1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Ezra 1:1 In the first year *of Cyrus, king of the Persians, that the word of the Lord, by the mouth of Jeremias, might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus, king of the Persians: and he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and in writing also, saying:

2 Paralipomenon 36:22.; Jeremias 25:12.; Jeremias 29:10.; Isaias 44:28.; Isaias 45.
Year of the World 3468, Year before Christ 536. In. Hebrew, "And (Calmet) or But in," as [in] 2 Paralipomenon 36:22. (Haydock) --- Thus the historical works are connected. Spinosa infers, from this book being inserted after Daniel in the Hebrew Bible, that the same author wrote both. But the order of the books in the Septuagint and Vulgate is far more natural, (Calmet) and this has often varied in Hebrew, etc. (Kennicott) See 2 Paralipomenon 36:23. (Haydock) --- First. The design was only put in execution the following year. (The year of the world 3468.) --- Cyrus (Hebrew coresh, (Haydock) or Koresch) means "the sun," according to Ctesias and Plutarch. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 11:1.) informs us that this prince became a friend of the Jews, in consequence of having seen the prediction of Isaias (xliv. 28., and 45:1.) fulfilled in his own person. He took Babylon, the year of the world 3466, and established the Persian empire, which was subverted by Alexander. (Calmet) --- He had before ruled over Persia 27 years, and only reigned three as sole monarch at Babylon. (Tirinus) --- The Lord; every good notion, even in infidels, proceeds from him. (Du Hamel) --- Cyrus was one of the best and greatest conquerors of antiquity. He was the son of Cambyses, by Mandane, princess of Media. Xenophon informs us that he died in his bed; (Haydock) and had been lately conquered. (Tirinus)
Ezra 1:2 Thus saith Cyrus, king of the Persians: The Lord, the God of heaven, hath given to me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he hath charged me to build him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judea.

Earth, which had belonged to the king of Babylon. (Haydock) --- This may be an hyperbole, or allusion to Isaias 45:1. (Menochius) --- The dominions of Cyrus were very extensive, (Xenophon, Cyrop. 1:and viii.) reaching from Ethiopia to the Euxine sea, etc. He acknowledges that he received all from the hand of God. Nabuchodonosor makes a similar confession of his supreme dominion; (Daniel 2:47.) and the potentates of Egypt and of Rome, procured sacrifices to be offered to him. But what advantage did they derive from this sterile knowledge of his divinity? since they did not honour him accordingly, but wished to join his worship with that of idols; though the force of miracles and of reason must have convinced them that there is but one God. (Calmet) --- House, or temple, Isaias 44:28. --- Judea. So the Septuagint read, but the Hebrew has "Juda," all along. The whole country now began to be known by the former name. (Haydock)
Ezra 1:3 Who is there among you of all his people? His God be with him. Let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judea, and build the house of the Lord, the God of Israel; he is the God that is in Jerusalem.

He is the God, is placed within a parenthesis, by the Protestants. But the pagans might suppose that God was attached to this city, like their idols; and the temple was not yet begun. (Haydock)
Ezra 1:4 And let all the rest, in all places, wheresoever they dwell, help him every man from his place, with silver and gold, and goods, and cattle, besides that which they offer freely to the temple of God, which is in Jerusalem.

Rest, who do not please to return. The Jews went at different times, and under the different leaders, Zorobabel, Esdras, and Nehemias. Many did not return at all. Cyrus allowed them full liberty. He permits money to be exported, particularly the half sicle, required [in] Exodus 30:13, and all voluntary contributions for the temple. (Grotius) (Calmet) --- He also enjoins the prefects of the provinces, (ver. 6., and 1 Esdras 3:7.) whom Josephus styles "the king's friends," to forward the work; and he even designed to perfect it at his own expence, 1 Esdras 6:4.
Ezra 1:5 Then rose up the chief of the fathers of Juda and Benjamin, and the priests, and Levites, and every one whose spirit God had raised up, to go up to build the temple of the Lord, which was in Jerusalem.

Ezra 1:6 And all they that were round about, helped their hands with vessels of silver, and gold, with goods, and with beasts, and with furniture, besides what they had offered on their own accord.

Ezra 1:7 And king Cyrus brought forth the vessels of the temple of the Lord, which Nabuchodonosor had taken from Jerusalem, and had put them in the temple of his god.

Ezra 1:8 Now Cyrus, king of Persia, brought them forth by the hand of Mithridates, the son of Gazabar, and numbered them to Sassabasar, the prince of Juda.

Gazabar means, "the treasurer." (Hebrew; Syriac; Calmet; Protestants; 3 Esdras 2:10.) (Haydock) --- Son is not in Hebrew, etc., (Menochius) and must be omitted. (Tirinus) --- Sassabasar. This was another name for Zorobabel, (Challoner) given by the Chaldeans, as they changed the name of Daniel into Baltassar. (Eusebius, Praep. Evan. 11:3.) (Tirinus) --- But others think that this was the Persian "governor (Junius) of Judea," (3 Esdras) as one resided at Jerusalem, till the days of Nehemias, 2 Esdras 5:14. It does not appear that Zorobabel was invested with this dignity, before the reign of Darius Hystaspes, Aggeus 2:24. (Calmet)
Ezra 1:9 And this is the number of them: thirty bowls of gold, a thousand bowls of silver, nine and twenty knives, thirty cups of gold,

Knives. Septuagint, etc., "changes" of garments. (Calmet)
Ezra 1:10 Silver cups of a second sort, four hundred and ten: other vessels, a thousand.

Sort. Septuagint and Syriac, "double;" yet of less value. (Calmet) --- As no first sort had been mentioned, and some Latin manuscripts read 2410, agreeably to 3 Esdras 2:12., and the truth, (Hallet) it may be inferred that "thousands were expressed anciently by single letters, with a dot....over them." Afterwards, when numbers were expressed by words at length, the b being thus reduced to signify "two," was, of course, written shnim; but this word making nonsense with the following, has been changed into mishnim, a word not very agreeable to the sense here, and which leaves the sum total, now specified in the Hebrew text, very deficient for want of the 2000, thus omitted. (Kennicott, Dis. ii.) --- Josephus has, "30 golden cups, 2400 of silver." (Haydock)
Ezra 1:11 All the vessels of gold and silver, five thousand four hundred. All these, Sassabasar brought with them that came up from the captivity of Babylon to Jerusalem.

Hundred. Only 2499 are specified. 3 Esdras reads, 5469. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 11:1.) differs from all, reading 5210; which shews that the copies have varied, and that the Hebrew is incorrect. (Calmet) --- The use of numeral letters might cause this confusion. (Haydock) (Capel. 3:20, 13.)
Ezra 2:0 The number of them that returned to Judea: their oblations.

Ezra 2:1 Now *these are the children of the province, that went out of the captivity, which Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, had carried away to Babylon, and who returned to Jerusalem and Juda, every man to his city:

2 Esdras 7:6.
Now. This catalogue is given again, 2 Esdras 7:6., and 3 Esdras 5:7., immediately (Haydock) after the long interpolated story (Kennicott) of the three guards, concerning the superior strength of wine, the king, women or truth, in which Zorobabel gains the victory, in favour of the latter. (Haydock) --- The rest of the book is taken from other inspired writings; (Sandford) and this story may be borrowed from Josephus: so that there is no reason for asserting "that one whole book is now lost out of the sacred canon." (Kennicott) --- Yet this argument is by no means conclusive, as the Paralipomenon consists of such supplements, etc. These three catalogues vary considerably, not only in the proper names, but also in the numbers, (Haydock) though they must have been the same originally, and still give the same total, 42,360. We cannot find that number at present, by above 8,400. In many cases, the disagreement consists of a single unit, hundred, etc., which may lead us to suspect that the Palmyrene, or the more ancient Sidonian notation, may have been adopted in some Hebrew manuscripts, being used about the time of Christ. See Swinton's tables, (Phil. Trans. xlviii., and l.) where the Sidonian coins express the units by small perpendicular strokes; and the Palmyrene inscriptions only admit four of these together, having an arbitrary mark for 5: "the hundreds and units after the tens, are expressed in both, in the same manner as the single units." (Kennicott, 2 Diss.) --- Cordell (manuscript note on this author) disapproves of this mode of correcting, and says that the females are included in the total sum, being 12,542, not recorded in the separate sums. But this number seems too small, as there are generally as many of that sex as of the other. (Haydock) --- Some find the total 31,583, which leaves 10,777 wanting to complete 42,360, as these could not make out their genealogies, or were of the ten tribes. In this chapter only 29,818 are specified, whereas [in] 2 Esdras vii. has 31,089; the latter reckons 1765 unnoticed by Esdras, who has 494 not specified in Nehemias. The difference, that seems to make a reconciliation impossible, is what makes these authors agree; for, if you add the surplus of each to the other, the same total, 31,583, will arise. (Alting. ep. 59.) This solution, though ingenious, is not solid or satisfactory. (Rondet, t. V. p. 176.) --- De Vence rather thinks that the difference is to be laid to the charge of transcribers, or that some people enrolled themselves after the registers had been made up; so that they are only included in the general sum. (Haydock) --- Some things may have been inserted from 2 Esdras, though here out of place, (Grotius) as we find similar anachronisms, 1 Paralipomenon 9:2., and perhaps Genesis 36:31. Nehemias may also have included those whom he brought back along with these; unless we allow that some one, by attempting to reconcile the two, has thrown all into confusion. It seems undeniable, that some additions have been made to the latter book, 1 Esdras 12:11., and 22. The list given [in] 1 Paralipomenon 9:4., comprises only those who came first from Babylon. (Calmet) --- After this remark, it will hardly be requisite to specify all the variations of names and numbers. (Haydock) --- "For what can be hence inferred, but that there are some arithmetical mistakes in Scripture, which no one denies?" (Huet) --- "Almost all who are conversant with ancient copies, agree in the decision of St. Jerome, as they cannot but perceive that some variations have crept in, particularly with respect to numbers and proper names." (Walton) --- Province, born in Chaldea, (Menochius) or rather belonging to Judea, which was now considered as a province of the empire, (Calmet) and paid tribute, 1 Esdras 4:13., and 2 Esdras 9:36. (Tirinus) --- In 3 Esdras, we read, "These are they of Judea." --- Nabuchodonosor had taken some of these; the rest were chiefly their descendants. --- Juda now is used to denote Judea. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:2 Who came with Zorobabel, Josue, Nehemia, Saraia, Rahelaia, Mardochai, Belsan, Mesphar, Beguai, Rehum, Baana. The number of the men of the people of Israel:

Zorobabel was the prince, Josue the high priest. (Calmet) --- There are 12 mentioned in 2 and 3 Esdras. But here the sixth Nahamani, or Enenion, is omitted. (Haydock) --- They represented the 12 tribes, (Kennicott) and were chiefs. (Menochius) --- It is wonderful that Esdras is not here mentioned, as well as Nehemias, who led a company after him, many of whom are here recorded. (Calmet) --- They might come to take care of their patrimony, and return into Chaldea, like Mardochai, (Tirinus.; though it does not seem to be Esther's uncle, Du Hamel) and Nehemias, who is styled also Athersatha, ver. 63. (Tirinus) --- Baana. 3 Esdras adds, "their leaders." (Haydock)
Ezra 2:3 The children of Pharos, two thousand one hundred seventy-two.

