) --- Others would date from the birth of Amri, (Broughton) or of Athalia. But it is most probable that we should read 22, as [in] 4 Kings. (Calmet) --- The contradiction has so much perplexed the commentators, that Walton (prol. 36) puts it among the quaedam apora; and De Dieu says, "I would rather plainly confess that this difficulty is to us inexplicable." The error here, "is plainly owing to a mistake of one of the Hebrew numeral letters," c, being put instead of m, which was formerly more similar than it is now. "In Origen's Hexapla, one of the Greek copies (probably that found in Caracalla's time) reads here cb, by rendering the number 22, eikosi kai duo, all which proofs make the mistake indubitable, and strongly recommend this method of correcting it." (Kennicott) --- Mariana, Tirinus, etc., had already suggested this plan, (Haydock) which is very plausible. (Du Hamel) --- Ochozias might reign twenty years with his father, and only one alone, 4 Kings 8:26. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 22:3 He also walked in the ways of the house of Achab: for his mother pushed him on to do wickedly.

Pushed. Hebrew and Septuagint, "was his counsellor to," etc.
II Chronicles 22:4 So he did evil in the sight of the Lord, as the house of Achab did: for they were his counsellors after the death of his father, to his destruction.

II Chronicles 22:5 And he walked after their counsels. And he went with Joram, the son of Achab, king of Israel, to fight against Hazael, king of Syria, at Ramoth-Galaad: and the Syrians wounded Joram.

II Chronicles 22:6 And he returned to be healed in Jezrahel: for he received many wounds in the foresaid battle. *And Ochozias, the son of Joram, king of Juda, went down to visit Joram, the son of Achab, in Jezrahel, where he lay sick.

Year of the World 3020. Year before Christ 884. Ochozias. So all the versions read. Hebrew, "Azarias," is probably incorrect, unless this man had three names. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 22:7 For it was the will of God against Ochozias, that he should come to Joram: and when he was come, should go out also against Jehu, the son of Namsi, whom the Lord had anointed to destroy the house of Achab.

For. Protestants, "and the destruction of Ahaziah was of God, by coming to Joram." God had decreed to punish him by the hand of Jehu, 4 Kings ix.
II Chronicles 22:8 So when Jehu was rooting out the house of Achab, he found the princes of Juda, and the sons of the brethren of Ochozias, who served him, and he slew them.

Out. Hebrew, "exercising judgment with." --- Brethren, who had been themselves slain by the rovers. Ochozias employed his nephews at court, and they expected that he would make some stay at Jezrahel.
II Chronicles 22:9 And he sought for Ochozias himself, and took him lying hid in Samaria: and when he was brought to him, he killed him, and they buried him: because he was the son of Josaphat, who had sought the Lord with all his heart. And there was no more hope that any one should reign of the race of Ochozias.

Hid in the kingdom of Samaria, (Malvenda) at Mageddo, where he was wounded; though he was perhaps put to death at Jezrahel, 4 Kings 9:27. --- Buried him, at Jerusalem. --- Reign. Hebrew, "the house of Ochozias had no one to bear the weight of the kingdom." The children of the deceased were too young, particularly as most of the princes were slain. (Calmet) --- Human hope failed, but God's providence kept David's issue on the throne, till Christ appeared. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 22:10 *For Athalia, his mother, seeing that her son was dead, rose up, and killed all the royal family of the house of Joram.

4 Kings 11:1.
All, except Joas, (ver. 11., and 4 Kings 11:1.; Calmet) ninety-five years after Solomon's death. (Mariana) (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 22:11 But Josabeth, the king's daughter, took Joas, the son of Ochozias, and stole him from among the king's sons, that were slain. And she hid him with his nurse in a bed-chamber: now Josabeth that hid him, was daughter of king Joram, wife of Joiada, the high priest, and sister of Ochozias, and therefore Athalia did not kill him.

High is not expressed in Hebrew or Septuagint, but he is supposed to have been the pontiff. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 22:12 And he was with them hid in the house of God six years, during which Athalia reigned over the land.

II Chronicles 23:0 Joiada, the high priest, causeth Joas to be made king, Athalia to be slain, and idolatry to be destroyed.

II Chronicles 23:1 And *in the seventh year, Joiada being encouraged, took the captains of hundreds, to wit, Azarias, the son of Jeroham, and Ismahel, the son of Johanan, and Azarias, the son of Obed, and Maasias, the son of Adaias, and Elisaphat, the son of Zechri: and made a covenant with them.

Year of the World 3126, Year before Christ 879.; 4 Kings xi. Seventh. Vatican Septuagint, by mistake, has "the eighth." --- Encouraged, or "strengthened." (Septuagint, etc.) (Haydock) --- Captains, whether Levites, or ancient officers of the crown, who were dissatisfied with the usurper, 4 Kings xi.
II Chronicles 23:2 And they went about Juda, and gathered together the Levites out of all the cities of Juda, and the chiefs of the families of Israel, and they came to Jerusalem.

Israel, of which Juda formed a part. (Menochius) --- At the time when the author lived, Israel was destroyed, so that there was no danger of a mistake. --- Jerusalem, on a sabbath-day, and most likely on one of the three great festivals: (Calmet) Salien (the year of the world 3157) thinks at the Passover, to avoid suspicion. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 23:3 And all the multitude made a covenant with the king, in the house of God: and Joiada said to them: Behold the king's son shall reign, as the Lord hath said of the sons of David.

II Chronicles 23:4 And this is the thing that you shall do:

Do. Though God's promise was absolute, human means were to be used. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 23:5 A third part of you that come to the sabbath, of the priests, and of the Levites, and of the porters, shall be at the gates: and a third part at the king's house: and a third at the gate that is called the Foundation: but let all the rest of the people be in the courts of the house of the Lord.

To the sabbath. That is, to perform in your weeks the functions of your office, or the weekly watches. (Challoner) --- Porters. Septuagint, "even to the entrance gates." --- House, where Athalia resided, or in the apartments of Joas in the temple. --- Foundation. Septuagint, "middle." Syriac, "of the cooks, or guards." (Haydock) --- It led from the palace up the steps, ver. 21. (Menochius) --- Perhaps it was also called Sur, 4 Kings. --- But let. This seems to be transposed out of its place from ver. 6.
II Chronicles 23:6 And let no one come into the house of the Lord, but the priests, and they that minister of the Levites: let them only come in, because they are sanctified: and let all the rest of the people keep the watches of the Lord.

II Chronicles 23:7 And let the Levites be round about the king, every man with his arms: (and if any other come into the temple, let him be slain) and let them be with the king, both coming in, and going out.

Slain. Athalia ventured to enter; but she was alone, and not much feared. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 23:8 So the Levites, and all Juda, did according to all that Joiada, the high priest, had commanded: and they took every one his men that were under him, and that came in by the course of the sabbath, with those who had fulfilled the sabbath, and were to go out. For Joiada, the high priest, permitted not the companies to depart, which were accustomed to succeed one another every week.

High. Hebrew, "the priest dismissed not the courses." (Haydock) --- In case of right and necessity, we see here what the high priest could do, though otherwise he would not interfere. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 23:9 And Joiada, the priest, gave to the captains the spears, and the shields, and targets of king David, which he had dedicated in the house of the Lord.

II Chronicles 23:10 And he set all the people with swords in their hands, from the right side of the temple to the left side of the temple, before the altar, and the temple, round about the king.

Altar of holocausts, in the court of the priests, while the people stood in their own court. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 23:11 And they brought out the king's son, and put the crown upon him, and the testimony, and gave him the law to hold in his hand, and they made him king: and Joiada, the high priest, and his sons, anointed him: and they prayed for him, and said: God save the king.

Crown. Literally, "diadem." --- Testimony. This is explained in the following sentence, (Haydock) which is not in Hebrew nor in many Latin manuscripts. The Jews understand the phylacteries, Deuteronomy 17:18.
II Chronicles 23:12 Now when Athalia heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came in to the people into the temple of the Lord.

II Chronicles 23:13 And when she saw the king standing upon the step in the entrance, and the princes, and the companies about him, and all the people of the land rejoicing, and sounding with trumpets, and playing on instruments of divers kinds, and the voice of those that praised, she rent her garments, and said: Treason, treason.

Step. Hebrew hamudo, "his pillar," to which he ascended by steps. (Du Hamel) --- Entrance into the court of the priests; but the tribune stood in that of the people, where Joas was in his royal attire.
II Chronicles 23:14 And Joiada, the high priest, going out to the captains, and the chiefs of the army, said to them: Take her forth without the precinct of the temple, and when she is without, let her be killed with the sword. For the priest commanded that she should not be killed in the house of the Lord.

II Chronicles 23:15 And they laid hold on her by the neck: and when she was come within the horse-gate of the palace, they killed her there.

II Chronicles 23:16 And Joiada made a covenant between himself and all the people, and the king, that they should be the people of the Lord.

Himself, as God's vicegerent. (Calmet) --- A double covenant was made between God and the people, and between the king and his subjects. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 23:17 And all the people went into the house of Baal, and destroyed it: and they broke down his altars and his idols: and they slew Mathan, the priest of Baal, before the altars.

Idols. Protestants, "images." (Haydock) --- Those are wilfully blind who will not distinguish these from the images of Christ and his saints. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 23:18 And Joiada appointed overseers in the house of the Lord, under the hands of the priests, and the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the Lord: to offer holocausts to the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses, with joy and singing, according to the disposition of David.

David, which had been long neglected, 1 Paralipomenon xxiv. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 23:19 He appointed also porters in the gates of the house of the Lord, that none who was unclean in any thing should enter in.

II Chronicles 23:20 And he took the captains of hundreds, and the most valiant men, and the chiefs of the people, and all the people of the land, and they brought down the king from the house of the Lord, and brought him through the upper gate into the king's house, and set him on the royal throne.

Upper gate of the guards, at the back or western end of the temple, 2 Paralipomenon 5:5.
II Chronicles 23:21 And all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city was quiet: but Athalia was slain with the sword.

II Chronicles 24:0 Joas reigneth well all the days of Joiada: afterwards falleth into idolatry, and causeth Zacharias to be slain. He is slain himself by his servants.

II Chronicles 24:1 Joas* was seven years old when he began to reign: and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Sebia, of Bersabee.

4 Kings 11:21.; 4 Kings 12:1.
II Chronicles 24:2 And he did that which was good before the Lord all the days of Joiada, the priest.

II Chronicles 24:3 And Joiada took for him two wives, by whom he had sons and daughters.

Him. Joas, as Protestants (Haydock) and most interpreters understand it, with the Syriac, etc. Joiada was too old to think of marrying again, as the Rabbins would explain the Hebrew, conformably to the Septuagint and Arabic, "himself." (Calmet) --- Joas did not probably marry two at once. (Salien, the year of the world 3766.) --- Amasias was born of Joadan, chap, 25:1. (Menochius) --- The high priest considered Joas as his son, being married to his aunt. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 24:4 After this Joas had a mind to repair the house of the Lord.

II Chronicles 24:5 *And he assembled the priests, and the Levites, and said to them: Go out to the cities of Juda, and gather of all Israel money to repair the temple of your God, from year to year: and do this with speed: but the Levites were negligent.

Year of the World 3147, Year before Christ 857. Money. The half sicle, (Exodus 30:13., and 4 Kings 12:4.; Calmet) which at first was required for the tabernacle, and afterwards for the repairs of the temple. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 24:6 And the king called Joiada, the chief, and said to him: Why hast thou not taken care to oblige the Levites to bring in out of Juda and Jerusalem, the money that was appointed by Moses, the servant of the Lord, for all the multitude of Israel to bring into the tabernacle of the testimony?

Chief "priest," (ver. 11,) where he is called the first. Hebrew, "the head priest."
II Chronicles 24:7 For that wicked woman, Athalia, and her children, have destroyed the house of God, and adorned the temple of Baal with all the things that had been dedicated in the temple of the Lord.

Children. All but Ochozias had been slain by the Arabs. The plural is often put for the singular. St. Jerome (Trad.) explains it of the priests of the idols, whom Athalia cherished as her own offspring.
II Chronicles 24:8 And the king commanded, and they made a chest: and set it by the gate of the house of the Lord, on the outside.

II Chronicles 24:9 And they made a proclamation in Juda and Jerusalem, that every man should bring to the Lord, *the money which Moses, the servant of God, appointed for all Israel, in the desert.

Exodus 30:12.
II Chronicles 24:10 And all the princes, and all the people rejoiced: and going in they contributed, and cast so much into the chest of the Lord, that it was filled.

That, etc. Hebrew, "till it was done," according to the law. (Pagnin)
II Chronicles 24:11 And when it was time to bring the chest before the king by the hands of the Levites (for they saw there was much money), the king's scribe, and he whom the high priest had appointed, went in: and they poured out the money that was in the chest: and they carried back the chest to its place: and thus they did from day to day, and there was gathered an immense sum of money.

From day. Literally, "every day," (Haydock) when the chest was replenished. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 24:12 And the king and Joiada gave it to those who were over the works of the house of the Lord: but they hired with it stone-cutters, and artificers of every kind of work, to repair the house of the Lord: and such as wrought in iron and brass, to uphold what began to be falling.

II Chronicles 24:13 And the workmen were diligent, and the breach of the walls was closed up by their hands, and they set up the house of the Lord in its former state, and made it stand firm.

II Chronicles 24:14 And when they had finished all the works, they brought the rest of the money before the king and Joiada: and with it were made vessels for the temple for the ministry, and for holocausts and bowls, and other vessels of gold and silver: and holocausts were offered in the house of the Lord continually all the days of Joiada.

And for. Hebrew, "and to offer," such as (Haydock) "mortars," Proverbs 27:22. Eali is thus translated. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "and spoons and vessels."
II Chronicles 24:15 But Joiada grew old and was full of days, and died when he was a hundred and thirty years old.

II Chronicles 24:16 And they buried him in the city of David, among the kings, because he had done good to Israel, and to his house.

Israel, particularly to those of the kingdom of Juda. (Haydock) --- His, David's, house, (Menochius) as he had restored the crown to his offspring.
II Chronicles 24:17 And after the death of Joiada, the princes of Juda went in, and worshipped the king: and he was soothed by their services, and hearkened to them.

Worshipped. Hebrew, "bowed down to the king, and he hearkened to them." (Haydock) --- The Jews say that the princes flattered him with the title of god, as he had been educated in the temple. (Estius) --- But this is improbable. (Calmet) --- They petitioned for leave to re-establish the worship of Baal, (Menochius) and paid greater honours to the king than were becoming. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 24:18 And they forsook the temple of the Lord, the God of their fathers, and served groves and idols; and wrath came upon Juda and Jerusalem for this sin.

Idols. Hebrew, "sorrows." Septuagint, "the Astartes and idols." (Calmet)
II Chronicles 24:19 And he sent prophets to them to bring them back to the Lord, and they would not give ear when they testified against them.

