1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Joshua 1:1 Now *it came to pass after the death of Moses, the servant of the Lord, that the Lord spoke to Josue, the son of Nun, the minister of Moses, and said to him:

Year of the World 2553, Year before Christ 1451. Now: literally, And. Thus the sacred history is connected, the last chapter of Deuteronomy being, in the opinion of many, a part of the work of Josue. (Haydock) --- Moses died on the 1st of the 12th month, Adar, and as soon as that month of mourning had expired, and the spies had returned on the 4th of Nisan, God ordered the people to prepare for their departure. --- Minister. This was by no means degrading. He was designed for the successor of Moses, as Eliseus was to succeed Elias. The heroes at Troy had servants of the same high character as themselves, attached to their persons by the ties of friendship. See Exodus 17:10.
Joshua 1:2 Moses my servant is dead: arise, and pass over this Jordan, thou and thy people with thee, into the land which I will give to the children of Israel.

Jordan, a river well known, which rises in Antilibanus, not from Panion, but from the lake Phiala, as Herod the Tetrarch discovered by throwing some straw into the latter, which passed by a subterraneous passage into Panion. Thence it proceeds to the Semonite lake and to Daphne, where it begins to be called the Great Jordan. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 3:33.) Having traversed the land of Palestine in a southern direction, it loses itself in the lake of Sodom. (Calmet) --- It is a very rapid river, and hence its appellation from irod, or jord, descendit, is very probably derived. (Haydock) --- The Arabs call it Zacchar, "overflowing," because the snows and rains cause it formerly to overflow about Easter. (Universal History) --- When Maundrell travelled through this country, the stream was too rapid for a person to swim against it. (Parkhurst) --- Hence the miracle of the Hebrews passing through the Jordan on dry land, when its waters were the most copious and violent, would be the more observable. (Haydock)
Joshua 1:3 *I will deliver to you every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, as I have said to Moses.

Deuteronomy 11:24.
Moses. Thus the preceding permission, which the Jews extend, as if God had authorized them to conquer the whole world, is limited. (Haydock) See Deuteronomy 11:24. --- Their right to the land of Chanaan depends on this grant of God, who is the Lord of all things, and who thus took away all the privileges of the former inhabitants. But the warrant of destruction only regarded the people of Chanaan. Those who lived towards the Euphrates, were obliged only to pay tribute by David and Solomon, though their country formed part of what had been promised to the Israelites. They might have possessed all that region, if they had proved faithful. The limits of the promised land vary, as they are considered under various lights. (Calmet) --- The desert of Arabia Petrea and Antilibanus formed the boundaries on the south and on the north, the Euphrates and Mediterranean were on the east and west, when the territories of the Israelites were considered in their utmost extent. (Haydock)
Joshua 1:4 From the desert, and from Libanus unto the great river Euphrates, all the land of the Hethites, unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your border.

Hethites, the most formidable of the nations of Chanaan. (Masius)
Joshua 1:5 No man shall be able to resist you all the days of thy life: *as I have been with Moses, so will I be with thee: I will not leave thee, nor forsake thee.

Josue 3:7.; Hebrews 13:5.
Resist you. They shall at last be overcome, and their resistance will prove detrimental to themselves. (Calmet)
Joshua 1:6 *Take courage, and be strong: for thou shalt divide by lot to this people the land for which I swore to their fathers, that I would deliver it to them.

Deuteronomy 31:7.; Deuteronomy 31:23.; 3 Kings 2:2.
Lot. Hebrew, "thou shalt give for an inheritance." (Haydock)
Joshua 1:7 Take courage therefore, and be very valiant: that thou mayst observe and do all the law, which Moses my servant hath commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayst understand all things which thou dost.

From it. Hebrew him, Moses. But the Masorets order us to read it. (Haydock) --- Understand, or "succeed." (Chaldean) (Vatable)
Joshua 1:8 Let not the book of this law depart from thy mouth: but thou shalt meditate on it day and night, that thou mayst observe and do all things that are written in it: then shalt thou direct thy way, and understand it.

Joshua 1:9 Behold I command thee, take courage, and be strong. Fear not, and be not dismayed: because the Lord thy God is with thee in all things whatsoever thou shalt go to.

Joshua 1:10 And Josue commanded the princes of the people, saying: Pass through the midst of the camp, and command the people, and say:

Princes. Shoterim may denote both judges and heralds, such as those mentioned in Homer, the messengers of gods and men, whose persons were deemed sacred. They bore a wand or sceptre, as a mark of their authority.
Joshua 1:11 Prepare you victuals: for after the third day you shall pass over the Jordan, and shall go in to possess the land, which the Lord your God will give you.