Children. When this term precedes the name of a man, it means his offspring; (ver. 3, 20.) when placed before a city, it denotes the inhabitants, ver. 21, 35. (Calmet) --- The lay Israelites are placed here; then the Levitical tribe; (ver. 36.) the Nathineans, etc., ver. 43. It is very difficult to decide when the names designate places, and when persons. (Menochius)
Ezra 2:4 The children of Sephatia, three hundred seventy-two.

Ezra 2:5 The children of Area, seven hundred seventy-five.

Seven. 2 Esdras, only 652. These arrived at Jerusalem; the rest altered their mind. (Junius) (Calmet) --- But 3 Esdras has 756: so that there is most probably a mistake somewhere. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:6 The children of Phahath Moab, of the children of Josue: Joab, two thousand eight hundred twelve.

Moab. This seems to be the name of a place, where the descendants of Josue and Joab might reside; (chap. 8:4.; Calmet) or Phahath might have this title, on account of some victory, or residence in the country. His descendants, with those of Josue and Joab, were 2812, (Tirinus) or 2818, 2 Esdras 7:11. (Calmet) --- Josue. Protestants, "Jeshua and Joab." (Haydock) --- Some translate Pahath, "the chief of" Moab, etc. (Du Hamel) --- Grotius suspects that to ver. 68 may be inserted from Nehemias.
Ezra 2:7 The children of Elam, a thousand two hundred fifty-four.

Ezra 2:8 The children of Zethua, nine hundred forty-five.

Ezra 2:9 The children of Zachai, seven hundred sixty.

Ezra 2:10 The children of Bani, six hundred forty-two.

Ezra 2:11 The children of Bebai, six hundred twenty-three.

Ezra 2:12 The children of Azgad, a thousand two hundred twenty-two.

Ezra 2:13 The children of Adonicam, six hundred sixty-six.

Six. Other 60 returned afterwards with Esdras. (Haydock) (Chap. 8:13.)
Ezra 2:14 The children of Beguai, two thousand fifty-six.

Ezra 2:15 The children of Adin, four hundred fifty-four.

Ezra 2:16 The children of Ather, who were of Ezechias, ninety-eight.

Ather. 3 Esdras, Ator-Ezekios, 92: but 2 Esdras has Ater, children of Hezecias, 98. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:17 The children of Besai, three hundred and twenty-three.

Besai. We should perhaps read Hasum, (ver. 19.; Calmet) then Besai, and afterwards Jora, who may be the same with Hareph, 2 Esdras 7:24. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:18 The children of Jora, a hundred and twelve.

Ezra 2:19 The children of Hasum, two hundred twenty-three.

Ezra 2:20 The children of Gebbar, ninety-five.

Gebbar. 2 Esdras, Gabaon. 3 Esdras, "Baitereus, 3005." (Haydock)
Ezra 2:21 The children of Bethlehem, a hundred twenty-three.

Ezra 2:22 The men of Netupha, fifty-six.

Six. 2 Esdras puts the inhabitants of those two cities together, and makes 188, instead of the present calculation 179. (Calmet) --- Netupha was in Ephraim. (Du Hamel)
Ezra 2:23 The men of Anathoth, a hundred twenty-eight.

Ezra 2:24 The children of Azmaveth, forty-two.

Ezra 2:25 The children of Cariathiarim, Cephira, and Beroth, seven hundred forty-three.

Ezra 2:26 The children of Rama and Gabaa, six hundred twenty-one.

Ezra 2:27 The men of Machmas, a hundred twenty-two.

Ezra 2:28 The men of Bethel and Hai, two hundred twenty-three.

Ezra 2:29 The children of Nebo, fifty-two.

Nebo. 2 Esdras 7:33. adds, "of the other Nebo," as in some Latin copies a first had been mentioned, (ver. 30.) where we have Geba, (Calmet) here written Gabaa, ver. 26. (Haydock) --- Nebo belonged to some of the other tribes, as well as Phahath-Moab; which shews that some of the people returned, (Calmet) and are particularized, as well as the men of the three tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:30 The children of Megbis, a hundred fifty-six.

Megbis. 3 Esdras, "Niphis;" (Calmet) or, according to the Alexandrian Manuscript, "Phineis." (Haydock) --- The verse is omitted [in] 2 Esdras. But Megphias occurs below, 1 Esdras 10:20. Megabyse is a Persian name. (Herodotus 3:20., and 160.)
Ezra 2:31 The children of the other Elam, a thousand two hundred fifty-four.

Other Elam. The first is mentioned (ver. 7.) with exactly the same number. Is not this verse redundant? (Calmet) --- Who would not be astonished? (Tirinus) --- 3 Esdras omits this and the following name. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:32 The children of Harim, three hundred and twenty.

Ezra 2:33 The children of Lod, Hadid and Ono, seven hundred twenty-five.

Hadid. These cities were in the tribe of Benjamin. (Calmet) --- Senaa was in Ephraim, eight miles from Jericho. (Eusebius)
Ezra 2:34 The children of Jericho, three hundred forty-five.

Ezra 2:35 The children of Senaa, three thousand six hundred thirty.

Ezra 2:36 The priests: the children of Jadaia, of the house of Josue, nine hundred seventy-three.

Josue, the high priest, ver. 2.
Ezra 2:37 The children of Emmer, a thousand fifty-two.

Ezra 2:38 The children of Pheshur, a thousand two hundred forty-seven.

Ezra 2:39 The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen.

Ezra 2:40 The Levites: The children of Josue, and of Cedmihel, the children of Odovia, seventy-four.

Odovia, called Juda, 1 Esdras 3:9. (Calmet)
Ezra 2:41 The singing men: The children of Asaph, a hundred twenty-eight.

Ezra 2:42 The children of the porters: the children of Sellum, the children of Ater, the children of Telmon, the children of Accub, the children of Hatita, the children of Sobai: in all a hundred thirty-nine.

Ezra 2:43 The Nathinites: The children of Siha, the children of Hasupha, the children of Tabbaoth,

Nathinites, "people given" (1 Paralipomenon 9:2.; Haydock) by Josue, David, and Solomon. (Tirinus)
Ezra 2:44 The children of Ceros, the children of Sia, the children of Phadon,

Ezra 2:45 The children of Lebana, the children of Hegaba, the children of Accub,

Ezra 2:46 The children of Hagab, the children of Semlai, the children of Hanan,

Ezra 2:47 The children of Gaddel, the children of Gaher, the children of Raaia,

Ezra 2:48 The children of Rasin, the children of Necoda, the children of Gazam,

Ezra 2:49 The children of Aza, the children of Phasea, the children of Besee,

Ezra 2:50 The children of Asena, the children of Munim, the children of Nephusim,

Ezra 2:51 The children of Bacbuc, the children of Hacupha, the children of Harhur.

Ezra 2:52 The children of Besluth, the children of Mahida, the children of Harsa,

Ezra 2:53 The children of Bercos, the children of Sisara, the children of Thema,

Ezra 2:54 The children of Nasia, the children of Hatipha.

Ezra 2:55 The children of the servants of Solomon, the children of Sotai, the children of Sopheret, the children of Pharuda,

Servants, proselytes, 1 Paralipomenon 22:2. (Menochius)
Ezra 2:56 The children of Jala, the children of Dercon, the children of Geddel.

Ezra 2:57 The children of Saphatia, the children of Hatil, the children of Phochereth, which were of Asebaim, the children of Ami,

Pocereth-Hatsebaim, in Hebrew (Calmet) or "of Zebaim." (Protestants)\
Ezra 2:58 All the Nathinites, and the children of the servants of Solomon, three hundred ninety-two.

Ezra 2:59 And these are they that came up from Thelmela, Thelharsa, Cherub, and Adon, and Emer. And they could not shew the house of their fathers and their seed, whether they were of Israel.

Thelmela, "the height of Mela, or of salt." The river Melas empties itself into the Euphrates. (Strabo xii.) --- The cities here mentioned were in Chaldea. Some of the ten tribes had probably been transported into Cappadocia, where Herodotus (II. 35,) place some circumcised Syrians. --- Thelharsa, or Thelassar, 4 Kings 19:12. --- Cherub, etc., were cities of Chaldea, (Tirinus) or chief men; but as they had been carried away by Theglathphalassar, they had lost their genealogies, and could only produce circumcision as a proof that they were Israelites.
Ezra 2:60 The children of Dalaia, the children of Tobia, the children of Necoda, six hundred fifty-two.

Ezra 2:61 And of the children of the priests: The children of Hobia, the children of Accos, the children of Berzellai, who took a wife of the daughters of Berzellai, the Galaadite, and was called by their name:

Their name. The priest, Berzellai, assumed the name of the family, from which he had chosen a wife. (Haydock) --- It was that of the famous old man, who was so hospitable to David, 2 Kings 19:31. (Calmet)
Ezra 2:62 These sought the writing of their genealogy, and found it not; and they were cast out of the priesthood.

Priesthood. Those who cannot prove that they are priests, ought not to exercise the functions. (Worthington) --- The Jews were particularly careful to preserve their genealogical tables, and transcribed them again after any very troublesome times. (Josephus, contra Apion 1, and in his own Life.) --- The Rabbins falsely assert that only the mother's side was examined, and that the children followed her condition. (Calmet)
Ezra 2:63 *And Athersatha said to them, that they should not eat of the holy of holies, till there arose a priest, learned and perfect.

2 Esdras 7:65.
Athersatha. Protestants' marginal note, "the governor," (Haydock) in the Persian language. (Du Hamel) --- Nehemias has this title, 2 Esdras 8:9. (Haydock) --- It means "a cup-bearer." (Calmet) (Menochius) --- 3 Esdras, "And Nehemias, who is also Atharias, said unto them, that they should not partake of the holy things, till a high priest, clothed with manifestation and truth, should arise." (Haydock) --- Learned. Hebrew, "with Urim and Thummim." We do not find that God had been consulted, in this manner, since the time of David: and the Jews inform us that the ornament was not used after the captivity, (Calmet) as it had been, perhaps, concealed with the ark, by Jeremias, 2 Machabees 2:4. (Tirinus) --- Nehemias hoped that it would be soon recovered. In the mean time, he followed the spirit of the law, but with additional rigour, as it permitted such priests to eat consecrated meats, Leviticus 21:22. It seems that this decision is out of its proper place, since Nehemias came 80 years after Zorobabel. (Calmet) --- But he might have been present on this occasion, (Haydock) though he returned afterwards to Babylon, where he officiated as cup-bearer to the king. (Tirinus)
Ezra 2:64 All the multitudes as one man, were forty-two thousand three hundred and sixty,

Forty-two thousand, etc. Those who are reckoned up above of the tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi, fall short of this number. The rest, who must be taken in to make up the whole sum, were of the other tribes. (Challoner) --- This explanation is given by R. Solomon. (Worthington) --- But we have seen that cities belonging to the ten tribes are specified. See ver. 1, and 29. (Haydock) --- Some might not be able to make out their genealogies, (Calmet) ver. 62. Yet some of these also are counted, ver. 60. (Haydock) --- The particular sums may therefore be incorrect. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 11:1,) adds 102 to the number. (Calmet) --- 3 Esdras has, "But they were all of Israel from 12 years old and upwards, exclusive of boys and girls, (or male and female servants) 42,300." Grabe has in another character "sixty. The men and women servants of these, 7300." Then the Alexandrian Manuscript continues, "thirty-seven." So that without the addition it would give for the total, 42,337. Some copies (Haydock) have 40. (Calmet) --- But the most correct (Haydock) read 60. (Kennicott) The small number of servants and cattle shew that the people were poor. (Du Hamel)
Ezra 2:65 Besides their men-servants, and women-servants, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven: and among them singing men and singing women, two hundred.

