1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Judith 1:1 Now Arphaxad, king of the Medes, had brought many nations under his dominion, and he built a very strong city, which he called Ecbatana,

Now, refers to the internal purpose of the author. (St. Gregory, hom 2. in Ezechiel.) (Worthington) Many of the books begin with And; shewing their connection. This work formed a part of the general history. The building of Ecbatana likewise took place soon after the destruction of Ninive, mentioned in the preceding book. --- Arphaxad. He was probably the same as is called Dejoces by Herodotus; to whom he attributes the building of Ecbatana, the capital city of Media; (Challoner) or rather Arphaxad, more resembles both in name and actions the second king Phraortes or Apharaartas, (Montfaucon and Houbigant) who fortified and embellished the city. (Calmet) --- Ecbatana, or Agbata, which in Arabic signifies "variegated;" (Bochart) as the seven walls, rising one higher than another round it, were marked with one white, two black, three red, four blue, five dark red, six silver, seven gold. (Herodotus 1:98.) (Calmet) See Tobias 3:7.
Judith 1:2 Of stones squared and hewed: he made the walls thereof seventy cubits broad, and thirty cubits high, and the towers thereof he made a hundred cubits high. But on the square of them, each side was extended the space of twenty feet.

Hewed. Greek adds, "three cubits broad and six long." The ancients aimed at solidity in their architecture, as appears from their ruins. (Calmet) --- High. Salien (the year of the world 3345) thinks there is a transposition, and that the walls were 70 cubits high. (Menochius) --- What need was there of such a breadth? Greek allows 70 in height, and 50 in breadth, which seems more proportionate. Old Vulgate has 60 cubits high, and 50 broad. On the walls of Ninive, three chariots might fight abreast, (Calmet) and six on those of Babylon. (Ctesias.) --- Feet. Projecting from the wall, to remove an enemy. (Menochius) --- Greek, "and the towers thereof he placed above the gates 100 cubits, and the foundation was 60 cubits broad. And he made the gates to rise 70 cubits, being 40 cubits in breadth, to send out the armies of his mighty men, and to draw up his infantry." (Haydock)
Judith 1:3 And he made the gates thereof according to the height of the towers:

Judith 1:4 And he gloried as a mighty one in the force of his army, and in the glory of his chariots.

Gloried. Fool, this night wilt thou perish, Luke 12:20. (Worthington)
Judith 1:5 Now in the twelfth year* of his reign: Nabuchodonosor, king of the Assyrians, who reigned in Ninive, the great city, fought against Arphaxad, and overcame him,

Year of the World 3347, Year before Christ 657. Nabuchodonosor. Not the king of Babylon, who took and destroyed Jerusalem, but another of the same name, who reigned in Nivine; and is called by profane historians Saosduchin. He succeeded Asarhaddon in the kingdom of the Assyrians, and was contemporary with Manasses, king of Juda. (Challoner) --- He might be the same with Asarhaddon, who resided at Ninive in the 20th year of his reign. After the defeat at Bethulia, the Medes recovered part of their power, under Cyaxares I., who was succeeded by Astyages and Cyaxares II., with whom Cyrus was associated in the empire. (Xenophon) --- Asarhaddon spent the latter years of his life at Babylon, of which he had made himself master. (Houbigant) --- The Jews frequently give names to foreign princes different from those by which they are known in profane history. See Tobias ultra. (Haydock) --- Him. Greek afterwards (ver. 15) insinuates, that he prevented any from mounting the throne of Media, till this work was written, "he transfixed him with his darts, and destroyed him till this day." (Houbigant)
Judith 1:6 In the great plain which is called Ragau, about the Euphrates, and the Tigris, and the Jadason, in the plain of Erioch, the king of the Elicians.

Ragau, near Rages. (Tobias 1:16.) (Menochius) --- Syriac, "Dura," mentioned [in] Daniel 3:1. (Calmet) --- Jadason, or Mount Jason, above the Caspian gates; (Strabo xi.) unless it may be the city Jassu, in Armenia. Greek has "the Hydaspes," a river of India, though Curtius (v.) places it near Susa; confounding it with the Choaspes. --- Elicians. Greek, "Elymeans," perhaps the same with Pontus. Hebrew Ellasar, Genesis 14:9. Various battles were fought during this war, which the Greek intimates lasted seven years. (Calmet) --- That version also would represent these and various other nations coming to meet Nabuchodonosor, who hereupon sent his ambassadors to all in Persia, and westward to Cilicia, etc. As they were treated contemptuously, he swore that he would revenge himself. But first he attacked Arphaxad, took and sacked Ninive, slew the king, and then abandoned himself with his army to pleasure in the conquered city, "120 days." (Haydock)
Judith 1:7 Then was the kingdom of Nabuchodonosor exalted, and his heart was elevated: and he sent to all that dwelt in Cilicia, and Damascus, and Libanus,

Judith 1:8 And to the nations that are in Carmelus, and Cedar, and to the inhabitants of Galilee, in the great plain of Esdrelon,

Esdrelon. Syriac, "Jezrael," which is the usual name in Scripture, Josue 17:16.
Judith 1:9 And to all that were in Samaria, and beyond the river Jordan, even to Jerusalem, and all the land of Jesse, till you come to the borders of Ethiopia.

Jesse, or Gessen, where Joseph placed his brethren, Genesis 46:34.
Judith 1:10 To all these, Nabuchodonosor, king of the Assyrians, sent messengers:

Judith 1:11 But they all, with one mind, refused, and sent them back empty, and rejected them without honour.

Refused. Greek adds, "and did not come to help him in the war, because they feared him not, (Haydock; supposing he would have enough to do with Arphaxad) as he was but like their equal, or as one man. (Calmet)
Judith 1:12 Then king Nabuchodonosor being angry against all that land, swore by his throne and kingdom, that he would revenge himself of all those countries.

Countries. Those who were subject to him did wrong in refusing aid. But the Jews were under no such obligations; and God espoused their cause the more, as the king set up for a deity, Judith 3:(Calmet) --- He had at first entertained thoughts of universal dominion, (Haydock) being elated by his victory, like other conquerors. --- Auferre, trucidare, rapere falsis nominibus imperium, atque ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant. (Tacitus, Agric.)
Judith 2:0 Nabuchodonosor sendeth Holofernes to waste the countries of the west.

Judith 2:1 In *the thirteenth year of the reign of Nabuchodonosor, the two and twentieth day of the first month, the word was given out in the house of Nabuchodonosor, king of the Assyrians, that he would revenge himself.

Year of the World 3348. Thirteenth. Greek, 18th. --- Month. Nisan, in spring.
Judith 2:2 And he called all the ancients, and all the governors, and his officers of war, and communicated to them the secret of his counsel:

Secret. Literally, "mystery," Tobias 12:7. (Calmet) --- Abditos principis sensus exquirere illicitum. (Tacitus, An. vi.)
Judith 2:3 And he said that his thoughts were to bring all the earth under his empire.

Empire. "The thirst of empire and riches is an old and deep-rooted cause of making war." (Sallust. Frag.) --- Greek adds, "and they (counsellors) judged that all flesh must be destroyed of those who had not complied with his order." (Haydock) --- God laughs at the vain designs of men. (Calmet)
Judith 2:4 And when this saying pleased them all, Nabuchodonosor, the king, called Holofernes, the general of his armies,

Armies. Greek adds, "and the second after himself," in the kingdom. (Menochius) --- Casaubon suspects that this drunkard was the king mentioned in history, as having lost the kingdom of Cappadocia, by attempting to introduce the dissolute feasts of Bacchus. (Polyb. xxxii. ap. Athen. 10:11.) --- He made his attack first upon this country, ver. 13.
Judith 2:5 And said to him: Go out against all the kingdoms of the west, and against them, especially, that despise my commandment.

Commandment. Greek adds, he must demand "earth and water," as an acknowledgment of his dominion, and that all necessaries of life belonged to him. This custom prevailed in Persia. (Herodotus 4:123.) (Polyb. xix.) (Brisson iii.)
Judith 2:6 Thy eye shall not spare any kingdom, and all the strong cities thou shalt bring under my yoke.

Judith 2:7 Then Holofernes called the captains, and officers of the power of the Assyrians: and he mustered men for the expedition, as the king commanded him, a hundred and twenty thousand fighting men on foot, and twelve thousand archers, horsemen.

Judith 2:8 And he made all his warlike preparations to go before with a multitude of innumerable camels, with all provisions sufficient for the armies in abundance, and herds of oxen, and flocks of sheep, without number.

Judith 2:9 He appointed corn to be prepared out of all Syria, in his passage.

Syria: part of which, it seems, had submitted. (Calmet) --- Greek, "and corn for every man, in abundance," (Haydock) for fear it should be carried off in the countries which he invaded. (Menochius)
Judith 2:10 But gold and silver he took out of the king's house in great abundance.

Judith 2:11 And he went forth, he and all the army, with the chariots, and horsemen, and archers, who covered the face of the earth, like locusts.

Archers. Greek adds, "a mixed multitude," not bearing arms, Exodus 12:38.
Judith 2:12 And when he had passed through the borders of the Assyrians, he came to the great mountains of Ange, which are on the left of Cilicia: and he went up to all their castles, and took all the strong places.

When. Greek, "and they proceeded from Ninive, three days' journey, to the plain of Bektileth," or Bagdania, in Cappadocia, between Mount Argee and Taurus. Strabo (xii.) assures us that Argee is the highest mountain in the country, from which the two seas of Cilicia and the Euxine may be seen. (Calmet)
Judith 2:13 And he took, by assault, the renowned city of Melothus, and pillaged all the children of Tharsis, and the children of Ismahel, who were over-against the face of the desert, and on the south of the land of Cellon.

Melothus, or Melita, built by Semiramis, (Pliny, [Natural History?] 6:3.) in the same country. --- Tharsis, or Cilicia, peopled by the son of Javan. --- Ishmahel, on the Euphrates, east of the Desert Arabia.
Judith 2:14 And he passed over the Euphrates, and came into Mesopotamia: and he forced all the stately cities that were there, from the torrent of Mambre, till one comes to the sea:

Mambre. Greek, "Abrona, (Calmet) or Arbonai;" (Haydock) that is, from the river Chaboras to the Persian Gulf, or sea. (Calmet)
Judith 2:15 And he took the borders thereof, from Cilicia to the coasts of Japheth, which are towards the south.

Japheth, or Joppe, now Jaffa. (Serarius) --- Greek, "he cut in pieces all who opposed him; and he came to the borders of Japheth, which are on the south, over-against Arabia."
Judith 2:16 And he carried away all the children of Madian, and stripped them of all their riches, and all that resisted him he slew with the edge of the sword.

Carried. Greek, "surrounded....and burnt their tents, and plundered their folds for cattle:" mandras. (Haydock) --- Madian lay to the east of the Dead Sea. (Calmet)
Judith 2:17 And after these things he went down into the plains of Damascus in the days of the harvest, and he set all the corn on fire, and he caused all the trees and vineyards to be cut down.

Harvest. The rapidity of his conquests was astonishing, as all this had been done in six or seven weeks, ver. 1. But Holofernes probably sent his lieutenants into different parts at the same time. (Calmet) --- Caused. Greek, "he burnt all their fields, and destroyed their flocks and herds, and plundered their cities, and put to the sword all their young men."
Judith 2:18 And the fear of him fell upon all the inhabitants of the land.

Land. Greek adds, "on the sea-shore, in Sidon,...Ascalon," etc. (Haydock)
Judith 3:0 Many submit themselves to Holofernes. He destroyeth their cities, and their gods, that Nabuchodonosor only might be called god.

Judith 3:1 Then the kings and the princes of all the cities and provinces, of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Syria Sobal, and Libya, and Cilicia, sent their ambassadors, who coming to Holofernes, said:

Kings. Greek, "they sent to him ambassadors, with proposals for peace, saying: Behold we, the servants of Nabuchodonosor, the great king, lay before thee; use us as thou thinkest best," etc. These proposals were made by those on the sea-coast, from Sidon and Tyre to Ascalon, from whom Holofernes took "the choicest men," being received with honour, ver. 10. (Haydock) --- Syria, etc. These are not specified in the Greek. --- Sobal, or Soba, (1 Kings 14:47.) near Damascus, where Ptolemy (v.) places Samoulis. --- Lybia seems too remote, and had not been attacked: some therefore would read Lycia, or Lygia, (Herodotus 7:72.) or rather Lydia, (Calmet) which Holofernes had "cut in pieces," according to the Greek, Judith 2:13. (Haydock)
Judith 3:2 Let thy indignation towards us cease: for it is better for us to live and serve Nabuchodonosor, the great king, and be subject to thee, than to die and to perish, or suffer the miseries of slavery.

Great. This was his usual title, Daniel 2:30., and 4 Kings 18:19. (Calmet) --- Slavery. Yet they make an unconditional submission. (Haydock) --- It is better for us to submit to servitude than to be slaughtered like our brethren. (Menochius)
Judith 3:3 All our cities and our possessions, all mountains, and hills, and fields, and herds of oxen, and flocks of sheep, and goats, and horses, and camels, and all our goods, and families are in thy sight:

Sight, at thy disposal, Genesis 13:9., and Proverbs 15:11.
Judith 3:4 Let all we have be subject to thy law.

Judith 3:5 Both we and our children are thy servants.

Judith 3:6 Come to us a peaceable lord, and use our service as it shall please thee.

Judith 3:7 Then he came down from the mountains with horsemen, in great power, and made himself master of every city, and all the inhabitants of the land.

Judith 3:8 And from all the cities he took auxiliaries, valiant men, and chosen for war.

Judith 3:9 And so great a fear lay upon all those provinces, that the inhabitants of all the cities, both princes and nobles, as well as the people, went out to meet him at his coming,

Judith 3:10 And received him with garlands, and lights, and dances, and tumbrels, and flutes.

Lights. Torches were used to testify joy, 2 Machabees 4:22.
Judith 3:11 And though they did these things, they could not for all that mitigate the fierceness of his heart:

Though. Greek, "He demolished all their borders, and cut down their groves."
Judith 3:12 For he both destroyed their cities and cut down their groves.

Judith 3:13 For Nabuchodonosor, the king, had commanded him to destroy all the gods of the earth, that he only might be called god by those nations which could be brought under him by the power of Holofernes.