Victuals. The manna still supplied the army after they had passed the Jordan, Josue 5:12. But Josue might fear lest the people might not have liberty to gather it in the midst of the enemy's country, or he might perhaps suppose that this miraculous food would be withdrawn, as soon as they had entered Chanaan. He therefore takes all necessary precautions, and gets other sorts of provisions in the neighbourhood. (Calmet) --- This might foreshew, that in the primitive Church the ceremonies and privileges of the old law would not be abrogated immediately, but they might be used for a time along with the rites of the gospel, till the old law should be buried with honour. (Worthington) --- Third day, after their departure from Setim; or perhaps this order was only published when the Israelites were arrived on the banks of the Jordan. (Calmet)
Joshua 1:12 And he said to the Rubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses:

Joshua 1:13 Remember the word, which Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you, saying: The Lord your God hath given you rest, and all this land.

Joshua 1:14 *Your wives, and children, and cattle, shall remain in the land which Moses gave you on this side of the Jordan: but pass you over armed before your brethren, all of you that are strong of hand, and fight for them,

Numbers 32:26.
Armed before, in order of battle, at the head of the army, and not according to the disposition of the tribes, which was observed in the desert. Only 40,000 men were selected out of 110,580, the rest were very prudently left to guard the new conquered country. See Numbers 32:17. --- For them. Hebrew, "help them."
Joshua 1:15 Until the Lord give rest to your brethren, as he hath given you, and they also possess the land which the Lord your God will give them: and so you shall return into the land of your possession, and you shall dwell in it, which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.

Beyond. The same expression is translated on this side, ver. 14. Hebrew beheber means also, "in the passage." If we have regard to Josue, when he spoke this, he was beyond, that is on the east side of the river, though perhaps (Haydock) he might be on the other side when he wrote the history, Deuteronomy 1:1. (Calmet)
Joshua 1:16 And they made answer to Josue, and said: All that thou hast commanded us, we will do; and whithersoever thou shalt send us, we will go.

Joshua 1:17 As we obeyed Moses in all things, so will we obey thee also: only be the Lord thy God with thee, as he was with Moses.

Moses. Thus they express their ardent wish, that God would extend his protection to Josue. (Menochius) --- They do not mean to insinuate, that they will obey him only as long as he complies with God's law. (Calmet)
Joshua 1:18 He that shall gainsay thy mouth, and not obey all thy words, that thou shalt command him, let him die: only take thou courage, and do manfully.

Die, as guilty of high treason. The person's goods were confiscated, and became the property of the king. Thus David disposed of the effects of Saul, (2 Kings 16:4.) and Achab seized the vineyard of Naboth, 3 Kings 21:15. (Calmet)
Joshua 2:0 Two spies are sent to Jericho, who are received and concealed by Rahab.

Joshua 2:1 And Josue, *the son of Nun, sent from Setim two men, to spy secretly: and said to them: Go, and view the land, and the city of Jericho.** They went, and entered into the house of a woman that was a harlot, named Rahab, and lodged with her.

Hebrews 11:31.; James 2:25.
Year of the World 2553. Sent, or as many translate, "had sent," as if Josue had dismissed the spies immediately after the mourning of Moses was ended, (Calmet) on the 1st of Nisan. On the second day they examined the city, and were obliged to flee in the night. But they only returned to their brethren on the 6th. On the following day Josue gave orders to make all necessary preparations for their departure, and crossed the Jordan on the 10th of the month. (Salien, B.C. 1469.) --- Setim was about eight or nine miles from the river, "or sixty stadia." (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 5:1.) --- Two men. Septuagint intimate that they were young. See Josue 6:23. (Haydock) --- The Rabbins assert, without reason, that Caleb and Phinees were chosen, and that they pretended that they were deaf, (eross) a word which the Vulgate translates, secretly. (Calmet) --- Jericho. Josue had himself examined the country some time before. But there might have been many changes, and he might not know the present disposition of the people of Jericho. (Haydock) --- This city was built in a delightful plain, surrounded by mountains, (Calmet) except on the east side, Josue 4:13. (Haydock) --- Harlot. Hebrew zona may also signify an "innkeeper," as such places were under the direction of women, who were commonly of a very loose character. Hence the Greeks deemed it a dishonour to enter into a public house. Isocrates says, that "even an honest servant will not dare to enter into an ale-house, to eat or drink." (Athen. Dipn. 13.) --- Rahab might have been formerly addicted to pleasure, as the Scripture and the Fathers agree; (Hebrews 11:31., and James 2:25.) (Calmet) though she might at this time be very discreet, being awakened by the account of the miracles which God had wrought in favour of his people, who, she knew, were approaching to take possession of the country. The spies might, therefore, take shelter in her house with the least suspicion, and without danger of injuring their character. (Haydock) --- The woman was not very old, as she was afterwards married to Salmon. (St. Matthew 1:5.) --- With her. They spent the first night in her house, entering the city in the dusk of the evening, so that they had not time to make any observations till the following day. (Salien) --- Others think that they were suspected by the people of the town almost immediately, and denounced to the king. Hence they were forced to flee that same night, without having accomplished their design, and were only informed by Rahab of the dismay which had seized the inhabitants, ver. 11.
Joshua 2:2 And it was told the king of Jericho, and was said : Behold there are men come in hither, by night, of the children of Israel, to spy the land.