Servants. Probably strangers. (Calmet) --- Yet the Hebrews might renounce their liberty, Exodus 21:6. (Haydock) --- Hundred, comprised in the last number; (Calmet) or they belong to Israel, but were different from those mentioned [in] ver. 41. We find 45 more in 2 and 3 Esdras. (Haydock) --- These might be inserted by Nehemias, after they had proved themselves to be of the tribe of Levi. (Tournemine) --- There were in all 49,942. (Haydock) So much was the power of this kingdom now reduced! Sulp Severus says above 50,000 of every sex and rank could not be found. (Haydock)
Ezra 2:66 Their horses, seven hundred thirty-six, their mules, two hundred forty-five,

Ezra 2:67 Their camels, four hundred thirty-five, their asses, six thousand seven hundred and twenty.

Ezra 2:68 And some of the chief of the fathers, when they came to the temple of the Lord, which is in Jerusalem, offered freely to the house of the Lord to build it in its place.

Ezra 2:69 According to their ability, they gave towards the expenses of the work, sixty-one thousand solids of gold, five thousand pounds of silver, and a hundred garments for the priests.

Solids. Hebrew darcemonim. (Haydock) --- "Darics," worth as much as a golden sicle. (Pelletier) (Calmet) (1 Paralipomenon 29:7.) --- Pounds, (mnas) or 60 sicles. (Menochius) --- 3 Esdras has "mnas" in both places.
Ezra 2:70 So the priests, and the Levites, and some of the people, and the singing men, and the porters, and the Nathinites, dwelt in their cities, and all Israel in their cities.

Some. The laics, mentioned from ver. 2., to 35. (Haydock)
Ezra 3:0 An altar is built for sacrifice, the feast of tabernacles is solemnly celebrated, and the foundations of the temple are laid.

Ezra 3:1 And *now the seventh month was come, and the children of Israel were in their cities: and the people gathered themselves together as one man to Jerusalem.

Year of the World 3469, Year before Christ 535. Month. Tisri, famous for the feasts of trumpets, of expiation, and of tabernacles. (Du Hamel) --- The Israelites might spend four months on their journey, and two in making preparations for the feast of tabernacles, (Tirinus) and in erecting huts for themselves. (Calmet)
Ezra 3:2 And Josue, the son of Josedec, rose up, and his brethren, the priests, and Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel, and his brethren, and they built the altar of the God of Israel, that they might offer holocausts upon it: as it is written in the law of Moses, the man of God.

Josue, or Jesus, (Jeshua) the son of Josedec: he was the high priest at that time; (Challoner) the first after the captivity. --- Salathiel, by whom he was brought up, though he was born of Phadaia, 1 Paralipomenon 3:19. (Calmet) --- Protestants read Shealtiel.
Ezra 3:3 And they set the altar of God upon its bases, while the people of the lands, round about, put them in fear, and they offered upon it a holocaust to the Lord, morning and evening:

Fear. This must not prevent God's servants from offering sacrifice. (Worthington)
Ezra 3:4 And they kept the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, and offered the holocaust every day orderly, according to the commandment, the duty of the day in its day.

Ezra 3:5 And afterwards the continual holocaust, both on the new moons, and on all the solemnities of the Lord, that were consecrated, and on all in which a free-will offering was made to the Lord.

Ezra 3:6 From the first day of the seventh month they began to offer holocausts to the Lord: but the temple of God was not yet founded.

Ezra 3:7 And they gave money to hewers of stones and to masons: and meat and drink, and oil to the Sidonians and Tyrians, to bring cedar-trees from Libanus to the sea of Joppe, according to the orders which Cyrus, king of the Persians, had given them.

Meat, in imitation of Solomon, 3 Kings 5:11. --- Orders. Hebrew, "permission." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "grant." (Haydock)
Ezra 3:8 And in the second year *of their coming to the temple of God in Jerusalem, the second month, Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel, and Josue, the son of Josedec, and the rest of their brethren, the priests and Levites, and all that were come from the captivity to Jerusalem began, and they appointed Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to hasten forward the work of the Lord.

Year of the World 3469. Work. Hebrew adds, "of the house." Josias had appointed the Levites overseers, 2 Paralipomenon 24:12. (Calmet)
Ezra 3:9 Then Josue, and his sons, and his brethren, Cedmihel, and his sons, and the children of Juda, as one man, stood to hasten them that did the work in the temple of God: the sons of Henadad, and their sons, and their brethren, the Levites.

Ezra 3:10 And when the masons laid the foundations of the temple of the Lord, the priests stood in their ornaments with trumpets: and the Levites, the sons of Asaph, with cymbals, to praise God by the hands of David, king of Israel.

Hands; compositions, (Haydock) or ordinances. (Worthington) --- The 135th Psalm was sung, (Calmet) or the 117th. (Vatable)
Ezra 3:11 And they sung together hymns, and praise to the Lord: because he is good, for his mercy endureth for ever towards Israel. And all the people shouted with a great shout, praising the Lord, because the foundations of the temple of the Lord were laid.

Ezra 3:12 But many of the priests and the Levites, and the chief of the fathers and the ancients, that had seen the former temple; when they had the foundation of this temple before their eyes, wept with a loud voice: and many shouting for joy, lifted up their voice.

Temple. This second temple, though very large (2 Machabees 14:13.) and magnificent, (Aggeus 2:10,) never equalled the glory of the first, in its outward appearance, being also destitute of the ark, and perhaps of the Urim, etc. But the presence of the Messias gave it a more exalted dignity. (Calmet) --- Joy. These different emotions of grief and joy filled their breasts, (Du Hamel) thinking how they had brought on the judgments of God by their transgressions, and that he was now appeased, and would enable them to have some sort of a temple. (Tirinus) --- As it was less beautiful than that of Solomon, Aggeus must be understood to speak of the Church of Christ. (St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] 18:45.) (Worthington)
Ezra 3:13 So that one could not distinguish the voice of the shout of joy, from the noise of the weeping of the people: for one with another the people shouted with a loud shout, and the voice was heard afar off.

Ezra 4:0 The Samaritans, by their letter to the king, hinder the building.

Ezra 4:1 Now *the enemies of Juda and Benjamin heard that the children of the captivity were building a temple to the Lord, the God of Israel.

Year of the World 3469. Enemies; Samaritans, and others, ver. 9.
Ezra 4:2 And they came to Zorobabel, and the chief of the fathers, and said to them: Let us build with you, for we seek your God as ye do: behold we have sacrificed to him, since the days of Asor Haddan, king of Assyria, who brought us hither.

Asor Haddan sent a priest to instruct these people, but Salmanasar had transported them into the country. (Calmet) --- They continued for some time worshipping idols alone, and afterwards they consented to pay the like adoration to the Lord, 4 Kings 17:24, etc. (Haydock) --- It is clear, from their petition, that they had as yet no temple. The first was erected by them on Garizim, by leave of Alexander the Great, as a retreat for Manasses, brother of the Jewish high priest, and others who would not be separated from their strange wives. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] xi.) --- Yet the Samaritan Chronicle, lately published, seems to give a higher antiquity to that temple, and pretends that a miracle declared in favour of the place. (Calmet) --- The fathers indeed adored there, (John 4:20., and Genesis 12:6,) and Josue erected an altar on Hebal, but the Samaritan copy says it was to be on Garizim, Deuteronomy 27:4., and Josue 8:30. (Haydock)
Ezra 4:3 But Zorobabel, and Josue, and the rest of the chief of the fathers of Israel, said to them: You have nothing to do with us to build a house to our God, but we ourselves, alone, will build to the Lord, our God, as Cyrus, king of the Persians, hath commanded us.

You, etc. Literally, "It is not for you and us to build." But why might not these people assist in the work, as well as king Hiram or Darius? (Haydock) --- Schismatics and heretics must not communicate in sacrifices with Catholics, (Worthington) nor must the latter have society with them, in matters of religion. The Jews feared lest the Samaritans might introduce the worship of idols, or claim a part of the temple, or at least boast of what they had done. (Tirinus) --- They were aware of the insincerity of these people. (Menochius) --- The permission was moreover only granted to the Jews: (Calmet) but Cyrus had exhorted all to contribute; (chap. 1:4,) and Darius, as well as his pagan governors, were not repelled with disdain, 1 Esdras 6:13. This treatment caused the Samaritans to be more inveterate, though the Jews were always more unwilling to come to a reconciliation. (Haydock) --- "For the Scripture did not say, the Samaritans have no commerce with the Jews," says St. Chrysostom in John 4:The Jewish authors inform us, that "Ezra, etc., gathered all the congregation into the temple, and the Levites sung and cursed the Samaritans,...that no Israelite eat of any thing that is a Samaritan's, nor that any Samaritan be proselyted to Israel, nor have any part in the resurrection," etc. (R. Tanchum) (Lightfoot 1:p. 598.) (Kennicott) --- If this were true, it would be carrying their resentment too far; as we ought to promote the conversion of the greatest reprobates. But we have no reason to condemn such great men. They knew the character of the Samaritans, and wished to bring them to a sense of their duty, by this rebuke. (Haydock)
Ezra 4:4 Then the people of the land hindered the hands of the people of Juda, and troubled them in building.

Ezra 4:5 And they hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their design all the days of Cyrus, king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius, king of the Persians.

Counsellors; ministers of the king, (Calmet) or governors of the provinces. (Tirinus) --- Cyrus, who was ignorant of their machination, (Josephus) being engaged in war with the Scythians. We may easily conceive what ill-disposed ministers may do, against the inclinations of their prince. (Calmet) --- Darius, son of Hystaspes, who succeeded the false Smerdis, after five months' usurpation. (Calmet)
Ezra 4:6 And in the reign of Assuerus, in the beginning of his reign, they wrote an accusation against the inhabitants of Juda and Jerusalem.

Assuerus; otherwise called Cambyses, the son and successor of Cyrus. He is also, in the following verse, named Artaxerxes, by a name common to almost all the kings of Persia, (Calmet) after Memnon. (Diodorus xv.) Septuagint, "Arthasastha." Arta signifies "great," and xerxes, "warriour." (Herodotus 6:98.) --- After Assuerus, some copies add, "he is Artaxerxes;" and Assuerus is so called in the Septuagint of Sixtus, 3 Esdras 2:16. (Menochius)
Ezra 4:7 And in the days of Artaxerxes, Beselam, Mithridates, and Thabeel, and the rest that were in the council, wrote to Artaxerxes, king of the Persians: and the letter of accusation was written in Syriac, and was read in the Syrian tongue.