Called. Greek, "Worshipped by all nations, and that all their tongues and tribes might call him god." (Haydock) --- Behold to what lengths ambition may be carried. If he had only claimed a place among the other pagan deities, his title was as good as theirs. (Calmet) --- He is a figure of Antichrist; for whom all heretics pave the way, 2 Thessalonians 2:(Worthington)
Judith 3:14 And when he had passed through all Syria Sobal, and all Apamea, and all Mesopotamia, he came to the Idumeans, into the land of Gabaa,

Apamea, on the river Orontes, between which and the river Eleutherus, lay the Mesopotamia here mentioned. --- Idumeans, or to "Rama," near Gabaa, which was on the north of Jerusalem; whereas Idumea lay far to the south. (Calmet) --- Yet (Haydock) Gabaa may designate a mountainous country, as 1 Kings 7:1., (Menochius) and there is no reason why Idumea might not have felt the power of Holofernes, as well as Madian, etc. (Haydock) --- The order of conquests is not observed, (Menochius) for while the commander-in-chief was in one place, his generals were dispersed into different parts. He had now advanced as far as Gabaa of Saul, (Haydock) when meditating a serious attack upon Egypt, he thought proper to concentrate his forces; little expecting to meet with such a check at Bethulia. (Calmet) --- Greek, "He came to Esdrelon, near Dotaia, (or Dothaim, north of Sichem) which is opposite the great saw of Judea," or the range of mountains of Ephraim. (Calmet) --- Old Vulgate, "of Juda," dividing it from Idumea. The kings of Israel had fortified the defiles, 3 Kings 15:17.
Judith 3:15 And he took possession of their cities, and stayed there for thirty days, in which days he commanded all the troops of his army to be united.

Took. Greek, "encamped between Gaba and Scythopolis, (Bethsan, Josue 17:11.) and he was there a month of days, to collect all the burden of his army."
Judith 4:0 The children of Israel prepare themselves to resist Holofernes. They cry to the Lord for help.

Judith 4:1 Then the children of Israel, who dwelt in the land of Juda, hearing these things, were exceedingly afraid of him.

Juda, whither those had retreated who had escaped the fury of the Assyrians, under Theglathphalassar, etc. (Haydock)
Judith 4:2 Dread and horror seized upon their minds, lest he should do the same to Jerusalem, and to the temple of the Lord, that he had done to other cities, and their temples.

Temples. Surrendering would not secure these things; so that their very life and religion were at stake. Resistance, in other circumstances, would have been rashness. (Calmet) --- Greek adds, "because they were recently come up from captivity, and lately all the people had been collected out of Judea, and the vessels, and the altar, and the house, had been purified from profanation," (Haydock) to which they had been exposed under Manasses, (chap. 5:23.; Calmet) who with several of his subjects had been made prisoner, and was now at Babylon; or, if returned, (Haydock) was wholly taken up with the concerns of his soul, and committed the care of affairs to Eliachim. See Josephus, [Antiquities?] 10:4., and 2 Paralipomenon 33:12, 16. (Calmet)
Judith 4:3 And they sent into all Samaria round about, as far as Jericho, and seized upon all the tops of the mountains:

Samaria, though an enemy's country, as the danger was common. (Menochius) --- Ezechias and Josias seemed to claim a right over the country, 2 Paralipomenon 30:1., etc., 34:6., and 33.
Judith 4:4 And they compassed their towns with walls, and gathered together corn, for provision for war.

War. Greek adds, "as the harvest was just ended."
Judith 4:5 And Eliachim, the priest, wrote to all that were over-against Esdrelon, which faceth the great plain near Dothain, and to all by whom there might be a passage of way, that they should take possession of the ascents of the mountains, by which there might be any way to Jerusalem, and should keep watch where the way was narrow between the mountains.

Priest. Greek, "the great priest in Jerusalem, in those days, wrote to the inhabitants of Betouloua, (Haydock; Bethulia, in the tribe of Simeon) and of Betemestham, (Bethsames; Calmet) which is over-against Esdrelon, and the plain near Dothaim, giving orders to seize the mountainous ascents, by which there was a passage into Judea; and it was easy to stop their progress, as the passage was narrow, and would not admit above two men at once." This reminds us of the heroic resistance which Leonidas, with his 300 Spartans, made to the millions in the army of Xerxes, at Thermopylae. (Haydock) --- It seems that Jews attempted to defend these defiles. They had received the orders before the enemy encamped near Scythopolis.
Judith 4:6 And the children of Israel did as the priest of the Lord, Eliachim, had appointed them.

Them. Greek adds, "and the senate of all the people of Israel, which sat at Jerusalem." Serarius thinks that Manasses was busy fortifying the city, and had committed the rest of the kingdom to Eliachim, (Menochius; Worthington) who receives such high commendations, Isaias 22:20. (Calmet) --- But is more probable that he was at Babylon. (Houbigant)
Judith 4:7 And all the people cried to the Lord with great earnestness, and they humbled their souls in fastings, and prayers, both they and their wives.

Wives. Greek adds, "and their little ones, and beasts, and every sojourner, and hired servant and slave. They put sackcloth on their loins, and every man, woman, and child, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, fell prostrate before the temple, and sprinkled ashes on their heads." The very beasts were covered with sackcloth, to denote the general sorrow. (Haydock)
Judith 4:8 And the priests put on hair-cloths, and they caused the little children to lie prostrate before the temple of the Lord, and the altar of the Lord they covered with hair-cloth.

Priests. Greek, "and they spread their sackclothes before the Lord, and arrayed the altar with sackcloth." (Haydock) --- This spectacle must have made impression on the most obdurate. (Calmet)
Judith 4:9 And they cried to the Lord, the God of Israel, with one accord, that their children might not be made a prey, and their wives carried off, and their cities destroyed, and their holy things profaned, and that they might not be made a reproach to the Gentiles.

Off. Literally, "divided" from their husbands, (Haydock) or among the victors. (Menochius) --- Gentiles. Greek adds, "and God heard their petition, and rescued them from their affliction; and all the people fasted many days in all Judea and Jerusalem, before the sanctuary of the Lord all mighty; and the high priest, Joachim, and all the priests who stood before the Lord, and ministered to the Lord, having their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the accustomed holocaust and the vows and presents of the people, and ashes were upon their caps, and they cried to the Lord with all their power, to look down graciously upon all the house of Jerusalem. And," Judith 5.
Judith 4:10 Then Eliachim, the high priest of the Lord, went about all Israel, and spoke to them,

Israel, before the approach of the enemy. (Haydock) (ver. 5.)
Judith 4:11 Saying: Know ye that the Lord will hear your prayers, if you continue with perseverance in fastings and prayers, in the sight of the Lord.

Judith 4:12 Remember Moses, the servant of the Lord, who overcame Amalec, that trusted in his own strength, and in his power, and in his army, and in his shields, and in his chariots, and in his horsemen, not by fighting with the sword, but by holy prayers:

Judith 4:13 *So shall all the enemies of Israel be; if you persevere in this work which you have begun.

Exodus 17:12.
Judith 4:14 So they being moved by this exhortation of his, prayed to the Lord, and continued in the sight of the Lord.

Judith 4:15 So that even they who offered the holocausts to the Lord, offered the sacrifices to the Lord, girded with hair-cloths, and with ashes upon their head.

Clothes, conformably to the advice of Joel, 1:13. (Calmet)
Judith 4:16 And they all begged of God, with all their heart, that he would visit his people, Israel.

Judith 5:0 Achior gives Holofernes an account of the people of Israel.

Judith 5:1 And it was told Holofernes, the general of the army of the Assyrians, that the children of Israel prepared themselves to resist, and had shut up the ways of the mountains.

Mountains. Greek adds, "and had fortified every summit of a high mountain, and had placed scandals in the plains," obstructing the passage (Haydock) with ditches, trees, (Calmet) and snares of every description. (Haydock)
Judith 5:2 And he was transported with exceedingly great fury and indignation, and he called all the princes of Moab, and the leaders of Ammon,

Ammon. Greek adds, "and the satraps of the maritime country," (Haydock) the Philistines, who had submitted like the rest.
Judith 5:3 And he said to them: Tell me what is this people that besetteth the mountains: or what are their cities, and of what sort, and how great: also what is their power, or what is their multitude: or who is the king over their warfare:

Them. Greek adds, "Ye sons of Chanaan tell." He was not acquainted with their origin: the title belonged only to the Phoenicians, (Calmet) who might also be present. (Haydock)
Judith 5:4 And why they, above all that dwell in the east, have despised us, and have not come out to meet us, that they might receive us with peace?

East. Greek, "west," which seems more accurate, unless Holofernes was on the sea-coast, (Calmet) or that part of the country went by this name, as it does at present. (Haydock) --- He was not absolutely unacquainted with the Jews, but spoke in contempt, (ver. 27.; Worthington; Menochius) and wished to know if they had formed a league with the Egyptians, etc. (Calmet)
Judith 5:5 Then Achior, captain of all the children of Ammon, answering, said: If thou vouchsafe, my lord, to hear, I will tell the truth in thy sight, concerning this people, that dwelleth in the mountains, and there shall not a false word come out of my mouth.

My. Greek, "the mouth of thy slave." (Haydock)
Judith 5:6 This people is of the offspring of the Chaldeans.

Chaldeans. Abraham was a native of Ur, Genesis xii. (Calmet) --- This tended to conciliate the favour of the general, who was of the same country. (Menochius)
Judith 5:7 *They dwelt first in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers, who were in the land of the Chaldeans.

Genesis 11:31.
Judith 5:8 Wherefore, forsaking the ceremonies of their fathers, which consisted in the worship of many gods,

Judith 5:9 They worshipped one God of heaven, *who also commanded them to depart from thence, and to dwell in Charan. And when there was a famine over all the land, **they went down into Egypt, and there for four hundred years were so multiplied, that the army of them could not be numbered.

Genesis 12:1. --- ** Genesis 46:6.
Heaven. Greek adds, "the God whom they had known, and they (the Chaldean idolaters) cast them out from the face of their gods, and they fled into Mesopotamia, and dwelt there many days: (Haydock; that is, about two years. Calmet) and their God commanded them to leave their abode, and to go into the land of Chanaan; and they dwelt there, and were enriched;...and when," etc. --- There. Greek, "and were there till they returned; and there they became innumerable." (Haydock)
Judith 5:10 And when the king of Egypt oppressed them, and made slaves of them, to labour in clay and brick, in the building of his cities, they cried to their Lord, and he struck the whole land of Egypt with divers plagues.

Oppressed. Greek, "craftily inveigled them," Exodus 1:10.
Judith 5:11 *And when the Egyptians had cast them out from them, and the plague had ceased from them, and they had a mind to take them again, and bring them back to their service,

Exodus 12:33.
Plague. Greek adds, "for which there was no remedy. And the Egyptians cast them out from among them. And God dried up the Red Sea before them, and conducted them to Mount Sinai and Cades-Barne, and cast out all the inhabitants of the desert; and they dwelt in the land of the Amorrhites, and exterminated all of Hesebon, by their power. Then crossing the Jordan, they took as their inheritance all the mountainous parts, and ejected the Chanaanite, Pherezite, Jebusite, Sichem, and all the Gergesites, and dwelt therein many days. And, " ver. 21. (Haydock) --- The environs of Sichem belonged to the Hevites. (Calmet)
Judith 5:12 *The God of heaven opened the sea to them in their flight, so that the waters were made to stand firm as a wall on either side, and they walked through the bottom of the sea, and passed it dry foot.

Exodus 14:29.
Judith 5:13 And when an innumerable army of the Egyptians pursued after them in that place, they were so overwhelmed with the waters, that there was not one left, to tell what had happened to posterity.

Judith 5:14 And after they came out of the Red Sea, they abode in the deserts of Mount Sina, in which never man could dwell, or son of man rested.

Rested. This is attested, Deuteronomy 32:10., and Jeremias 2:6. (Menochius)
Judith 5:15 There bitter fountains were made sweet for them to drink, and for forty years they received food from heaven.

Judith 5:16 Wheresoever they went in without bow and arrow, and without shield and sword, their God fought for them, and overcame.

Overcame, in the days of Josue, (Menochius) at Jericho, etc. (Haydock)
Judith 5:17 And there was no one that triumphed over this people, but when they departed from the worship of the Lord, their God.

Judith 5:18 But as often as, beside their own God, they worshipped any other, they were given to spoil, and to the sword, and to reproach.

Judith 5:19 And as often as they were penitent for having revolted from the worship of their God, the God of heaven gave them power to resist.

Judith 5:20 So they overthrew the king of the Chanaanites, and of the Jebusites, and of the Pherezites, and of the Hethites, and of the Hevites, and of the Amorrhites, and all the mighty ones in Hesebon, and they possessed their lands, and their cities:

Judith 5:21 And as long as they sinned not in the sight of their God, it was well with them: for their God hateth iniquity.

Judith 5:22 And even some years ago when they had revolted from the way which God had given them, to walk therein, they were destroyed in battles by many nations, and very many of them were led away captive into a strange land.

Battles. He seems to speak of the captivity of Manasses, (Worthington) of the ten tribes, and of the loss sustained by Achaz, 2 Paralipomenon 28:5. (Menochius) --- By many. Greek, "exceedingly; and they were led captive into a land which was not their own, and the temple of their God became as a pavement, and their cities were taken by the enemies. But now, returning to their God, they are come up from the places to which they had been scattered, and have possession of Jerusalem, where is their sanctuary; and they have inhabited the mountainous country, for it was a desert." (Haydock) --- Our adversaries would infer from this, and similar passages, that the siege of Bethulia could not have taken place till after the captivity at Babylon; and this many Catholics allow. But the proof is not conclusive, as all this might be verified under Manasses: (Calmet) "the temple was trampled on," (Syriac, egennethe eis edaphos) and profaned. See Judith 4:2., and 1 Machabees 3:51., and Luke 21:24. It had been pillaged by Sesac and the Assyrians, and had stood in need of great repairs under Ezechias, Josias, etc. Several of the Israelites had escaped from the hands of their oppressors, (2 Paralipomenon 34:9.) and the Jews had regained their strength after the captivity of Manasses, (Calmet) having retired before into their strong holds in the deserts. (Haydock)
Judith 5:23 But of late returning to the Lord, their God, from the different places wherein they were scattered, they are come together, and are gone up into all these mountains, and possess Jerusalem again, where their holies are.

Judith 5:24 Now, therefore, my lord, search if there be any iniquity of theirs in the sight of their God: let us go up to them, because their God will surely deliver them to thee, and they shall be brought under the yoke of thy power:

Judith 5:25 But if there be no offense of this people in the sight of their God, we cannot resist them, because their God will defend them: and we shall be a reproach to the whole earth.