Them. Calling heaven and earth to witness (Calmet) the unity of God. (Haydock) --- These prophets might have been performing their sacred commission ever since the reign of Josaphat; during which time Eliseus, Micheas, Jehu, and others, lived, 2 Paralipomenon 20:14., and 18:27. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 24:20 The Spirit of God then came upon Zacharias, the son of Joiada, the priest, *and he stood in the sight of the people, and said to them: Thus saith the Lord God: Why transgress you the commandment of the Lord which will not be for your good, and have forsaken the Lord, to make him forsake you?

Year of the World 8164, Year before Christ 840. Priest, refers to Zacharias. Septuagint, "Azarias." (Haydock) --- It is not certain whether this was the person whom Jesus Christ speaks, (Matthew 23:35.; Calmet) as St. Jerome believes; (Matthew 23:35.) or our Saviour alludes to one of the minor prophets, (Tirinus) or to the father of John the Baptist. [Luke i.] (Baronius) (Haydock) --- Sight. Hebrew, "above," perhaps on the steps between the two courts. (Calmet) --- To make. Hebrew, "therefore hath he forsaken you."
II Chronicles 24:21 And they gathered themselves together against him, and stoned him at the king's commandment in the court of the house of the Lord.

II Chronicles 24:22 And king Joas did not remember the kindness that Joiada, his father, had done to him, *but killed his son. And when he died, he said: The Lord see, and require it.

Matthew 23:35.
Require it.. I commit my cause into his hands. (Menochius) --- The vengeance of the Lord was not slack. (Haydock) Raro antecedentem scelestum Deseruit pede poena claudo. (Horace)
II Chronicles 24:23 *And when a year **was come about, the army of Syria came up against him: and they came to Juda and Jerusalem, and killed all the princes of the people, and they sent all the spoils to the king to Damascus.

4 Kings 12:17.
Year of the World 3165. Damascus. Hazael had before invaded Jerusalem, 4 Kings 12:17. The Syrian army, which routed Juda, was comparatively small. (Calmet) --- The idolatrous princes now received the due punishment of their crimes, ver. 17.
II Chronicles 24:24 And whereas there came a very small number of the Syrians, the Lord delivered into their hands an infinite multitude, because they had forsaken the Lord, the God of their fathers: and on Joas they executed shameful judgments.

Shameful, is not expressed in Hebrew. But the putting a king to the torture, (ver. 25.) and upbraiding him with his ingratitude and perfidy, was a great indignity. (Haydock) --- He had probably entered into engagements with Hazael, when he prevailed on him to depart, the year before. (Calmet) --- Nabuchodonosor treated Sedecias in like manner, 4 Kings 25:6. The author of the Hebrew Trad. among the works of St. Jerome, (Haydock) asserts that the children of Joas were slain before his eyes, while the Syrians reproached him for the unjust murder of Zacharias. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 24:25 And departing, they left him in great diseases: and his servants rose up against him, for revenge of the blood of the son of Joiada, the priest, and they slew him in his bed, and he died: and they buried him in the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of the kings.

Servants. By whom the man is slain, who had murdered his spiritual father. (Worthington) --- Son. Hebrew, "sons." See ver. 7. Some think that the brothers of Zacharias were slain, that they might not attempt to revenge his death. --- Kings. These sepulchres are amazingly beautiful and spacious. The doors are six feet high, and formed, like the rest, of solid stone, cut in the most elegant manner. (Doubdan 26.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 24:26 Now the men that conspired against him were Zabad, the son of Semmaath, an Ammonitess, and Jozabad, the son of Semarith, a Moabitess.

Moabitess. Septuagint read, "the Ammonite....and Moabite." See 4 Kings 12:21. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 24:27 And concerning his sons, and the sum of money, which was gathered under him, and the repairing the house of God, they are written more diligently in the book of kings: and Amasias, his son, reigned in his stead.

And. Septuagint, "And all his sons: for five came upon him," with the rest of the conspirators. (Haydock) --- They have read differently. (Calmet) --- Sum. Hebrew, "the greatness of the burden on him," (Haydock) imposed by the Syrians, (ver. 24) or denounced by the prophets. Mossa is often taken for a prophetic menace. (Calmet) --- More. Hebrew, "in the researches." Protestants, "story of the book." Addo entitled his book Modross, 2 Paralipomenon 22:22. (Haydock) --- Only some extracts from these works have come down to us. Esdras had them before him. The abridgments have occasioned their loss, as has been the case with many other excellent works. This was the more easy, as writing was not then so common. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 25:0 Amasias's reign: he beginneth well, but endeth ill: he is overthrown by Joas, and slain by his own people.

II Chronicles 25:1 Amasias *was five and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned nine and twenty years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Joadan, of Jerusalem.

4: Deuteronomy 24:16.; 4 Kings 14:6.; Ezechiel 18:20.
Year of the World 3165, Year before Christ 839.; 4 Kings xiv.
II Chronicles 25:2 And he did what was good in the sight of the Lord: but yet not with a perfect heart.

Heart, and with perseverance.
II Chronicles 25:3 And when he saw himself strengthened in his kingdom, he put to death the servants that had slain the king, his father.

II Chronicles 25:4 But he slew not their children, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, where the Lord commanded, saying: *The fathers shall not be slain for the children, nor the children for their fathers; but every man shall die for his own sin.

II Chronicles 25:5 Amasias, therefore, gathered Juda together, and appointed them by families, and captains of thousands, and of hundreds in all Juda, and Benjamin: and he numbered them from twenty years old and upwards, and found three hundred thousand young men that could go out to battle, and could hold the spear and shield.

Families. The officers were well acquainted with their soldiers; (Calmet) and all were more interested for each other's welfare, (Du Hamel) than they are in the present system. (Calmet) --- Young. Protestants, "choice men, able to go." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 25:6 He hired also of Israel a hundred thousand valiant men, for a hundred talents of silver.

Thousand. Yet "they were so greatly reduced, but a few years before, that there were left....only fifty horsemen," etc., 4 Kings 13:7. (Kennicott) --- That might be true, at one time, when the people fled from the king's banners, through fear. But they were still in the country, and God gave Israel a saviour, 4 Kings 13:5. See 2 Paralipomenon 13:3., and 17:19. (Haydock) --- Silver. This sum was very small, for so great a multitude. Salien suspects talents of gold are meant, though the soldiers were paid in silver. But the sum was only the hire for a short time; (Menochius) and was not distributed among the soldiers, who were to live on plunder, but went into the king's coffers, (Calmet) or belonged to the officers alone. (Mariana) (Du Hamel) --- The talent of silver was worth 342l. 3s. 9d. (Arbuthnot)
II Chronicles 25:7 But a man of God came to him, and said: O king, let not the army of Israel go out with thee, for the Lord is not with Israel, and all the children of Ephraim:

II Chronicles 25:8 And if thou think that battles consist in the strength of the army, God will make thee to be overcome by the enemies: for it belongeth to God both to help, and to put to flight.

And. Hebrew, "But if thou wilt go, do; be strong; (he speaks ironically) God," etc. Septuagint, "if thou thinkest that thou art strong with these, the Lord," etc. Amasias ought to have known that no dependance was to be placed on Israel, while they despised God, 2 Paralipomenon 15:2.
II Chronicles 25:9 And Amasias said to the man of God: What will then become of the hundred talents which I have given to the soldiers of Israel? and the man of God answered him: The Lord is rich enough to be able to give thee much more than this.

What will. Syriac, etc., "What then is my crime in having given the," etc. --- To the. Hebrew or, "for the army." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 25:10 Amasias then separated the army, that came to him out of Ephraim, to go home again: but they being much enraged against Juda, returned to their own country.

II Chronicles 25:11 And Amasias, taking courage, led forth his people, and went to the vale of salt pits, and slew of the children of Seir, ten thousand.

II Chronicles 25:12 And other ten thousand men the sons of Juda took, and brought to the steep of a certain rock, and cast them down headlong from the top, and they all were broken to pieces.

Rock, afterwards called Jecteel. Some take it to be Petra, 4 Kings 14:7.
II Chronicles 25:13 But that army which Amasias had sent back, that they should not go with him to battle, spread themselves among the cities of Juda, from Samaria, to Bethhoron, and having killed three thousand, took away much spoil.

Samaria, the capital, where they had made their complaints to king Joas; and receiving no redress, began to plunder, as far as Bethhoron the lower, which Solomon had repaired, and his successors had retained, though it belonged to the territory of Ephraim, 2 Paralipomenon 13:5., and Josue 18:13. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 25:14 But Amasias, after he had slain the Edomites, set up the gods of the children of Seir, which he had brought thence, to be his gods, and adored them, and burnt incense to them.

II Chronicles 25:15 Wherefore the Lord being angry against Amasias, sent a prophet to him, to say to him: Why hast thou adored gods that have not delivered their own people out of thy hand?

II Chronicles 25:16 And when he spoke these things, he answered him: Art thou the king's counsellor? be quiet, lest I kill thee. And the prophet departing, said: I know that God is minded to kill thee, because thou hast done this evil, and moreover hast not hearkened to my counsel.

Art thou. Hebrew adds, "appointed." (Haydock) --- The very character of prophet, authorized him to give counsel even to kings. Amasias had perhaps obeyed this prophet, (ver. 7) but now his heart was puffed up with victory. --- Kill thee, sixteen years hence.
II Chronicles 25:17 Then Amasias, king of Juda, taking very bad counsel, sent to Joas, the son of Joachaz, the son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying: Come, let us see one another.

Another, and fight. He supposed Joas had connived at his subjects' invasion, (ver. 13.; Haydock. See 4 Kings 14:8.; Calmet) and he now required all Israel to submit to him. (Josephus) (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 25:18 But he sent back the messengers, saying: The thistle that is in Libanus sent to the cedar in Libanus, saying: Give thy daughter to my son to wife: and behold the beasts that were in the wood of Libanus, passed by, and trod down the thistle.

Thistle. This fable insinuated how much Joas despised the insolence of his antagonist, (Haydock) and Amasias had soon reason to repent. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 25:19 Thou hast said: I have overthrown Edom, and therefore thy heart is lifted up with pride: stay at home; why dost thou provoke evil against thee, that both thou shouldst fall and Juda with thee.

II Chronicles 25:20 Amasias would not hearken to him, because it was the Lord's will that he should be delivered into the hands of enemies, because of the gods of Edom.

It. Protestants, "it came of God, that he might deliver them into the hand of their enemies, because they sought after the gods of Edom." (Haydock) --- The king was permitted to give ear to evil counsellors. (Calmet) --- "Jupiter deprives those of understanding, whom he means to destroy." (Homer) --- The heart is hardened on account of former sins. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 25:21 So Joas, king of Israel, went up, and they presented themselves to be seen by one another: and Amasias, king of Juda, was in Bethsames of Juda:

II Chronicles 25:22 And Juda fell before Israel, and they fled to their dwellings.

II Chronicles 25:23 And Joas, king of Israel, took Amasias, king of Juda, the son of Joas, the son Joachaz, in Bethsames, and brought him to Jerusalem: and broke down the walls thereof from the gate of Ephraim, to the gate of the corner, four hundred cubits.

II Chronicles 25:24 And he took all the gold, and silver, and all the vessels, that he found in the house of God, and with Obededom, and in the treasures of the king's house: moreover also the sons of the hostages, he brought back to Samaria.

Obededom, whose descendants guarded these treasures, 1 Paralipomenon 26:15. (Calmet) --- Hostages. Protestants, "the hostages also, and returned to Samaria." (Haydock) --- Some think that the kings of Juda had before detained these men. (Estius) --- Others suppose that Joas had taken many nobles, whom he exchanged for their sons. But this is all conjecture. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 25:25 And Amasias, the son of Joas, king of Juda, lived, after the death of Joas, the son of Joachaz, king of Israel, fifteen years.

II Chronicles 25:26 Now the rest of the acts of Amasias, the first and last are written in the book of the kings of Juda and Israel.

II Chronicles 25:27 And after he revolted from the Lord, they made a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem. *And he fled into Lachis, and they sent, and killed him there.

Year of the World 3194, Year before Christ 810.
II Chronicles 25:28 And they brought him back upon horses, and buried him with his fathers in the city of David.

David. Hebrew, "of Juda," contrary to the Septuagint, Syriac, etc. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 26:0 Ozias reigneth prosperously, till he invadeth the priest's office, upon which he is struck with a leprosy.

II Chronicles 26:1 And *all the people of Juda took his son Ozias, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the room of Amasias, his father.

4 Kings 14:21.
Year of the World 3194. Ozias, called Azarias (4 Kings 14:21.; Calmet) improperly. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 26:2 He built Ailath, and restored it to the dominion of Juda, after that the king slept with his fathers.

Juda, till the reign of Achaz, 4 Kings 16:6. It had revolted under Joram. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 26:3 Ozias was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two and fifty years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Jechelia, of Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 26:4 And he did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, according to all that Amasias, his father, had done.

Done. And was successful, as long as he attended to the high priest, Numbers 27:21. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 26:5 And he sought the Lord in the days of Zacharias, that understood and saw God: and as long as he sought the Lord, he directed him in all things.

God, or who had the gift of intelligence and prophecy from God. Hebrew, "who was intelligent in the visions of God." Others have read birath, with the Septuagint, "in the fear;" or Chaldean, etc., "instructing in the fear of the Lord." The Jews childishly understand Zacharias to mean the king himself, in the early part of his reign. Others suppose the priest, who was slain by Joas, is designated. (Lyranus) --- But this was rather his son (Tirinus; Cajetan; Calmet) and successor, as well as a prophet, who had therefore a more perfect knowledge of God; though none can comprehend his being. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 26:6 Moreover, he went forth and fought against the Philistines, and broke down the wall of Geth, and the wall of Jabnia, and the wall of Azotus: and he built towns in Azotus, and among the Philistines.

In. Protestants, "about Ashdod." Septuagint, "he built (or repaired) the cities of Azotus," to keep under the Philistines, who had revolted under Joram, 2 Paralipomenon 21:16.
II Chronicles 26:7 And God helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians, that dwelt in Gurbaal, and against the Ammonites.

Gurbaal. Gerara, (St. Jerome, Trad.) or Gebal, Psalm 82:8. Septuagint, "the rock," or Petra, in Arabia, where Stephanus places the Gabalenes. --- Ammonites. Hebrew mehunim. Septuagint, "Mineans," (chap. 20:1.; Haydock) upon the Red Sea, (Stephanus) or Mediterranean, (Pliny, [Natural History?] 6:28,) or in Arabia Felix. (Strabo) (Menochius)
II Chronicles 26:8 And the Ammonites gave gifts to Ozias: and his name was spread abroad, even to the entrance of Egypt, for his frequent victories.

Gifts. Tribute, 2 Paralipomenon 27:5. (Calmet) --- Victories. Protestants, "he strengthened himself exceedingly." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 26:9 And Ozias built towers in Jerusalem over the gate of the corner, and over the gate of the valley, and the rest, in the same side of the wall, and fortified them.