Artaxerxes may be the Oropastes of Trogus, (Calmet) or the false (Haydock) Smerdis. (Herodotus) --- Beselam, etc. These governed the provinces on the west side of the Euphrates. --- Syriac comprises the Chaldean, with which it has a great resemblance. It was spoken at the court of Babylon. (Xenophon vii.) See 4 Kings 18:26., and 2 Machabees 15:37., and Daniel 2:4.
Ezra 4:8 Reum Beelteem, and Samsai, the scribe, wrote a letter from Jerusalem to king Artaxerxes, in this manner:

Beelteem. Syriac, "the son of Baltam." The term designates the office of Reum, "the master of reason," president of the council, treasurer, etc. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "chancellor." --- From. Protestants, "against." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "concerning."
Ezra 4:9 Reum Beelteem, and Samsai, the scribe, and the rest of their counsellors, the Dinites, and the Apharsathacites, the Therphalites, the Apharsites, the Erchuites, the Babylonians, the Susanechites, the Dievites, and the Elamites,

Counsellors. Septuagint and Syriac, "of our fellow-servants." Chaldean, "colleagues." This letter, and as far as 1 Esdras 6:16, is in the Chaldean language. --- Dinites, perhaps the Denarenians. (Junius) (4 Kings 17:24.) (Calmet)
Ezra 4:10 And the rest of the nations, whom the great and glorious Asenaphar brought over, and made to dwell in the cities of Samaria, and in the rest of the countries of this side of the river, in peace.

Asenaphar, commonly supposed to be the Asarhaddon, though we know not that he caused any of these nations to remove thither, as Salmanasar certainly did. (Calmet) --- The name of the latter occurs in some copies. (Lyranus) --- River, Euphrates. --- In peace. (Haydock) --- The original, ceheneth, is neglected by the Septuagint and Arabic. The Syriac reads, "Acheeneth." Others translate, "at that time," as if the date had been lost. (Junius, etc.) --- Protestants, "and at such a time." (Haydock) --- Others suppose the writers lived "at Kineeth." (Pagnin) --- But who ever heard of such a place? Le Clerc takes it to mean "and the rest," as if the title were curtailed. But it is more probable that the text ought to be Ceheth, as [in] ver. 17, and that we should translate, "beyond the river, (Calmet) as now, (11) unless this word ought to be here omitted, (Haydock) to Artaxerxes, the king, peace (and prosperity) as at present." (Calmet) --- Chaldean sslum ucath, "peace even now." (Haydock) --- So Horace says, suaviter ut nunc est, wishing a continuation of happiness. 3 Esdras 2:17. joins the last word with ver. 12, "And now be it," etc. Canoth may have this sense, (Calmet) and consequently no change is necessary. (Haydock)
Ezra 4:11 (This is the copy of the letter, which they sent to him) To Artaxerxes, the king, thy servants, the men that are on this side of the river, send greeting;

Him. This is a gloss. (Calmet) --- Greeting. Protestants, "and at such a time."
Ezra 4:12 Be it known to the king, that the Jews, who came up from thee to us, are come to Jerusalem, a rebellious and wicked city, which they are building, setting up the ramparts thereof, and repairing the walls.

Rebellious. The Jews had shewn themselves impatient of subjection, contending with the kings of Assyria and Babylon, whose territories were now possessed by the successors of Cyrus, ver. 15. (Haydock)
Ezra 4:13 And now be it known to the king, that if this city be built up, and the walls thereof repaired, they will not pay tribute nor toll, nor yearly revenues, and this loss will fail upon the kings.

Revenues. Septuagint, etc., include all under the term of "tribute."
Ezra 4:14 But we, remembering the salt that we have eaten in the palace, and because we count it a crime to see the king wronged, have, therefore, sent and certified the king,

Eaten. Chaldean, "on account of the salt, with which we have been salted, from the palace." The king's officers were fed from his table. Salt is put for all their emoluments; (Calmet) and hence the word salary is derived. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 31:7.) We may also translate, "because we have demolished the temple, and because," etc. (Kimchi; Grotius, etc.) But this seems to refined. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Now because we have maintenance from the king's palace, and it is not meet," etc. To have neglected their master's interests, would have betrayed great ingratitude and perfidy; particularly if they had entered into a covenant of salt, or solemnly engaged to be ever faithful servants, as the nature of their office implied, Numbers 18:19., and 2 Paralipomenon 13:5. (Haydock) --- Palace, being honoured with much distinction. (Delrio, adag. 215.)
Ezra 4:15 That search may be made in the books of the histories of thy fathers, and thou shalt find written in the records: and shalt know that this city is a rebellious city, and hurtful to the kings and provinces, and that wars were raised therein of old times: for which cause also, the city was destroyed.

Fathers, the preceding emperors, Nabuchodonosor, Salmanasar, etc. (Haydock)
Ezra 4:16 We certify the king, that if this city be built, and the walls thereof repaired, thou shalt have no possession on this side of the river.

Possession. Septuagint have simply, "peace."
Ezra 4:17 The king sent word to Reum Beelteem, and Samsai, the scribe, and to the rest that were in their council, inhabitants of Samaria, and to the rest beyond the river, sending greeting and peace.

Greeting. Protestants, "peace, and at such a time," which has no great meaning. (Haydock) See ver. 10.
Ezra 4:18 The accusation, which you have sent to us, hath been plainly read before me;

Ezra 4:19 And I commanded: and search hath been made, and it is found, that this city of old times hath rebelled against kings, and seditions and wars have been raised therein.

Seditions: so are styled the just efforts of the Jews, to keep or to regain their liberty. (Calmet)
Ezra 4:20 For there have been powerful kings in Jerusalem, who have had dominion over all the country that is beyond the river: and have received tribute, and toll, and revenues.

Kings; only David and Solomon. (Menochius) --- They had made some on the east side of the river pay tribute, though the king may speak of the countries on the west.
Ezra 4:21 Now, therefore, hear the sentence: Hinder those men, that this city be not built, till further orders be given by me.

Hear. Chaldean, "give command," etc. --- Further: literally, "perhaps." (Haydock) --- This was a private edict, which might be rescinded, Daniel 6:7.
Ezra 4:22 See that you be not negligent in executing this, lest by little and little the evil grow to the hurt of the kings.

Ezra 4:23 Now the copy of the edict of king Artaxerxes was read before Reum Beelteem, and Samsai, the scribe, and their counsellors: and they went up in haste to Jerusalem to the Jews, and hindered them with arm and power.

Beelteem, is not in Chaldean. --- Arm, or "force." (Protestants) (Haydock)
Ezra 4:24 Then the work of the house of the Lord in Jerusalem was interrupted, and ceased till the second year of the reign of Darius, king of the Persians.

House. They went beyond the order, which only forbade the building of the city, ver. 21. --- Darius, the year of the world 3485. (Calmet) --- He was the son of Hystaspes, (St. Jerome) and not Nothus, the sixth from Cyrus, as Sulpitius and Scalinger believe. (Tirinus)
Ezra 5:0 By the exhortation of Aggeus, and Zacharias, the people proceed in building the temple: which their enemies strive in vain to hinder.

Ezra 5:1 Now *Aggeus, the prophet, and Zacharias, the son of Addo, prophesied to the Jews that were in Judea and Jerusalem, in the name of the God of Israel.

Year of the World 3485. Addo was grand-father of the prophet, whose writings are extant. (Calmet) --- Both prophesied in the second year of Darius. (Menochius)
Ezra 5:2 Then rose up Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel, and Josue, the son of Josedec, and began to build the temple of God in Jerusalem, and with them were the prophets of God helping them.

Them. Aggeus had rebuked the people for building houses for themselves, while they neglected the temple. The work was hereupon resumed without any fresh order from the king; as the edicts of the usurper, Oropastes, were considered as null, and the Jews only answer the governor, that they had been authorized by Cyrus, ver. 13, 17. Josephus, and 3 Esdras iii., and 4:47., assert that Darius had given leave. (Calmet) (Menochius)
Ezra 5:3 And at the same time came to them, Thathanai, who was governor beyond the river, and Stharbuzanai, and their counsellors: and said thus to them: Who hath given you counsel to build this house, and to repair the walls thereof?

River, over all Syria, etc. This man had not been bribed, but acted with great moderation, and in compliance with his duty. (Calmet) --- Counsel. Chaldean, "order....to make up this wall."
Ezra 5:4 In answer to which we gave them the names of the men who were the promoters of that building.

In. Septuagint, "Then I (or they; eipon. The Syriac and Arabic declare for the latter) said thus to them: What," etc. --- We gave. Chaldean, "what are the names?" (Haydock) --- It seems Thathanai asked this question, ver. 10. The Jews might give in the names of Zorobabel, Josue, Aggeus, etc. (Calmet)
Ezra 5:5 But the eye of their God was upon the ancients of the Jews, and they could not hinder them. And it was agreed, that the matter should be referred to Darius, and then they should give satisfaction concerning that accusation.

Ancients. Septuagint, "captivity of Juda." (Haydock) --- Divine Providence favoured the undertaking. (Delrio adag. 216.) (Menochius) (Psalm 32:18.) --- His eye sometimes threatens ruin, Amos 9:8. (Calmet) --- God did both on this occasion. (Worthington) --- Hinder. Chaldean, "cause them to leave off, till the matter came to Darius, (Haydock) and his decision was brought back;" (Calmet) or Protestants, "and then they returned answer by letter concerning this matter." Septuagint, "and they did not molest them, till the sentence should be brought to (or from) Darius; and then it (word) was sent to the tax-gatherer, concerning this affair."
Ezra 5:6 The copy of the letter that Thathanai, governor of the country beyond the river, and Stharbuzanai, and his counsellors, the Arphasachites, who dwelt beyond the river, sent to Darius, the king.

Ezra 5:7 The letter which they sent him, was written thus: To Darius, the king, all peace.

Ezra 5:8 Be it known to the king, that we went to the province of Judea, to the house of the great God, which they are building with unpolished stones; and timber is laid in the walls: and this work is carried on diligently, and advanceth in their hands.

Unpolished. Protestants, "great." (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "to be rolled." See Vitruv. 10:6. Septuagint, "choice stones." Kimchi, etc., "marble." (Calmet) --- 3 Esdras, "polished and precious stones." (Haydock) --- Yet the Vulgate seems more conformable to 1 Esdras 6:4., and Aggeus 2:2. (Menochius) (Ribera) --- Walls, every fourth course, 3 Kings 6:36. (Calmet)
Ezra 5:9 And we asked those ancients, and said to them thus: Who hath given you authority to build this house, and to repair these walls?

Ezra 5:10 We asked also of them their names, that we might give thee notice: and we have written the names of the men that are the chief among them.