Cannot. Greek, "let my lord indeed pass by, lest their Lord should cover them with a shield, for their God is for them, and we," etc.
Judith 5:26 And it came to pass, when Achior had ceased to speak these words, all the great men of Holofernes were angry, and they had a mind to kill him, saying to each other:

All the. Greek, "all the people round the tent murmured; and the great men of Holofernes, and all who dwelt in the maritime country, and in Moab, threatened to cut him to pieces. For we shall not fear the children of Israel. Lo! a people without power, strength, or army in battle array! We shall then go up, and they shall be for food to all thy army, lord Holofernes. And," Judith 6.
Judith 5:27 Who is this, that saith the children of Israel can resist king Nabuchodonosor, and his armies, men unarmed, and without force, and without skill in the art of war?

Who. They speak thus through indignation, though they knew Achior well enough. (Worthington) --- Their blasphemous presumption was soon punished. (Menochius)
Judith 5:28 That Achior, therefore, may know that he deceiveth us, let us go up into the mountains: and when the bravest of them shall be taken, then shall he, with them, be stabbed with the sword:

Judith 5:29 That every nation may know that Nabuchodonosor is god of the earth, and besides him there is no other.

Other. This foolish attempt was not peculiar to this king. The great Nabuchodonosor was infected with the same vanity, (Daniel 6:7.) and was imitated by many of the Persian monarchs, and by Alexander. Persas non pie tantum sed etiam prudenter Reges suos inter deos colere: Majestatem enim imperii salutis esse tutelam. (Curtius viii.) Yet most of the Greeks could not brook such flattery, though they were not influenced by religion, but by reason, and their own haughty temper. See Justin vi.; Martial 10:62.
Judith 6:0 Holofernes, in great rage, sendeth Achior to Bethulia, there to be slain with the Israelites.

Judith 6:1 And it came to pass, when they had left off speaking, that Holofernes, being in a violent passion, said to Achior:

Achior. Greek adds, "before all the populace of the strangers." And who art thou, Achior, before all this company of foreigners, and the sons of Moab? and what are the mercenaries of Ephraim, that thou? ver. 2.
Judith 6:2 Because thou hast prophesied unto us, saying, that the nation of Israel is defended by their God, to shew thee that there is no God, but Nabuchodonosor:

To shew. Greek, "and who is God but Nabuchodonosor? He will," etc. (Haydock) --- They allow the title to none but their king. Neither will God admit of any rival. (Worthington) --- The generous advice of Achior was highly resented. Charidemus, who spoke with the like boldness to Darius, when Alexander approached, was even put to death, though the king repented when it was too late. (Curtius iii.) (Diodorus xiv.)
Judith 6:3 When we shall slay them all as one man, then thou also shalt die with them, by the sword of the Assyrians, and all Israel shall perish with thee:

Judith 6:4 And thou shalt find that Nabuchodonosor is lord of the whole earth: and then the sword of my soldiers shall pass through thy sides, and thou shalt be stabbed, and fall among the wounded of Israel, and thou shalt breathe no more till thou be destroyed with them.

Judith 6:5 But if thou think thy prophecy true, let not thy countenance sink, and let the paleness that is in thy face, depart from thee, if thou imaginest these, my words, cannot be accomplished.

Judith 6:6 And that thou mayst know that thou shalt experience these things, together with them, behold from this hour thou shalt be associated to their people, that when they shall receive the punishment they deserve from my sword, thou mayst fall under the same vengeance.

People. Greek, "my slaves shall station thee on the mountainous country, and in one of the cities on the ascents, (of which thou hast so much spoken) and thou shalt not perish till thou perish with them. But if thou believest in thy heart that they will not be taken, let not thy countenance fall. I have spoken, and nothing that I have said shall be without effect."
Judith 6:7 Then Holofernes commanded his servants to take Achior, and to lead him to Bethulia, and to deliver him into the hands of the children of Israel.

Bethulia. Travellers, depending on the uncertain traditions of the country, generally place this fortress in the tribe of Zebulon, about three miles west of Tiberias. See Brochard., etc. But St. Jerome places it nearer Egypt; (Vita Hil.) and the Scripture speaks of Bethul, in the tribe of Simeon, (Josue 19:4.) to which Judith and the ancients belonged. Holofernes left his camp near Scythopolis, (chap. 7:1.) when he proceeded (Calmet) to attack the southern countries. (Haydock)
Judith 6:8 And the servants of Holofernes taking him, went through the plains: but when they came near the mountains, the slingers came out against them.

Judith 6:9 Then turning out of the way by the side of the mountain, they tied Achior to a tree hand and foot, and so left him bound with ropes, and returned to their master.

Judith 6:10 And the children of Israel coming down from Bethulia, came to him. And loosing him, they brought him to Bethulia, and setting him in the midst of the people, asked him what was the matter, that the Assyrians had left him bound.

Judith 6:11 In those days the rulers there were Ozias, the son of Micha, of the tribe of Simeon, and Charmi, called also Gothoniel.

And. Greek adds, "Chabris, the son of Othoniel, and Charmis, the son of Melchiel." (Menochius) --- The former is, in effect, mentioned [in] Judith 8:9. (Calmet)
Judith 6:12 And Achior related in the midst of the ancients, and in the presence of all the people, all that he had said, being asked by Holofernes: and how the people of Holofernes would have killed him for this word,

Judith 6:13 And how Holofernes himself, being angry, had commanded him to be delivered for this cause to the Israelites: that when he should overcome the children of Israel, then he might command Achior also himself to be put to death by diverse torments, for having said: The God of heaven is their defender.

Judith 6:14 *And when Achior had declared all these things, all the people fell upon their faces, adoring the Lord, and all of them together, mourning and weeping, poured out their prayers with one accord to the Lord,

Judith 5:6.
Judith 6:15 Saying: O Lord God of heaven and earth, behold their pride, and look on our low condition, and have regard to the face of thy saints, and shew that thou forsakest not them that trust on thee, and that thou humblest them that presume of themselves, and glory in their own strength.

Pride. God will not fail to reward those who trust in him, (Haydock) and to humble the presumptuous. (Worthington) --- Saints. Syriac, "sanctuary." This version and the Greek have only, "Look upon the face of the persons (or things) sanctified unto thee on this day. And they consoled Achior, and praised him greatly. And Ozias took him from the assembly to his own house, and made a feast (literally, drinking) for the ancients, and they invoked the God of Israel to assist them during all that night." (Haydock)
Judith 6:16 So when their weeping was ended, and the people's prayer, in which they continued all the day, was concluded, they comforted Achior,

Judith 6:17 Saying: The God of our fathers, whose power thou hast set forth, will make this return to thee, that thou rather shalt see their destruction.

Judith 6:18 And when the Lord, our God, shall give this liberty to his servants, let God be with thee also in the midst of us: that as it shall please thee, so thou, with all thine, mayst converse with us.

With us, observing the true religion. (Menochius)
Judith 6:19 Then Ozias, after the assembly was broken up, received him into his house, and made him a great supper.

Judith 6:20 And all the ancients were invited, and they refreshed themselves together after their fast was over.

Over. The Jews eat nothing before night, and then no abstinence is prescribed, (Calmet) as the fast is at an end. (Haydock)
Judith 6:21 And afterwards all the people were called together, and they prayed all the night long within the church, desiring help of the God of Israel.

The church. That is, the synagogue or place where they met in prayer. (Challoner) --- For such places were established, particularly after the captivity, though some have denied that there were any synagogues, even in the days of the Machabees. See Matthew 4:23., and Esther 4:16. (Calmet)
Judith 7:0 Holofernes besiegeth Bethulia. The distress of the besieged.

Judith 7:1 But Holofernes, on the next day, gave orders to his army, to go up against Bethulia.

Judith 7:2 Now there were in his troops a hundred and twenty thousand footmen, and two and twenty thousand horsemen, besides the preparations of those men who had been taken, and who had been brought away out of the provinces and cities, of all the youth.

Twenty. Greek, seventy; Syriac, sixty-two. (Calmet) --- Two, etc. Greek, twelve, as above, Judith 2:7. (Menochius) --- Syriac, twenty-two. Some of these texts must be inaccurate. (Calmet) --- Yet the cavalry of Holofernes (Haydock) might be increased, since he began the war. --- Taken. Syriac, "servants, and those who had joined them in great numbers."
Judith 7:3 All these prepared themselves together to fight against the children of Israel, and they came by the hill side to the top, which looketh toward Dothain, from the place which is called Belma, unto Chelmon, which is over-against Esdrelon.

Hill side, on the coast of the Mediterranean, leaving the mountains of Ephraim, (Calmet) which were so strait, (Haydock) on the left, as well as Jerusalem, as he intended to go into Egypt. Bethulia alone opposed his progress, Judith 6:7.
Judith 7:4 But the children of Israel, when they saw the multitude of them, prostrated themselves upon the ground, putting ashes upon their heads, praying, with one accord, that the God of Israel would shew his mercy upon his people.

Of them. Greek adds, "were greatly afraid, and each one said to his neighbour: Now these will consume (Complutensian, shut up) the face of the earth, and neither the high mountains, nor the vales, nor the hills, will bear their weight. Then taking their arms, and lighting fires upon their towers, they kept guard all that night: but the second day, Holofernes brought out all his cavalry against the Israelites, in Bethulia, and he reconnoitred the ascent of their city, and came to the fountains of their waters, and took them; and leaving a guard of soldiers, he returned to his men," etc., ver. 8. (Haydock) --- The Syriac is also silent about the aqueduct and the small springs. (Calmet) --- The servants of God first humble themselves, and then take arms, confiding in God. (Worthington)
Judith 7:5 And taking their arms of war, they posted themselves at the places, which by a narrow path-way lead directly between the mountains, and they guarded them all day and night.

Judith 7:6 Now Holofernes, in going round about, found that the fountain which supplied them with water, ran through an aqueduct without the city, on the south side: and he commanded their aqueduct to be cut off.

An aqueduct: the fountain must therefore have been on a higher ground than the city, though the latter was on an eminence. (Calmet) --- Yet water may be forced to ascend by pipes. (Haydock)
Judith 7:7 Nevertheless, there were springs not far from the walls, out of which they were seen secretly to draw water, to refresh themselves a little rather than to drink their fill.

Judith 7:8 But the children of Ammon, and Moab, came to Holofernes, saying: The children of Israel trust not in their spears, nor in their arrows, but the mountains are their defense, and the steep hires and precipices guard them.

Children of. Greek and Syriac, "the chiefs of the sons of Esau," as Idumea had been conquered, Judith 3:14. They omit Ammon, and after Moab subjoin "the generals of the maritime countries;" Tyrians and Philistines. (Haydock)
Judith 7:9 Wherefore, that thou mayst overcome them without joining battle, set guards at the springs, that they may not draw water out of them, and thou shalt destroy them without sword, or at least being wearied out, they will yield up their city, which they suppose, because it is situate in the mountains, to be impregnable.

Judith 7:10 And these words pleased Holofernes, and his officers, and he placed all round about a hundred men at every spring.

Spring. Greek and Syriac intimate that the Ammonites and Moabites, with 5,000 Assyrian infantry, guarded the springs: the rest of the army, according to the old Vulgate, was stationed in the plain. Greek and Syriac specify over-against Dothaim, which seems too remote; (Calmet) though such an immense army might cover a great part of the country, as all would not be necessary to besiege Bethulia; and it was agreed only to blockade the place, in order that no men might be lost, and the army might be ready to march against the more distant and powerful nations of Egypt. Another detachment was (Haydock) "southward, at Ecrebel, (Syriac Ekarbat, probably Akrabim, the ascent of the scorpions) near Cush, (or Arabia) which is above the torrent Mochmur, (Syriac Peor, or Bezor; Calmet) and the rest of the army of the Assyrians encamped in the plain, and covered the face of the earth." (Haydock)
Judith 7:11 And when they had kept this watch for full twenty days, the cisterns, and the reserve of waters, failed among all the inhabitants of Bethulia, so that there was not within the city enough to satisfy them, no not for one day, for water was daily given out to the people by measure.

Days. Greek, "and all the collection of the Assyrians continued round them....thirty-four days." (Haydock) --- Old Vulgate, "twenty-four days." Syriac, "two months and four days." --- Measure. Greek adds, "the infants, women, and young men fainted, and fell down dead." (Haydock)
Judith 7:12 Then all the men and women, young men, and children, gathering themselves together to Ozias, all together with one voice,

Judith 7:13 Said: *God be judge between us and thee, for thou hast done evil against us, in that thou wouldst not speak peaceably with the Assyrians, and for this cause God hath sold us into their hands.

Exodus 5:21.
Hands. We shall be treated as miserable slaves. (Calmet)
Judith 7:14 And therefore there is no one to help us, while we are cast down before their eyes in thirst, and sad destruction.

Judith 7:15 And now, assemble ye all that are in the city, that we may, of our own accord, yield ourselves all up to the people of Holofernes.

Assemble. Greek, "call them, and give up all the city to plunder to the," etc.
Judith 7:16 For it is better that, being captives, we should live and bless the Lord, than that we should die, and be a reproach to all flesh, after we have seen our wives and our infants die before our eyes.

Judith 7:17 We call to witness this day heaven and earth, and the God of our fathers, who taketh vengeance upon us according to our sins, conjuring you to deliver now the city into the hand of the army of Holofernes, that our end may be short by the edge of the sword, which is made longer by the drought of thirst.

Conjuring. Greek, "and the sins of our parents, that he may not treat us thus to-day," and deliver us up to death. (Haydock)
Judith 7:18 And when they had said these things, there was great weeping and lamentation of all in the assembly, and for many hours with one voice they cried to God, saying:

Saying. Greek, "And Ozias said to them: Take courage, brethren.," ver. 23. (Haydock)
Judith 7:19 *We have sinned with our fathers, we have done unjustly, we have commited iniquity:

Psalm 105:6.
Judith 7:20 Have thou mercy on us, because thou art good, or punish our iniquities, by chastising us thyself, and deliver not them that trust in thee to a people that knoweth not thee,

Judith 7:21 That they may not say among the Gentiles: Where is their God?

Judith 7:22 And when, being wearied with these cries, and tired with these weepings, they held their peace,

Judith 7:23 Ozias, rising up all in tears, said: Be of good courage, my brethren, and let us wait these five days for mercy from the Lord.

Five. Sulpitius reads, fifteen. (Calmet) --- But instead of decim, we should read demum. (Haydock)
Judith 7:24 For perhaps he will put a stop to his indignation, and will give glory to his own name.

Judith 7:25 But, if after five days be past, there come no aid, we will do the things which you have spoken.

Spoken. Greek and Syriac add, "and he dispersed the people to their tents, and they went upon the walls and towers of the city, and sent their wives and children home. And they were under great humiliation in the city."
Judith 8:0 The character of Judith: her discourse to the ancients.