Corner. Repairing what Joas had demolished, 4 Kings 14:13. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 26:10 And he built towers in the wilderness, and dug many cisterns, for he had much cattle, both in the plains and in the waste of the desert: he had also vineyards and dressers of vines in the mountains, and in Carmel: for he was a man that loved husbandry.

Wilderness, for the protection of shepherds, 4 Kings 17:9. --- Plains. Hebrew, "valleys, and in the plains husbandmen, and vinedressers in the mountains, and in Carmel; for he loved the earth, or husbandry," like David, 1 Paralipomenon 17:25., etc. --- Carmel, means, "the vine of God;" as both the mount in Juda, where Nabal resided, and that on the Mediterranean Sea, were famous for wine. Ozias probably cultivated the former mountain. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 26:11 And the army of his fighting men, that went out to war, was under the hand of Jehiel, the scribe, and Maasias, the doctor, and under the hand of Hananias, who was one of the king's captains.

Doctor. Hebrew shoter. Septuagint, "judge." Protestants, "ruler." (Haydock) --- The term is commonly understood of one who executes the sentence of the judge. But this employment does not suit a general, (Calmet) though such a one might well command. It many denote any "officer." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 26:12 And the whole number of the chiefs, by the families of valiant men, were two thousand six hundred.

II Chronicles 26:13 And the whole army under them, three hundred and seven thousand five hundred: who were fit for war, and fought for the king against the enemy.

II Chronicles 26:14 And Ozias prepared for them, that is, for the whole army, shields, and spears, and helmets, and coats of mail, and bows, and slings to cast stones.

II Chronicles 26:15 And he made in Jerusalem engines of diverse kinds, which he placed in the towers, and in the corners of the walls, to shoot arrows, and great stones: and his name went forth far abroad, for the Lord helped him, and had strengthened him.

Engines. They are here mentioned for the first time. (Calmet) --- For the. Hebrew, "for he was wonderfully helped till he was established." (Haydock) --- He invented many things for the defence of his kingdom. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 26:16 But when he was made strong, his heart was lifted up to his destruction, and he neglected the Lord, his God: and going into the temple of the Lord, he had a mind to burn incense upon the altar of incense.

II Chronicles 26:17 And immediately Azarias, the priest, going in after him, and with him fourscore priests of the Lord, most valiant men,

Azarias. The prophet, who had hitherto kept the king (Haydock) within bounds, was now no more, ver. 5. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 26:18 Withstood the king, and said: It doth not belong to thee, Ozias, to burn incense to the Lord, but to the priests, that is, to the sons of Aaron, *who are consecrated for this ministry: go out of the sanctuary, do not despise: for this thing shall not be accounted to thy glory by the Lord God.

Exodus 30:7.
To thee. For usurping spiritual authority, the king was opposed by the high priest; and God confirmed the sentence of the latter, by striking Ozias with the leprosy; on which account, he was not only cast out of the temple, but also lost his kingdom, being obliged to live apart; (Leviticus 13:46,) and after death, he could not be buried with his ancestors. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 26:19 And Ozias was angry; and holding in his hand the censer to burn incense, threatened the priests. And presently there arose a leprosy in his forehead before the priests, in the house of the Lord, at the altar of incense.

Forehead. So that it could not be concealed. According to the rigour of the law, such an offender was to be slain, Numbers 3:10., and 18:7. The leprosy was considered as equivalent, and is styled destruction, (ver. 16,) and death, Isaias 6:1. (Menochius) See 4 Kings 15:6.
II Chronicles 26:20 And Azarias, the high priest, and all the rest of the priests, looked upon him, and saw the leprosy in his forehead, and they made haste to thrust him out. Yea, himself also being frightened, hastened to go out, because he had quickly felt the stroke of the Lord.

II Chronicles 26:21 *And Ozias, the king, was a leper unto the day of his death; and he dwelt in a house apart, being full of the leprosy, for which he had been cast out of the house of the Lord. And Joatham, his son, governed the king's house, and judged the people of the land.

4 Kings 15:5.
II Chronicles 26:22 But the rest of the acts of Ozias, first and last, were written by Isaias, the son of Amos, the prophet.

Prophet. Yet we find little concerning him in the prophecy of Isaias; so that the work has been lost, except what Esdras hath preserved. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 26:23 And Ozias slept with his fathers; and they buried him in the field of the royal sepulchres, because he was a leper: and Joatham, his son, reigned in his stead.

Leper. So much was the disease abhorred, (Calmet) as well as the king's late conduct. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 27:0 Joatham's good reign.

II Chronicles 27:1 Joatham *was five and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Jerusa, the daughter of Sadoc.

4 Kings 15:33.
Year of the World 3246, Year before Christ 758.
II Chronicles 27:2 And he did that which was right before the Lord, according to all that Ozias, his father, had done, only that he entered not into the temple of the Lord, and the people still transgressed.

Lord. Like Ozias, to offer incense. He was content with the royal dignity, without arrogating to himself that of the priests. (Calmet) --- Transgressed. Hebrew, "acted corruptly," on the heights, 4 Kings 15:35. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 27:3 He built the high gate of the house of the Lord, and on the wall of Ophel he built much.

Gate, on the east, repairing (Tirinus) and beautifying it so, (Haydock) that Jeremias (xxvi. 10,) calls it New. (Tirinus) --- Ophel, on the walls of the city, (Calmet) towards the eastern porch of the temple. (Josephus) (St. Jerome in Isaias 32:14.) --- Here the Nathineans dwelt, 2 Esdras 3:26. (Calmet) --- Kimchi, etc., translate, "a citadel." (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 27:4 Moreover, he built cities in the mountains of Juda, and castles and towers in the forests.

II Chronicles 27:5 Ho fought against the king of the children of Ammon, and overcame them, and the children of Ammon gave him at that time a hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand measures of wheat, and as many measures of barley: so much did the children of Ammon give him in the second and third year.

Measures, (coros.) Hebrew corim, also, (Haydock) means an "ass;" as this burden was sufficient for one, being equivalent to 30 Roman bushels. (Cornelius a Lapide) (Menochius) --- Give him. Septuagint adds, "These things did the king of Ammon bring to him every year, in the first year, and in the second, and the third." (Haydock) --- After paying tribute three years, the Ammonites revolted, and were subdued by Joatham, as they had been by his father, 2 Paralipomenon 26:7.
II Chronicles 27:6 And Joatham was strengthened, because he had directed his ways before the Lord, his God.

II Chronicles 27:7 Now the rest of the acts of Joatham, and all his wars, and all his works, are written in the Book of the kings of Israel and Juda.

Wars, with Rasin and Phacee, 4 Kings 15:37. --- Juda. What concerned both kingdoms was carefully preserved; and Esdras informs us from what records he composed this work. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 27:8 He was five and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 27:9 And Joatham slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city of David: and Achaz, his son, reigned in his stead.

II Chronicles 28:0 The wicked and unhappy reign of Achaz.

II Chronicles 28:1 Achaz* was twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem: he did not that which was right in the sight of the Lord, as David, his father, had done.

Year of the World 3262, Year before Christ 742.; 4 Kings xvi.
II Chronicles 28:2 But walked in the ways of the kings of Israel; moreover, also, he cast statues for Baalim.

II Chronicles 28:3 It was he that burnt incense in the valley of Benennom, and consecrated his sons in the fire, according to the manner of the nations, which the Lord slew at the coming of the children of Israel.

Benennom, "the son of Ennom," 4 Kings xvi. --- Consecrated. Hebrew, "burnt." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 28:4 He sacrificed also, and burnt incense in the high places, and on the hills, and under every green tree.

Tree. Remarkable for its size and beauty; as the heathens supposed that some deity lay there concealed. (Mariana) (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 28:5 *And the Lord, his God, delivered him into the hands of the king of Syria, who defeated him, and took a great booty out of his kingdom, and carried it to Damascus: he was also delivered into the hands of the king of Israel, who overthrew him with a great slaughter.

Year of the World 3263.
Booty. Hebrew, "number of captives." (Haydock) --- The two kings had besieged Jerusalem without success: (4 Kings) but now their forces were divided. (Menochius) --- The motives of this war were unjust, (Micheas 2:8.)
II Chronicles 28:6 For Phacee, the son of Romelia, slew of Juda a hundred and twenty thousand in one day, all valiant men: because they had forsaken the Lord, the God of their fathers.

II Chronicles 28:7 At the same time, Zechri, a powerful man of Ephraim, slew Maasias, the king's son, and Ezricam, the governor of his house, and Elcana, who was next to the king.

At the same time, is not in Hebrew (Calmet) or Septuagint. (Haydock) --- Zechri, one of the generals of Phacee, slew the king's son, etc., after the engagement. --- Next. Joseph and Aman enjoyed the like dignity, Genesis 41:42., and Esther 13:3. The high priests had also seconds, 4 Kings 25:18. Septuagint, "vicar of the king." (Calmet)
II Chronicles 28:8 And the children of Israel carried away of their brethren, two hundred thousand women, boys, and girls, and an immense booty: and they brought it to Samaria.

II Chronicles 28:9 At that time there was a prophet of the Lord there, whose name was Oded: and he went out to meet the army that came to Samaria, and said to them: Behold the Lord, the God of your fathers, being angry with Juda, hath delivered them into your hands, and you have butchered them cruelly, so that your cruelty hath reached up to heaven.

Heaven, and cries for vengeance against you. Though God designed to punish his people, your cruelty will not be excused. (Haydock) --- The effect of this remonstrance, shews that all the kingdom of Israel was not devoid (Calmet) of feeling and religion. (Haydock) --- They set a noble example for Christian princes to follow after a victory. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 28:10 Moreover, you have a mind to keep under the children of Juda and Jerusalem, for your bon-dmen and bond-women, which ought not to be done: for you have sinned in this against the Lord, your God.

God, who forbids this, Leviticus 25:43., and Micheas 2:8, 9. Hebrew, "are there not with you, yea, with you, sins against?" etc. If Juda have deserved punishment, reflect if you also be not guilty, ver. 13. Septuagint, "Behold, am I not here with you to bear witness to the Lord?"
II Chronicles 28:11 But hear ye my counsel, and release the captives that you have brought of your brethren, because a great indignation of the Lord hangeth over you.

II Chronicles 28:12 Then some of the chief men of the sons of Ephraim, Azarias, the son of Johanan, Barachias, the son of Mosollamoth, Ezechias, the son of Sellum, and Amasa, the son of Adali, stood up against them that came from the war.

II Chronicles 28:13 And they said to them: You shall not bring in the captives hither, lest we sin against the Lord. Why will you add to our sins, and heap up upon our former offences? for the sin is great, and the fierce anger of the Lord hangeth over Israel.

Our, is expressed in Hebrew and Septuagint. These people justly confess that they stand in need of pardon, without adding fresh crimes. (Haydock) --- The cruel treatment of the people of Juda, and the design to make them slaves, were grievous sins. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 28:14 So the soldiers left the spoils, and all that they had taken, before the princes and all the multitude.

II Chronicles 28:15 And the men, whom we mentioned above, rose up and took the captives, and with the spoils, clothed all them that were naked: and when they had clothed and shod them, and refreshed them with meat and drink, and anointed them because of their labour, and had taken care of them: they set such of them as could not walk, and were feeble, upon beasts, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm-trees, to their brethren, and they returned to Samaria.

Above. Hebrew, "by name." They deserved to be immortalized. (Haydock) --- Anointed. This was very common, (Menochius) and refreshing. (Celsus 1:3.)
II Chronicles 28:16 At that time king Achaz sent to the king of the Assyrians, asking help.

Kings. Hebrew, "kings." But Septuagint have the singular, 4 Kings 16:7.
II Chronicles 28:17 *And the Edomites came and slew many of Juda, and took a great booty.

Year of the World 3264, Year before Christ 740. And. Septuagint, "Because the Edomites had come,...and taken many prisoners." Protestants, "for again," etc. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 28:18 The Philistines also spread themselves among the cities of the plains, and to the south of Juda: and they took Bethsames, and Aialon, and Gaderoth, and Socho, and Thamnan, and Gamzo, with their villages, and they dwelt in them.

Gamzo. Syriac, "Garam," perhaps Gaza, (Calmet) or a city south of Juda. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 28:19 For the Lord had humbled Juda, because of Achaz, the king of Juda, for he had stript it of all help, and had contemned the Lord.

Of Juda. Hebrew, "Israel." But the Septuagint have "Juda." (Haydock) --- The names are often used promiscuously. (Calmet) --- For he. Septuagint, "because he or it had apostatised from the Lord." --- Stript. Protestants, "he made Judah naked, and transgressed sore," etc. Thus were the idolatrous Israelites exposed to shame and misery, after they had adored the golden calf, Exodus 32:25. (Haydock) --- In the Bacchanalian riots, the pagans threw off their garments, to shew that they trusted entirely in their false gods. (Tirinus) --- Achaz had plunged his country in distress, (Calmet) both of soul and body, (Haydock) by his scandalous deportment. (Calmet) --- Of all help, is added by way of explanation; (Tirinus) as God would no longer rescue his rebellious people from the hands of the enemy. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 28:20 And he brought against him Thelgathphalnasar, *king of the Assyrians, who also afflicted him, and plundered him without any resistance.

4 Kings 16:10.
And. Hebrew and Septuagint, "And....the king....came against him, and smote him." Hebrew continues, "but strengthened him not" in the end; though he had been invited, (ver. 16.; Haydock) and had actually made a diversion in favour of Achaz. But not being satisfied, he afterwards returned, and made cruel havoc in the country, imposing tribute upon the king, ver. 21., 4 Kings 16:7., and 18:7. It is therefore unnecessary to correct the Hebrew, with Grotius, to make it agree with 4 Kings 16:7. Thus---he "came to his aid, and relieved him from his distress, (ver. 21,) and granted him assistance."
II Chronicles 28:21 And Achaz stripped the house of the Lord, and the house of the kings, and of the princes, and gave gifts to the king of the Assyrians; and yet it availed him nothing.

Gifts. Tribute. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "and gave it to, etc.: but he did not help him." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 28:22 Moreover, also, in the time of his distress, he increased contempt against the Lord; king Achaz himself, by himself,

Moreover. Septuagint, "but to distress him." --- Wicked policy availeth nothing, but entails much evil. (Worthington) --- King. Hebrew, "that king Achaz." The sacred writer thus stigmatizes the impious king, who grew worse the more he was scourged. (Haydock) --- This was the monster, which could not be tamed. (Amama) --- Eva. "ille," is five times used as a reproach, and often to signify applause. (Kimchi) --- By himself, is an addition. (Amama) --- It gives us to understand (Haydock) that Achaz acted thus of his own accord. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "And king Achaz said, (23) I will studiously seek the gods of Damascus, who have buffetted me," etc. (Haydock) --- This resolution he took while the arms of Rasin were formidable to him: but he put it in execution after the king of Assyria had delivered him, when he went to Damascus to return him thanks, 4 Kings 16:10. This stupid blindness and impiety irritated God so much, that he abandoned Juda to the arms of the king, who had been called in as a protector. How could he expect aid from gods who had suffered their own country and people of Damascus to fall a prey to the invader! (Calmet)
II Chronicles 28:23 Sacrificed victims to the gods of Damascus that struck him, and he said: The gods of the kings of Syria help them, and I will appease them with victims, and they will help me: whereas, on the contrary, they were the ruin of him, and of all Israel.