Ezra 5:11 And they answered us in these words, saying: We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and we are building a temple that was built these many years ago, and which a great king of Israel built and set up.

Ezra 5:12 But after that our fathers had provoked the God of heaven to wrath, he delivered them into the hands of Nabuchodonosor, the king of Babylon, the Chaldean: and he destroyed this house, and carried away the people to Babylon.

Ezra 5:13 But in the first year of Cyrus, the king of Babylon, king Cyrus set forth a decree, that this house of God should be built.

Built. It did not appear that this edict had been revoked; (Calmet) nor could it be changed, if it had been passed by the advice of the Lord. (Haydock)
Ezra 5:14 And the vessels also of gold and silver of the temple of God, which Nabuchodonosor had taken out of the temple, that was in Jerusalem, and had brought them to the temple of Babylon, king Cyrus brought out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered to one Sassabasar, whom also he appointed governor,

Governor. Septuagint, "over the treasury."
Ezra 5:15 And said to him: Take these vessels, and go, and put them in the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be built in its place.

Ezra 5:16 Then came this same Sassabasar, and laid the foundations of the temple of God in Jerusalem, and from that time, until now, it is in building, and is not yet finished.

In building, being pretty far advanced, though for some time past it had been at a stand. (Haydock) --- It is not probable that Zorobabel said this, but the author of the letter added it, as he supposed the Jews continued to do some little. (Calmet) --- He desired to favour their cause, yet so as not to irritate the Samaritans. (Menochius)
Ezra 5:17 Now, therefore, if it seem good to the king, let him search in the king's library, which is in Babylon, whether it hath been decreed by Cyrus, the king, that the house of God, in Jerusalem, should be built, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.

Library. Septuagint, "treasury-house." Arabic, "for the archives." It is called "the house of books," 1 Esdras 6:1. (Calmet)
Ezra 6:0 King Darius favoureth the building and contributeth to it.

Ezra 6:1 Then *king Darius gave orders, and they searched in the library of the books that were laid up in Babylon.

Year of the World 3485, Year before Christ 519. Library. Protestants, "house of the rolls, where the treasures were," etc. --- Babylon. In the city, the search was fruitless: (Vatable) but in the kingdom, the record was discovered. (Menochius)
Ezra 6:2 And there was found in Ecbatana, which is a castle in the province of Media, a book in which this record was written.

Ecbatana. Chaldean achmetha, signifies "a jug, or chest." (Calmet) --- "They found in the chest of the palace, under the inscription of Media." (Munster) (Pagnin) --- "And a roll was found (some add, in Amatha) in the city, in a chest, (or tower; Barei) and this memorial was written in it." (Septuagint) Protestants style the place, "Achmetha." (Haydock) --- Arabic, "Athana." Syriac, "Ahmathane." The memoirs of Cyrus had probably been conveyed to Ecbatana, which was built by Dejoces, the first king of the Medes, and greatly enlarged by his successor, Phraortes. (Calmet) --- Province. Media now only formed a province of the empire. (Tirinus)
Ezra 6:3 In the first year of Cyrus, the king: Cyrus, the king, decreed, that the house of God should be built, which is in Jerusalem, in the place where they may offer sacrifices, and that they lay the foundations that may support the height of threescore cubits, and the breadth of threescore cubits,

And....foundations is not found in Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic, but it is in Chaldean. The temple was thus of larger dimensions than that of Solomon, which was only 30 cubits high, and 20 broad inside, 3 Kings 6:2. The Rabbins assign 100 for each, (Tr. Middot. 4:6.) speaking perhaps of the temple rebuilt by Herod, with still greater magnificence. Josephus allows 100 in height, and 60 in breadth. But the Scripture only speaks of 54 cubits breadeth, and 99 in length including the adjoining edifices. (Calmet) --- Breadth, from the front to the end of the holy of holies, which we should call the length. (Tirinus) --- This temple was lower than Solomon's by one half, (2 Paralipomenon 3:4.; Menochius) unless those 120 cubits refer only to a tower. (Haydock)
Ezra 6:4 Three rows of unpolished stones, and so rows of new timber: and the charges shall be given out of the king's house.

Unpolished, to correspond with the polished stones and cedar employed by Solomon, 3 Kings 6:36. (Menochius) --- Protestants, "great stones." See 1 Esdras 5:8. --- Charges. It appears that the Jews furnished money and meat to pay for the wood, 1 Esdras 1:4., and 3:7. Some annual sum might be assigned by Cyrus, either for the building, or for the daily holocausts. (Calmet)
Ezra 6:5 And, also, let the golden and silver vessels of the temple of God, which Nabuchodonosor took out of the temple of Jerusalem, and brought to Babylon, be restored, and carried back to the temple of Jerusalem, to their place, which also were placed in the temple of God.

Placed formerly, before the destruction of the temple. Protestants, "and place them in the house of God."
Ezra 6:6 Now, therefore, Thathanai, governor of the country beyond the river, Stharbuzanai, and your counsellors, the Apharsachites, who are beyond the river, depart far from them.

Ezra 6:7 And let that temple of God be built by the governor of the Jews, and by their ancients, that they may build that house of God in its place.

Ezra 6:8 I also have commanded what must be done by those ancients of the Jews, that the house of God may be built, to wit, that of the king's chest, that is, of the tribute that is paid out of the country beyond the river, the charges be diligently given to those men, lest the work be hindered.

Hindered. Thus Darius trod in the footsteps, or perhaps exceeded the liberality of Cyrus. (Haydock)
Ezra 6:9 And if it shall be necessary, let calves, also, and lambs, and kids, for holocausts to the God of heaven, wheat, salt, wine, and oil, according to the custom of the priests that are in Jerusalem, be given them day by day, that there be no complaint in any thing.

Complaint. Protestants, "without fail," (Haydock) or "delay." (Montanus) (Calmet)
Ezra 6:10 And let them offer oblations to the God of heaven, and pray for the life of the king, and of his children.

Ezra 6:11 And I have made a decree: That ii any, whosoever, shall alter this commandment, a beam be taken from his house, and set up, and he be nailed upon it, and his house be confiscated.

Nailed. Protestants, "hanged." Septuagint, "covered with wounds, or fastened on it." (Haydock) --- Some think that the criminal was to be scourged. (De Dieu) --- "Let him be hanged on the wood, which shall stand upright, after his house shall have been demolished." (Vatable) --- Such was the custom of the Persians. (Grotius) --- Aman perished on the gallows, which he had erected in his own house for Mardocheus, Esther 7:9. --- Confiscated. Protestants, "be made a dunghill for this." (Haydock) (Syriac, etc.) --- We find some examples of such a treatment, 4 Kings 10:27., and Daniel 3:5., and 9:6. The effects of those who were condemned to die, in Persia, were generally confiscated, Esther 3:13., and 8:11., and 9:14.
Ezra 6:12 And may the God, that hath caused his name to dwell there, destroy all kingdoms, and the people that shall put out their hand to resist, and to destroy the house of God, that is in Jerusalem. I, Darius, have made the decree, which I will have diligently complied with.

Ezra 6:13 So then Thathanai, governor of the country beyond the river, and Stharbuzanai, and his counsellors, diligently executed what Darius, the king, had commanded.

Ezra 6:14 And the ancients of the Jews built, and prospered, according to the prophecy of Aggeus, the prophet, and of Zacharias, the son of Addo: and they built and finished, by the commandment of the God of Israel, and by the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes, kings of the Persians.

Artaxerxes, one of the seven who overturned the power of the magi; (Usher, the year of the world 3483) or rather the king of Persia, who lived some time after this, and was very favourable to the Jews. He sent Esdras (the year of the world 3537) and Nehemias (the year of the world 3550) with great powers into the country. (Calmet)
Ezra 6:15 And they were finishing this house of God, until the third day of the month of Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of king Darius.

Adar, corresponding with our February and March. (Menochius) --- In the latter month they celebrated the Passover, ver. 19. --- Darius. Hence twenty years had elapsed from the first foundation. They might continue to embellish the temple other twenty-seven years, as the Jews assert; (John 2:20,) unless they speak of the repairs made by Herod, (Baronius; Tirinus) or exaggerate, (Grotius) being under a mistake. (Salien, the year of the world 3537.)
Ezra 6:16 And the children of Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and the rest of the children of the captivity, kept the dedication of the house of God with joy.

Ezra 6:17 And they offered at the dedication of the house of God, a hundred calves, two hundred rams, four hundred lambs, and for a sin-offering, for all Israel, twelve he-goats, according to the number of the tribes of Israel.

Goats, which had not left off sucking. (Menochius) (Numbers 7:87.) --- Israel. The Samaritan Chronicles assert that the tribes returned, as the prophets had foretold, and the sacred history seems to suppose: (Calmet) which may be true of many, (Haydock) though the greatest part remained in captivity. (Calmet)
Ezra 6:18 And they set the priests in their divisions, and the Levites, in their courses, over the works of God, in Jerusalem, *as it is written in the book of Moses.

Numbers 3:6.; Numbers 8:9.
Moses. (Numbers 3:8.) David had perfected the plan, 1 Paralipomenon xxiii., etc. (Haydock)
Ezra 6:19 And the children of Israel, of the captivity, kept the Phase, *on the fourteenth day of the first month.

Year of the World 3489, Year before Christ 515. And. Here the author resumes the Hebrew language. (Calmet) --- Captivity, from which they were released, ver. 17. (Haydock)
Ezra 6:20 For all the priests and the Levites were purified as one man: all were clean to kill the Phase for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren, the priests, and themselves.

One man, with zeal and unanimity; so that a second Phase was not to be celebrated, 2 Paralipomenon 30:3.
Ezra 6:21 And the children of Israel that were returned from captivity, and all that had separated themselves from the filthiness of the nations of the earth to them, to seek the Lord, the God of Israel, did eat.

To them, becoming proselytes, and receiving circumcision, Exodus 12:48.
Ezra 6:22 And they kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days, with joy; for the Lord had made them joyful, and had turned the heart of the king of Assyria to them, that he should help their hands in the work of the house of the Lord, the God of Israel.

Assyria. The successors of Cyrus now ruled over those countries, (Calmet) which had belonged to the most potent Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs; and therefore the titles are given to them indiscriminately. (Tirinus)
Ezra 7:0 Esdras goeth up to Jerusalem, to teach and assist the people, with a gracious decree of Artaxerxes.

Ezra 7:1 Now *after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians, Esdras, the son of Saraias, the son of Azarias, the son of Helcias,

Year of the World 3531. Things, sixty-eight years after the journey of Zorobabel. (Calmet) --- Salien adds ten years more. (Haydock) --- Artaxerxes Longimanus. (Menochius) (Tirinus) --- Son, or great grandson of Saraias, who had been slain 121 years. Esdras was still living, in the days of Nehemias. Many persons are omitted in this genealogy. The immediate descendants of Azarias may be found, 1 Paralipomenon vi. Similarity of names has occasioned many mistakes. 3 Esdras viii. reckons only eleven persons between Aaron and Esdras; and 4 Esdras 1:has eighteen; whereas here we behold sixteen generations, and [in] 1 Paralipomenon, twenty-two. (Calmet)
Ezra 7:2 The son of Sellum, the son of Sadoc, the son of Achitob,

Ezra 7:3 The son of Amarias, the son of Azarias, the son of Maraioth,

Ezra 7:4 The son of Zarahias, the son of Ozi, the son of Bocci,

Ezra 7:5 The son of Abisue, the son of Phinees, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, the priest, from the beginning.