Judith 8:1 Now it came to pass, when Judith, a widow, had heard these words, who was the daughter of Merari, the son of Idox, the son of Joseph, the son of Ozias, the son of Elai, the son of Jamnor, the son of Gedeon, the son of Raphaim, the son of Achitob, the son of Melchias, the son of Enan, the son of Nathanias, the son of Salathiel, the son of Simeon, the son of Ruben:

Idox. Greek, "ox," etc. All the versions disagree, as the copyists have probably taken in part of ver. 3 too soon, supposing that the genealogy of women was never given. St. Fulgentius (ep. ad Gallam) differs from all, giving the ancestors of Manasses as the same with those of Judith. (Calmet) --- Simeon, the son of Ruben. In the Greek, it is, the son of Israel. For Simeon, the patriarch, from whom Judith descended, was not the son, but the brother of Ruben. It seems more probable, that the Simeon and the Ruben here mentioned are not the patriarchs, but two of the descendants of the patriarch Simeon: and that the genealogy of Judith, recorded in this place, is not carried up so high as the patriarchs. No more than that of Elcana, the father of Samuel, (1 Kings 1:1.) and that of king Saul, 1 Kings 9:1. (Challoner) --- Others think that Judith descended from Ruben, by her father, and from Simeon, by her mother; (Estius) or that, instead of son of Ruben, we should read "brother." But as we know that Judith calls Simeon her father, (chap. 9:2.) it is more likely that Ruben has been placed for Israel, as it is in Syriac, St. Fulgentius, etc. This correction is maintained by Bellarmine, Salien, Menochius. (Calmet) --- Thus both Judith and her husband were of the same tribe, the former by Salathiel, the latter by Sarisadai. (Calmet) --- Innumerable are the mistakes in the proper names, in Scripture. (Haydock) --- Some of these might have had more than one. Greek has Sarasdai, (Complutensian, "Saladai;" Alexandrian Septuagint, "Salasadai.") instead of Simeon, son of Israel: (Calmet) Alexandrian Septuagint, "Jeel," which is probably a contraction for Israel. (Haydock)
Judith 8:2 And her husband was Manasses, who died in the time of the barley-harvest:

Who. Greek adds, "of her tribe and family, and he died in the days," etc.
Judith 8:3 For he was standing over them that bound sheaves in the field; and the heat came upon his head, and he died in Bethulia, his own city, and was buried there with his fathers.

Died. Greek, "fell upon his couch; (Grabe adds, "and died in Betuloua, his own city,") and they buried him with his fathers, in the field between Dothaim and Balamo." (Haydock) --- These places seem to be added without reason, as they were too remote from Bethulia. (Calmet)
Judith 8:4 And Judith, his relict, was a widow now three years and six months.

\f + \fr 8:4-5\ft Six. So the old Vulgate, Greek, and Syriac have, four months. --- Private. Greek, "a tent on the roof," that she might look towards Jerusalem, and pray with less distraction. Absalom lay in such a situation, 2 Kings 16:22. (Calmet) --- In which. Greek, "and she put sackcloth," etc., ver. 6. (Haydock) --- It was a rough sort of garment. (Calmet) --- Judith led a most religious life, in prayer, hair-cloth, and fasting, all the year, except on the festivals. (Worthington)
Judith 8:5 And she made herself a private chamber in the upper part of her house, in which she abode, shut up with her maids.

Judith 8:6 And she wore hair-cloth upon her loins, and fasted all the days of her life, except the sabbaths, and new moons, and the feasts of the house of Israel.

Loins. Greek, "and she had on the garments of her widowhood, and." (Haydock) --- She laid these aside, Judith 10:2:(Calmet) --- Life. Greek, "widowhood, except the day before the sabbath, and the sabbaths, and the new moons, and feasts, and days of rejoicing of the house of Israel." (Haydock) --- Syriac and old Vulgate omit, "the day before the sabbath;" and perhaps it may not have been in the original, the Greek translator having inserted it conformably to the practice of his times. It was then prescribed to abstain from fasting, that the joy of the festival might not be impaired, (Grotius) and because it would be necessary to taste what was made ready for the sabbath; (Skikard, Purim) or rather because, as the festival began on Friday, between the two vespers, or from three to six in the afternoon, during the equinoxes, the fast could not be rigorously observed on Friday. (Calmet) --- New moons were days of rejoicing. (Menochius) (1 Kings 20:5.) --- The Jews kept two days together, for fear of missing the day on which the moon really appeared. Several feasts were also prescribed perhaps before this time, on the 1st and 22nd of Nisan, etc.
Judith 8:7 And she was exceedingly beautiful, and her husband left her great riches, and very many servants, and large possessions of herds of oxen, and flocks of sheep.

Of oxen. Greek, Syriac, etc., add, "and fields, and she lived on them."
Judith 8:8 And she was greatly renowned among all, because she feared the Lord very much, neither was there any one that spoke an ill word of her.

Her. "The reputation of chastity in women is tender, and, like a beautiful flower, presently withers at the least blast, and perishes; particularly when they are at an age prone to vice, and destitute of the authority of a husband, whose shadow is the safeguard to a wife." (St. Jerome ad Salvinam.) --- The Scripture could not give Judith a greater character. (Calmet) --- How few can obtain it at present, though their virtue may be most pure, detraction is so keen! (Haydock)
Judith 8:9 When, therefore, she had heard that Ozias had promised that he would deliver up the city after the fifth day, she sent to the ancients, Chabri and Charmi.

When. Greek and Syriac, "and she heard of the evil discourses of the populace against the magistrate, as they lost courage on account of the scarcity of water; and Judith heard of all the words of Ozias to them, how he had sworn to them that he would deliver up the city to the Assyrians after five days. Then sending her maid, whom she had placed at the head of all her possessions, she called Ozias," etc. The following verses give the same sense as the Vulgate, though in other words, and with some additional circumstances. (Haydock)
Judith 8:10 And they came to her, and she said to them: What is this word, by which Ozias hath consented to give up the city to the Assyrians, if within five days there come no aid to us?

Judith 8:11 And who are you that tempt the Lord?

Judith 8:12 This is not a word that may draw down mercy, but rather that may stir up wrath, and enkindle indignation.

Judith 8:13 You have set a time for the mercy of the Lord, and you have appointed him a day, according to your pleasure.

Pleasure. She blames the magistrates for taking a rash oath, pretending to fathom the designs of God, and to fix a time for him, and not attempting to make any resistance, though the welfare of the whole nation, and the sacred things, depended on their exertions. (Calmet) --- They had been assured that God had heard their prayer, (chap. 4:9.) and had often witnessed a miraculous interference of Providence. In other circumstances (Haydock) the magistrates would not have been to blame, though Judith might think them so; (Serarius. See ver. 26.; Menochius) and, in effect, they ought rather to have died than thus to have exposed all to certain ruin. (Worthington)
Judith 8:14 But for as much as the Lord is patient, let us be penitent for this same thing, and with many tears let us beg his pardon:

Judith 8:15 For God will not threaten like man, nor be inflamed to anger like the son of man.

Man. Greek, "But do not you govern the designs of the Lord, our God, for God is not to be menaced like man, nor forced to give an account like the son of man." (Haydock) (Numbers 23:19.)
Judith 8:16 And therefore, let us humble our souls before him, and continuing in an humble spirit, in his service:

Judith 8:17 Let us ask the Lord with tears, that according to his will so he would shew his mercy to us: that as our heart is troubled by their pride, so also we may glory in our humility:

Judith 8:18 For we have not followed the sins of our fathers, who forsook their God, and worshipped strange gods.

For. Greek, "As there has not arisen in our families generations, nor is there at this day either tribe, or family, or populace, or city among us, adoring gods made with hands, as it happened in days past;" in the former part of the reign of Manasses. All had begun to open their eyes, at the sight of the dreadful catastrophe. (Haydock)
Judith 8:19 For which crime, they were given up to their enemies, to the sword, and to pillage, and to confusion: but we know no other God but him.

Judith 8:20 Let us humbly wait for his consolation, and the Lord, our God, will require our blood of the afflictions of our enemies, and he will humble all the nations that shall rise up against us, and bring them to disgrace.

Let. Greek, "Wherefore we hope that he will not despise us, nor those of our race; nor, if we be taken, will Judea be so styled, our sacred things will be plundered. He will require his profanation at our mouth," etc. She shews the dread consequences which will ensue from the rash oath, and from such dastardly conduct under trial. (Haydock)
Judith 8:21 And now, brethren, as you are the ancients among the people of God, and their very soul resteth upon you: comfort their hearts by your speech, that they may be mindful how our fathers were tempted, that they might be proved, whether they worshipped their God truly.

Brethren. Greek adds, "Let us shew our brethren that their soul depends on us, and the holy things, and the house, (temple) and the altar, are supported by us." These were not therefore demolished, Judith 5:22. (Haydock) --- "Yea, let us give thanks, above all, to the Lord our God, who tries us like our fathers. Remember," etc.
Judith 8:22 *They must remember how our father, Abraham, was tempted, and being proved by many tribulations, was made the friend of God.

Genesis 22:1.
Judith 8:23 So Isaac, so Jacob, so Moses, and all that have pleased God, passed through many tribulations, remaining faithful.

Jacob. Greek adds, "in Mesopotamia....because he does not take vengeance on us, as he made them pass through fire to examine their heart. But the Lord, for an admonition, chastises those who approach to him. And Ozias," ver. 28. (Haydock)
Judith 8:24 But they that did not receive the trials with the fear of the Lord, but uttered their impatience and the reproach of their murmuring, against the Lord,

Judith 8:25 *Were destroyed by the destroyer, and perished by serpents.

1 Corinthians 10:9.
Destroyer. As this word is not used elsewhere, (Worthington) St. Paul seems to allude to this passage, (1 Corinthians 10:10.) as Judith does to various punishments (Numbers 11:1., and 14:12., and 20:4.; Calmet) inflicted by an angel. (Menochius)
Judith 8:26 As for us, therefore, let us not revenge ourselves for these things which we suffer,

Suffer, as if to shew our impatience (Haydock) and anger against God. (Menochius)
Judith 8:27 But esteeming these very punishments to be less than our sins deserve, let us believe that these scourges of the Lord, with which, like servants, we are chastised, have happened for our amendment, and not for our destruction.

Judith 8:28 And Ozias, and the ancients, said to her: All things which thou hast spoken are true, and there is nothing to be reprehended in thy words.

Words. Greek adds, "for it is not to-day only that thy wisdom has appeared, but from thy earliest days all the people has known thy prudence, as the formation (Haydock. Syriac, the thought; Calmet) of thy heart is good. But the people was much oppressed with thirst, and they forced us to....take an oath, which we shall not break. Now," etc. (Haydock) --- It hence appears that Judith was not very young; and as many desired to marry her, (chap. ultra; Greek) we may conclude that she was of a middle age, or about thirty-five. (Houbigant)
Judith 8:29 Now therefore pray for us, for thou art a holy woman, and one fearing God.

God. Greek adds, "and the Lord will send rain to fill our reservoirs, and we shall faint no longer. And Judith replied: Hear me, and I will perform an action which shall come to the ears of all future generations of our race. You," etc., ver. 32. (Haydock) --- She did not tell what she was going to do. (Calmet)
Judith 8:30 And Judith said to them: As you know that what I have been able to say, is of God:

Judith 8:31 So that which I intend to do, prove ye if it be of God, and pray that God may strengthen my design.

Judith 8:32 You shall stand at the gate this night, and I will go out with my maid-servant: and pray ye, that as you have said, in five days the Lord may look down upon his people, Israel.

Servant. Greek abra, commonly (Haydock) denotes a maid of honour, (Worthington) or companion, though sometimes it is applied to people of loose morals. This servant had probably the administration of the affairs of her mistress, ver. 9. (Calmet) --- Pray. Greek, "as you....the Lord will by my hand look," etc.
Judith 8:33 But I desire that you search not into what I am doing; and till I bring you word, let nothing else be done but to pray for me to the Lord, our God.

And till. Greek, "for I shall not tell you, till what I am about be accomplished. And Ozias, with the princes, said to her."
Judith 8:34 And Ozias, the prince of Juda, said to her: Go in peace, and the Lord be with thee, to take revenge of our enemies. So, returning, they departed.

Departed. Greek adds, "from the tent to their respective stations."
Judith 9:0 Judith's prayer, to beg of God to fortify her in her undertaking.

Judith 9:1 And when they were gone, Judith went into her oratory: and putting on hair-cloth, laid ashes on her head: and falling down prostrate before the Lord, she cried to the Lord, saying:

Oratory. Of such our Saviour speaks, Matthew vi.; and Baronius at large. (The year of our Lord 293.) (Worthington) --- Greek, "But Judith fell prostrate, and sprinkled ashes upon her head, (Syriac adds, and tore her tunic) and uncovered the sackcloth which she had on. That evening the incense had just been offered, in the house of the Lord, at Jerusalem. And Judith cried aloud," etc.
Judith 9:2 O Lord God of my father Simeon, *who gavest him a sword to execute vengeance against strangers, who had defiled by their uncleanness, and uncovered the virgin unto confusion:

Genesis 34:26.
Gavest him a sword, etc. The justice of God is here praised, in punishing by the sword of Simeon the crime of the Sichemites: and not the fact of Simeon, which was justly condemned by his father, Genesis 49:5. Though even with regard to this fact, we may distinguish between his zeal against the crime committed by the ravishers of his sister, which zeal may be considered just: and the manner of his punishing that crime, which was irregular and excessive. (Challoner) --- The former is here commended. (Worthington) (Menochius) --- Yet Simeon was not blameless. God put the sword into his hand as he makes use of tyrants; in which sense Nabuchodonosor is styled his servant, Jeremias 25:9., Ezechiel 29:18., and Genesis 34:2, 25.
Judith 9:3 And who gavest their wives to be made a prey, and their daughters into captivity: and all their spoils to be divided to thy servants, who were zealous with thy zeal: assist, I beseech thee, O Lord God, me, a widow.

And. Greek, "For thou didst say: It shall not be so: and they did it because thou hadst given their princes unto slaughter, and their bed, which had perceived their deceit, unto blood; and thou didst slay the slaves with the princes, and the princes on their thrones; and thou gavest," etc. (Haydock) --- This style seems rather poetical. (Grotius) (Calmet)
Judith 9:4 For thou hast done the things of old, and hast devised one thing after another: and what thou hast designed, hath been done.

Of old. Greek, "before these, and these, and what followed, and is at present, and things to come, thou hast foreseen." All events depend on Thee. "For the things which thou hadst decreed were at hand, and said: Behold, we are here." (Haydock)
Judith 9:5 For all thy ways are prepared, and in thy providence thou hast placed thy judgments.