II Chronicles 28:24 Then Achaz having taken away all the vessels of the house of God, and broken them, shut up the doors of the temple of God, and made himself altars in all the corners of Jerusalem.

God: first through fear of the Assyrian, (4 Kings) but afterwards he permitted it to continue in the same state of irreligion. (Calmet) --- So easily do people fall into this abyss, who begin to neglect instruction! (Haydock) --- Ezechias took care to open the temple again, 2 Paralipomenon 29:3. (Calmet) --- None of the former kings had dared (Haydock) to prohibit the worship of the true God. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 28:25 And in all the cities of Juda he built altars to burn frankincense, and he provoked the Lord, the God of his fathers, to wrath.

II Chronicles 28:26 But the rest of his acts, and all his works, first and last, are written in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel.

II Chronicles 28:27 And Achaz slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city of Jerusalem: for they received him not into the sepulchres of the kings of Israel. And Ezechias, his son, reigned in his stead.

Israel is put as comprising Juda. (Haydock) (Chap. 20:34., and 24:16., etc.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 29:0 Ezechias purifieth the temple, and restoreth religion.

II Chronicles 29:1 Now *Ezechias began to reign, when he was five and twenty years old, and he reigned nine and twenty years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Abia, the daughter of Zacharias.

4 Kings 28.
Year of the World 3278, Year before Christ 726.\f Abia. The last syllable is neglected, 4 Kings 18:2. (Haydock) --- Some assert that she was a descendant of the high priest, who had been stoned. (St. Jerome, Trad.) (Chap. 24:20.) (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 29:2 And he did that which was pleasing in the sight of the Lord, according to all that David, his father, had done.

II Chronicles 29:3 In the first year and month of his reign he opened the doors of the house of the Lord, and repaired them.

Reign, in the assembly, which met to recognize his authority. (Lyranus) --- Them, adorning them with plates of gold, 4 Kings 18:16.
II Chronicles 29:4 And he brought the priests and the Levites, and assembled them in the east street.

Street, or court, before the eastern gate. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 29:5 And he said to them: Hear me, ye Levites, and be sanctified, purify the house of the Lord, the God of your fathers, and take away all filth out of the sanctuary.

Sanctuary, or temple, ver. 7. The Jews suppose that idols had been placed in the very sanctuary: (Lyranus) but why then were the doors shut? (Calmet)
II Chronicles 29:6 Our fathers have sinned, and done evil in the sight of the Lord God, forsaking him: they have turned away their faces from the tabernacle of the Lord, and turned their backs.

II Chronicles 29:7 They have shut up the doors that were in the porch, and put out the lamps, and have not burnt incense, nor offered holocausts in the sanctuary of the God of Israel.

Sanctuary, or court of the priests, where the victims were slain. The blood of some was taken into the most holy place, on the day of expiation. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 29:8 Therefore, the wrath of the Lord hath been stirred up against Juda and Jerusalem, and he hath delivered them to trouble, and to destruction, and to be hissed at, as you see with your eyes.

Trouble. Hebrew zuae, (Haydock) is rendered vexation, Isaias 28:19. Septuagint, "ecstasy." The Jews were frequently driven from their homes. (Menochius) --- There were at a loss what to do, confounded and despised. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 29:9 Behold, our fathers are fallen by the sword, our sons, and our daughters, and wives, are led away captives for this wickedness.

Wives. 2 Paralipomenon 28:8. (Calmet) --- So had the wives and family of king Joram been treated, 2 Paralipomenon 21. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 29:10 Now, therefore, I have a mind, that we make a covenant with the Lord, the God of Israel, and he will turn away the wrath of his indignation from us.

Covenant, swearing to observe the law given by Moses. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 29:11 My sons, be not negligent: the Lord hath chosen you to stand before him, and to minister to him, and to worship him, and to burn incense to him.

Negligent. Hebrew adds, "now," when every thing tends to open your eyes. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 29:12 Then the Levites arose: Mahath, the son of Amasai, and Joel, the son of Azarias, of the sons of Caath: and of the sons of Merari, Cis, the son of Abdi, and Azarias, the son of Jalaleel. And of the sons of Gerson, Joah, the son of Zemma, and Eden, the son of Joah.

II Chronicles 29:13 And of the sons of Elisaphan, Samri, and Jahiel. Also, of the sons of Asaph, Zacharias, and Mathanias.

II Chronicles 29:14 And of the sons of Heman, Jahiel, and Semei: and of the sons of Idithun, Semeias, and Oziel.

II Chronicles 29:15 And they gathered together their brethren, and sanctified themselves, and went in according to the commandment of the king, and the precept of the Lord, to purify the house of God.

II Chronicles 29:16 And the priests went into the temple of the Lord to sanctify it, and brought out all the uncleanness, that they found within, to the entrance of the house of the Lord, and the Levites took it away, and carried it out abroad, to the torrent Cedron.

Cedron, as Josias did with the idolatrous altars, 4 Kings 23:12. The priests brought what was unclean from the inner temple into the porch. (Haydock) --- This labour lasted eight days, as the cleansing of the porches had done. (Calmet) (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 29:17 And they began to cleanse on the first day of the first month, and, on the eighth day of the same month, they came into the porch of the temple of the Lord, and they purified the temple in eight days, and on the sixteenth day of the same month, they finished what they had begun.

Month, Nisan, corresponding with our March, (Menochius) when Ezechias began his reign. (Salien, the year of the world 3309.)
II Chronicles 29:18 And they went in to king Ezechias, and said to him: We have sanctified all the house of the Lord, and the altar of holocaust, and the vessels thereof, and the table of proposition, with all its vessels.

II Chronicles 29:19 And all the furniture of the temple, which king Achaz, in his reign, had defiled, after his transgression; and behold they are all set forth before the altar of the Lord.

Defiled. Hebrew, "cast out (Calmet) in his." --- Forth. Hebrew and Septuagint, "We have prepared and purified, behold they are," etc. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 29:20 And king Ezechias, rising early, assembled all the rulers of the city, and went up into the house of the Lord:

II Chronicles 29:21 And they offered together seven bullocks, and seven rams, and seven lambs, and seven he-goats, for sin, for the kingdom, for the sanctuary, for Juda: and he spoke to the priests, the sons of Aaron, to offer them upon the altar of the Lord.

Seven. Only one was prescribed for sins of ignorance, Leviticus 4:13, 22. (St. Jerome, Trad.) --- But the late transgressions were of a different nature; and the king consults his zeal, rather than what he was absolutely obliged to do. --- Juda, to expiate the sins of the royal family, of priests, and people.
II Chronicles 29:22 Therefore they killed the bullocks, and the priests took the blood, and poured it upon the altar, they killed also the rams, and their blood they poured also upon the altar, and they killed the lambs, and poured the blood upon the altar.

II Chronicles 29:23 And they brought the he-goats, for sin, before the king, and the whole multitude, and they laid their hand upon them:

They laid. The king and princes of the people confessed their sins, Leviticus 4:15.
II Chronicles 29:24 And the priests immolated them, and sprinkled their blood before the altar, for an expiation of all Israel: for the king had commanded that the holocaust and the sin-offering should be made for all Israel.

II Chronicles 29:25 And he set the Levites, in the house of the Lord, with cymbals, and psalteries, and harps, according to the regulation of David, the king, and of Gad, the seer, and of Nathan, the prophet: for it was the commandment of the Lord, by the hand of his prophets.

Prophet. Moses had not required music, except on some occasions, Numbers 10:10. But David acted by God's authority. The institution was designed to promote piety, and a love for religious meetings. Such sacred ceremonies are not to be considered as human inventions, for it was, etc. They command our utmost respect. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 29:26 And the Levites stood with the instruments of David, and the priests with trumpets.

II Chronicles 29:27 And Ezechias commanded that they should offer holocausts upon the altar: and when the holocausts were offered, they began to sing praises to the Lord, and to sound with trumpets, and divers instruments, which David, the king of Israel, had prepared.

Prepared, or ordained. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "with the instruments, by David."
II Chronicles 29:28 And all the multitude adored, and the singers, and the trumpeters, were in their office, till the holocaust was finished.

II Chronicles 29:29 And when the oblation was ended, the king, and all that were with him, bowed down, and adored.

II Chronicles 29:30 And Ezechias, and the princes, commanded the Levites to praise the Lord with the words of David, and Asaph, the seer: and they praised him with great joy, and bowing the knee, adored.

Princes of the priests. (Haydock) --- Words; psalms. (Tirinus) --- Asaph, so famous for music. He had composed some psalms, (Calmet) and twelve bear his name. (Tirinus) --- But he might only have set them to music, (Haydock) or his band sung them. (Du Hamel) --- Knee. Protestants, "head." Septuagint, "they prostrated themselves."
II Chronicles 29:31 And Ezechias added, and said: You have filled your hands to the Lord, come and offer victims, and praises in the house of the Lord. And all the multitude offered victims, and praises, and holocausts, with a devout mind.

Added. Hebrew and Septuagint, "answered," a term used in Scripture, though no question had been proposed. (Haydock) --- Filled. You are, in some sense, priests. Protestants, "you have consecrated yourselves." The people brought victims but the priests poured the blood round the altar, ver. 34. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 29:32 And the number of the holocausts which the multitude offered, was seventy bullocks, a hundred rams, and two hundred lambs.

II Chronicles 29:33 And they consecrated to the Lord six hundred oxen, and three thousand sheep.

Sheep, for peace-offerings. (Junius) (Calmet) --- They destined these victims for the use of the temple, (Tirinus) that none might be wanting afterwards. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 29:34 But the priests were few, and were not enough to slay the holocausts: wherefore the Levites, their brethren, helped them till the work was ended, and priests were sanctified, for the Levites are sanctified with an easier rite than the priests.

Holocausts, as the law required, Leviticus 1:6. See 2 Paralipomenon 35:11. The skin might be taken off other victims, by laics. --- Priests. Syriac, "The Levites were more timid, or reserved than the priests, to purify themselves." (Calmet) --- Both are indirectly accused of negligence, 2 Paralipomenon 30:15. The Hebrew seems to give the preference to the latter, "for the Levites were more upright of heart, (Septuagint, willing) to purify themselves than the priests." But the Alexandrian Septuagint may well agree with the Vulgate. The ceremonies attending the purification of both, may be seen [in] Exodus 29:1., and Numbers 8:6. (Haydock) --- The priests had not sufficient time to collect themselves with the purity required, on such a short warning; and the paucity induced the king to put off the Passover till the next month, 2 Paralipomenon 30:3, 15.
II Chronicles 29:35 So there were many holocausts, and the fat of peace-offerings, and the libations of holocausts: and the service of the house of the Lord was completed,

II Chronicles 29:36 And Ezechias, and all the people rejoiced because the ministry of the Lord was accomplished. For the resolution of doing this thing was taken suddenly.

Because. Hebrew and Septuagint, "that the Lord had disposed his people, for the thing was done suddenly," (Haydock) to place no obstacle to this sudden change from one extreme to the other, at a time when the king was scarcely established on the throne. (Calmet) --- Thus the people of England rejoiced, when the Catholic religion was re-established by the means of queen Mary and cardinal Pole. (Philips. 9.) --- But the minds of the people are very fickle. Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis. Still the joy may show, that all love for truth is "not extinct," as the Cardinal argued from the people's conduct. (Poli. ep.) (Haydock)
II Chronicles 30:0 Ezechias inviteth all Israel to celebrate the Pasch: the solemnity is kept fourteen days.

II Chronicles 30:1 And *Ezechias sent to all Israel and Juda: and he wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasses, that they should come to the house of the Lord, in Jerusalem, and keep the Phase to the Lord, the God of Israel.

Year of the World 3278.f* Manasses. The pious king thought he might give a general invitation, without umbrage. King Osee was not so impious as his predecessors, 4 Kings 17:2. Afflictions had made his people more docile. The Jews say (Calmet) that the golden calves had been taken away by the Assyrians, and that the king removed the guards, which had been placed to hinder his subjects from repairing to Jerusalem. (Menochius) (Salien, the year of the world 3305.) --- Ezechias writes privately to the house of Joseph, as the people were prouder on account of the royal dignity. (St. Jerome, Trad.)
II Chronicles 30:2 For the king taking counsel, and the princes, and all the assembly of Jerusalem, decreed to keep the Phase the second month.

Month. The Rabbins pretend that the king intercalated the second Adar, contrary to the rule and advice of the wise, and the that he ought to have allowed those who were pure to celebrate the feast in due time. (Selden, Syn. 2:1.) --- But the Caraite Jews deny this pretended leap-year; and we see that Ezechias acted according to the advice of the princes, and that the Scripture praises his conduct. (Calmet) --- Those who had a lawful impediment, were authorized to put off the feast till the second month, Numbers 9:10. The nation was under this predicament, as they had not priests at hand, (Tirinus) nor were they assembled. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 30:3 For they could not keep it in its time: because there were not priests enough sanctified; and the people was not as yet gathered together to Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 30:4 And the thing pleased the king, and all the people.

II Chronicles 30:5 And they decreed to send messengers to all Israel, from Bersabee even to Dan, that they should come, and keep the Phase to the Lord, the God of Israel, in Jerusalem: for many had not kept it as it is prescribed by the law.

Many. None had kept the Phase this year. (Haydock) --- But those of Israel had not done it for a long time. (Grotius) --- Hebrew, "for they had not long before done according to the Scripture." Septuagint, "the multitude had not done," etc. (Calmet) --- Yet, even in the worst times, Tobias, (1:6.) and other zealous souls, contrived to comply with their duty. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 30:6 And the posts went with letters by commandment of the king, and his princes, to all Israel and Juda, proclaiming according to the king's orders: Ye children of Israel, turn again to the Lord, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Israel: and he will return to the remnant of you that have escaped the hand of the king of the Assyrians.

Posts. Literally, "runners or couriers." (Haydock) --- King. Hebrew, "kings." Phul and Thelgathphalnasar. The latter had taken away some tribes, 4 Kings 15:20, 29. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 30:7 Be not like your fathers, and brethren, who departed from the Lord, the God of their fathers, and he hath given them up to destruction, as you see.

Destruction. Septuagint, "solitude." Protestants, "desolation."
II Chronicles 30:8 Harden not your necks, as your fathers did: yield yourselves to the Lord, and come to his sanctuary, which he hath sanctified for ever: serve the Lord, the God of your fathers, and the wrath of his indignation shall be turned away from you.