By night. Hebrew, "this night." (Calmet)
Joshua 2:3 And the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, saying: Bring forth the men that came to thee, and are entered into thy house: for they are spies, and are come to view all the land.

House. She spoke to them through a window. The messengers did not enter into her house; whence Serarius infers, that Rahab was a person consecrated to some impure deity, and therefore held in some estimation among the people of Jericho, as this was a city of the moon, in whose honour such consecrations were generally made. But these arguments are not very convincing. (Calmet)
Joshua 2:4 *And the woman taking the men, hid them, and said: I confess they came to me, but I knew not whence they were:

Josue 6:17.
Hid, or "had hidden," as (ver. 6,) she had made the men retire before she spoke to the messengers, and probably before they came to demand them. As soon as she was informed of their design, she took all prudent precautions both for her own and their safety, as she could not have escaped death, if she had been discovered affording shelter to the enemies of her country. She felt herself authorized by God on this occasion, to abandon those upon whom he had declared war, and who could have derived no benefit from the spies being betrayed to them. (Haydock)
Joshua 2:5 And at the time of shutting the gate in the dark, they also went out together. I know not whither they are gone: pursue after them quickly, and you will overtake them.

At the time, not precisely, as otherwise the men who shut the gates must have seen them, but about that time, (Calmet) Rahab pretends that the spies had left her house, and had directed their course towards the gate, so that she made no doubt but they might easily overtake them. (Haydock) --- Notwithstanding this officious lie, which is a venial sin, St. Paul and St. James testify that she was justified by her faith in God, and by good works towards these men. See St. Augustine, contra Mend. 17. and note on James 2:25. (Worthington) --- Rahab might suppose that an officious lie was not a sin, (Menochius) as many great and learned men seemed to have maintained this doctrine. See Grotius, Jur. 3:1. 9.; Origen, contra Cels. 4:p. 171.; St. Chrysostom, hom. 53, Genesis. She was so far from intending to do an injury to any one, that she consulted the welfare both of her guests and of her countrymen, who, if they had detected the spies and committed murder, would have thus brought greater destruction upon themselves, as they could not escape the wrath of God. (Calmet)
Joshua 2:6 But she made the men go up to the top of her house, and covered them with the stalks of flax, which was there.

There. The roofs were flat in that country, and consequently very proper to dry flax, or "cotton," as Masius understands.
Joshua 2:7 Now they that were sent, pursued after them, by the way that leadeth to the fords of the Jordan: and as soon as they were gone out, the gate was presently shut.

Jordan, where they had probably come over, though perhaps in a boat, (Menochius) and where the messengers concluded they would have the best chance of finding them, as the Israelites were on the opposite side of the river. (Haydock) --- As soon as they were gone out of the city, the guards shut the gate, that if the spies should still be lurking within, they might be hindered from making their escape. (Menochius)
Joshua 2:8 The men that were hid were not yet asleep, when behold the woman went up to them, and said:

Asleep. It seems as if the spies had been ignorant of the danger to which they had been just exposed, and had gone to the roof of the house with a design to pass the night in greater security. Rahab perceives, however, that it would be extremely rash for them to continue with her any longer, and therefore she gives them the best advice, to secure their safety by fleeing in the dead of the night, and without further delay. (Haydock)
Joshua 2:9 I know that the Lord hath given this land to you: for the dread of you is fallen upon us, and all the inhabitants of the land have lost all strength.

Strength. Hebrew, "they faint or melt away," deprived both of strength and counsel.
Joshua 2:10 We have heard that *the Lord dried up the water of the Red Sea, at your going in, when you came out of Egypt: **and what things you did to the two kings of the Amorrhites, that were beyond the Jordan: Sehon and Og, whom you slew.

Exodus 14:21. ** Numbers 21:24.
Joshua 2:11 And at the hearing these things, we were affrighted, and our heart fainted away, neither did there remain any spirit in us, at your coming in: for the Lord your God he is God in heaven above, and in the earth beneath.

Beneath. This is the confession of a true convert, (Calmet) inspired by God. (Haydock) --- For St. Paul commends her faith. (Hebrews 11:31.) (Menochius) --- The pagans confined the power of their idols to certain districts; the power of the true God is infinite. (Calmet)
Joshua 2:12 *Now, therefore, swear ye to me by the Lord, that as I have shewed mercy to you, so you also will shew mercy to my father's house: and give me a true token,

Josue 6:22.
True token, such a one as, when I shew it to the Israelites, they may preserve me and mine. She is not content with a verbal promise, she requires something permanent and sensible, as a mark of their mutual engagements, (Calmet) a token of their sincerity. They afterwards appointed a piece of scarlet to be hung out of the house, where those were to be collected who should be entitled to protection. Rahab was bound not to divulge their secret, nor to betray them. If she had instructed others of her fellow-citizens to hang out the same mark, she would have forfeited all her privileges, ver. 20. (Haydock)
Joshua 2:13 That you will save my father and mother, my brethren and sisters, and all things that are theirs, and deliver our souls from death.

Joshua 2:14 They answered her: Be our lives for you unto death, only if thou betray us not. And when the Lord shall have delivered us the land, we will shew thee mercy and truth.