Judgments. All is foreseen: nothing can resist the decrees of God. (Calmet)
Judith 9:6 *Look upon the camp of the Assyrians now, as thou wast pleased to look upon the camp of the Egyptians, when they pursued armed after thy servants, trusting in their chariots, and in their horsemen, and in a multitude of warriors.

Exodus 14:9.
As. Greek speaks not of the Egyptians: "For behold the Assyrians are multiplied in their power, and exalted on account of their cavalry; they have boasted on the strong arm of the infantry, have trusted in their shield, and bow, and sling; and they have not known that thou art the Lord, making an end of wars: Thy name is Lord; break their force, by thy power," etc., ver. 11. (Haydock)
Judith 9:7 But thou lookedst over their camp, and darkness wearied them.

Them, as they were not able to come to action during the night, Exodus xiv.
Judith 9:8 The deep held their feet, and the waters overwhelmed them.

Judith 9:9 So may it be with these also, O Lord, who trust in their multitude, and in their chariots, and in their pikes, and in their shields, and in their arrows, and glory in their spears,

Judith 9:10 And know not that thou art our God, who destroyest wars from the beginning, and the Lord is thy name.

Judith 9:11 Lift up thy arm as from the beginning, and crush their power with thy power: let their power fall in thy wrath, who promise themselves to violate thy sanctuary, and defile the dwelling-place of thy name, and to beat down with their sword the horn of thy altar.

Judith 9:12 Bring to pass, O Lord, that his pride may be cut off with his own sword.

Judith 9:13 Let him be caught in the net of his own eyes, in my regard, and do thou strike him by the graces of the words of my lips.

Lips, or with my endearing speeches. (Menochius) --- She meant innocently to engage the affections of Holofernes, (Haydock) and prays that he may receive her in that manner, as he might have done without sin. But when he abused his free-will, God turned his sin to the good of others. See Exodus vii. (St. Augustine, ser. 288.) (Worthington) --- Greek, "Give that power which I have devised to the hand of me, a widow. Strike the slave by the lips of my delusion, (or by my ensnaring words) with the prince; and the chief, with his minister, break their haughtiness by the hand of a female, ver. 15. (Haydock) --- This prayer seems contrary to sound morality, as well as the indiscreet conduct of Judith, in exposing herself to danger, though her intention was good. (Calmet) --- But are not stratagems lawful in war? See 2 Kings xv. Is it sinful for a woman to endeavour to captivate the heart? The situation might be dangerous, but it was not criminal; and Judith was certainly determined to yield to no dishonest proposals. God therefore approved of her designs, and enhanced her beauty, Judith 10:4. (Haydock)
Judith 9:14 Give me constancy in my mind, that I may despise him: and fortitude, that I may overthrow him.

Judith 9:15 *For this will be a glorious monument for thy name, when he shall fall by the hand of a woman.

Judges 4:21.; Judges 5:26.
Judith 9:16 For thy power, O Lord, is not in a multitude, nor is thy pleasure in the strength of horses, nor from the beginning have the proud been acceptable to thee: but the prayer of the humble and the meek hath always pleased thee.

Horses. Greek, "the potent, but thou art the Lord of the humble."
Judith 9:17 O God of the heavens, creator of the waters, and Lord of the whole creation, hear me a poor wretch, making supplication to thee, and presuming of thy mercy.

And. Greek, "give my word and deceit to be a wound and a scar to them, who, against thy covenant and sanctified house, and the summit of Sion,...have devised cruel things, and do for all thy nation according to thy power and strength; for there is no other to shield Israel but Thou."
Judith 9:18 Remember, O Lord, thy covenant, and put thou words in my mouth, and strengthen the resolution in my heart, that thy house may continue in thy holiness:

Judith 9:19 And all nations may acknowledge that thou art God, and there is no other besides thee.

Judith 10:0 Judith goeth out towards the camp, and is taken, and brought to Holofernes.

Judith 10:1 And it came to pass, when she had ceased to cry to the Lord, that she rose from the place wherein she lay prostrate before the Lord.

Judith 10:2 And she called her maid, and going down into her house, she took off her hair-cloth, and put away the garments of her widowhood,

House. Greek adds, "where she spent the sabbath and festival days, she rolled up her," etc. (Haydock) --- She remained in her oratory therefore only on other days. (Calmet)
Judith 10:3 And she washed her body, and anointed herself with the best ointment, and plaited the hair of her head, and put a bonnet upon her head, and clothed herself with the garments of her gladness, and put sandals on her feet, and took her bracelets, and lilies, and earlets, and rings, and adorned herself with all her ornaments.

Body. Complutensian Greek, "mouth." But other editions seem more accurate. (Haydock) --- Best. Greek, "thick," probably the myrobalanum of Pliny, [Natural History?] 12:21., and 13:1. --- Bonnet, or mitre, tied with ribbands, hanging down behind, like those of bishops. --- Sandals, highly ornamented, and worn by people of quality. (Calmet) --- Lilies, pendent from the neck. (Grotius)
Judith 10:4 And the Lord also gave her more beauty: because all this dressing up did not proceed from sensuality, but from virtue: and therefore the Lord increased this her beauty, so that she appeared to all men's eyes incomparably lovely.

And. Greek, "and she was richly adorned, so that she might captivate (literally, deceive) the eyes of whatever men should behold her. And," ver. 5. (Haydock) --- The fathers highly extol her virtue, and she was, no doubt, actuated by the purest motives. Yet she might be guilty of some indiscretion. Even the working of miracles would not prove the contrary, as wicked priests may confer the sacraments; and Moses was reprehensible the moment (Calmet) before (Haydock) he wrought a miracle, Numbers 20:10., and Matthew 7:22. God inspired her with the laudable design of freeing her country, but the means were left to her own choice. (Calmet) --- The making use of this rich attire was not, however, sinful in itself; and we have no right to suspect that Judith gave any way either to vanity or to sensuality. How many ladies of quality are dressed so as to enchant all those who are not upon their guard! Yet, provided they observe due modesty, who will blame their rich attire or perfumes? (Haydock) --- Judith might lawfully desire to marry Holofernes for the good of her nation, (Menochius) as Esther became the wife of Assuerus, though an infidel. The general seemed even willing to become a convert, Judith 11:21. (Haydock) --- God bore witness to the holy intention of Judith in adorning herself. (Witham)
Judith 10:5 And she gave to her maid a bottle of wine to carry, and a vessel of oil, and parched corn, and dry figs, and bread and cheese, and went out.

Bottle; made of leather, (Calmet) used for carrying wine. (Pollox.) (Menochius) --- Corn. It was eaten either steeped in water or mixed with oil. --- Cheese. So the Syriac reads. Greek, "pure loaves." (Calmet) --- Why she took her provisions with her, she explains, Judith 12:2. (Menochius)
Judith 10:6 And when they came to the gate of the city, they found Ozias, and the ancients of the city waiting.

Judith 10:7 And when they saw her they were astonished, and admired her beauty exceedingly.

Her. Greek adds, "with her countenance and robes changed."
Judith 10:8 But they asked her no question, only they let her pass, saying: The God of our fathers give thee grace, and may he strengthen all the counsel of thy heart with his power, that Jerusalem may glory in thee, and thy name may be in the number of the holy and just. 9 And they that were there said, all with one voice: So be it, so be it.

But. Greek, "And they said to her, May God, the God of." --- With. Greek, "For the glory of the Israelites, and the exaltation of Jerusalem; and they adored God. And she said to them, Order the gate of the city to be opened for me, and I will go out to accomplish what you were talking about to me. And they commanded the young men to open for her; and they did so. But Judith and her maid went out. And the citizens looked at her while she descended the hill, till she had passed the valley, when they lost sight of her; and they passed along straight through the vale, and the advanced guard of," etc. (Haydock) --- It appears that there was still day-light, (Calmet) or the moon shone brightly. (Haydock)
Judith 10:10 But Judith praying to the Lord, passed through the gates, she and her maid.

Judith 10:11 And it came to pass, when she went down the hill, about break of day, that the watchmen of the Assyrians met her, and stopped her, saying: Whence comest thou? or whither goest thou?

Judith 10:12 And she answered: I am a daughter of the Hebrews, and I am fled from them, because I knew they would be made a prey to you, because they despised you, and would not of their own accord yield themselves, that they might find mercy in your sight.

Because I knew, etc. In this and the following chapter, some things are related to have been said by Judith, which seem hard to reconcile with truth. But all that is related in Scripture of the servants of God, is not approved by the Scripture: and even the saints in their enterprizes may sometimes slip into venial sins. (Challoner) --- By means of mental reservations, we may exculpate her from lying. (Serarius) (Menochius) --- But this expedient is bad and childish. (Haydock) --- She might speak ironically, (Denis the Carthusian) or prophetically. (Raban. Glossa, etc.) --- Still it might be an untruth, (Calmet) to be excused, like stratagems in war. (Menochius) --- How often does an enemy give out that he is going to march to some place, when he intends to go quite another way! (Haydock) --- I knew. Greek, "Because they are about to be given up a prey to you. Therefore, I come to Holofernes, general in chief of your army, to inform him of the truth, and to shew," etc. (Haydock) --- She spoke many things certainly true, and others which would probably have taken place, if God had not sent relief. (Worthington)
Judith 10:13 For this reason, I thought with myself, saying: I will go to the presence of the prince Holofernes, that I may tell him their secrets, and shew him by what way he may take them, without the loss of one man of his army.

Judith 10:14 And when the men had heard her words, they beheld her face, and their eyes were amazed, for they wondered exceedingly at her beauty.

Judith 10:15 And they said to her: Thou hast saved thy life by taking this resolution, to come down to our lord.

Lord. Greek adds, "and now proceed to his tent, and some of us shall give thee into his hands. But if thou stand before him, let not thy heart fear, but tell him this, and he will treat thee well. And they selected 100 men, and surrounded her and her servant-maid, and conducted her to the tent of Holofernes. And they ran from all parts of the camp, as soon as her coming was made known, and they came round her as she stood without the tent of Holofernes, till they had told him of her. And they were astonished at her beauty, and at the Israelites, and said to each other, Who," etc., ver. 18.
Judith 10:16 And be assured of this, that when thou shalt stand before him, he will treat thee well, and thou wilt be most acceptable to his heart. And they brought her to the tent of Holofernes, telling him of her.

Judith 10:17 And when she was come into his presence, forthwith Holofernes was caught by his eyes.

Judith 10:18 And his officers said to him: Who can despise the people of the Hebrews, who have such beautiful women that we should not think it worth our while for their sakes to fight against them?

That we. Greek, "For it is not expedient to leave one man of them alive, lest they should delude all the earth." (Old Vulgate omits the negation.) "And all who slept near Holofernes, and all his servants, came out and introduced her into the tent;" (Haydock. which was divided into two apartments. Heraclides) "and Holofernes was reposing on a bed in the canopy, (or inner room) which," etc. (Haydock) --- The curtain was intended to keep off gnats. Mark Anthony imitated this delicacy. Interque signa (turpe!) militaria, Sol aspicit conopaeum. (Horace, epod. ix.) (Calmet)
Judith 10:19 And Judith, seeing Holofernes sitting under a canopy, which was woven of purple and gold, with emeralds and precious stones:

Judith 10:20 After she had looked on his face, bowed down to him, prostrating herself to the ground. And the servants of Holofernes lifted her up, by the command of their master.

After. Greek, "And they told him of her, and he came out to the forepart of the tent, and silver lamps preceded him, (Haydock) either for grandeur, as they did the kings of Persia and the emperors of Rome and of the Turks, or because it was still dark." (Calmet) --- "But as soon as Judith came in sight of him and of his ministers, they all were astonished at the beauty of her face; and falling prostrate, she adored him, (with civil respect) and his servants lifted her up." (Haydock) --- St. Fulgentius (ep. 2.) judges, with great probability, that Judith was now about 40 years old. (Worthington)
Judith 11:0 Judith's speech to Holofernes.

Judith 11:1 Then Holofernes said to her: Be of good comfort, and fear not in thy heart: for I have never hurt a man that was willing to serve Nabuchodonosor, the king.

King. Greek adds, "of all the earth."
Judith 11:2 And if thy people had not despised me, I would never have lifted up my spear against them.

Judith 11:3 But now tell me, for what cause hast thou left them, and why it hath pleased thee to come to us?

Why. Greek, "And art come to us? For thou art come for thy own safety. Take courage, for thou shalt live this night and henceforth, as no one shall hurt thee, but shall do thee good, as the servants of my lord, Nabuchodonosor, the king, are treated."
Judith 11:4 And Judith said to him: Receive the words of thy handmaid, for if thou wilt follow the words of thy handmaid, the Lord will do with thee a perfect thing.

Handmaid. Greek adds, "and I will tell no untruth to my lord this night, for," etc. --- Thing. Greek adds, "and none of the projects of my lord shall fail." (Haydock) --- All that Judith said was true in her sense, though the enemy did not understand her properly. So Josue lawfully entrapped the citizens of Hai. (St. Augustine, q. 10. in Josue viii.) (Worthington)
Judith 11:5 For as Nabuchodonosor, the king of the earth liveth, and his power liveth, which is in thee for chastising of all straying souls: not only men serve him through thee, but also the beasts of the field obey him.

Liveth. She imitates Joseph, (Genesis 42:15.) and Eliseus; (4 Kings 2:4.) and speaks the truth, as the general had subjected many to his master. (Menochius) --- Her speech was not superstitious, but shewed a civil respect. (Calmet)
Judith 11:6 For the industry of thy mind is spoken of among all nations, and it is told through the whole world, that thou only art excellent and mighty in all his kingdom, and thy discipline is cried up in all provinces.

Judith 11:7 *It is known, also, what Achior said, nor are we ignorant of what thou hast commanded to be done to him.

Judith 5:5.
To him. Greek intimates that she advised him to follow his counsel. "For our nation is not punished with the sword, unless they sin against their God. But now let not my lord be at a loss what to do. For death has fallen upon them, and sin has taken possession of them, so that they have irritated God by their folly," etc., ver. 10. This might also be true, though they had not fallen into idolatry (chap. 8:18.; Haydock) at Bethulia. (Menochius)
Judith 11:8 For it is certain that our God is so offended with sins, that he hath sent word by his prophets to the people, that he will deliver them up for their sins.

Prophets. Though this had been threatened by the ancient prophets, (Haydock) we cannot pretend to specify which she means. (Calmet)
Judith 11:9 And because the children of Israel know they have offended their God, thy dread is upon them.

Judith 11:10 Moreover, also, a famine hath come upon them, and for drought of water they are already to be counted among the dead.

Famine. They might have provisions, but they would be useless, on account of excessive thirst. (Menochius)
Judith 11:11 And they have a design even to kill their cattle, and to drink the blood of them.