Yield. Literally, "give your hands," (Haydock) in sign of submission (Calmet) and fidelity. Septuagint, "give glory."
II Chronicles 30:9 For if you turn again to the Lord: your brethren, and children, shall find mercy before their masters, that have led them away captive, and they shall return into this land: for the Lord, your God, is merciful, and will not turn away his face from you, if you return to him.

Brethren. God sometimes spares one for the sake of another. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 30:10 So the posts went speedily from city to city, through the land of Ephraim, and of Manasses, even to Zabulon, whilst they laughed at them, and mocked them.

Zabulon. Aser and Nephthali lay more to the north. But they were also invited, as well as the few who might remain on the other side [of] the Jordan, 1 Paralipomenon 5:26. At least, we find that some of Aser came, ver. 11. Thus those, who had been invited last, came first, while Ephraim continued more stubborn; (ver. 18) and the greatest part derided the messengers, as we still see too frequently verified in the days of the gospel. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 30:11 Nevertheless, some men of Aser, and of Manasses, and of Zabulon, yielding to the counsel, came to Jerusalem.

Yielding. Septuagint, "were converted." Protestants, "humbled themselves, and came." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 30:12 But the hand of God was in Juda, to give them one heart to do the word of the Lord, according to the commandment of the king, and of the princes.

Hand; grace (Menochius) and power, to endure such unanimity.
II Chronicles 30:13 And much people were assembled to Jerusalem, to celebrate the solemnity of the unleavened bread in the second month.

II Chronicles 30:14 And they arose, and destroyed the altars that were in Jerusalem, and took away all things in which incense was burnt to idols, and cast them into the torrent Cedron.

Burnt, both vessels and altars. (Calmet) --- To idols, corresponds with the Septuagint, "the false ones," and is added by way of explanation, unless it be lost in Hebrew. The illegal (Haydock) altars had been set up by Achaz, 2 Paralipomenon 28:24. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 30:15 And they immolated the Phase on the fourteenth day of the second month. And the priests and the Levites being at length sanctified, offered holocausts in the house of the Lord.

At length. Septuagint, "were converted." Hebrew, "ashamed, and sanctified themselves." (Haydock) --- The ceremonies of purification for priests were longer, (chap. 29:34.) and the sacred ministers were ashamed to be outdone by the people. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 30:16 And they stood in their order, according to the disposition, and law of Moses, the man of God: but the priests received the blood which was to be poured out, from the hands of the Levites,

Levites, who received the paschal lambs from the unsanctified. (Menochius) --- The law does not require the ministry of the tribe of Levi for this purpose, as each one might kill the paschal victim at home. But the people were not sufficiently purified on this occasion. (Lyranus) --- At other times, laics killed the victims, if they were clean, Exodus 12:6. After the tabernacle was set up, the priests poured out the blood on the altar; and, in latter ages, they slew the victim according to Grotius. But the texts of Josephus ([Antiquities?] 10:5., and Jewish Wars 6:45. Lat. 7:17.; Haydock) are inconclusive; and Philo repeatedly asserts that, on one day, the law authorizes all the people to sacrifice: and, though he lived at Alexandria, his testimony respecting a fact of public notoriety, is not to be rejected. Only the unclean applied to the Levites on this occasion, and the latter had no more right to sacrifice than the rest. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 30:17 Because a great number was not sanctified: and, therefore, the Levites immolated the Phase for them that came not in time to be sanctified to the Lord.

For. Protestants, "for every one that was not clean, to sanctify them unto the Lord." Septuagint, "not able to be purified to the Lord." (Haydock) --- The priests alone continued to pour the blood on the altar, till the destruction of the temple. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 30:18 For a great part of the people from Ephraim, and Manasses, and Issachar, and Zabulon, that had not been sanctified, eat the Phase, otherwise than it is written: and Ezechias prayed for them, saying: The Lord, who is good, will shew mercy,

Ephraim and....Issachar had not been mentioned before, ver. 18. (Haydock) --- Some indulgence was shewn to the tribes of Israel, which had been so long rebellious, for fear lest they should return no more; and because they had shewn a good will in procuring the Levites to slay the victims for them, as that was rightly judged a more sacred action than to partake of the feast. The law forbade, nevertheless, the unclean to approach to any thing sacred, Leviticus 15:31., and 22:4., and Numbers 9:6. (Calmet) --- But a dispensation was granted, (Menochius) as the Passover could not be celebrated in any but the first or the second month. The people had come with such eagerness, that they had not time to acquire the purity required. (Calmet) --- They were however truly penitent, and God dispensed with them. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 30:19 To all them, who with their whole heart, seek the Lord, the God of their fathers: and will not impute it to them, that they are not sanctified.

II Chronicles 30:20 And the Lord heard him, and was merciful to the people.

Merciful; literally, "appeased." Hebrew and Septuagint, "healed." St. Jerome (Trad.) says, "It was asserted that no unclean person could taste the Phase, but death presently ensued; and they understood that the Lord was appeased, because those who eat did not die." (Haydock) --- Hebrew girpa may, however, denote that God "pardoned," or did not impute the uncleanness to the people. (Schindler, and 2 Paralipomenon 36:16., and Isaias 6:10.)
II Chronicles 30:21 And the children of Israel, that were found at Jerusalem, kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days, with great joy, praising the Lord every day: The Levites also, and the priests, with instruments, that agreed to their office.

Days. It seems all the observances had been omitted in the first month. The Jews teach, that those who have complied with those prescriptions, which require no particular purity, are not bound to keep the festival for seven days, nor to abstain from leavened bread the second month. --- That agreed. Hebrew and Septuagint, "of strength," sonorous, (Menochius) which they played on with all their force, or which sounded forth the divine power. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 30:22 And Ezechias spoke to the heart of all the Levites, that had good understanding, concerning the Lord: and they eat during the seven days of the solemnity, immolating victims of peace-offerings, and praising the Lord, the God of their fathers.

Heart; encouraged them to bear the fatigue for other seven days. --- Lord; being of good dispositions, (Calmet) and able musicians. (Sa) (Menochius) --- Praising. Protestants, "making confession to." But the sense is the same. (Haydock) --- During the seven days, unleavened bread and peace-offerings were used, ver. 24. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 30:23 And it pleased the whole multitude to keep other seven days: which they did with great joy.

Joy, though not prescribed by the law. (Menochius) --- This we should call a work of supererogation, (Worthington) which gives Protestants so much offence. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 30:24 For Ezechias, the king of Juda, had given to the multitude a thousand bullocks, and seven thousand sheep: and the princes had given the people a thousand bullocks, and ten thousand sheep: and a great number of priests was sanctified.

II Chronicles 30:25 And all the multitude of Juda, with the priests and Levites, and all the assembly, that came out of Israel: and the proselytes of the land of Israel, and that dwelt in Juda, were full of joy.

Proselytes, who had embraced the Jewish law: the rest were not allowed to partake of the paschal victims, Exodus 12:48.
II Chronicles 30:26 And there was a great solemnity in Jerusalem, such as had not been in that city since the time of Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel.

Israel: as many of the tribes came to join with their brethren of Juda.
II Chronicles 30:27 And the priests and the Levites rose up, and blessed the people: and their voice was heard: and their prayer came to the holy dwelling-place of heaven.

Levites. These only applauded the solemn blessings, which were given by the priests, Numbers 6:24. (Calmet) --- God is said to reside in heaven, because he there displays his glory to the blessed. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 31:0 Idolatry is abolished; and provisions made for the ministers.

II Chronicles 31:1 And *when these things had been duly celebrated, all Israel, that were found in the cities of Juda, went out, and they broke the idols, and cut down the groves, demolished the high places, and destroyed the altars, not only out of all Juda and Benjamin, but out of Ephraim also, and Manasses, till they had utterly destroyed them: then all the children of Israel returned to their possessions and cities.

Year of the World 3278. Manasses, whether king Osee consented, or the people of Juda followed the dictates of their zeal, neglecting the regular order of things, which forbids the subjects of one kingdom to interfere thus with those of another. (Grotius) (St. Augustine, q. in Deut. vii., and 12.) --- If Ezechias gave orders, we may suppose that he was assured of his neighbour's consent. Josias (chap. 34:6.) followed his example after most part of Israel was led away captive, and the country obeyed the king of Assyria. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 31:2 And Ezechias appointed companies of the priests, and the Levites, by their courses, every man in his own office; to wit, both of the priests, and of the Levites, for holocausts, and for peace-offerings, to minister, and to praise, and to sing in the gates of the camp of the Lord.

Praise: literally, "confess." (Haydock) --- There is a confession of God's perfections, as well as of sin. (Worthington) --- Gates, within their respective courts. (Calmet) --- The Turks style the palace of their emperor, "the sublime porte." (Haydock) --- Camp, or temple. Septuagint, "in the gates, in the courts of the house of the Lord." (Menochius) --- Grabe has not in the gates. (Haydock) --- We know that they did not sing there, but in the courts, (Calmet) or halls. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 31:3 And the king's part was, that of his proper substance the holocaust should be offered always, morning and evening, and on the sabbaths, and the new moons and the other solemnities, as it is written in the law of Moses.

Substance. Since David had place the ark in the palace of Sion, it seems the kings had furnished the solemn victims for morning and evening, on all the festivals. Solomon also engaged to do it every day; and his magnificence herein astonished the queen of Saba, 2 Paralipomenon 8:13., and 9:4., and 3 Kings 9:25. Ezechiel (xlv.) assigns revenues to the prince for this purpose; but, as the people were often without any, they paid each the third part of a sicle, to furnish the victims, 2 Esdras 10:32. (Calmet) --- The king did not wish to exempt himself from contributing, while he required that the people should support the priests. The troublesome times had greatly impaired the revenues of the temple, etc. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 31:4 He commanded also the people that dwelt in Jerusalem, to give to the priests, and the Levites, their portion, that they might attend to the law of the Lord.

Portion. Literally, "parts," (Haydock) first-fruits and tithes. (Menochius) --- Lord, without being taken off by worldly cares. It would be well if Christian princes would make an adequate provision for the ministers of religion: (ver. 16.; Tirinus) as the law of nature dictates, that those who serve the public should be supported by it. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 31:5 Which when it was noised abroad in the ears of the people, the children of Israel offered in abundance the first-fruits of corn, wine, and oil, and honey: and brought the tithe of all things which the ground bringeth forth.

Honey for the priests, not for sacrifice, Leviticus 2:11. It may include dates, or palm wine. See Pliny, [Natural History?] 13:4.) (Calmet) --- Forth; only wheat, barley, the fruits of vine, olive, pomegranate, fig, and palm-trees. (R. Solomon) (Leviticus 27:30.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 31:6 Moreover, the children of Israel and Juda, that dwelt in the cities of Juda, brought in the tithes of oxen, and sheep, and the tithes of holy things, which they had vowed to the Lord, their God: and carrying them all, made many heaps.

Things, out of which the Levites had to give tithes to the priests. (Lyranus) (Numbers 18:26.) (Menochius) --- Vowed. Hebrew, "consecrated to....God, and laid them in heaps." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 31:7 In the third month, they began to lay the foundations of the heaps; and in the seventh month, they finished them.

Them, bringing from Pentecost till the harvest was ended.
II Chronicles 31:8 And when Ezechias, and his princes, came in, they saw the heaps, and blessed the Lord, and the people of Israel.

II Chronicles 31:9 And Ezechias asked the priests, and the Levites, why the heaps lay so.

II Chronicles 31:10 Azarias, the chief priest of the race of Sadoc, answered him, saying: Since the first-fruits began to be offered in the house of the Lord, we have eaten, and have been filled, and abundance is left, because the Lord hath blessed his people: and of that which is left, is this great store which thou seest.

Sadoc, being his grandson, (1 Paralipomenon 6:12.; Calmet) or the father of Sellum. (Junius) --- People, with abundance; so that more would belong to the priests. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 31:11 Then Ezechias commanded to prepare storehouses in the house of the Lord. And when they had done so,

Storehouses. Septuagint pastophoria. Solomon had prepared such. (Tirinus) --- But they had gone to ruin, and others might be requisite. (Calmet) --- The old granaries were to be repaired. (Menochius) --- People brought their first-fruits to the temple: but the Levites gathered the tithes, and gave a share to the priests, and to those who were on duty, 2 Esdras 10:36.
II Chronicles 31:12 They brought in faithfully both the first-fruits, and the tithes, and all they had vowed. And the overseer of them was Chonenias, the Levite, and Semei, his brother, was the second,

Second; his vicar or coadjutor. (Calmet) (Chap. 26:11., and 28:7.) (Menochius)
II Chronicles 31:13 And after him, Jehiel, and Azarias, and Nahath, and Asael, and Jerimoth, and Jozabad, and Eliel, and Jesmachias, and Mahath, and Banaias, overseers under the hand of Chonenias, and Semei, his brother, by the commandment of Ezechias, the king, and Azarias, the high priest of the house of God, to whom all things appertained.

High: literally, "pontiff." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "captain." He is styled first priest, ver. 10. (Calmet) --- To whom, etc., is neither in Hebrew nor in the Septuagint. (Menochius) (Calmet) (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 31:14 But Core, the son of Jemna, the Levite, the porter of the east-gate, was overseer of the things which were freely offered to the Lord, and of the first-fruits, and the things dedicated for the holy of holies.

And of. Protestants, "To distribute the oblations of the Lord, and the most holy things," (Haydock) to the priests.
II Chronicles 31:15 And under his charge were Eden, and Benjamin, Jesue, and Semeias, and Amarias, and Sechenias, in the cities of the priests, to distribute faithfully portions to their brethren, both little and great:

II Chronicles 31:16 Besides the males, from three years old and upward, to all that went into the temple of the Lord, and whatsoever there was need of in the ministry, and their offices according to their courses, day by day,

Besides, (exceptis.; Calmet) not to mention. (Haydock) See Leviticus 23:38. Girls are included, ver. 18. It is supposed (Calmet) that children were at the breast till they were three years old, and therefore no portion is assigned them before. (Mariana)
II Chronicles 31:17 To the priests, by their families, and to the Levites, from the twentieth year and upward, by their classes and companies,

Upward. Ezechias followed the regulation of David, rather than that of Moses, who deferred the service till the 25th or 30th year, Numbers 4:3., and 8:24., and 1 Paralipomenon 23:24.
II Chronicles 31:18 And to all the multitude, both to their wives, and to their children of both sexes, victuals were given faithfully out of the things that had been sanctified.

To all. Protestants, "the genealogy of all their little ones, their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, through all the congregation: for in their set office they sanctified themselves in holiness." (Haydock) --- All complied with their respective duties; the people, the distributors, and the priests. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 31:19 Also of the sons of Aaron who were in the fields, and in the suburbs of each city, there were men appointed, to distribute portions to all the males, among the priests and the Levites.