Death. We are willing to die instead of you, if we do not fulfil our promises. --- Truth, a real and effectual mercy.
Joshua 2:15 Then she let them down with a cord out of a window: for her house joined close to the wall.

Joshua 2:16 And she said to them: Get ye up to the mountains, lest perhaps they meet you as they return: and there lie ye hid three days, till they come back, and so you shall go on your way.

Days; the remainder of this night, and the day and night following. It is probable that they would travel only in the night time. (Calmet) --- If they had gone by the high road, they might easily have been discovered by the messengers, who would be on their return. (Haydock) --- But retiring to the mountains south of Jericho, till they had re-entered the city, the spies made their escape. (Calmet)
Joshua 2:17 And they said to her: We shall be blameless of this oath, which thou hast made us swear,

Joshua 2:18 If, when we come into the land, this scarlet cord be a sign, and thou tie it in the window, by which thou hast let us down: and gather together thy father and mother, and brethren, and all thy kindred into thy house.

By which window or cord. (Calmet) --- The cord was left as a signal. (Menochius)
Joshua 2:19 Whosoever shall go out of the door of thy house, his blood shall be upon his own head, and we shall be quit. But the blood of all that shall be with thee in the house, shall light upon our head, if any man touch them.

Joshua 2:20 But if thou wilt betray us, and utter this word abroad, we shall be quit of this oath, which thou hast made us swear.

Joshua 2:21 And she answered: As you have spoken, so be it done: and sending them on their way, she hung the scarlet cord in the window.

Joshua 2:22 But they went and came to the mountains, and stayed there three days, till they that pursued them were returned. For having sought them through all the way, they found them not.

Joshua 2:23 And when they were gone back into the city, the spies returned, and came down from the mountain: and passing over the Jordan, they came to Josue, the son of Nun, and told him all that befel them,

Joshua 2:24 And said: The Lord hath delivered all this land into our hands, and all the inhabitants thereof are overthrown with fear.

Fear, as Rahab had testified. They might also have been witnesses of the people's consternation, which gave them the most assured hopes of victory, as the Lord had given this sign, among others, that he would be with them, Deuteronomy 28:10. (Haydock)
Joshua 3:0 The river Jordan is miraculously dried up, for the passage of the children of Israel.

Joshua 3:1 And *Josue rose before day-light, and removed the camp: and they departed from Setim, and came to the Jordan: he, and all the children of Israel, and they abode there for three days.

Year of the World 2553. Days, in part, as they arrived on the 8th of Nisan, staid there the following day, and crossed the Jordan on the 10th, on Friday the 30th of our April. Thus Christ is said to have remained three days in the tomb, (Calmet) though he was there only a small part of Friday and of Sunday, and the whole of Saturday. Hebrew, "they lodged there before they passed over, (2) and it came to pass after three days that the," etc.
Joshua 3:2 After which, the heralds went through the midst of the camp,

Heralds. Shoterim, Josue 1:10. Protestants, "the officers went through the host." (Haydock)
Joshua 3:3 And began to proclaim: When you shall see the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, and the priests of the race of Levi carrying it, rise you up also, and follow them as they go before:

Levi. Sigonius thinks that the Caathites performed this office on this as on other occasions. But the Vulgate shews that the priests sometimes carried the ark, perhaps because it was uncovered, Josue 6:6., and 2 Kings 15:25. At this period the number of priests was but small. Some of the sons of Eleazar and of Ithamar might be old enough to assist their parents: only two would be necessary at a time, though the Rabbins assign four, (which is not improbable. Theodoret) and pretend that the two who went first were obliged to go backwards, in order that their faces might be turned towards the ark, out of respect. The ark now marked the way for the people, as the cloud had disappeared on the death of Moses. (St. Augustine, q. 3.; Masius.) (Calmet) --- It had been carried at the head of the army in the desert. (Haydock)
Joshua 3:4 And let there be between you and the ark the space of two thousand cubits: that you may see it afar off, and know which way you must go: for you have not gone this way before: and take care you come not near the ark.

Space of. Hebrew adds, "about...by measure." It was not easy to observe the exact distance in the march. This was prescribed both to keep the people at a respectful distance, and also to enable them to see which way they were to proceed. When the priests stood in the bed of the river, the waters rose up like a firm wall on the north side, while those to the south flowed away into the lake of Sodom, leaving about 16 miles open for the army of Israel to pass on dry land. The soldiers did not approach within 600 paces of the ark. --- Before. This insinuated that they would pass over in a miraculous manner; though perhaps Josue did not know by what means God would enable them to cross (Calmet) the overflowing waters. Josephus only seems to intimate that they abated suddenly, so that they might be forded, etc. He also greatly diminishes or destroys the miracle performed at the passage of the Red Sea. Yet here he acknowledges a sort of "prodigy in the waters being restrained," and resuming their usual course as soon as the priests had left the channel of the river. --- And take, etc. Hebrew places these words at the beginning of the sentence, after cubits. (Haydock)
Joshua 3:5 And Josue said to the people: Be ye sanctified: for to-morrow the Lord will do wonders among you.