Drink. Greek, "and all that God had forbidden them to eat by his laws, (Haydock) without making any distinction between the clean and unclean. (Grotius) --- Blood was prohibited even before the law, Genesis 9:4., and Leviticus 17:14. (Calmet)
Judith 11:12 And the consecrated things of the Lord, their God, which God forbade them to touch, in corn, wine, and oil, these have they purposed to make use of, and they design to consume the things which they ought not to touch with their hands: therefore, because they do these things, it is certain they will be given up to destruction.

Oil. Greek may explain this. "And the first-fruits of corn, and the tithes of wine and of oil, which they had reserved as sacred for the priests, standing in Jerusalem, before our God, they had decreed to consume; though none of the people ought so much as to touch these things. Yet they have sent to obtain permission of the senate at Jerusalem, where the people have done the like. And when they shall have obtained an answer, they will fall to work, and then they will be abandoned to be destroyed by thee." (Haydock) --- She insinuates that her countrymen are in the utmost distress, and not much attached to religion; (Calmet) though in extreme want the distinction of meats is not to be enforced. (Haydock)
Judith 11:13 And I, thy handmaid, knowing this, am fled from them, and the Lord hath sent me to tell thee these very things.

Tell. Greek, "To perform with thee a feat which will astonish all who shall hear of these things. For thy handmaid is religious, and serveth the God of heaven day and night; and now my lord, I am," etc.
Judith 11:14 For I, thy handmaid, worship God even now that I am with thee, and thy handmaid will go out, and I will pray to God,

God. Greek adds, "in the night, in the valley."
Judith 11:15 And he will tell me when he will repay them for their sins, and I will come and tell thee, so that I may bring thee through the midst of Jerusalem, and thou shalt have all the people of Israel, as sheep that have no shepherd, and there shall not so much as one dog bark against thee:

He will. Greek, "They shall have completed their sins." --- Tell thee. Greek adds, "and thou shalt go out with all thy forces, and none of them shall resist thee; and I will bring thee through Judea, over-against Jerusalem, and will place thy throne in the midst of it, and thou shalt drive them like sheep," etc. --- Dog. This is proverbial, Exodus 11:7. (Calmet) --- All Israel was at rest after the death of Holofernes. Judith brought his head in triumph through the country. The promise of dominion (Haydock) was ironical, 3 Kings 22:15. (Menochius)
Judith 11:16 Because these things are told me by the providence of God.

God. Greek, "My foreknowledge; and I was sent to inform thee." (Haydock) --- She flatters Holofernes with the idea that he is under the special care of heaven. (Calmet)
Judith 11:17 And because God is angry with them, I am sent to tell these very things to thee.

Judith 11:18 And all these words pleased Holofernes, and his servants, and they admired her wisdom, and they said one to another:

Judith 11:19 There is not such another woman upon earth in look, in beauty, and in sense of words.

Judith 11:20 And Holofernes said to her: God hath done well who sent thee before the people, that thou mightest give them into our hands:

That. Greek, "To increase our strength, and to bring destruction on those who have despised my lord."
Judith 11:21 And because thy promise is good, if thy God shall do this for me, he shall also be my God, and thou shalt be great in the house of Nabuchodonosor, and thy name shall be renowned through all the earth.

Because. Greek, "And now thou art comely in thy appearance, and good in thy discourse. If then thou perform what thou hast spoken, thy God shall," etc. (Haydock) --- It is hardly probable that he spoke in earnest. Perhaps he did not know that the true God allowed of no other. Being captivated with Judith's beauty, and perceiving that she was attached to religion, he had a mind to remove all her objections to his person. (Calmet)
Judith 12:0 Judith goeth out in the night to pray: she is invited to a banquet with Holofernes.

Judith 12:1 Then he ordered that she should go in where his treasures were laid up, and bade her tarry there, and he appointed what should be given her from his own table.

And bade. Greek, "and ordered a bed (or table) to be prepared for her, to eat of his own meat, and drink of his wine," (Haydock) that her beauty might be enhanced, (Daniel i.) and to honour her. (Menochius)
Judith 12:2 And Judith answered him and said: Now I cannot eat of these things which thou commandest to be given me, lest sin come upon me: but I will eat of the things which I have brought.

Upon me, as these meats had been offered to idols; (Worthington) or she might fear they had, and wished to avoid all scandal, 2 Machabees 6:21., and Tobias 1:12. (Calmet)
Judith 12:3 And Holofernes said to her: If these things which thou hast brought with thee fail thee, what shall we do for thee?

Thee. Greek adds, "for there is none of thy race."
Judith 12:4 And Judith said: As thy soul liveth, my lord, thy handmaid shall not spend all these things till God do by my hand that which I have purposed. And his servants brought her into the tent which he had commanded.

Which 1:Greek, "he." --- Which. Greek, "and she slept till midnight and she arose at the morning watch." (Haydock) --- The mode of counting by hours prevailed after the captivity. (Calmet)
Judith 12:5 And when she was going in, she desired that she might have liberty to go out, at night, and before day, to prayer, and to beseech the Lord.

And. Greek, "and she sent to Holofernes, saying: May my lord please to order that thy handmaid may go out to pray. And," etc., ver. 6. (Haydock) --- She had prepared him to grant this request before: but out of civility, and that he may have greater confidence in her, she asks again. The choice of a retired place for prayer is very commendable, but she made choice of the fields, that she might go out of the camp afterwards without being suspected. (Calmet)
Judith 12:6 And he commanded his chamberlains that she might go out and in, to adore her God as she pleased, for three days.

Chamberlains. Greek, "life-guards, not to hinder her; and she remained in the camp three days." (Haydock)
Judith 12:7 And she went out in the nights into the valley of Bethulia, and washed herself in a fountain of water.

Water. Greek, "in the camp;" perhaps she washed only her hands and face. (Calmet)
Judith 12:8 And as she came up, she prayed to the Lord, the God of Israel, that he would direct her way to the deliverance of his people.

Judith 12:9 And going in, she remained pure in the tent, until she took her own meat in the evening.

Pure, from forbidden food. (Worthington) --- Evening. Thus she continued to fast, to draw down the blessing of God. (Calmet)
Judith 12:10 And it came to pass on the fourth day, that Holofernes made a supper for his servants, and said to Vagao, his eunuch: Go, and persuade that Hebrew woman, to consent of her own accord to dwell with me.

Servants. Greek adds, "only, and he did not call any of those whom he usually employed," (Haydock) that they might not witness his excesses. Vagao, or Bagoas, the Persian name for an "eunuch," or chief officer; though such were generally to wait on the ladies. Quem penes est Dominam servandi cura Bagoae. (Ovid, Amor. ii.) --- Eunuch. Greek and Syriac add, "who was appointed over all his affairs. Persuade the Hebrew woman who is with thee to come to us, and to eat and drink with us. For we deem it shameful to dismiss such a woman, without having commerce with her; and if we do not attract her, she will deride us."
Judith 12:11 For it is looked upon as shameful among the Assyrians, if a woman mock a man, by doing so as to pass free from him.

Judith 12:12 Then Vagao went in to Judith, and said: Let not my good maid be afraid to go in to my lord, that she may be honoured before his face, that she may eat with him and drink wine, and be merry.

Merry. This would pave the way for greater liberties. (Calmet) --- Greek adds, "and to become this day as a daughter of the Assyrians, standing to wait in the house of Nabuchodonosor." He probably alludes to those courtezans (Calmet) who sung at night, before the palace, etc. (Athen. Dip. 12:2.) The Persians admitted women to their feasts, though they were generally excluded in the East, Esther 1:12. (Herodotus 5:18.)
Judith 12:13 And Judith answered him: Who am I, that I should gainsay my lord?

Judith 12:14 All that shall be good and best before his eyes, I will do. And whatsoever shall please him, that shall be best to me all the days of my life.

Best. Greek, "a boast, or matter of exultation." (Haydock) --- This answer seems to shock our delicacy. Did she not understand the meaning of the eunuch, which was sufficiently plain? She only passed a compliment, which always implies a tacit condition, if the thing be practicable and honest: as the words might have two meanings, she was bound in charity to interpret them in the best sense. (Calmet) --- It was surely lawful to be merry. (Menochius)
Judith 12:15 And she arose and dressed herself out with her garments, and going in, she stood before his face.

Garments. Greek adds, "and all her female ornaments; and her servant came and spread on the ground, before Holofernes, the fleeces which she had received from Bagoas, for her daily use, to eat lying upon them. And coming in, Judith fell prostrate." (Haydock) --- The custom of sitting on the ground, upon skins, to eat, is very ancient, (Targum, Esther i.) and is still observed by the Turks. The kings of Persia let none eat with them at the same table. (Heraclides; Athen. 5:10.) --- The character of drunkenness, with which this nation has been branded, seems not unfounded. (Calmet)
Judith 12:16 And the heart of Holofernes was smitten, for he was burning with the desire of her.

Her. Greek adds, "company; and he had sought an opportunity of deluding her, from the day when he first beheld her." He justly, therefore, fell into the snare which he had laid.
Judith 12:17 And Holofernes said to her: Drink now, and sit down and be merry; for thou hast found favour before me.

Judith 12:18 And Judith said: I will drink, my lord, because my life is magnified, this day, above all my days.

Judith 12:19 And she took, and eat and drank before him, what her maid had prepared for her.

Judith 12:20 And Holofernes was made merry on her occasion, and drank exceedingly much wine, so much as he had never drunk in his life.

Life. Greek adds, "in any one day," (Haydock) at supper. (Menochius)
Judith 13:0 Judith cutteth off the head of Holofernes, and returneth to Bethulia.

Judith 13:1 And when it was grown late, his servants made haste to their lodgings, and Vagao shut the chamber-doors, and went his way.

Doors. Greek adds, "without," yet so that Judith could open them. (Calmet)
Judith 13:2 And they were all over-charged with wine.

Judith 13:3 And Judith was alone in the chamber.

Judith 13:4 But Holofernes lay on his bed, fast asleep, being exceedingly drunk.

Drunk. Greek, "drowned in wine."
Judith 13:5 And Judith spoke to her maid to stand without before the chamber, and to watch:

The. Greek, "her chamber." --- Watch. Greek adds, "her coming out, as on other days; for she had said she would go out to pray, and she had told this to Bagoas. And all had departed," etc. All these precautions were necessary. (Haydock)
Judith 13:6 And Judith stood before the bed, praying with tears, and the motion of her lips in silence,

Judith. She seems not to have disclosed her secret even to her companion, taking the whole upon herself. --- Lips. Greek, "in her heart." (Calmet) --- Yet the Jews generally use some words, (Haydock) thinking that prayer too cold, which is barely mental. (Grotius)
Judith 13:7 Saying: Strengthen me, O Lord, God of Israel, and in this hour look on the works of my hands, that as thou hast promised, thou mayst raise up Jerusalem, thy city: and that I may bring to pass that which I have purposed, having a belief that it might be done by thee.

Raise up. If Bethulia had been taken, perhaps (Haydock) Jerusalem had also fallen. (Worthington)
Judith 13:8 And when she had said this, she went to the pillar that was at his bed's head, and loosed his sword that hung tied upon it.

Pillar. Greek kanoni, "the rule," (Calmet) or pole on which the arms were hung. (Hesychius) --- Sword, (acinace) used by the Persians, (Menochius) and shorter than the Greek or Roman sword. (Calmet) --- If she had not been inspired by God to act thus, like Aod, (Judges iii.) it would be difficult to excuse her, in thus hurrying a man, in the most wretched state, before the judgment-seat of God. (Haydock)
Judith 13:9 And when she had drawn it out, she took him by the hair of his head, and said: Strengthen me, O Lord God, at this hour.

Judith 13:10 And she struck twice upon his neck, and cut off his head, and took off his canopy from the pillars, and rolled away his headless body.

Canopy, to convince all that it was the head of Holofernes. (Menochius) --- Body, on the ground; (chap. 14:14.) perhaps to cut off the head more easily, (Calmet) and that it might appear more ghastly (Haydock) at the first entrance. (Tirinus)
Judith 13:11 And after a while she went out, and delivered the head of Holofernes to her maid, and bade her put it into her wallet.

While, having composed herself, (Haydock) and done every thing necessary to prevent detection. (Menochius)
Judith 13:12 And they two went out according to their custom, as it were to prayer, and they passed the camp, and having compassed the valley, they came to the gate of the city.

Judith 13:13 And Judith, from afar off, cried to the watchmen upon the walls: Open the gates, for God is with us, who hath shewn his power in Israel.

Open. Greek repeats, "open ye now the gate; God, our God is with us, still to shew power in Israel, and strength against the enemies, as he hath done to-day." (Haydock)
Judith 13:14 And it came to pass, when the men had heard her voice, that they called the ancients of the city.

That. Greek, "they hastened to descend to the gate of their city, and called," etc.
Judith 13:15 And all ran to meet her, from the least to the greatest: for they now had no hopes that she would come.

Had now. Greek, "it was a paradox to them that she should come, and they opened the gate, and received them."
Judith 13:16 And lighting up lights they all gathered round about her: and she went up to a higher place, and commanded silence to be made. And when all had held their peace,

And she. Greek, "said to them with a loud voice: Praise God, praise, yea praise God, because he hath not withdrawn his mercy from the house of Israel, but hath destroyed our enemies by my hand this night." (Haydock)
Judith 13:17 Judith said: Praise ye the Lord, our God, who hath not forsaken them that hope in him.

Judith 13:18 And by me, his handmaid, he hath fulfilled his mercy, which he promised to the house of Israel: and he hath killed the enemy of his people, by my hand, this night.

Judith 13:19 Then she brought forth the head of Holofernes out of the wallet, and shewed it them, saying: Behold the head of Holofernes, the general of the army of the Assyrians, and behold his canopy, wherein he lay in his drunkenness, where the Lord, our God, slew him by the hand of a woman.

Drunkenness. "The fasting of one woman overthrew an innumerable host of drunkards. (St. Ambrose, de jej. ix.) (Worthington)
Judith 13:20 But as the same Lord liveth, his angel hath been my keeper, both going hence, and abiding there, and returning from thence hither: and the Lord hath not suffered me, his handmaid, to be defiled, but hath brought me back to you without pollution of sin, rejoicing for his victory, for my escape, and for your deliverance.

And abiding. Greek, "for my face has deluded him to his ruin, and he has not committed sin with me, for defilement and shame. And all the people were much amazed; and bowing down, they adored the Lord, and said, with one accord: Our God, thou art blessed, because this day thou hast brought the enemies of thy people to nought." (Haydock) --- Judith's guardian angel defended her; as Jacob's did him, Genesis xlviii. (Worthington)
Judith 13:21 *Give all of you glory to him, because he is good, because his mercy endureth for ever.