Aaron. Hebrew and Septuagint add, "the priests," (Menochius) which is sufficiently understood. --- And in. Hebrew, "of." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 31:20 So Ezechias did all things which we have said in all Juda: and wrought that which was good, and right, and truth, before the Lord, his God,

God. This is the highest praise that can be given to a prince; and, in effect, we read there was none like him, 4 Kings 18:5. (Calmet) --- Septuagint omit and truth. Ezechias loved it, and sincerely desired to serve the Lord. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 31:21 In all the service of the ministry of the house of the Lord, according to the law and the ceremonies, desiring to seek his God with all his heart; and he did it, and prospered.

II Chronicles 32:0 Sennacherib invadeth Juda: his army is destroyed by an angel. Ezechias recovereth from his sickness: his other acts.

II Chronicles 32:1 After *these things, and this truth, Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, came and entered into Juda, and besieged the fenced cities, desiring to take them.

21: Tobias 1:21.
Year of the World 3291, Year before Christ 713.; 4 Kings 18:13.; Ecclesiasticus 48:20.; Isaias xxxvi. Truth, and sincere piety of the king, God was pleased to put him to trial; (Tirinus; Menochius; Du Hamel) or, "after these things were established." (Junius) --- Sennacherib attacked Juda when Ezechias had been fifteen years on the throne, and till that time had paid the stipulated tribute, 4 Kings 18:13. (Calmet) --- He now probably refused to pay it any longer. (Salien, the year of the world 3319.) (Menochius)
II Chronicles 32:2 And when Ezechias saw that Sennacherib was come, and that the whole force of the war was turning against Jerusalem,

Jerusalem; as many cities had fallen. The king entered into an agreement with the Assyrian, who soon broke it.
II Chronicles 32:3 He took counsel with the princes, and the most valiant men, to stop up the heads of the springs, that were without the city: and as they were all of this mind,

City. The torrent Cedron afforded the only good supply of water. It was often dry, and was only three steps across, when full of melted snow or rain. The waters of Siloe and Gihon were collected in it. Yet it was no very difficult enterprise for the king to turn the stream, and introduce the waters through the rock into a large reservoir, in the city, by the canal, which is mentioned [in] 2 Esdras 2:14., and Ecclesiasticus 48:19. The besieged were more frequently deprived of water, Judith 7:6. Babylon was taken by Semiramis, Cyrus, and Alexander, after they had turned aside the waters of the Euphrates; and Caesar obliged the town of Cahors to surrender, by intercepting the springs. (Frontin. 3:7.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 32:4 He gathered together a very great multitude, and they stopped up all the springs, and the brook, that ran through the midst of the land, saying: Lest the kings of the Assyrians should come, and find abundance of water.

Land, Cedron, on the east; (Calmet; Menochius) or it may be the Gihon, which supplies Siloe, ver. 30. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 32:5 He built up, also, with great diligence, all the wall that had been broken down, and built towers upon it, and another wall without: and he repaired Mello, in the city of David, and made all sorts of arms and shields:

Without, of less strength. --- Mello, the palace, which was strongly situated, and Ezechias added fresh fortifications, 2 Kings 5:9. --- Arms. Hebrew, "darts."
II Chronicles 32:6 And he appointed captains of the soldiers of the army: and he called them all together in the street of the gate of the city, and spoke to their heart, saying:

Gate, where there was a room for assemblies, 2 Kings 18:24. (Calmet) --- Heart, in the most affectionate and pathetic manner. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 32:7 Behave like men, and take courage: be not afraid, nor dismayed for the king of the Assyrians, nor for all the multitude that is with him: for there are many more with us than with him.

More: God and his angels, from whom he expected relief, and was not disappointed, 4 Kings 6:16., and 19:35. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 32:8 For with him is an arm of flesh: with us the Lord, our God, who is our helper, and fighteth for us. And the people were encouraged with these words of Ezechias, king of Juda.

II Chronicles 32:9 After this, Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, sent his servants to Jerusalem (for he, with all his army, was besieging Lachis,) to Ezechias, king of Juda, and to all the people that were in the city, saying:

Lachis, whence he sent Rabsaces. Other blasphemous letters were dispatched from Lobna, (ver. 17) when Sennacherib was forced to go to meet Tharaca, 4 Kings 19:9.
II Chronicles 32:10 Thus saith Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians: In whom do you trust, that you sit still besieged in Jerusalem?

II Chronicles 32:11 Doth not Ezechias deceive you, to give you up to die, by hunger and thirst, affirming, that the Lord, your God, shall deliver you from the hand of the king of the Assyrians?

II Chronicles 32:12 Is it not this same Ezechias, that hath destroyed his high places, and his altars, and commanded Juda and Jerusalem, saying: You shall worship before one altar, and upon it you shall burn incense?

His altars. Rabsaces was ignorant of the law, and upbraids the king for a commendable action. (Calmet) --- Thus our adversaries foolishly blame us for keeping holy days and abstinence. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 32:13 Know you not what I and my fathers have done to all the people of the lands? have the gods of any nations and lands been able to deliver their country out of my hand?

II Chronicles 32:14 Who is there among all the gods of the nations, which my fathers have destroyed, that could deliver his people out of my hand, that your God should be able to deliver you out of this hand?

II Chronicles 32:15 Therefore let not Ezechias deceive you, nor delude you with a vain persuasion, and do not believe him. For if no god of all the nations and kingdoms, could deliver his people out of my hand, and out of the hand of my fathers, consequently neither shall your God be able to deliver you out of my hand.

II Chronicles 32:16 And many other things did his servants speak against the Lord God, and against Ezechias. his servant.

II Chronicles 32:17 He wrote also letters full of blasphemy against the Lord, the God of Israel, and he spoke against him: As the gods of other nations could not deliver their people out of my hand, so neither can the God of Ezechias deliver his people out of this hand.

He (Sennacherib) wrote, when he was going towards Egypt. Both master and servant employed the same fallacious argument; as if the true God and idols were all upon a level, and as if past success were a sure proof of future victories, ver. 19. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 32:18 Moreover, he cried out with a loud voice, in the Jews' tongue, to the people that sat on the walls of Jerusalem, that he might frighten them, and take the city.

II Chronicles 32:19 And he spoke against the God of Jerusalem, as against the gods of the people of the earth, the works of the hands of men.

II Chronicles 32:20 And Ezechias, the king, and Isaias, the prophet, the son of Amos, prayed against this blasphemy, and cried out to heaven.

II Chronicles 32:21 *And the Lord sent an angel, who cut off all the stout men and the warriors, and the captains of the army of the king of the Assyrians: and he returned with disgrace into his own country. And when he was come into the house of his god, his sons that came out of his bowels, slew him with the sword.

Army. Hebrew, "camp." --- Disgrace. The Jews pretend that he was deprived of his beard and hair, (St. Jerome, Trad.) misapplying the text of Isaias 7:20. (Calmet) --- Sword, to prevent their being offered as victims, to appease the idol and the people. (R. Solomon) (Lyranus) --- This happened some months after the king's return to Ninive, when he had cruelly oppressed the captive Jews and Tobias, 1:24. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 32:22 And the Lord saved Ezechias, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, out of the hand of Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, and out of the hand of all, and gave them rest on every side.

II Chronicles 32:23 Many, also, brought victims, and sacrifices to the Lord, to Jerusalem, and presents to Ezechias, king of Juda: and he was magnified thenceforth in the sight of all nations.

Many; probably strangers, 3 Kings 8:41.
II Chronicles 32:24 *In those days Ezechias was sick, even to death, and he prayed to the Lord: and he heard him, and gave him a sign.

4 Kings 20:1.; Isaias 38:1.;
Year of the World 3291, Year before Christ 713. Sign. See 4 Kings xx.
II Chronicles 32:25 But he did not render again according to the benefits which he had received, for his heart was lifted up: and wrath was enkindled against him, and against Juda and Jerusalem.

Up, by riches, and the splendid embassy from Babylon. (Calmet) --- Prosperity is more dangerous than adversity. (Worthington) --- Few are able to bear good fortune with moderation. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 32:26 And he humbled himself afterwards, because his heart had been lifted up, both he and the inhabitants of Jerusalem: and, therefore, the wrath of the Lord came not upon them in the days of Ezechias.

II Chronicles 32:27 And Ezechias was rich, and very glorious, and he gathered himself great treasures of silver, and of gold, and of precious stones, of spices, and of arms of all kinds, and of vessels of great price.

Arms. Hebrew, "shields." Septuagint, "arsenals."
II Chronicles 32:28 Storehouses also, of corn, of wine, and of oil, and stalls for all beasts, and folds for cattle.

II Chronicles 32:29 And he built himself cities: for he had flocks of sheep, and herds without number; for the Lord had given him very much substance.

II Chronicles 32:30 This same Ezechias was he that stopped the upper source of the waters of Gihon, and turned them away underneath toward the west of the city of David: in all his works he did prosperously what he would.

Underneath the walls of the city, making them run westward, 2 Paralipomenon 33:14.
II Chronicles 32:31 But yet in the embassy of the princes of Babylon, that were sent to him, to enquire of the wonder that had happened upon the earth, God left him that he might be tempted, and all things might be made known that were in his heart.

Wonder, at the defeat of Sennacherib; (Grotius; Du Hamel) or rather the retrogradation of the sun, as the Chaldeans studied astronomy with diligence. (Menochius) (Tirinus) (Calmet) --- Left him, in punishment of his vanity. (Haydock) --- Heart. How feeble is man when destitute of the divine assistance! (Menochius) --- God permitted, therefore, the king to be tempted, (Calmet) that he might know himself, and that others might have a true idea of him. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 32:32 Now the rest of the acts of Ezechias, and of his mercies, are written in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel.

II Chronicles 32:33 And Ezechias slept with his fathers, *and they buried him above the sepulchres of the sons of David: and all Juda, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, celebrated his funeral: and Manasses, his son, reigned in his stead.

Year of the World 3306, Year before Christ 698. Above, for distinction's sake: (Calmet) meriti praerogativa. (St. Jerome, Trad.) (Menochius) --- The cell was either higher than the rest, or a sort of pyramid was erected over the tomb of Ezechias. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 33:0 Manasses, for his manifold wickedness, is led captive to Babylon: he repenteth, and is restored to his kingdom, and destroyeth idolatry: his successor, Amon, is slain by his servants.

II Chronicles 33:1 Manasses *was twelve years old when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem.

4: 2 Kings 7:7.
Year of the World 3306.; 4 Kings xxi.
II Chronicles 33:2 And he did evil before the Lord, according to all the abominations of the nations, which the Lord cast out before the children of Israel:

II Chronicles 33:3 And he turned, and built again the high places which Ezechias, his father, had destroyed: and he built altars to Baalim, and made groves, and he adored all the host of heaven, and worshipped them.

The host of heaven. The sun, moon, and stars, (Challoner) in imitation of the Phoenicians and ancient Chanaanites.
II Chronicles 33:4 He built, also, altars in the house of the Lord, whereof the Lord had said: *In Jerusalem shall my name be for ever.

II Chronicles 33:5 And he built them for all the host of heaven, in the two courts of the house of the Lord.

Courts of the Gentiles and of Israel, (Menochius) though afterwards he also placed idols even in the court of the priests, ver. 7. (Salien, the year of the world 3340.) --- But we find no express mention of the court of the Gentiles, till after the captivity; (Calmet) so that the two courts mean those of the priests and of Israel. (Villalpand; Sa, etc.)
II Chronicles 33:6 And he made his sons to pass through the fire, in the valley of Benennom: he observed dreams, followed divinations, gave himself up to magic arts, had with him magicians, and enchanters: and he wrought many evils before the Lord, to provoke him to anger.

Valley. Hebrew Ge-ben-hinnom, "the vale of the son of Ennom," (Haydock) a Jebusite, who had formerly possessed that part of the valley of Cedron. (Menochius) Syriac write Gena, whence comes geenna a place at the foot of Moria, and the sink of the city. A constant fire was kept up to burn dead bodies. (Kimchi) (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 33:7 *He set also a graven, and a molten statue in the house of God, of which God had said to David, and to Solomon, his son: In this house, and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, will I put my name for ever.

3 Kings 8:17.
Graven. Protestants, "a carved image (the idol which he had made) in," etc. It seems to have been sacred to the grove, (Haydock) or a representation of Astarte, 4 Kings 21:7. The ark was taken away, (chap. 25:3.) to make place for this impure deity, which had four (St. Basil) or five faces, (Eusebius; Salien) that people might adore it on all sides.
II Chronicles 33:8 And I will not make the foot of Israel to be removed out of the land which I have delivered to their fathers: yet so if they will take heed to do what I have commanded them, and all the law, and the ceremonies, and judgments, by the hand of Moses.

II Chronicles 33:9 So Manasses seduced Juda, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to do evil beyond all the nations, which the Lord had destroyed before the face of the children of Israel.

Seduced. Using the arts of seduction, as well as open force. Hebrew, "Manasses made Juda....err," 4 Kings 21:16. There is a fund of malice in the human heart, which easily prevails on people to yield, on such occasions, if the grace of God do not support them. Yet, as they are not still without a sense of duty and religion, many will readily comply with the invitations of a pious king, when he earnestly endeavours to reform his people. But these conversions too frequently prove false and unstable, 2 Paralipomenon 29:36. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 33:10 And the Lord spoke to him, and to his people, and they would not hearken.

Spoke, by his prophets, 4 Kings.
II Chronicles 33:11 Therefore, he brought upon them the captains of the army of the king of the Assyrians: and they took Manasses, and carried him, bound with chains and fetters, to Babylon.

Captains; probably Tharthan. ([Salien?], the year of the world 3328.) About five years before, Asarhaddon had made himself master of Babylon, to which place the captive king was brought, in the 22d year of his reign, 4 Kings 20:10., etc., and Isaias xxii.) --- And carried. Hebrew, "among the thorns, and bound him with fetters (Protestants) of brass; (Junius; etc.) or, "they took Manasses with a hook," insidiously. He might have retired to some desert place, as the Israelites did, to avoid the fury of the Philistines, 1 Kings 13:6. (Calmet) --- Chains. Vatable says, "two." (Menochius)
II Chronicles 33:12 And after that he was in distress, he prayed to the Lord, his God: and did penance exceedingly before the God of his fathers.

Distress. "When he had been conducted to Babylon, and cast into a brazen vessel full of holes, over a fire, he called upon all the names of the idols, which he was accustomed to adore; and, as he was not heard, nor set free by them, he recollected what he had often heard repeated by his father: When thou shalt call upon me in tribulation, and shalt be converted, I will hear thee graciously; as it is written in Deuteronomy, (see 2 Paralipomenon 4:29.; Haydock) and his prayer was thus heard by the Lord, and he was delivered and brought back to his kingdom, like Habacuc." (St. Jerome, Trad.) --- The author of the imperfect work on St. Matthew, (among the works of St. Chrysostom, hom. 1.; Haydock) says, that Manasses was barely allowed as much barley bread, and water mixed with vinegar, as would keep him alive. Whereupon, remembering the Lord, he had recourse to his clemency, and a miraculous flame surrounded him, and dissolving his chains, set him at liberty. Saos-duchin, the successor of Azarhaddon, probably restored him to his throne, some years after his captivity, or perhaps that very year, so that his repentance continued thirty-three years. (Calmet) --- Prayed, a proof of the efficacy of sincere repentance. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 33:13 And he entreated him, and besought him earnestly: and he heard his prayer, and brought him again to Jerusalem, into his kingdom; and Manasses knew that the Lord was God.