Sanctified, as Moses had required at Mount Sinai, (Exodus 19:10, 15,) ordering the people to wash their garments, and to abstain from their wives, that by this exterior purity, they might be reminded not to neglect that of the soul, without which they would derive but small benefit or instruction from the greatest miracles.
Joshua 3:6 And he said to the priests: Take up the ark of the covenant, and go before the people. And they obeyed his commands, and took it up, and walked before them.

Commands. Josue was only the organ of God, (Calmet) whose orders he announces to the sacred ministers; (ver. 8.; Menochius) though as a civil magistrate, he was bound to hear and to obey them in matters of religion. (Calmet) --- When he ordered circumcision to be administered, when he blessed the multitude, and ratified the covenant between God and the people, (chap. 5.; chap 24.) he did nothing but what a virtuous governor ought to do; yet he did not these things by virtue of his civil jurisdiction, or in opposition to the spiritual authority of Eleazar. Moses had been the supreme head, being both priest and king. But only part of his glory was communicated to Josue, while Eleazar was directed to consult the Lord for him, (Numbers 27:21.; Theodoret, q. 48. in Numbers) Josue was to govern at his word, so that he was bound to consider the high priest as his superior. What he therefore did, was in subordination and conformity to the will of Eleazar and of God, and not designed to shew that the priestly authority belonged to himself, as English Protestants would hence infer. The best of princes, both in the Old and New Testament, have always looked upon it as a part of their duty to promote the true religion. (Worthington) --- Isaias (xlix) foretold that kings and queens would esteem it their glory to guard and to advance the prosperity of the Church. (Haydock) --- Hence they may enact laws for this purpose. (St. Augustine, contra Crescon. 3:51.) Constantine ratified the judgment passed already by the bishops in the cause of Cecilian, though he confessed at the same time that the determination did not belong to his tribunal; (Worthington) and he greatly disapproved of the conduct of the Donatists, who appealed to him, as the heathens might have done to an emperor, who was at the same time one of their high priests. (Haydock) --- O rabida furoris audacia, said he, sicut in causis gentilium fieri solet, appellationem interposuerunt. (1. Optat. c. Parm. I.; St. Augustine, ep. 166.) Other emperors and kings have acquired great fame, on account of their labours and zeal in defence of the Church. Thus the kings of Spain and of France have obtained the titles of Catholic and Most Christian, and our Henry VIII was honoured by Pope Leo X with the title of Defender of the Faith, in 1521, (Worthington) on account of the book which he presented to that pontiff, while he was yet an obedient son of the Catholic Church, and undertook to defend her faith on the sacraments, against the objections of Luther. Is this the faith which the kings of England defend at present? Whatever the princes might do in the old law in spiritual matters, no inference can be drawn for the same right being now exercised by civil magistrates, how supreme soever in their own sphere. Those princes, Josue, etc. might be considered not only in the light of civil governors, but also in that of prophets, who had a great share in the administration of affairs under the Jewish theocracy. If God chose to make known his will by the mouth of a king, or by that of a shepherd, his mandates were to be put in execution with equal exactitude. But now the distinctive limits of the ecclesiastical and of the civil power are more clearly ascertained. Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. (Matthew 22:21.) The kingdom of Christ is not of this world; neither did he appoint kings to be the pastors of his Church. (Haydock)
Joshua 3:7 And the Lord said to Josue: This day will I begin to exalt thee before Israel: that they may know that as I was with *Moses, so I am with thee also.

Josue 1:5.
Also. Grotius remarks that God made known his choice of the governors of his people by miracles, till the days of Saul. In effect, we hardly find any, before that time, whose public authority was not sanctioned by some prodigy. (Calmet)
Joshua 3:8 And do thou command the priests, that carry the ark of the covenant, and say to them: When you shall have entered into part of the water of the Jordan, stand in it.

It. Hebrew, "when you shall have come to the brink (or extremity) of the water of the Jordan, you shall stand still in the Jordan," (Haydock) which some explain by saying that they were to stop on the eastern bank, as soon as they had wet their feet, (Serarius) while others say they crossed quite over, and stood at the other side. (Masius) --- But it is more probable, that as soon as they had touched the waters, the priests halted till the bed of the river was presently dried up, and then they placed themselves in the middle of it, close to the raging billows, which, rising up like mountains, were stopped in their career, (Haydock) and forced to retire backwards to their source, ver. 15, 17, and Josue 4:9. (Bonfrere; Cornelius a Lapide) --- Some translate, "into the division," instead of part, or extremity. (Calmet)
Joshua 3:9 And Josue said to the children of Israel: Come hither and hear the word of the Lord your God.

Hither, probably to the door of the tabernacle, where the assemblies were held.
Joshua 3:10 And again he said: By this you shall know, that the Lord, the living God, is in the midst of you, and that he shall destroy, before your sight, the Chanaanite and the Hethite, the Hevite and the Pherezite, the Gergesite also, and the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite.