Beginning of the Jewish republic.
Ezra 7:6 This Esdras went up from Babylon, and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses, which the Lord God had given to Israel: and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the Lord, his God, upon him.

Went up, a second time, 2 Esdras 12:1. (Worthington) --- Ready. Hebrew mahir, "diligent," etc. (Haydock) --- Scribe, not so much noted for his skill in writing fast, or drawing up deeds, as for his knowledge of the divine law. (Calmet) --- The gospel sometimes gives the title of scribe to the doctors of the law, Matthew 22:35., with Mark 12:28. It is peculiarly due to Esdras, who gave a correct copy of the Scriptures, and wrote them in a different character, leaving the ancient one to the Samaritans, that the people might be less connected. (Bellarmine, De Verb. 20:1, citing (Tirinus) the most learned Fathers and Jewish writers. (Calmet, Diss.) --- The author of 4 Esdras (xiv. 19,) intimates that the sacred books had been all destroyed, and were dictated again to Esdras by the Holy Spirit. But this book is not of sufficient authority to establish so dangerous an opinion; (Haydock) which is refuted by the whole context of the Bible, in which we see that the law was never forgotten. (Calmet, Diss.) (Du Hamel) --- As Esdras was inspired, what additions he might make, must be accounted divine and authentic. (Calmet) --- Hand; protection, (Delrio, adag. 217,) or inspiration. (Menochius) --- God can incline the heart of the king, (Proverbs xxi.) to accomplish his decrees. (Haydock)
Ezra 7:7 And there went up some of the children of Israel, and of the children of the priests, and of the children of the Levites, and of the singing men, and of the porters, and of the Nathinites, to Jerusalem, in the seventh year* of Artaxerxes, the king.

Year of the World 3537.
Ezra 7:8 And they came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, in the seventh year of the king.

Ezra 7:9 For upon the first day of the first month he began to go up from Babylon, and on the first day of the fifth month he came to Jerusalem, according to the good hand of his God upon him.

Month. Thus four entire months were spent on the journey, as they did not go the shortest way, and had much baggage, etc. (Calmet)
Ezra 7:10 For Esdras had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do and to teach, in Israel, the commandments and judgment.

Heart. Thinking continually (Menochius) how he might keep the law himself, and direct others. (Haydock) --- It would be well if all would thus teach by example, like Jesus Christ, who began to do and then to teach. (Haydock) --- Judgment. Both these terms express the same thing. (Menochius)
Ezra 7:11 And this is the copy of the letter of the edict, which king Artaxerxes gave to Esdras, the priest, the scribe, instructed in the words and commandments of the Lord, and his ceremonies in Israel.

Of the edict, is a farther explanation of the letter. (Haydock)
Ezra 7:12 Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Esdras, the priest, the most learned scribe of the law of the God of heaven, greeting.

Kings. This title was placed on the tomb of Cyrus, (Strabo xv.) and denoted a very powerful king. Artaxerxes had many tributaries in Media, Sidon, etc. The kings of Assyria had before assumed such pompous titles, Osee 8:10. (Calmet) --- The most learned, comes later in the original Chaldean. (Haydock) --- "The priest, scribe of the law,...perfection, (health and happiness, (Calmet) or consummate in learning, etc.; Haydock) as at present." (Calmet) --- Gemir uceheneth, "perfection (Castel. Lexic.) even now," 1 Esdras 4:10. Protestants, "perfect peace, and at such a time." (Haydock)
Ezra 7:13 It is decreed by me, that all they of the people of Israel, and of the priests, and of the Levites, in my realm, that are minded to go into Jerusalem, should go with thee.

Ezra 7:14 For thou art sent from before the king, and his seven counsellors, to visit Judea and Jerusalem, according to the law of thy God, which is in thy hand.

Counsellors. Interpreters of the laws. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 11:6.) --- The number seems to have been established at the courts of the Assyrian and Chaldean monarchs, Tobias 12:15. We find their names, Esther 1:10, 14. The history of this queen happened in the reign of Darius Hystaspes. (Calmet) --- Hand. By this he was to pass sentence, ver. 25. (Haydock) --- The Jews were authorized to follow their own laws (Calmet) under the Persian dominion, ver. 26. (Tirinus)
Ezra 7:15 And to carry the silver and gold, which the king and his counsellors have freely offered to the God of Israel, whose tabernacle is in Jerusalem.

Ezra 7:16 And all the silver and gold that thou shalt find in all the province of Babylon, and that the people is willing to offer, and that the priests shall offer of their own accord to the house of their God, which is in Jerusalem,

Babylon, which the Chaldeans may freely give. (Menochius)
Ezra 7:17 Take freely, and buy diligently with this money, calves, rams, lambs, with the sacrifices and libations of them, and offer them upon the altar of the temple of your God, that is in Jerusalem.

Ezra 7:18 And if it seem good to thee, and to thy brethren, to do any thing with the rest of the silver and gold, do it according to the will of your God.

Ezra 7:19 The vessels, also, that are given thee for the sacrifice of the house of thy God, deliver thou in the sight of God in Jerusalem.

Ezra 7:20 And whatsoever more there shall be need of for the house of thy God, how much soever thou shalt have occasion to spend, it shall be given out of the treasury, and the king's exchequer, and by me.

By me. Hebrew, "to spend, take it out of the king's treasure-house." Septuagint adds, "and from me."
Ezra 7:21 I, Artaxerxes, the king, have ordered and decreed to all the keepers of the public chest, that are beyond the river, that whatsoever Esdras, the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, shall require of you, you give it without delay,

Ezra 7:22 Unto a hundred talents of silver, and unto a hundred cores of wheat, and unto a hundred bates of wine, and unto a hundred bates of oil, and salt without measure.

Salt was used in all the sacrifices, Leviticus 2:13. In 3 Esdras no mention is made of oil or salt; but we read, "and all other things in abundance."
Ezra 7:23 All that belongeth to the rights of the God of heaven, let it be given diligently in the house of the God of heaven: lest his wrath should be enkindled against the realm of the king, and of his sons.

Ezra 7:24 We give you also to understand, concerning all the priests, and the Levites, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nathinites, and ministers of the house of this God, that you have no authority to impose toll, or tribute, or custom, upon them.

Nathinites. 3 Esdras, "sacred slaves." (Haydock) --- Artaxerxes confirms the immunities granted by the law of God, (Numbers 3:6, 12,) by the kings of Egypt, (Genesis 47:22,) and by all nations, to the ministers of religion. (Calmet)
Ezra 7:25 And thou, Esdras, according to the wisdom of thy God, which is in thy hand, appoint judges and magistrates, that may judge all the people, that is beyond the river, that is, for them who know the law of thy God, yea, and the ignorant teach ye freely.

River. 3 Esdras, "In all Syria and Phenicia." (Haydock) --- Hitherto, it seems, the royal judges had decided all affairs of consequence, which required any public chastisement.
Ezra 7:26 And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king diligently, judgment shall be executed upon him, either unto death, or unto banishment, or to the confiscation of goods, or at least to prison.

Banishment. Hebrew literally, "eradication" by death or exile, (Calmet) or by being cut off from all society, 1 Esdras 10:8. (De Dieu) --- Septuagint, "correction." (Haydock)
Ezra 7:27 Blessed be the Lord, the God of our fathers, who hath put this in the king's heart, to glorify the house of the Lord, which is in Jerusalem,

Blessed. Here the author beings to write again in Hebrew and in the following verse, Esdras speaks in [the first] person. (Calmet)
Ezra 7:28 And hath inclined his mercy toward me before the king and his counsellors, and all the mighty princes of the king: and I being strengthened by the hand of the Lord, my God, which was upon me, gathered together out of Israel, chief men, to go up with me.

Ezra 8:0 The companions of Esdras. The fast which he appointed. They bring the holy vessels into the temple.

Ezra 8:1 Now* these are the chiefs of families, and the genealogy of them, who came up with me, from Babylon, in the reign of Artaxerxes, the king.

Year of the World 3537.
Ezra 8:2 Of the sons of Phinees, Gersom. Of the sons of Ithamar, Daniel. Of the sons of David, Hattus.

Hattus. He was of the royal family, (Haydock) as the former were descendants of the two sons of Aaron. (Calmet) --- The great numbers which were persuaded to return from Babylon, signify the conversions made by holy preachers. (Ven. Bede) (Worthington)
Ezra 8:3 Of the sons of Sechenias, the son of Pharos, Zacharias, and with him were numbered a hundred and fifty men.

Ezra 8:4 Of the sons of Phahath Moab, Eleoenai, the son of Zareha, and with him two hundred men.

Ezra 8:5 Of the sons of Sechenias, the son of Ezechiel, and with him three hundred men.

Sons. Septuagint and Arabic add, "of Zathoe, Sechenias, the son of Aziel." The Syriac supplies the name of "Gado, the son of Nehzael," which seems to have been lost. (Calmet) --- Junius translates, "of the descendants Sechenias N. son of Jahaziel."
Ezra 8:6 Of the sons of Adan, Abed, the son of Jonathan, and with him fifty men.

Ezra 8:7 Of the sons of Alam, Isaias, the son of Athalias, and with him seventy men.

Ezra 8:8 Of the sons of Saphatia, Zebedia, the son of Michael, and with him eighty men.

Ezra 8:9 Of the sons of Joab, Obedia, the son of Jahiel, and with him two hundred and eighteen men.

Ezra 8:10 Of the sons of Selomith, the son of Josphia, and with him a hundred and sixty men.

Sons of. Septuagint supply "Baani," whose name occurs, 1 Esdras 2:10, and is here visibly wanting. (Calmet)
Ezra 8:11 Of the sons of Bebai, Zacharias, the son of Bebai: and with him eight and twenty men.

Ezra 8:12 Of the sons of Azgad, Joanan, the son of Eccetan, and with him a hundred and ten men.

Ezra 8:13 Of the sons of Adonicam, who were the last: and these are their names: Eliphelet, and Jehiel, and Samaias, and with them sixty men.

Last. Coming after their brethren, 1 Esdras 2:13.
Ezra 8:14 Of the sons of Begui, Uthai and Zachur, and with them seventy men.

Zachur. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Zabud." (Calmet) --- Two letters have been mistaken. (Haydock)
Ezra 8:15 And I gathered them together to the river, which runneth down to Ahava, and we stayed there three days: and I sought among the people, and among the priests, for the sons of Levi, and found none there.

Ahava. This river (ver. 21., and 31.) runs through the territory of the same name, called Hava; (4 Kings 17:24.) the people of which exchanged places with the Israelites. Esdras makes a circuit to prevail on some of the latter to return with him, unless he began his journey from Susa. Babylon comprises all that country. (Calmet) --- None there, who were not priests, ver. 2. (Lyranus) (Menochius)
Ezra 8:16 So I sent Eliezer, and Ariel, and Semeias, and Elnathan, and Jarib, and another Elnathan, and Nathan, and Zacharias, and Mosollam, chief men: and Joiarib, and Elnathan,, wise men.