II Chronicles 33:14 After this he built a wall without the city of David, on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, from the entering in of the fish-gate round about to Ophel, and raised it up to a great height: and he appointed captains of the army in all the fenced cities of Juda:

Without, including what is styled the second city; (4 Kings 22:14,) or he perfected the works begun by his father, or repaired the wall which the Assyrians had thrown down, though we read not of their taking the city. (Calmet) --- Fish-gate....to Ophel, from the north-eastern corner, to the place opposite to the eastern gate of the temple, 2 Paralipomenon 27:3. (Menochius) --- The fish-gate led towards Joppe, whence the city was supplied with fish. (St. Jerome, Trad.) --- It was also called David's gate, because it stood near his city. By it, the Chaldeans afterwards rushed in, Sophonias 1:10. (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 33:15 And he took away the strange gods, and the idol, out of the house of the Lord: the altars also, which he had made in the mount of the house of the Lord, and in Jerusalem, and he cast them all out of the city.

II Chronicles 33:16 And he repaired the altar of the Lord, and sacrificed upon it victims, and peace-offerings, and praise: and he commanded Juda to serve the Lord, the God of Israel.

And praise. Protestants, "thanks-offerings." Septuagint, "a victim of salvation and praise." (Haydock) --- The sacrifice might be accompanied with canticles, Psalm 26:6., etc. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 33:17 Nevertheless, the people still sacrificed in the high places to the Lord, their God.

God. Hebrew adds, "only," and not to idols. (Haydock) --- This worship was not superstitious, but it was illegal; and it is a misfortune, that Manasses had not as much influence to guide the people in virtue, as he had formerly, to induce them to follow his example in idolatry. (Calmet) --- He could not prevail upon them to destroy the high places. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 33:18 But the rest of the acts of Manasses, and his prayer to his God: and the words of the seers, that spoke to him in the name of the Lord, the God of Israel, are contained in the words of the kings of Israel.

Prayer, which is not extant in Hebrew, but in Greek and Latin. As yet it is neither received for canonical, nor rejected by the Church. (Worthington) --- Israel. That kingdom had been overturned in the sixth year of Ezechias. There was now no need of distinguishing the kings of Juda from those of Israel. The former seemed to have claimed authority over the whole country, 4 Kings 23:19. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 33:19 His prayer also, and his being heard, and all his sins, and contempt, and places wherein he built high places, and set up groves, and statues, before he did penance, are written in the words of Hozai.

Contempt. Hebrew, "prevarication." Septuagint, "apostacy." (Menochius) --- Chozai means "seers." (Septuagint) (Protestants) (Haydock) --- But it more probably signifies some particular prophet, (Calmet) Isaias, (St. Jerome, Trad.) "Hanan," (Syriac) or "Saphan." (Arabic version) (Calmet) --- This work, less than the book of the kings of Israel, is now lost. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 33:20 And Manasses slept *with his fathers, and they buried him in his house: and his son, Amon, reigned in his stead.

Year of the World 3361, Year before Christ 643. House, in his own gardens, and not with the other kings. (Grotius) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 33:21 Amon was two and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 33:22 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, as Manasses, his father, had done: and he sacrificed to all the idols which Manasses, his father, had made, and served them.

Made, though he had afterwards destroyed them. Amon endeavoured to restore their worship, (Calmet) adoring the same idols, and making other statues in their honour. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 33:23 And he did not humble himself before the Lord, as Manasses, his father, had humbled himself, but committed far greater sins.

Sins, inasmuch as he died in his guilt. Protestants, "but Amon trespassed more and more," (Haydock) following the former bad example of Manasses, Jeremias xv. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 33:24 And his servants conspired against him, and slew him in his own house.

II Chronicles 33:25 But the rest of the multitude of the people slew them that had killed Amon, and made Josias, his son, king in his stead.

Them. Hebrew, "all that had conspired against king Amon." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 34:0 Josias destroyeth idolatry, repaireth the temple, and reneweth the covenant between God and the people.

II Chronicles 34:1 Josias* was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned one and thirty years in Jerusalem.

4 Kings 22:1.;
Year of the World 3363, Year before Christ 641.
II Chronicles 34:2 And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in the ways of David, his father: he declined not either to the right hand, or to the left.

II Chronicles 34:3 And in the eighth year of his reign, when he was yet a boy, he began to seek the God of his father, David: and in the twelfth year after he began to reign, he cleansed Juda and Jerusalem from the high places, and the groves, and the idols, and the graven things.

Boy; 16 years old. (Du Hamel) --- The kings of Juda were in their minority, till they had completed their 13th year. (Grotius) --- Cleansed. Hebrew and Septuagint, "in the twelfth year he began to purify," etc. (Haydock) --- The work was not brought to perfection till six years afterwards, ver. 8. (Calmet) (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 34:4 And they broke down before him the altars of Baalim, and demolished the idols that had been set upon them: and he cut down the groves and the graven things, and broke them in pieces: and strewed the fragments upon the graves of them that had sacrificed to them.

Idols. Hebrew chammanim, (Haydock) "statues of the sun." The term often denotes those open enclosures, where sacred fire was kept in honour of the sun. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the heights above them." Syriac, "he destroyed the altars, idols, tigers, and temples, (5) the bracelets, little bells, and all the trees which had been consecrated to idols." Arabic, "the altars, idols, and leopards."
II Chronicles 34:5 And he burnt the bones of the priests on the altars of the idols, and he cleansed Juda and Jerusalem.

Priests, whom he slew upon the altars, 4 Kings xxiii.
II Chronicles 34:6 And in the cities of Manasses, and of Ephraim, and of Simeon, even to Nephthali, he demolished all.

He. Hebrew, "with their swords, (Calmet; Protestants, mattocks) round about;" (Haydock) or, "and in their deserts," the inhabitants being removed. Septuagint, "in their places around." Syriac and Arabic, "in their public places." All the interpreters have read differently from what we find in Hebrew at present. Some may wonder that Josias should act thus, out of his own dominions. But the few Israelites who were left, had placed themselves under his protection; and as he made no ravages, and the Cuthites did not adopt the former superstitious practices of the country, they were not concerned to see the altars destroyed; nor were the kings of Assyria informed of, or interested to stop, these proceedings. (Calmet) --- Josias followed the directions of the priests and prophets; (Menochius) and many believe that the Assyrian monarch had given these territories to him, to hold, as his vassal; (Tirinus) or God restored them to the lawful king, (ver. 9) having promised all those countries to the family of David, for the express purpose of keeping up his own worship among his chosen people, and for exterminating idolatry. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 34:7 And when he had destroyed the altars, and the groves, and had broken the idols in pieces, and had demolished all profane temples throughout all the land of Israel, he returned to Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 34:8 Now, in the eighteenth year *of his reign, when he had cleansed the land, and the temple of the Lord, he sent Saphan, the son of Eselias, and Maasias, the governor of the city, and Joha, the son of Joachaz, the recorder, to repair the house of the Lord, his God.

Year of the World 3380, Year before Christ 624. Eselias, or Assia. This man is alone mentioned, 4 Kings 22:3. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 34:9 And they came to Helcias, the high priest: and received of him the money which had been brought into the house of the Lord, and which the Levites and porters had gathered together from Manasses, and Ephraim, and all the remnant of Israel, and from all Juda, and Benjamin, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 34:10 Which they delivered into the hands of them that were over the workmen in the house of the Lord, to repair the temple, and mend all that was weak.

II Chronicles 34:11 But they gave it to the artificers, and to the masons, to buy stones out of the quarries, and timber for the couplings of the building, and to rafter the houses, which the kings of Juda had destroyed.

Houses, or apartments of the temple, which were gone to decay. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 34:12 And they did all faithfully. Now the overseers of the workmen were Jahath and Abdias, of the sons of Merari, Zacharias and Mosollam, of the sons of Caath, who hastened the work: all Levites, skilful to play on instruments.

Of music is expressed in Hebrew and Septuagint. (Haydock) --- These Levites were chosen, because they were not so constantly employed in the temple, (Calmet) and they were not hired barely to inspect the works, and hence the expense was diminished.
II Chronicles 34:13 But over them that carried burdens for divers uses, were scribes, and masters of the number of the Levites, and porters.

Masters: literally, "master porters." Protestants, "officers and porters;" all Levites. (Haydock) --- Jahath, etc., directed them that carried burdens, (Calmet) as the Hebrew intimates; and in general, all the officers were chosen from the same tribe. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 34:14 Now when they carried out the money that had been brought into the temple of the Lord, Helcias, the priest, found the book of the law of the Lord, by the hand of Moses.

II Chronicles 34:15 And he said to Saphan, the scribe: I have found the book of the law in the house of the Lord: and he delivered it to him.

II Chronicles 34:16 But he carried the book to the king, and told him, saying: Lo, all that thou hast committed to thy servants, is accomplished.

II Chronicles 34:17 They have gathered together the silver that was found in the house of the Lord: and it is given to the overseers of the artificers, and of the workmen, for divers works.

Together: literally, "melted down," as the Hebrew and Septuagint signify. Coin was not yet used. (Calmet) --- But the pieces of money, of whatever description, were collected. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 34:18 Moreover, Helcias, the priest, gave me this book. And he read it before the king.

II Chronicles 34:19 And when he had heard the words of the law, he rent his garments:

II Chronicles 34:20 And he commanded Helcias, and Ahicam, the son of Saphan, and Abdon, the son of Micha, and Saphan, the scribe, and Asaa, the king's servant, saying:

II Chronicles 34:21 Go, and pray to the Lord for me, and for the remnant of Israel, and Juda, concerning all the words of this book, which is found: for the great wrath of the Lord hath fallen upon us, because our fathers have not kept the words of the Lord, to do all things that are written in this book.

II Chronicles 34:22 And Helcias, and they that were sent with him by the king, went to Olda, the prophetess, the wife of Sellum, the son of Thecuath, the son of Hasra, keeper of the wardrobe: who dwelt in Jerusalem, in the second part: and they spoke to her the words above-mentioned.

Hasra. Olda's husband's grandfather is styled Araas, 4 Kings xxii. (Haydock) --- Second part of the city, near the temple, or near the second gate, or between the two walls. (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 34:23 And she answered them: Thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel: Tell the man that sent you to me:

II Chronicles 34:24 Thus saith the Lord: Behold I will bring evils upon this place, and upon the inhabitants thereof, and all the curses that are written in this book, which they read before the king of Juda.

II Chronicles 34:25 Because they have forsaken me, and have sacrificed to strange gods, to provoke me to wrath with all the works of their hands; therefore my wrath shall fall upon this place, and shall not be quenched.

II Chronicles 34:26 But as to the king of Juda that sent you to beseech the Lord, thus shall you say to him: Thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel: Because thou hast heard the words of this book,

II Chronicles 34:27 And thy heart was softened, and thou hast humbled thyself in the sight of God for the things that are spoken against this place, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and reverencing my face, hast rent thy garments, and wept before me: I also have heard thee, saith the Lord.

II Chronicles 34:28 For now I will gather thee to thy fathers, and thou shalt be brought to thy tomb in peace: and thy eyes shall not see all the evil that I will bring upon this place, and the inhabitants thereof. *They, therefore, reported to the king all that she had said.

4 Kings 23:1.
Peace. The country enjoyed peace, as Pharao was gone; (Menochius) and Josias did not witness the evils here denounced. (Tirinus) --- This was a blessing. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 34:29 And he called together all the ancients of Juda and Jerusalem,

II Chronicles 34:30 And went up to the house of the Lord, and all the men of Juda, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the priests, and the Levites, and all the people, from the least to the greatest. And the king read in their hearing in the house of the Lord, all the words of the book.

II Chronicles 34:31 And standing up in his tribunal, he made a covenant before the Lord to walk after him, and keep his commandments, and testimonies, and justifications, with all his heart, and with all his soul, and to do the things that were written in that book which he had read.

II Chronicles 34:32 And he adjured all that were found in Jerusalem, and Benjamin, to do the same: and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did according to the covenant of the Lord, the God of their fathers.

II Chronicles 34:33 And Josias took away all the abominations out of all the countries of the children of Israel: and made all that were left in Israel, to serve the Lord, their God. As long as he lived, they departed not from the Lord, the God of their fathers.

In Israel, who had fled into his dominions. See ver. 6. (Calmet) --- They. Septuagint, "he," etc. Josias worshipped God with all his heart: but all Israel paid him, at least, an external adoration. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 35:0 Josias celebrateth a most solemn Pasch. He is slain by the king of Egypt.

II Chronicles 35:1 And *Josias kept a Phase to the Lord in Jerusalem, and it was sacrificed on the fourteenth day of the first month.

4 Kings 23:21.
Year of the World 3381.
II Chronicles 35:2 And he set the priests in their offices, and exhorted them to minister in the house of the Lord.

II Chronicles 35:3 And he spoke to the Levites, by whose instruction all Israel was sanctified to the Lord, saying: Put the ark in the sanctuary of the temple, which Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel, built: for you shall carry it no more: but minister now to the Lord, your God, and to his people, Israel.

By whose. Septuagint, "the powerful in Israel, that they might be sanctified to the Lord; and they put," etc. Hebrew, "who instructed all Israel, the holy people of the Lord: Put," etc. (Haydock) --- No more. Hebrew adds, "upon your shoulders;" (Haydock) whence it is inferred, that it had been carried about the cities of Juda, under the impious kings, who would not suffer it in the temple. (Calmet) --- Some believe that it was kept in the house of Sellum, the uncle of Jeremias, and husband of Olda. (St. Jerome, Trad.) (Tirinus)
II Chronicles 35:4 And prepare yourselves by your houses, and families, according to your courses, as David, king of Israel, commanded, and Solomon, his son, hath written.

II Chronicles 35:5 And serve ye in the sanctuary by the families and companies of Levi,

Families. Hebrew adds, "according to the divisions of the families of the fathers of your brethren, the people, (Haydock; or laics. Calmet) and the division of the families of the Levites." All were placed, with great order, in the temple.
II Chronicles 35:6 And being sanctified kill the Phase, and prepare your brethren, that they may do according to the words which the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses.

Which. Hebrew, "of the Lord, by the hand of Moses," which ordinances he has written down. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 35:7 And Josias gave to all the people that were found there in the solemnity of the Phase, of lambs and of kids, of the flocks, and of other small cattle, thirty thousand, and of oxen, three thousand: all these were of the king's substance.