Living God, in opposition to the idols of the Gentiles, who were dead men, or at least incapable of affording any assistance to their votaries. Josue gives the people two signs of the divine protection, the destruction of the devoted nations, and the miraculous division of the Jordan, or rather the latter prodigy would be an earnest of the former event; and all, both friends and enemies, might be convinced, that the Lord was with his people, and their present leader, as he had been with Moses. No miracle could have been more suitable for the occasion, none more convincing or useful. (Calmet) --- It would naturally inspire the Israelites with confidence, at the revival of the miracles wrought 40 years before, when their fathers and some of themselves had passed the Red Sea, in a similar manner. At the same time, it would fill the Chanaanites with still greater dismay and teach them that all resistance would prove fruitless. Some have wondered that they did not oppose the passage of the Israelites on this occasion. But it is a greater matter of surprise that they should have ventured on the dangerous expedient of encountering them in war, after what they had seen and heard. It can be attributed to nothing but their infatuation, and that blindness with which God punished them, that they might draw on a more speedy and merited destruction for their crimes. (Haydock) --- Destroy. Hebrew. "dispossess, or drive out before you the Chanaanite," etc. These seven nations comprised the ten which are mentioned, Genesis 15:19. The Chanaanite occupied the countries chiefly about Tyre, while the Hethite dwelt in the southern part of Palestine. The Hevite possessed Mount Hermon, Garizim, etc. The Pherezite were not perhaps a separate people, but employed in cultivating the country. The Gergesite were fixed to the east of the lake of Genesareth, the Jebusite at Jerusalem, and the Amorrhite about the Dead Sea. (Calmet) --- But they were often mixed with one another, so that their limits cannot be ascertained with any degree of precision. (Haydock)
Joshua 3:11 *Behold, the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth shall go before you into the Jordan.

Acts 7:45.
Joshua 3:12 Prepare ye twelve men of the tribes of Israel, one of every tribe.

Prepare. Hebrew, "take." But they must have been selected from the tribes, either to carry twelve stones out of the bed of the Jordan, and to place twelve others in their stead, as monuments of this stupendous miracle; (Calmet) or to accompany the priests and the ark, out of respect. (Cajetan) (Menochius)
Joshua 3:13 And when the priests, that carry the ark of the Lord the God of the whole earth, shall set the soles of their feet in the waters of the Jordan, the waters that are beneath shall run down and go off: and those that come from above, shall stand together upon a heap.

Heap. Hebrew, "the waters of the Jordan shall be cut off: the waters that come down from above, even they shall stand as upon a heap," like mountains of ice. The Vulgate informs us what became of the waters (Haydock) below this division. Where it took place we do not find recorded, so that we cannot know exactly how large a space would be left dry. Calmet allows, "near six leagues," ver. 4, and 16. But here, supposing that the Jordan was divided over-against Jericho, he says, that "the waters running off into the Dead Sea, would, in all probability, leave not less than two or three thousand paces of the channel dry." Interruptus aquis fluxit prior amnis in aequor; Ad molem stetit unda fluens. -----Lucan, Phar. ii.
Joshua 3:14 So the people went out of their tents, to pass over the Jordan: and the priests that carried the ark of the covenant, went on before them.

Joshua 3:15 And as soon as they came into the Jordan, and their feet were dipped in part of the water, (now the Jordan, *it being harvest time, had filled the banks of its channel,)

Ecclesiasticus 24:36.
Water. Thus they manifested the strength of their faith. (Calmet) --- Immediately the obedient waters divided, and the gravel or sand was left dry, ver. 17. (Haydock) --- Channel. The barley harvest was ready about the 30th of April, Leviticus 23:10. On other occasions this overflowing of the Jordan is noticed, 1 Paralipomenon 12:15., and Ecclesiasticus 24:36. Doubdan says that when he visited these parts, at the same season of the year, the Jordan was quite full, on account of the melted snow, and ready to leave its banks. It was about a stone throw across, and very rapid. See Josue 1:2. The rains which fall in spring, serve to increase the inundation, (Deuteronomy 11:14,) as well as the snow which melts at that time on Libanus, though a great part resists the violent heats. Mirum dictu, says Tacitus v., tantos inter ardores opacum fidumque nivibus. (Jeremias 18:14., and 49:19.
Joshua 3:16 The waters that came down from above stood in one place, and swelling up like a mountain, were seen afar off, from the city that is called Adom, to the place of Sarthan: but those that were beneath, ran down into the sea of the wilderness, (which now is called the Dead Sea) until they wholly failed.