Psalms 105:1.; Psalms 106:1.
Judith 13:22 And they all adored the Lord, and said to her: The Lord hath blessed thee by his power, because by thee he hath brought our enemies to nought.

Judith 13:23 And Ozias, the prince of the people of Israel, said to her: Blessed art thou, O daughter, by the Lord, the most high God, above all women upon the earth.

Prince, in that town, though Manasses was king. (Menochius) --- Greek, "Ozias said."
Judith 13:24 Blessed be the Lord who made heaven and earth, who hath directed thee to the cutting off the head of the prince of our enemies.

Judith 13:25 Because he hath so magnified thy name this day, that thy praise shall not depart out of the mouth of men, who shall be mindful of the power of the Lord, for ever, for that thou hast not spared thy life, by reason of the distress and tribulation of thy people, but hast prevented our ruin in the presence of our God.

Praise. Greek, "hope." --- For that. Greek, "and may God make these things turn to thy eternal exaltation, to regard thee for good; because thou hast not." --- Ruin. Greek adds, "walking aright in," etc. (Haydock)
Judith 13:26 And all the people said: So be it, so be it.

Judith 13:27 And Achior, being called for, came, and Judith said to him: The God of Israel, to whom thou gavest testimony, that he revengeth himself of his enemies, he hath cut off the head of all the unbelievers this night by my hand.

And. This is related after ver. 5, in the following chapter, in Greek, Syriac, and the old Vulgate, (Calmet) and indeed it seems to be there in its proper place. --- Head, or general. (Haydock)
Judith 13:28 And that thou mayst find that it is so, behold the head of Holofernes, who in the contempt of his pride despised the God of Israel: and threatened thee with death, saying: When the people of Israel shall be taken, I will command thy sides to be pierced with a sword.

Judith 13:29 Then Achior, seeing the head of Holofernes, being seized with a great fear, he fell on his face upon the earth, and his soul swooned away.

Fear. Astonished (Menochius) at the instability of human things, and admiring how God had rescued him from the threatened danger.
Judith 13:30 But after he had recovered his spirits, he fell down at her feet, and reverenced her, and said:

Reverenced. Literally, "adored;" a word often used in this sense. (Haydock)
Judith 13:31 Blessed art thou, by thy God, in every tabernacle of Jacob, for in every nation which shall hear thy name, the God of Israel shall be magnified on occasion of thee.

Judith 14:0 The Israelites assault the Assyrians, who, finding their general slain, are seized with a panic fear.

Judith 14:1 And Judith said to all the people: Hear me, my brethren, hang ye up this head upon our walls:

Walls. Greek adds, "upon the pinnacle." (Haydock)
Judith 14:2 And as soon as the sun shall rise, let every man take his arms, and rush ye out, not as going down beneath, but as making an assault.

Beneath. Into the valley; but make your appearance just out of the walls, as if you were rushing upon the enemy. Greek adds after arms, "and you shall appoint a leader over them, as if descending into the plain to the advanced guard of the Assyrians; but ye shall not go down. Then these seizing all their armour, will go to the camp, and awaken the leaders of the Assyrians, and they will run to the tent of Holofernes, and shall not find him. Then fear shall seize upon them, and they will flee before us. Whereupon ye, and all who inhabit the confines of Israel, shall follow after, and strew them in their paths," slain and wounded, ver. 6. (Haydock)
Judith 14:3 Then the watchmen must needs run to awake their prince for the battle.

Judith 14:4 And when the captains of them shall run to the tent of Holofernes, and shall find him without his head, wallowing in his blood, fear shall fall upon them.

Judith 14:5 And when you shall know that they are fleeing, go after them securely, for the Lord will destroy them under your feet.

Judith 14:6 Then Achior, seeing the power that the God of Israel had wrought, leaving the religion of the gentiles, he believed God, and circumcised the flesh of his foreskin, and was joined to the people of Israel, with all the succession of his kindred, until this present day.

Then. Greek, etc., "But before ye do this, call to me Achior, the Ammonite, that seeing, he may recognize the contemner of the house of Israel, and the man who sent him away to us unto certain death. And they called Achior from the house of Ozias. But as soon as he came, and saw the head of Holofernes in the hand of one of the assembly of the people, he fell," etc., as [in] Judith 13:29, 30. "Blessed art thou in every tent of Juda, and in every nation. All who shall hear thy name shall be amazed. But now tell me what thou hast done during these days. And Judith, in the midst of the people, informed him of all that she had performed, since the day of her departure till the time when she was speaking. She had no sooner ended her speech, than all the people set up a loud shout of joy in their city. Then," etc. --- Leaving. Greek, "He believed in God greatly," or with the utmost sincerity. (Haydock) --- Hitherto Achior had only considered the Deity as the peculiar God of Israel, (Calmet) or as the common gods "revered by all nations;" (Virgil xii.; Servius) but not as the only supreme Being. He now becomes a proselyte, not merely, like Naaman, to adore one God; but also to observe all the rites of the Jewish religion. The latter was a matter of choice, Judith 6:18. It is not still clear that he could enjoy the privileges of the nation as a magistrate, or even marry, (Calmet) which shews his greater fervour. (Grotius) --- It is certain that no nation could be forbidden to worship God, Deuteronomy 23:3. St. Thomas Aquinas (1. 2. q. 105. a. 3.) believes that a dispensation was granted to Achior, (Calmet) so that he might be treated like an Israelite in all respects. (Serarius q. 1.) (Menochius) --- This evinces that only the impenitent Ammonites, etc., were excluded from the Church. (Worthington) --- With. Greek, "till this day."
Judith 14:7 And immediately at break of day, they hung up the head of Holofernes upon the walls, and every man took his arms, and they sent out with a great noise and shouting.

With. Greek, "In companies, to the ascent of the mountain."
Judith 14:8 And the watchmen, seeing this, ran to the tent of Holofernes.

Ran. Greek, "Sent to their officers. But they went to the leaders and captains of thousands, and to every chief among them, and they proceeded to the tent of Holofernes, and said to his chief steward: Awaken now our lord, for the slaves have been so bold as to come down to offer us battle for their utter ruin. The Bagoas," etc., ver. 13. (Haydock)
Judith 14:9 And they that were in the tent, came and made a noise before the door of the chamber to awake him, endeavouring by art to break his rest, that Holofernes might awake, not by their calling him, but by their noise.

Judith 14:10 For no man durst knock, or open and go into the chamber of the general of the Assyrians.

Judith 14:11 But when his captains and tribunes were come, and all the chiefs of the army of the king of the Assyrians, they said to the chamberlains:

Judith 14:12 Go in, and awake him, for the mice coming out of their holes, have presumed to challenge us to fight.

Mice. They speak contemptuously of their foes, like the Philistines, 1 Kings 14:11. (Menochius)
Judith 14:13 Then Vagao going into his chamber, stood before the curtain, and made a clapping with his hands: for he thought that he was sleeping with Judith.

Into. Greek, "In, knocked at the hall, (aule, or antichamber) of the tent, for he suspected that he was sleeping with Judith. But as no one answered, he opened and went into the bed-chamber, and found him thrown upon the floor, dead, and his head taken from him, and he cried," etc. --- Curtain, which separated this apartment from the rest, (Haydock) and hung before the door, as Heraclides describes the tent of the Persian kings. Holofernes assumed the like importance, and was treated almost as a deity. (Calmet) --- Hence he must not be awaked, in a rude manner. (Haydock) --- Civility requires that we should knock modestly at the doors of the great. (Calmet)
Judith 14:14 But when with hearkening, he perceived no motion of one lying, he came near to the curtain, and lifting it up, and seeing the body of Holofernes, lying upon the ground, without the head, weltering in his blood, he cried out with a loud voice, with weeping, and rent his garments.

Judith 14:15 And he went into the tent of Judith, and not finding her, he ran out to the people,

Judith 14:16 And said: One Hebrew woman hath made confusion in the house of king Nabuchodonosor: for behold Holofernes lieth upon the ground, and his head is not upon him.

Said. Greek, "cried aloud, the slaves have prevaricated. One," etc. (Haydock) --- Perhaps he thought that Judith had introduced some of the Jews. (Calmet)
Judith 14:17 Now when the chiefs of the army of the Assyrians had heard this, they all rent their garments, and an intolerable fear and dread fell upon them, and their minds were troubled exceedingly.

Judith 14:18 And there was a very great cry in the midst of their camp.

Cry. Greek adds, "and shouting of them (the captains) in," etc. (Haydock)
Judith 15:0 The Assyrians flee: the Hebrews pursue after them, and are enriched by their spoils.

Judith 15:1 And when all the army heard that Holofernes was beheaded, courage and counsel fled from them, and being seized with trembling and fear, they thought only to save themselves by flight.

All. Greek, "Those who were in the tents heard, they were astonished at the fact; and fear and trembling fell upon them, and there was not a man remaining before his neighbour; but rushing out, with one accord, they fled through every path, in the plains and in the mountains; and those who were encamped in the high places around Bethulia, (Haydock; the Moabites, etc., Judith 7:8.; Calmet) fled. Then every warrior of Israel rushed out upon them, and Ozias," ver. 5.
Judith 15:2 So that no one spoke to his neighbour, but hanging down the head, leaving all things behind, they made haste to escape from the Hebrews, who, as they heard, were coming armed upon them, and fled by the ways of the fields, and the paths of the hills.

Judith 15:3 So the children of Israel, seeing them fleeing, followed after them. And they went down sounding with trumpets and shouting after them.

Judith 15:4 And because the Assyrians were not united together, they went without order in their flight; but the children of Israel, pursuing in one body, defeated all that they could find.

Judith 15:5 And Ozias sent messengers through all the cities and countries of Israel.

Israel. Greek adds, "informing them of what had been accomplished, and that all might pour upon the enemies, to cut them off. But when the Israelites heard this, they all, unanimously, fell upon them, as far as Chobai: (Haydock; Hoba.; Calmet) in like manner those from Jerusalem came up, and from all the mountainous country; for they also were informed of what had happened in the camp of their enemies; and the men of Galaad and of Galilee scattered them with great slaughter, till they had passed Damascus and its boundaries." (Haydock) --- As the enemy fled without a leader, we may easily imagine what carnage would ensue. (Calmet)
Judith 15:6 And every country and every city, sent their chosen young men armed after them, and they pursued them with the edge of the sword, until they came to the extremities of their confines.

Judith 15:7 And the rest that were in Bethulia went into the camp of the Assyrians, and took away the spoils, which the Assyrians in their flight had left behind them, and they were loaded exceedingly.

The. Greek, "their spoils, and were greatly enriched." (Haydock) --- Mariana suggests that we should read honestati, which is used in this sense, (Ecclesiasticus 11:23.) instead of onustati, loaded.
Judith 15:8 But they that returned conquerors to Bethulia, brought with them all things that were theirs, so that there was no numbering of their cattle, and beasts, and of all their moveables, insomuch, that from the least to the greatest, all were made rich by their spoils.

They. Greek, "The Israelites, returning from the slaughter, took possession of the remainder, and the villages and cities, both in the mountains and champaign country, took many spoils; for there was great abundance. But Joachim," etc.
Judith 15:9 And Joachim, the high priest, came from Jerusalem to Bethulia, with all his ancients, to see Judith.

Came. Greek adds, "and the senate of Israel, residing at Jerusalem, came." This alludes to the sanhedrim. (Grotius) --- But, it seems, its institution was posterior to the captivity, and we may understand the principal men of the city, or of the priests. (Calmet) --- To see. Greek adds, "the good things (Complutensian; to confirm or lay a foundation for, the good things) which God had done to Israel, and to see Judith, and speak peace with her." Protestants, "to salute her." (Haydock) --- Joachim is the same with Eliacim; El being only prefixed. (Tirinus) --- He is the Sadoc II or Odeas of Josephus; (Reinec.) and succeeded Sobna both in spiritual and temporal power, Isaias xxii. (Bellarmine)
Judith 15:10 And when she was come out to him, they all blessed her with one voice, saying: Thou art the glory of Jerusalem, thou art the joy of Israel, thou art the honour of our people:

She. Greek, "They were gone into her apartment, they," etc. --- Art the. Greek adds, "great joy, and the great boast of our race; because thou hast done all these things with thy hand, thou hast procured the good of Israel, and God hath been pleased with them. Be thou blessed by the omnipotent Lord for ever." (Haydock) --- Judith was a figure of the blessed Virgin [Mary], to whom these praises chiefly belong. (Fulbert.) (Worthington)
Judith 15:11 For thou hast done manfully, and thy heart has been strengthened, because thou hast loved chastity, and after thy husband hast not known any other: therefore, also, the hand of the Lord hath strengthened thee, and therefore thou shalt be blessed for ever.

Chastity, etc. This is not in Syriac, etc., and though, generally speaking, celibacy was not esteemed honourable among the Jews, yet chastity was so much the more admired, as it was more uncommon. A widow was deserving of praise for not lightly entering upon a second marriage. (Calmet) --- Those who abstain from it, were respected, like virgins, by the Romans. (Val. Maxim. 2:1.)
Judith 15:12 And all the people said: So be it, so be it.

Judith 15:13 And thirty days were scarce sufficient for the people of Israel to gather up the spoils of the Assyrians.

Thirty. Greek, "And the people plundered the camp thirty (Syriac; three) days." The camp of the Assyrians was in various places, and the people waited a month before they began to divide the spoils among all, according to their laws, Numbers 31:27., and 1 Kings 30:24. (Calmet)
Judith 15:14 But all those things that were proved to be the peculiar goods of Holofernes, they gave to Judith, in gold and silver, and garments, and precious stones, and all household stuff, and they all were delivered to her by the people.

But. Greek, "And they gave to Judith the tent of Holofernes, and all the silver plate, and beds and basins, and all his furniture, which she taking, place upon her mule, and put to her chariots, and heaped them thereon; and every woman of Israel ran to see her, and they blessed her, and danced in her honour. Then she took some thyrsus (Haydock; or branches entwined with ivy, etc.; Calmet) in her hands, and gave to those women who accompanied her; and they crowned with olive both her and her attendant; (maid, or Alexandrian Septuagint, "and she was crowned with olive, and her mule;" Grabe substitutes "female companions,") and she went before all the people, leading the dance of all the women; and every man of Israel followed in arms, with crowns, and with hymns in their mouth. Then," etc., Judith 16. (Haydock) --- The bearing of green branches, on such occasions, was very common, Leviticus 23:40., 2 Machabees 10:7., and Matthew 21:8. Hence Tacitus (Hist. v.) supposed that the Jews adored Bacchus. But there was nothing here of the immodesty, which generally attended the pagan festivals. We only find this instance of women being crowned with olive. But this tree was very proper, as it was used in rejoicings: Ramo felicis olivae; (Virgil vi.) on which Servius remarks, olivae, arboris festae. At certain races in Greece, women who gained the victory, were thus crowned; (Alex. Genial 5:8.) and it was used by the Roman cavalry on the ides of July, and in ovations. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 15:4.) --- The processions of the Church often admit of similar ornaments in honour of God, (Tirinus) and to promote piety. (Haydock)
Judith 15:15 And all the people rejoiced with the women, and virgins, and young men, playing on instruments and harps.