In. Hebrew, "for the Passover-offerings, from the flock, lambs and kids, in number 30,000." Et reliqui pecoris, is not expressed. (Haydock) --- The small cattle might be intended for other sacrifices. (Menochius)
II Chronicles 35:8 And his princes willingly offered what they had vowed, both to the people, and to the priests and the Levites. Moreover, Helcias, and Zacharias, and Jahiel, rulers of the house of the Lord, gave to the priests to keep the Phase, two thousand six hundred small cattle, and three hundred oxen.

Offered. Hebrew, "gave to the people." (Haydock) --- Rulers: the first alone was high priest. (Calmet) --- Small cattle: literally, cattle of different sorts;" commixtim. Protestants supply, "small cattle," which is not now in Hebrew. (Haydock) --- Syriac and Arabic have, "sheep;" but we had best follow (Calmet) the Septuagint, "sheep, both lambs and kids." Either would suffice, Exodus 12:5.
II Chronicles 35:9 And Chonenias, and Semeias, and Nathanael, his brethren, and Hasabias, and Jehiel, and Jozabad, princes of the Levites, gave to the rest of the Levites to celebrate the Phase, five thousand small cattle, and five hundred oxen.

Cattle. Protestants again supply these words. Septuagint have, "sheep." (Haydock)
II Chronicles 35:10 And the ministry was prepared, and the priests stood in their office: the Levites also, in their companies, according to the king's commandment.

II Chronicles 35:11 And the Phase was immolated: and the priests sprinkled the blood with their hand, and the Levites flayed the holocausts:

Blood is expressed in the Septuagint and understood in Hebrew. (Haydock) --- With. Hebrew and Septuagint, "from their hands;" (Haydock) receiving it from the officers, who might slay their own victims, (Calmet) unless they were unclean, 2 Paralipomenon 30:17. (Haydock) --- Holocausts. Hebrew and Septuagint speak of the paschal lambs. (Haydock) --- Holocausts were regularly to be flayed by priests, Leviticus 1:6. The hurry of the solemnity, (Calmet) and necessity, here excused the Levites, (Menochius) if we understand proper holocausts. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 35:12 And they separated them to give them by the houses and families of every one, and to be offered to the Lord, as it is written in the book of Moses; and with the oxen they did in like manner.

Separated. Septuagint, "prepared the holocaust to give; having taken notice to whom the victims belonged, before they took off the skin, (Menochius) or rather, separating these from the other peace-offerings. (Tournemine)
II Chronicles 35:13 And they roasted the Phase with fire, according to that which is written in the law: but the victims of peace-offerings they boiled in caldrons, and kettles, and pots, and they distributed them speedily among all the people.

Victims. Hebrew and Septuagint, "but the holy offerings they boiled." See Exodus 12:9. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 35:14 And afterwards they made ready for themselves, and for the priests: for the priests were busied in offering of holocausts and the fat until night: wherefore the Levites prepared for themselves, and for the priests, the sons of Aaron, last.

II Chronicles 35:15 And the singers, the sons of Asaph, stood in their order, according to the commandment of David, and Asaph, and Heman, and Idithun, the prophets of the king: and the porters kept guard at every gate, so as not to depart one moment from their service: and, therefore, their brethren, the Levites, prepared meats for them.

Prophets. Hebrew, "seer." But Septuagint, etc., read in the plural. These were "prophets of the king," (Haydock) or masters of music. (Calmet) --- Vulgate might insinuate that these three gave orders, as well as David. But they were in office under him, as people of the same name were, probably, under Josias. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 35:16 So all the service of the Lord was duly accomplished that day, both in keeping the Phase, and offering holocausts upon the altar of the Lord, according to the commandment of king Josias.

II Chronicles 35:17 And the children of Israel that were found there, kept the Phase at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days.

II Chronicles 35:18 There was no Phase like to this in Israel, from the days of Samuel the prophet: neither did any of all the kings of Israel keep such a Phase as Josias kept, with the priests, and the Levites, and all Juda, and Israel that were found, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

As Josias kept. He displayed greater liberality (Estius. See 4 Kings 23:20.) and devotion; and the festival had also been neglected for some time. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 35:19 In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josias was this Phase celebrated.

II Chronicles 35:20 *After that Josias had repaired the temple, Nechao, king of Egypt, came up to fight in Charcamis, by the Euphrates: and Josias went out to meet him.

4 Kings 23:29.;
Year of the World 3394, Year before Christ 610. Charcamis belonged to the Assyrian monarch, (Isaias 10:9.) who subdued the empire of Babylon, 2 Paralipomenon 33:11.
II Chronicles 35:21 But he sent messengers to him, saying: What have I to do with thee, O king of Juda? I come not against thee this day, but I fight against another house, to which God hath commanded me to go in haste: forbear to do against God, who is with me, lest he kill thee.

With me. Grotius thinks that Jeremias had given the order; and the author of Hebrew Traditions, supposes that he forbade Josias to oppose Pharao, who, it seems, was assured of victory. (Calmet) --- But this is uncertain; and Josias might justly suspect that the king of Egypt spoke without authority. (Haydock) --- The augurs of the latter might declare the truth, (Menochius) though they could not dive into futurity. (Haydock) --- Herodotus (i.) informs us, that Nechos fought against the Syrians, (or Israelites) in Magdelum, and took Cadythis, a city as large as Sardis, of Lydia; probably Jerusalem, (Du Hamel) or Cades. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 35:22 Josias would not return, but prepared to fight against him, and hearkened not to the words of Nechao, from the mouth of God, *but went to fight in the field of Mageddo.

Zacharias 12:11.
Prepared. Hebrew, "disguised himself," like Achab; (Calmet) or set his army in array. Septuagint, "he was bent on fighting him." (Haydock) --- He supposed that Pharao intended to invade his dominions, and God would withdraw him from the world. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 35:23 And there he was wounded by the archers, and he said to his servants: Carry me out of the battle, for I am grievously wounded.

II Chronicles 35:24 And they removed him from the chariot into another, that followed him after the manner of kings, and they carried him away to Jerusalem, and he died, and was buried in the monument of his fathers, and all Juda and Jerusalem mourned for him;

After the manner of kings, is not in Hebrew, etc. (Haydock) --- Curtius (iv.) informs us, that the Persian monarch had always a horse behind his chariot, to be ready in case of any accident.
II Chronicles 35:25 Particularly Jeremias: whose lamentations for Josias all the singing men and singing women repeat unto this day, and it became like a law in Israel: Behold it is found written in the Lamentations.

Lamentations. Some think that we have them in the Bible. (Josephus, etc.) --- Others believe that they are lost. (Salien, the year of the world 3425.) --- Law, on the anniversary; (Menochius) or when any calamity occurs, the lamentations of Jeremias are used. (Tirinus) --- There were collections of such poems, as well as of canticles, for victory and marriages. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 35:26 Now the rest of the acts of Josias, and of his mercies, according to what was commanded by the law of the Lord;

II Chronicles 35:27 And his works, first and last, are written in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel.

Israel is placed first in Hebrew and Septuagint. (Haydock) --- The kings of Juda assumed the title, as the kingdom had been subverted above a century; and the wretched remains of Israel had retreated into the territories, (Calmet) or acknowledged their dominion. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 36:0 The reigns of Joachaz, Joakim, Joachin, and Sedecias: the captivity of Babylon released at length by Cyrus.

II Chronicles 36:1 Then *the people of the land took Joachaz, the son of Josias, and made him king instead of his father in Jerusalem.

4 Kings 23:30.
Year of the World 3394, Year before Christ 610.
II Chronicles 36:2 Joachaz was three and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 36:3 And the king of Egypt came to Jerusalem, and deposed him, and condemned the land, in a hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.

Him. Joachaz had attempted to defend himself, and had been conducted prisoner to Reblatha, 4 Kings 23:33., and Ezechiel 19:4. He was now deposed in form, and a tribute laid upon the people. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:4 And he made *Eliakim, his brother, king in his stead, over Juda and Jerusalem: and he turned his name to Joakim: but he took Joachaz with him, and carried him away into Egypt.

Matthew 1:11.
Brother. From the time of David, the son had always succeeded his father. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 36:5 Joakim was five and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: and he did evil before the Lord, his God.

II Chronicles 36:6 Against him came up Nabuchodonosor, king of the Chaldeans, and led him bound in chains into Babylon.

Babylon, but sent him back soon after; (Tirinus) unless he altered his first design, (Du Hamel) and slew him disgracefully at Jerusalem. (Lyranus) (Estius) (Calmet) (4 Kings 23:5.) --- He allowed him to reign as a vassal other three years, but took Daniel, etc., captives. The seventy years of Jeremias, (xxv. 11.) are to be dated from this event. (The year of the world 3402.) (Usher)
II Chronicles 36:7 And he carried also thither the vessels of the Lord, and put them in his temple.

The vessels. Hebrew and Septuagint, "a part of the vessels;" probably the most precious, (ver. 10) breaking the rest in pieces, as he left none behind, ver. 18. --- Temple of his God, Daniel 1:2.
II Chronicles 36:8 But the rest of the acts of Joakim, and his abominations, which he wrought, and the things that were found in him, are contained in the Book of the kings of Juda and Israel. And Joachin, his son, reigned in his stead.

In him. The Jews explain this of the diabolical characters forbidden, Leviticus 19:28. (Denis the Carthusian; R. Sal., etc.) --- But it may simply denote the hidden sins of the king, which God will bring to light, or his rebellious conduct. (Amama) (Genesis 44:16.) (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:9 Joachin was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem, and he did evil in the sight of the Lord.

Eight years old. He was associated by his father to the kingdom, when he was but eight years old; but after his father's death, when he reigned alone, he was eighteen years old, 4 Kings 24:8. (Challoner) --- He only enjoyed the throne three months and ten days. (Tirinus) --- We must however observe, (Haydock) that the Alexandrian Septuagint, the Syriac, and Arabic read here, eighteen. (Calmet) --- "It is, in my opinion, a pity that the translators have not mended such apparent errata of the scribe of the present Hebrew out of 2 Kings 24:8., or out of Septuagint, or out of common sense." (Wall) (Kennicott) --- These eight years may be dated from the captivity, and not from the king's birth. (Usher) (Du Hamel)
II Chronicles 36:10 And at the return of the year, king Nabuchodonosor sent, and brought him to Babylon, carrying away, at the same time, the most precious vessels of the house of the Lord: *and he made Sedecias, his uncle, king over Juda and Jerusalem.

4 Kings 24:1.; Jeremias 37:1.
Year, in spring, when kings go out to war. (Calmet) --- Uncle. Septuagint, "brother of his father," which comes to the same sense, and was certainly the case. Hebrew, "his brother." Abraham indeed gives the title to his nephew, Genesis 13:8. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:11 Sedecias was one and twenty years old when he began to reign: and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 36:12 And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord, his God, and did not reverence the face of Jeremias, the prophet, speaking to him from the mouth of the Lord.

II Chronicles 36:13 He also revolted from king Nabuchodonosor,* who had made him swear by God: and he hardened his neck and his heart, from returning to the Lord, the God of Israel.

Year of the World 3405, Year before Christ 599. By God, to be faithful. (Tirinus) --- This enhances his crime. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:14 Moreover, all the chief of the priests, and the people, wickedly transgressed according to all the abominations of the Gentiles: and they defiled the house of the Lord, which he had sanctified to himself in Jerusalem.

II Chronicles 36:15 And the Lord, the God of their fathers, sent to them, by the hand of his messengers, rising early, and daily admonishing them: because he spared his people and his dwelling-place.

Early. Protestants, "betimes, and sending: because," etc. (Haydock) --- Like a good master, God (Tirinus) sent his servants to work at day-break, (Haydock) omitting nothing to induce them to return to him, that he might not be forced to punish them with severity. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his works, and misused the prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against his people, and there was no remedy.

Remedy. All attempts to convert them proved in vain; (Tirinus) and God, perceiving that they even despised his calls, became inexorable. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:17 For he brought upon them the king of the Chaldeans, and he slew their young men with the sword in the house of his sanctuary; he had no compassion on young man, or maiden, old man or even him that stooped for age; but he delivered them all into his hands.

II Chronicles 36:18 And all the vessels of the house of the Lord, great and small, and the treasures of the temple, and of the king, and of the princes, he carried away to Babylon.

Vessels. Only a few remained, to be restored by Cyrus, ver. 19. (Calmet)
II Chronicles 36:19 And the enemies set fire to the house of God, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, burnt all the towers, and whatsoever was precious they destroyed.

II Chronicles 36:20 Whosoever escaped the sword, was led into Babylon, and there served the king and his sons, till the reign of the king of Persia.

Sons; Evilmerodac and Baltassar. --- Persia; Cyrus, who subdued the country.
II Chronicles 36:21 That the word of the Lord, by the mouth of Jeremias, might be fulfilled, and the land might keep her sabbaths: for all the days of the desolation, she kept a sabbath, till the seventy years were expired.

Sabbaths, every seventh year, Leviticus 25:2., and 26:43., and Jeremias 25:11., and 29:10. --- Expired: not that the earth was quite neglected, all that time, from the third year of Joakim, the year of the world 3398 till 3468. (Calmet) --- But it was almost: particularly after the murder of Godolias, (Menochius) the public worship was at a stand, etc. (Haydock) --- During this fifth age, the true religion subsisted invariable, not only in the kingdom of Juda, but also in that of Israel. See Worthington. (Haydock)
II Chronicles 36:22 *But in the first year **of Cyrus, king of the Persians, to fulfil the word of the Lord, which he had spoken by the mouth of Jeremias, the Lord stirred up the heart of Cyrus, king of the Persians: who commanded it to be proclaimed through all his kingdom, and by writing also, saying:

1 Esdras 1:1.; 1 Esdras 6:3.; Jeremias 25:12.; Jeremias 29:10. --- **
Year of the World 3468, A.C. 536. First. Cyrus had ruled over Persia from the year of the world 3444. He was now emperor of the East. (The year of the world 3468.) (Calmet) --- These two verses are repeated by Esdras, which evinces that he was the author of this work also, (Tirinus) adding them when he restored (Worthington) or revised (Haydock) the holy scriptures. (Worthington)
II Chronicles 36:23 Thus saith Cyrus, king of the Persians: All the kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord, the God of heaven, given to me, and he hath charged me to build him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judea: who is there among you of all his people? The Lord, his God, be with him, and let him go up.

The Lord, (Jehova.) In Esdras we find yehi, "Let," his God. (Haydock) --- Up. The sentence is completed in the following book, which makes it probable that these verses are here inserted improperly, by some transcriber. The book of Chronicles, though for many ages the last in the Hebrew manuscripts, was, perhaps, once followed by Ezra, as in Camb. Manuscript 1., (Kennicott) and as it is now in the Protestant version, taken from the Hebrew. (Haydock)