Mountain. Hebrew, "heap or bottle." The billows were forced to roll back almost as far as the lake of Genesareth, where Sarthan stands, about twenty leagues above Jericho. --- Sarthan. Hebrew, "rose up on a heap, very far from (or to) the city of Adom, that is beside Sarthan." The situation of Adom can only be ascertained by that of Sarthan, which was near Bethsan, or Scythopolis, (3 Kings 4:12,) in the vale of Jezrahel, on the Jordan. Many copies of the Septuagint read Cariathiarim, though it was six or seven leagues up the country, west of Jericho. (Calmet) --- The swelling billows might perhaps be seen from this place. (Haydock) --- But it could not properly determine how far the waters rolled back. (Calmet) --- Failed. Hebrew, "and those that came down towards the sea of the plain, (or of Araba, which means a desert, fit only for pasturage) the salt sea, failed, were cut off" from the waters above Jericho. The Jordan after running three miles in the lake of Sodom, without mixing its waters, becomes at last reluctantly confounded with it. Velut invitus...postremo ebibitur, aquasque laudatas perdit, pestilentibus mixtus. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 5:15.)
Joshua 3:17 And the people marched over-against Jericho: and the priests that carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, stood girded upon the dry ground in the midst of the Jordan, and all the people passed over, through the channel that was dried up.

Jericho, at Bethabara, which was five or six leagues from the Dead Sea, all which space was left dry. Jericho was three leagues from the Jordan. (Calmet) --- Girded. Septuagint, "ready," preparing the way for all the army. Hebrew, "firm," and undaunted. (Haydock) --- A great part of the day must have been spent in crossing the river, and erecting the two monuments. (Menochius)
Joshua 4:0 Twelve stones are taken out of the river, to be set up for a monument of the miracle: and other twelve are placed in the midst of the river.

Joshua 4:1 And when they were passed over, the Lord said to Josue:

Over. Hebrew and Septuagint, "clean, or entirely;" perhaps two million people, with all their possessions, had crossed the river on that day, the 10th of Nisan, leaving many of their brethren to cultivate and defend the eastern parts of the Jordan. (Haydock)
Joshua 4:2 Choose twelve men, one of every tribe:

Choose. Hebrew, "take," as [in] Josue 3:12. Those twelve men were ordered to attend the ark, and to observe the miracle with care: these are chosen to carry the stones for the monuments. (Salien) --- Calmet supposes that they are the same people, and that the former verse might be translated, "the Lord had said." But this does not agree with the context. Hebrew, "and it came to pass, when all the people were clean passed over the Jordan, that the Lord spake." The former injunction was given before they entered the river. Hebrew, "the ark passeth...Now therefore take," etc. (Haydock) --- One was selected from the tribe of Levi, and one from that of Joseph, so that all the twelve tribes were represented. (Menochius)
Joshua 4:3 And command them to take out of the midst of the Jordan, where the feet of the priests stood, twelve very hard stones, which you shall set in the place of the camp, where you shall pitch your tents this night.

Hard. The Hebrew term is referred by some to the priests, "from the station of the priests, prepared, or standing firm," (chap. 3:17,) by others to the stones, which were to be prepared, hard, or exactly twelve. (Calmet) --- The Septuagint have taken it in the latter sense, "twelve stones ready," or such as they might easily find, in the place where the priests had stood. They were of a flinty nature, (Haydock) that they might perpetuate the memory of this event. (Menochius)
Joshua 4:4 And Josue called twelve men, whom he had chosen out of the children of Israel, one out of every tribe,

Joshua 4:5 And he said to them: Go before the ark of the Lord your God to the midst of the Jordan, and carry from thence every man a stone on your shoulders, according to the number of the children of Israel,

Of Israel, who had twelve sons. The same expression occurs [in] Deuteronomy 32:8., and must be explained of the immediate sons of Jacob, without including those grandchildren who might be born before his death. (Haydock)
Joshua 4:6 That it may be a sign among you: and when your children shall ask you to-morrow, saying: What mean these stones?

Joshua 4:7 You shall answer them: The waters of the Jordan ran off before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, when it passed over the same: therefore were these stones set for a monument of the children of Israel for ever.

Joshua 4:8 The children of Israel therefore did as Josue commanded them, carrying out of the channel of the Jordan twelve stones, as the Lord had commanded him, according to the number of the children of Israel, unto the place wherein they camped, and there they set them.

Joshua 4:9 And Josue put other twelve stones in the midst of the channel of the Jordan, where the priests stood, that carried the ark of the covenant: and they are there until this present day.

Day. Some hence infer that Josue did not write this book. But surely if he wrote it towards the end of his life, he might well use this expression, (Menochius) as St. Matthew does to denote a shorter term. The twelve stones at Galgal, and in the bed of the Jordan, at Bethabara, (Haydock) were probably each placed apart. See Exodus 24:4. (Menochius) --- They were still to be seen in the days of St. Jerome. Such monuments were formerly very common, and very useful, to make a lasting impression upon the minds of a gross people. See Genesis 28:18., and Leviticus 26:1.
Joshua 4:10 Now the priests that carried the ark, stood in the midst of the Jordan, till all things were accomplished, which the Lord had commanded Josue to speak to the people, and Moses had said to him. And the people made haste, and passed over.