Sent. Septuagint, etc., "to Eliezer," etc., in order to give them his orders what to say to Eddo, who presided at Chasphia, as the sequel shews. --- Wise men, instructors of the people, (2 Paralipomenon 35:3.; Calmet) Levites. (Menochius)
Ezra 8:17 And I sent them to Eddo, who is chief in the place of Chasphia, and I put in their mouth the words that they should speak to Eddo, and his brethren, the Nathinites, in the place of Chasphia, that they should bring us ministers of the house of our God.

Chasphia. The Caspian mountains, between Media and Hyrcania. Here the Nathinites were forced to labour, under Eddo. The service of the temple would be far more eligible. (Calmet)
Ezra 8:18 And by the good hand of our God upon us, they brought us a most learned man of the sons of Moholi, the son of Levi, the son of Israel, and Sarabias, and his sons, and his brethren, eighteen.

Ezra 8:19 And Hasabias, and with him Isaias, of the sons of Merari, and his brethren, and his sons, twenty.

Ezra 8:20 And of the Nathinites, whom David, and the princes, gave for the service of the Levites, Nathinites, two hundred and twenty: all these were called by their names.

Ezra 8:21 And I proclaimed there a fast by the river Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before the Lord, our God, and might ask of him a right way for us, and for our children, and for all our substance.

Fast it seems for eight days, so that they departed on the 12th, ver. 31. (Menochius) --- It will not suffice to leave sin, we must also do works of satisfaction. (Worthington)
Ezra 8:22 For I was ashamed to ask the king for aid, and for horsemen, to defend us from the enemy in the way: because we had said to the king: The hand of our God is upon all them that seek him in goodness: and his power and strength, and wrath, upon all them that forsake him.

Forsake him. Apostates are treated with the greatest severity. (Menochius) --- Esdras thought that the glory of God was at stake, and he would not shew any diffidence in Providence, or scandalize the infidels. (Calmet) --- We ought not to ask princes for what we should despise. (Du Hamel)
Ezra 8:23 And we fasted, and besought our God for this: and it fell out prosperously unto us.

Ezra 8:24 And I separated twelve of the chief of the priests, Sarabias, and Hasabias, and with them ten of their brethren,

Ezra 8:25 And I weighed unto them the silver and gold, and the vessels consecrated for the house of our God, which the king and his counsellors, and his princes, and all Israel, that were found, had offered.

Ezra 8:26 And I weighed to their hands six hundred and fifty talents of silver, and a hundred vessels of silver, and a hundred talents of gold,

A hundred. Hebrew adds, "talents," vessels of silver. (Haydock) --- Some Rabbins suppose there were only 100, each of this weight, which is not probable. All the silver vessels, of different sizes, weighed 100 talents. There was the same quantity of golden vessels. (Calmet)
Ezra 8:27 And twenty cups of gold, of a thousand solids, and two vessels of the best shining brass, beautiful as gold.

Solids. Hebrew adarconim. Darics, equivalent to the golden sicle. (Calmet) (1 Paralipomenon 29:7.) --- Best. Protestants, "of fine copper, precious as gold." It might resemble the Corinthian brass, or aurichalcum, (Haydock) composed of gold, silver, and brass melted together, in the burning of Corinth, by L. Mummius. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 34:2.) --- Yet no such Corinthian vessels have come down to us; so that the account seems fabulous; and, at any rate, the city was not taken in the days of Esdras, but in the year 608 of Rome. We cannot say whether he speaks of copper, brass, etc. (Calmet)
Ezra 8:28 And I said to them: You are the holy ones of the Lord, and the vessels are holy, and the silver and gold, that is freely offered to the Lord, the God of our fathers.

Ezra 8:29 Watch ye, and keep them, till you deliver them by weight before the chief of the priests, and of the Levites, and the heads of the families of Israel, in Jerusalem, into the treasure of the house of the Lord.

Ezra 8:30 And the priests, and the Levite,s received the weight of the silver and gold, and the vessels, to carry them to Jerusalem, to the house of our God.

Ezra 8:31 Then we set forward from the river Ahava, on the twelfth day of the first month, to go to Jerusalem: and the hand of our God was upon us, and delivered us from the hand of the enemy, and of such as lay in wait by the way.

Ezra 8:32 And we came to Jerusalem, and we stayed there three days.

Ezra 8:33 And on the fourth day the silver, and the gold, and the vessels, were weighed in the house of our God, by the hand of Meremoth, the son of Urias, the priest; and with him was Eleazar, the son of Phinees, and with them Jozabad, the son of Josue, and Noadaia, the son of Bennoi, Levites.

Ezra 8:34 According to the number and weight of every thing: and all the weight was written at that time.

Ezra 8:35 Moreover, the children of them that had been carried away, that were come out of the captivity, offered holocausts to the God of Israel, twelve calves for all the people of Israel, ninety-six rams, seventy-seven lambs, and twelve he-goats for sin: all for a holocaust to the Lord.

Israel. Some of the different tribes certainly returned, 1 Esdras 6:17.
Ezra 8:36 And they gave the king's edicts to the lords that were from the king's court, and the governors beyond the river, and they furthered the people and the house of God.

Lords, (satrapis.) 3 Esdras, "to the royal officers and governors of Coelosyria and Phenicia; and they glorified," etc. --- Furthered, by their assistance (Haydock) and praise. They formed their sentiments, as is usual, by those of the king. (Calmet)
Ezra 9:0 Esdras mourneth for the transgression of the people: his confession and prayer.

Ezra 9:1 And* after these things were accomplished, the princes came to me, saying: The people of Israel, and the priests, and Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, and from their abominations, namely, of the Chanaanites, and the Hethites, and the Pherezites, and the Jebusites, and the Ammonites, and the Moabites, and the Egyptians, and the Amorrhites.

Year of the World 3538, Year before Christ 466. Abominations, or sins, (Menochius) marrying with infidels, contrary to the law, Exodus 34:15., and Deuteronomy 7:3. (Du Hamel) --- Malachias 2:11. reprehends this conduct, and threatens both rulers and people who tolerate it, with God's indignation. (Worthington)
Ezra 9:2 For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons, and they have mingled the holy seed with the people of the lands. And the hand of the princes and magistrates hath been first in this transgression.

First. Or "was in this first transgression," incurred by those who returned with Zorobabel; or "was concerned in this very heinous transgression;" in transgressione hac prima. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "hath been chief." 3 Esdras, "and the leaders and grandees partook in this illegal affair, from its commencement." Septuagint, "and the hand of the chiefs was in this trespass, in the beginning." This would greatly increase the difficulty of reformation. Some of the princes were however ready to undertake the work, and had preserved themselves from the too general contagion. (Haydock) --- All marriages with the Moabites, etc., were prohibited, if the women remained infidels, Exodus xxxiv. (Tirinus)
Ezra 9:3 And when I had heard this word, I rent my mantle and my coat, and plucked off the hairs of my head and my beard, and I sat down mourning.

Coat, (tunicam) or inner garment. (Haydock) --- Mourning. Hebrew, "astonished." (Syriac) (Montanus) (Calmet) (Protestants) --- Septuagint, "alone." 3 Esdras, "pensive and in grief." (Haydock) --- Arabic, "not uttering a word." See Job 1:20., and 2:8. This was the ordinary posture of people in sorrow, Isaias 3:26. (Calmet)
Ezra 9:4 And there were assembled to me all that feared the God of Israel, because of the transgression of those, that were come from the captivity, and I sat sorrowful, until the evening sacrifice.

To me, in the court of the temple, 1 Esdras 10:1. (Menochius) --- Sacrifice, which was offered last of all, about sun-set, Exodus 29:38. The Jews commonly protract their fasts till the stars appear. (Leo, p. 3, art. 8.)
Ezra 9:5 And at the evening sacrifice I rose up from my affliction, and having rent my mantle and my garment, I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands to the Lord, my God,

Ezra 9:6 And said: My God, I am confounded and ashamed to lift up my face to thee: for our iniquities are multiplied over our heads, and our sins are grown up even unto heaven,

Ezra 9:7 From the days of our fathers: and we ourselves, also, have sinned grievously unto this day, and for our iniquities we, and our kings, and our priests, have been delivered into the hands of the kings of the lands, and to the sword, and to captivity, and to spoil, and to confusion of face, as it is at this day.

At this day. Notwithstanding the favourable decrees of Cyrus, etc., the greatest part of the people continued in captivity, being dispersed, some into Egypt, others into distant countries, beyond the Euphrates. (Calmet)
Ezra 9:8 And now as a little, and, for a moment, has our prayer been made before the Lord, our God, to leave us a remnant, and give us a pin in his holy place, and that our God would enlighten our eyes, and would give us a little life in our bondage.

As a. Protestants, "for a little space, grace hath been shewed from the Lord," (Haydock) and yet we are again irritating Him! (Calmet) --- A pin, or nail, here signifies a small settlement or holding; which Esdras begs for, to preserve even a part of the people, who, by their great iniquity, had incurred the anger of God. (Challoner) --- Allusion is made to the pins which fasten down a tent, (Isaias 33:20., and 54:2.) or hinder a ship from being carried from the shore, (Tigur.; Menochius) on which utensils are hung up, (Tournemine) referring to the magistrates, who were now of the same country. (Tirinus) (Isaias 22:21.) (Delrio, adag. 218.) --- Septuagint, "a support." Hebrew yathed, denotes also a walking-stick, nail, etc. (Menochius) --- Eyes, fill us with joy, in perfect security. --- Little life, free us from danger. (Calmet) --- Esdras is afraid to ask for the impunity of all, but only begs that a small part may be spared, like a nail or post from a house, which may serve to rebuild it. (Worthington)
Ezra 9:9 For we are bondmen, and in our bondage our God hath not forsaken us, but hath extended mercy upon us before the king of the Persians, to give us life, and to set up the house of our God, and to rebuild the desolations thereof, and to give us a fence in Juda and Jerusalem.

Fence. Hebrew gader, "the name which the Carthaginians" gave to Cadiz, "as it signifies a fence," or an inclosure. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xxii.) (Calmet) --- Some Latin manuscripts read spem, "hope." (Lyranus) --- The Tig. version understands the wall of Jerusalem, built in a hurry. (Menochius) --- But this was not perfected, (Haydock) if begun, till the time of Nehemias, 2 Esdras 1:3. (Calmet) --- God gave his protection to the people, (Haydock; Delrio, adag. 219.) by the king of Persia. (Tirinus)
Ezra 9:10 And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? for we have forsaken thy commandments,

Ezra 9:11 Which thou hast commanded by the hand of thy servants, the prophets, saying: The land which you go to possess, is an unclean land, according to the uncleanness of the people, and of other lands, with their abominations, who have filled it from mouth to mouth with their filth.