Judith 16:0 The canticle of Judith: her virtuous life and death.

Judith 16:1 Then Judith sung this canticle to the Lord, saying:

Sung. Greek, "Gave out this confession, in all Israel: and all the people echoed this praise;" (Haydock) either repeating the whole after her, or singing the first verse as a chorus, Exodus 15:20., 1 Kings 18:6., and 1 Paralipomenon 16:8. (Calmet) --- Saying. Greek, "And Judith said: Begin ye to my Lord." (Haydock) --- It is time for us to break silence, and to sound forth the praises of God. (Calmet)
Judith 16:2 Begin ye to the Lord with timbrels, sing ye to the Lord with cymbals, tune unto him a new psalm, extol, and call upon his name.

Judith 16:3 The Lord putteth an end to wars, the Lord is his name.

Wars, or destroys armies. (Haydock) --- God is often represented as a mighty warrior, Isaias 1:24., Jeremias 2:20., and Romans 9:29. (Calmet) --- This passage is quoted by St. Ephrem (ser. de 2. Adv.) as a part of Scripture. (Worthington) --- Lord is. Greek, "For he has drawn me from the hands of my persecutors, into his camp, in the midst of the people." (Haydock)
Judith 16:4 He hath set his camp in the midst of his people, to deliver us from the hand of all our enemies.

Judith 16:5 The Assyrian came out of the mountains from the north in the multitude of his strength: his multitude stopped up the torrents, and their horses covered the valleys.

Mountains of Cilicia, and through the defiles of Libanus and Hermon, on the north of Palestine, by which road they were forced to come. The desert Arabia was impassable for a large army. (Calmet) --- North, inclining to the east. (Haydock) (Isaias 14:13., Jeremias 1:13., and Ezechiel 1:4.) --- Torrents, drinking them up, as Sennacherib boasted; (4 Kings 19:24.) and the Greeks assert the same of the army of Xerxes. (Herodotus 7:108.) -----Epotaque flumina Medo Prandente.----- (Juvenal x.) The Greek seems to insinuate that the Assyrians "stopped up the springs," to distress the country, as Philopator did. (Calmet) --- Valleys. Greek, "hills."
Judith 16:6 He bragged that he would set my borders on fire, and kill my young men with the sword, to make my infants a prey, and my virgins captives.

To make. Greek, "that he would throw my children at the breast, on the pavement, and make," etc. (Haydock)
Judith 16:7 But the Almighty Lord hath struck him, and hath delivered him into the hands of a woman, and hath slain him.

Stuck. Literally, "hurt him, overturning all his projects, (Calmet) as the Greek (ethetesen) intimates. (Menochius) --- Him. Greek, "them, by the hand of a woman: For," etc.
Judith 16:8 For their mighty one did not fall by young men, neither did the sons of Titan strike him, nor tall giants oppose themselves to him, but Judith, the daughter of Merari, weakened him with the beauty of her face.

Men; soldiers, Judith 14:6., and Genesis 14:24. --- Titan. So the Septuagint render Raphaim, 2 Kings 5:18. The Greek translator of this work seems to have read the poets, who pretend that the Titans attempted to take heaven by storm. (Calmet) --- Neither such giants as those who lived before the flood, (Genesis vi.) nor such as were seen after, (Numbers xiii.; Worthington) attacked Holofernes. (Haydock) --- Neither does the Vulgate give any authority to poetic fictions, but only adopts terms which are best understood. (Tirinus) (St. Jerome in Amos 5:8.)
Judith 16:9 For she put off her the garments of widowhood, and put on her the garments of joy, to give joy to the children of Israel.

And put. Greek, "for the exaltation of those who laboured in Israel."
Judith 16:10 She anointed her face with ointment, and bound up her locks with a crown, she took a new robe to deceive him.

Crown. Greek, "mitre," or ribband, ornamented with jewels, Judith 10:3. Syriac, "net-work." --- New. Greek, "linen stole," which was a long robe, usually of linen, and worn both by men and women. (Calmet) --- Deceived him; as he would make love to her, and thus give her an opportunity to perform what she had designed. (Haydock) --- She was not actuated by the desire of being admired, but sought to deliver her people, ver. 9. (Menochius)
Judith 16:11 Her sandals ravished his eyes, her beauty made his soul her captive, with a sword she cut off his head.

Sandals. The bandages which tied the shoe-soles (Haydock) to the feet, were most ornamental, Isaias 3:The city of Antylla was assigned to furnish sandals for the queens of Egypt. (Herodotus 12:98.) (Calmet) --- With. Greek, "a sword (acinace) passed through his neck."
Judith 16:12 The Persians quaked at her constancy, and the Medes at her boldness.

Medes. This is the first mention of these two nations, who afterwards became so famous. Nabuchodonosor had overcome Phraortes, Judith 1:(Calmet)
Judith 16:13 Then the camp of the Assyrians howled, when my lowly ones appeared, parched with thirst.

Then. Greek, "Than my lowly ones (Haydock; she speaks thus contemptuously of the Assyrians.; Calmet) howled, my weak ones cried out through fear; they raised their voice, and were overthrown." (Haydock) --- Others think that she is speaking of her fellow-citizens, (Tirinus) or both. (Haydock)
Judith 16:14 The sons of the damsels have pierced them through, and they have killed them like children fleeing away: they perished in battle before the face of the Lord, my God.

Damsels; young boys. Syriac, "they run them through, as if they had been damsels." --- Children, or "slaves." (Syriac) Being thus overtaken, what could they do but sue for pardon? (Calmet) --- Before. Greek, "of the Lord," etc.
Judith 16:15 Let us sing a hymn to the Lord, let us sing a new hymn to our God.

Let. Greek, "I will sing a new hymn to the Lord. Lord, thou art great." (Haydock)
Judith 16:16 O Adonai, Lord, great art thou, and glorious in thy power, and no one can overcome thee.

Judith 16:17 *Let all thy creatures serve thee: because thou hast spoken, and they were made: thou didst send forth thy Spirit, and they were created, and there is no one that can resist thy voice.

Psalm 32:9.
Spirit, and they. Greek, "he built" the world, Genesis 1:8., and Psalm 32:9. (Calmet)
Judith 16:18 The mountains shall be moved from the foundations with the waters: the rocks shall melt as wax before thy face.

Waters, by earthquakes and storms, Job 9:5., Isaias 5:25., and Psalm 17:8.
Judith 16:19 But they that fear thee, shall be great with thee in all things.

Great. Greek, "treated mercifully by thee: for little with thee is all sacrifice, for the odour of sweetness; and all fat is but the least for thy holocausts. But he who fears the Lord, is ever great." (Haydock) --- This text is remarkable, as it shews (Calmet) that no sacrifice can please God, without interior holiness. Outward magnificence will be otherwise rejected with contempt. (Worthington)
Judith 16:20 Woe be to the nation that riseth up against my people: for the Lord Almighty will take revenge on them; in the day of judgment he will visit them.

He will visit them, is not in Greek, and only expresses the same again. (Haydock)
Judith 16:21 For he will give fire, and worms into their flesh, that they may burn, and may feel for ever.

Flesh, which is thus punished for ever, (St. Augustine, City of God 25:4.) while the soul is still more tormented with the loss of God's vision. (Worthington) --- The bodies of those who persecute God's people, will not only be thrown out with ignominy, but the impenitent shall suffer eternal torments. These worms and fires do not cease. They are not merely figurative, but real, according to the Fathers. (Serarius, q. 1.) (Tirinus) (Essais de Mor.) --- Though the damned have not yet their bodies, they are no less affected with pain; as people who have lost a member, often seem to feel pain in it. That our soul should even now suffer, when the body is hurt, depends on God's appointment. The Jews spoke of eternal torments in similar terms, Ecclesiasticus 7:19., Isaias 66:24., and Mark 9:45.
Judith 16:22 And it came to pass after these things, that all the people, after the victory, came to Jerusalem to adore the Lord: and as soon as they were purified, they all offered holocausts, and vows, and their promises.

And. Greek, "But as soon as they arrived at Jerusalem, they adored God; and when the people were purified, they offered their holocausts, and free gifts, and presents." (Haydock) --- They stood in need of purification, as they had shed blood, and had touched so many things of the Assyrians, which were to them unclean. (Calmet) (Numbers 31:24.)
Judith 16:23 And Judith offered for an anathema of oblivion all the arms of Holofernes, which the people gave her, and the canopy that she had taken away out of his chamber.

An anathema of oblivion. That is, a gift or offering made to God, by way of an everlasting monument, to prevent the oblivion or the forgetting of so great a benefit. (Challoner) --- Yet some would read (Calmet) oblationis, instead of oblivionis. (Tirinus) --- Greek and Syriac say nothing of oblivion. The Scriptures, and pagan histories, are full of such monuments of gratitude, to perpetuate the memory of benefits received from above. (Calmet) --- Greek, "to the Lord, all the vessels," or furniture, Judith 15:14. (Haydock) --- Joseph called one of his sons, Manasses, because God had caused him to forget his former toils, Genesis 41:51. (Menochius) --- Judith's husband had the same name; and this victory made her forget past sorrow. (Haydock)
Judith 16:24 And the people were joyful in the sight of the sanctuary, and for three months the joy of this victory was celebrated with Judith.

Three. Syriac, "one entire month." (Calmet) --- Joy. Greek, "and Judith remained with them."
Judith 16:25 And after those days every man returned to his house, and Judith was made great in Bethulia, and she was most renowned in all the land of Israel.

Was made. Greek, "returned also to Bethulia, and dwelt on her own possessions; and in her time, was honourable throughout all the land."
Judith 16:26 And chastity was joined to her virtue, so that she knew no man all the days of her life, after the death of Manasses, her husband.

Chastity. Greek, "many desired to have her, (Haydock; in marriage.; Worthington) but no man knew her," etc. (Haydock) --- She again practised the same mortifications which she had done before. (Suidas) (Calmet) --- Husband. Greek adds, "when he was removed to his people. And proceeding, (to the temple, or advancing in age) she was very great, and she grew old in her," etc. (Haydock) --- She probably went up to Jerusalem at the great festivals. (Menochius)
Judith 16:27 And on festival days she came forth with great glory.

Judith 16:28 And she abode in her husband's house a hundred and five years, and made her handmaid free, and she died, and was buried with her husband in Bethulia.

Five. Suidas alone reads, "fifty." Some would suppose that Judith lived 105 years after her husband's death; so that she might have been in all 125 years old. But she would thus have survived the siege of Jerusalem under Nabuchodonosor; (Calmet) and the text does not require this sense. (Haydock) See Exodus 12:40. (Tirinus) --- Free; as she had been her assistant in such a glorious work. (Menochius) --- Died. Greek adds, "in Bethulia; and they buried her in the cave of her husband, Manasses." See Judith 8:3.
Judith 16:29 And all the people mourned for her seven days.

Seven days. The usual term; (Ecclesiasticus 22:13.) but it was extra ordinary for the whole province (Calmet) to mourn for an individual. Greek and Syriac add, "And she divided all her possessions, before her death, among the nearest relations of her husband, Manasses, and among her own," (Haydock) which was very equitable, as she had no children, (Calmet) we may suppose. (Tirinus) (Haydock)
Judith 16:30 And all the time of her life there was none that troubled Israel, nor many years after her death.

Years. Greek, "days." See the preface. (Haydock) --- Judith was a widow near seventy years, shewing an excellent pattern to all in that state. Notwithstanding the many inducements which she might have had to marry again, she chose to abstain, for greater perfection, Matthew xix., and 1 Corinthians vii. (Worthington) --- From the death of Holofernes (the year of the world 3348) to that of Josias, (the year 3394) only forty-six years of peace would occur in Juda. Hence Hardouin would suppose that the text speaks of the kingdom of Israel. But it would be hard to prove that it existed at that time, after the ten tribes had been led away. (The year 3283.) As the Scripture does not specify how old Judith was when she addressed Holofernes, (Calmet) she might be sixty-five. (Vitre.) --- If, therefore, we should make this peace last till the coming of Nabuchodonosor, to attack Jerusalem, about forty-six years might elapse before the period here assigned. (Calmet) --- It is, however, much more probable, (Haydock) that the peace subsisted from the 11th of Manasses to the death of Josias, 73 (Greek, 78) years; (Tirinus) and that she was not above forty when she performed her exploit; as she was then styled a beautiful girl, (chap. 12:12.) and many desired to marry her. (Haydock) --- No instance can be produced, of the Jews entering into such contracts with those who were past child-bearing. Freret, who seems afraid to allow this book the same authority as the additions to Daniel, though both are equally rejected by Protestants, supposes that Bethulia was besieged in the 11th or 12th year of Josias; and, of course, that Judith would then be about eighty-four years old! (Houbigant)
Judith 16:31 But the day of the festivity of this victory is received by the Hebrews in the number of holy days, and is religiously observed by the Jews, from that time until this day.

But. This is taken from the Chaldean of St. Jerome, though omitted in the old Vulgate, as well as in the Greek and Syriac. We find no express mention of this festival in the Jews' Calendar, (Calmet) though no one can doubt but it once was kept. (Du Hamel) --- It probably ceased during the captivity; as that, in memory of the victory over Nicanor, (which was kept in the days of Josephus, [Antiquities?] 12:16.) has been long since abolished, (Calmet) with many others. (Du Hamel) --- Many suppose (Calmet) that the feast of Judith concurred with that of the new fire, when the temple was renewed under Judas the Machabee, on the 25th of Casleu, (Salien, etc.) in December, though the victory of Judith was obtained about August. The point is not easily decided. As the festival was of human institution, it might be abrogated by the same authority. (Calmet) --- In Judith we behold a widow indeed, such as the apostle commends, 1 Timothy 5:3. (St. Jerome ad Furiam.) --- We may also raise our minds still higher, and contemplate in her a glorious figure of the Christian Church, which is spotless; and by the practice of all virtues, overcomes the power of persecutors, giving all the glory to God. After victory, she continues in silence to practise her former austerities, which render her secure in peace and terrible in war. (Calmet)