Mouth, like a vessel brim-full. (Menochius) --- Protestants, "from one end to the other." (Haydock)
Ezra 9:12 *Now, therefore, give not your daughters to their sons, and take not their daughters for your sons, and seek not their peace, nor their prosperity forever; that you may be strengthened, and may eat the good things of the land, and may have your children your heirs for ever.

Deuteronomy 7:3.
Peace. Alliance, (Menochius) or advantage. See Psalm 121:8. Moses had thus proscribed the Moabites, etc., as he had done the people of Chanaan still more severely. The Israelites were to execute God's decrees, Deuteronomy 23:6. (Calmet) --- The obstinate idolaters were to be exterminated.
Ezra 9:13 And after all that is come upon us, for our most wicked deeds, and our great sin, seeing that thou, our God, hast saved us from our iniquity, and hast given us a deliverance as at this day.

Saved us. Protestants, "hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve and hast given us such deliverance as this." Septuagint, "hast made our transgressions light," (Haydock) not weighing them with rigid severity. (Calmet)
Ezra 9:14 That we should not turn away, nor break thy commandments, nor join in marriage with the people of these abominations. Art thou angry with us unto utter destruction, not to leave us a remnant to be saved?

That. Hebrew, "should we again break, etc....Wouldst thou not be angry?" etc.
Ezra 9:15 O Lord God of Israel, thou art just: for we remain yet to be saved, as at this day. Behold we are before thee in our sin, for there can be no standing before thee in this matter.

To be saved from our iniquities, which are still upon us. (Haydock) --- We confess that, if we should be treated according to our deserts, we could expect no redress. But we trust in thy mercies, which have hitherto supported and brought us back from slavery. (Calmet)
Ezra 10:0 Order is taken for discharging strange women: the names of the guilty.

Ezra 10:1 Now *when Esdras was thus praying, and beseeching, and weeping, and lying before the temple of God, there was gathered to him of Israel an exceeding great assembly of men and women, and children, and the people wept with much lamentation.

Year of the World 3538, Year before Christ 466. God, in the court of the people, before the eastern gate.
Ezra 10:2 And Sechenias, the son of Jehiel, of the sons of Elam, answered, and said to Esdras: We have sinned against our God, and have taken strange wives of the people of the land: and now, if there be repentance in Israel concerning this,

Sechenias. 3 Esdras calls him "Jechonias." See 1 Esdras 8:5. The name of Sechenias is not found among the transgressors; (ver. 20.) but that of Jehiel is, ver. 26. It seems, however, that the former returned with Esdras, and speaks in the name of the people, to encourage them to confess their guilt, (Calmet) unless his name be omitted. (Menochius) --- Repentance. Hebrew, "yet there is hope, (Protestants) or an assembly of Israel." (Du Dieu)
Ezra 10:3 Let us make a covenant with the Lord, our God, to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the will of the Lord, and of them that fear the commandment of the Lord, our God: let it be done according to the law.

Covenant. The marrying with strange women seemed to have annulled the covenant of God. --- Of them. The children were to follow the mothers, as in other unlawful connections. Their being suffered to remain behind, might have had dangerous consequences. (Calmet) --- The custom of divorcing was then in force, (Tirinus) and the Jews looked upon all as null, which was done contrary to the law; (Ven. Bede; Estius; Calmet; Grotius) though here the law was only prohibitory. (Cajetan) (Tirinus) --- As all was directed by the will of God, the dictates of humanity would not be disregarded (Calmet) on this trying occasion. (Haydock) --- The children migth be placed in houses for education. (Cajetan) (Tirinus)
Ezra 10:4 Arise, it is thy part to give orders, and we will be with thee: take courage, and do it.

Thy part. The high priest not acting, (Menochius) Esdras was appointed chief, (Haydock) and his abilities were universally acknowledged. (Calmet)
Ezra 10:5 So Esdras arose, and made the chiefs of the priests and of the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they would do according to this word; and they swore.

Ezra 10:6 And Esdras rose up from before the house of God, and went to the chamber of Johanan, the son of Eliasib, and entered in thither: he eat no bread, and drank no water: for he mourned for the transgression of them that were come out of the captivity.

Before. 3 Esdras, "the court or hall of the temple." (Haydock) --- Eliasib. His son and successor is styled Joiada, 2 Esdras 12:10. The same person had often many names, (Calmet) or Johanan might be a younger son. (Menochius) --- Josephus ([Antiquities?] 11:5.) says, that Esdras went to the apartments of John and Eliasib. (Haydock) --- Esdras, though sent extraordinarily by God, repairs to the son of the priest, as St. Paul conferred with other apostles, Galatians 2:(Worthington)
Ezra 10:7 And proclamation was made in Juda, and Jerusalem, to all the children of the captivity, that they should assemble together into Jerusalem.

Ezra 10:8 And that whosoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes, and the ancients, all his substance should be taken away, and he should be cast out of the company of them that were returned from captivity.

Away. Hebrew and Septuagint, "subjected to anathema," (Calmet) and utterly destroyed; (Haydock) or, according to some editions of the Septuagint and Josephus, "consecrated to the temple." Esdras exercises the power which had been entrusted to him, 1 Esdras 7:16.
Ezra 10:9 Then all the men of Juda, and Benjamin, gathered themselves together to Jerusalem within three days, in the ninth month, the twentieth day of the month: and all the people sat in the street of the house of God, trembling, because of the sin, and the rain.

Ninth. Casleu, (Zacharias 7:1.) which corresponds with our November and December. (Menochius) --- Street. Court, which afforded as yet no shelter from the rain. (Calmet) --- This would tend to punish them for their sin, and to make them more sensible of it. (Worthington)
Ezra 10:10 And Esdras, the priest, stood up, and said to them: You have transgressed, and taken strange wives, to add to the sins of Israel.

Ezra 10:11 And now make confession to the Lord, the God of your fathers, and do his pleasure, and separate yourselves from the people of the land, and from your strange wives.

Confession. Septuagint, "give praise;" which is done by repentance and virtue. (Menochius) --- Confess your faults, and submit to the justice of God, Josue 7:19. (Calmet)
Ezra 10:12 And all the multitude answered, and said with a loud voice: According to thy word unto us, so be it done.

Ezra 10:13 But as the people are many, and it is time of rain, and we are not able to stand without, and it is not a work of one day or two, (for we have exceedingly sinned in this matter)

Ezra 10:14 Let rulers be appointed in all the multitude: and in all our cities, let them that have taken strange wives come at the times appointed, and with them the ancients, and the judges of every city, until the wrath of our God be turned away from us for this sin.

Cities. It is not clear whether the rulers went to the different cities, or the principal men of each gave information, and caused the guilty to appear before Esdras, at Jerusalem. (Haydock)
Ezra 10:15 Then Jonathan, the son of Azahel, and Jaasia, the son of Thecua, were appointed over this, and Mosollam and Sebethai, Levites, helped them.

Ezra 10:16 And the children of the captivity did so. And Esdra,s the priest, and the men, heads of the families in the houses of their fathers, and all by their names, went and sat down, in the first day of the tenth month, to examine the matter.

So. Cajetan improperly concludes, that the sentence was not put in execution; because Nehemias (chap. 13:23.) complains of such marriages. (Calmet) --- But the guilty might have resumed their women. (Haydock) --- Went. Hebrew, "were separated." (Haydock) --- By making a small change, we may translate, with 3 Esdras, "and Esdras separated or chose the men." Josephus seems generally to have followed the Greek of 3 Esdras. The Syriac says there were 20 judges.
Ezra 10:17 And they made an end with all the men that had taken strange wives, by the first day of the first month.

Ezra 10:18 And there were found among the sons of the priests, that had taken strange wives: Of the sons of Josue, the son of Josedec, and his brethren, Maasia, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Godolia.

Ezra 10:19 And they gave their hands to put away their wives, and to offer for their offence a ram of the flock.

Hands. Thus the Persians confirmed their most solemn engagements. (Calmet)
Ezra 10:20 And of the sons of Emmer, Hanani, and Zebedia.

Ezra 10:21 And of the sons of Harim, Maasia, and Elia, and Semeia, and Jehiel, and Ozias.

Ezra 10:22 And of the sons of Pheshur, Elioenai, Maasia, Ismael, Nathanael, Jozabed, and Elasa.

Ezra 10:23 And of the sons of the Levites, Jozabed, and Semei, and Celaia, the same is Calita; Phataia, Juda, and Eliezer.

Ezra 10:24 And of the singing-men, Eliasib: and of the porters, Sellum, and Telem, and Uri.

Ezra 10:25 And of Israel, of the sons of Pharos, Remeia, and Jezia, and Melchia, and Miamin, and Eliezer, and Melchia, and Banea.

Israel. Laymen, (Calmet) not of the tribe of Levi. (Menochius)
Ezra 10:26 And of the sons of Elam, Mathania, Zacharias, and Jehiel, and Abdi, and Jerimoth, and Elia.

Ezra 10:27 And of the sons of Zethua, Elioenai, Eliasib, Mathania, Jerimuth, and Zabad, and Aziza.

Ezra 10:28 And of the sons of Bebai, Johanan, Hanania, Zabbai, Athalai:

Ezra 10:29 And of the sons of Bani, Mosollam, and Melluch, and Adaia, Jasub, and Saal, and Ramoth.

Ezra 10:30 And of the sons of Phahath Moab, Edna, and Chalal, Banaias, and Maasias, Mathanias, Beseleel, Bennui, and Manasse.

Moab. The inhabitants of this town, as well as of Nebo, (ver. 43.) are specified.
Ezra 10:31 And of the sons of Herem, Eliezer, Josue, Melchias, Semeias, Simeon,

Ezra 10:32 Benjamin, Maloch, Samarias.

Ezra 10:33 And of the sons of Hasom, Mathanai, Mathatha, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jermai, Manasse, Semei.

Ezra 10:34 Of the sons of Bani, Maaddi, Amram, and Uel,

Ezra 10:35 Baneas, and Badaias, Cheliau,

Ezra 10:36 Vania, Marimuth, and Eliasib,

Ezra 10:37 Mathanias, Mathanai, and Jasi,

Ezra 10:38 And Bani, and Bennui, Semei,

Ezra 10:39 And Salmias, and Nathan, and Adaias,

Ezra 10:40 And Mechnedebai, Sisai, Sarai,

Ezra 10:41 Ezrel, and Selemiau, Semeria,

Ezra 10:42 Sellum, Amaria, Joseph.

Ezra 10:43 Of the sons of Nebo, Jehiel, Mathathias, Zabad, Zabina, Jeddu, and Joel, and Banaia.

Ezra 10:44 All these had taken strange wives, and there were among them women that had borne children.

Children. Hebrew may be, "and some of these women had exposed their children." But most follow the Septuagint and Vulgate. 3 Esdras 9:36, "and they ejected them with their children." None was spared. (Calmet) --- One great inconvenience of such connections is, that the offspring is illegitimate. (Worthington) --- Only 17 priests, 10 Levites, and 86 laymen, are stigmatized as guilty of this scandal; yet these fill Israel with confusion, and Esdras with extreme affliction. (Haydock)