To him. Moses had been dead forty days. But it seems this miraculous division of the Jordan had been revealed to him, and he had cautioned Josue to let slip no opportunity of attaching the people to God's service, by erecting monuments of religion, as he did on this occasion. (Calmet) --- Haste. Though they were assured by the divine promise, they experienced a certain fear. (Salien) --- Even the most constant are liable to such impressions. (Matthew 14:30.)
Joshua 4:11 And when they had all passed over, the ark also of the Lord passed over, and the priests went before the people.

People, who passed over 2000 cubits lower down, and always kept the same distance, till they arrived at Galgal. (Calmet)
Joshua 4:12 The children of Ruben also, and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasses, went armed before the children of Israel, *as Moses had commanded them.

Numbers 32:28.
Them. (Chap. 1:14., and Numbers 32:28.) Forty thousand were only chosen. (Haydock)
Joshua 4:13 And forty thousand fighting men by their troops and bands, marched through the plains and fields of the city of Jericho.

Bands. Hebrew, "prepared for war passed over, before the Lord, unto battle, to the plains of Jericho." (Haydock) --- These formed the van-guard. --- Plains. Hebrew harboth, which is translated desert, Jeremias 52:8. A large plain, fit for pasturage, extended from the city to the Jordan, on the east side. (Calmet)
Joshua 4:14 In that day the Lord magnified Josue in the sight of all Israel, that they should fear him, as they had feared Moses, while he lived.

In, etc. Josue recapitulates how this miracle established his authority, and how he was ordered to command the priests to come up from the midst of the Jordan, after the people had all got to the other side, and the stones were fixed, to denote where the ark had stood, like a wall, to hinder the waters from rushing down. (Haydock)
Joshua 4:15 And he said to him:

Joshua 4:16 Command the priests, that carry the ark of the covenant, to come up out of the Jordan.

Joshua 4:17 And he commanded them, saying: Come ye up out of the Jordan.

Joshua 4:18 And when they that carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, were come up, and began to tread on the dry ground, the waters returned into the channel, and ran as they were wont before.

Joshua 4:19 And the people came up out of the Jordan, the tenth day of the first month, and camped in Galgal, over-against the east side of the city of Jericho.

Month of the ecclesiastical year. They had left Egypt on the 15th of Nisan, so that they had spent forty years, within five days, on their journey. (Calmet)
Joshua 4:20 And the twelve stones, which they had taken out of the channel of the Jordan, Josue pitched in Galgal,

Galgal. It received its name afterwards, Josue 5:9. It lay in a direct line from Jericho to the Jordan eastwards, being ten stadia from the former, and fifty from the latter place. Josue had his camp here while he subdued the kings of Chanaan, (Calmet) as it had plenty of water and wood in its environs; (Menochius) though perhaps at this time, there were no houses. Saul was here recognized king of all Israel, 1 Kings 11:14. Tertullian (contra Marc. iv.) supposes, that the twelve stones were placed on the ark, in arcam, which is not at all probable. (Calmet) --- But they might be erected in its vicinity, and that may perhaps be the meaning of the author. (Haydock) --- R. Levi says the stones were placed near the ark, that all Israel might see them thrice a year. Josephus believes that an altar was formed of them.
Joshua 4:21 And said to the children of Israel: When your children shall ask their fathers to-morrow, and shall say to them: What mean these stones?

Joshua 4:22 You shall teach them, and say: Israel passed over this Jordan through the dry channel,

Joshua 4:23 The Lord your God drying up the waters thereof in your sight, until you passed over:

Joshua 4:24 *As he had done before in the Red Sea, which he dried up till we passed through:

Exodus 14:21.
Joshua 4:25 That all the people of the earth may learn the most mighty hand of the Lord, that you also may fear the Lord your God for ever.

Earth, particularly of Chanaan. This miracle tends to inspire the enemy with fear and consternation, and to confirm the faith and hope of the Israelites. The obstinacy of the former was thus rendered more inexcusable. (Calmet)
Joshua 5:0 The people are circumcised: they keep the Pasch. The manna ceaseth. An angel appeareth to Josue.

Joshua 5:1 Now when all the kings of the Amorrhites, who dwelt beyond the Jordan, westward, and all the kings of Chanaan, who possessed the places near the great sea, had heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan before the children of Israel, till they passed over, their heart failed them, and there remained no spirit in them, fearing the coming in of the children of Israel.

Chanaan. These occupied the countries situated on the Mediterranean sea, as far as Egypt: the Amorrhites dwelt nearer to the lake of Sodom. The whole country is divided between these two nations, including that territory which the Philistines had seized, and which belonged also to Israel. Almost every city had its respective king, according to the ancient custom in the east, intra suam cuique patriam regna finiebantur. (Justin. I.) Strabo (XVI.) says this was particularly verified in the cities of Phoenicia. (Calmet) --- Till they. Hebrew, "we...their heart melted, neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the children of Israel." They fainted as it were through fear, and could not take their breath, or according to the Septuagint adopt any thing rational; "they had no prudence," phronesis. (Haydock)
Joshua 5:2 At that time the Lord said to Josue: Make thee knives of stone, and circumcise the second time the children of Israel.

Time. While the enemy was rendered incapable of attacking the Israelites by excessive fear (Calmet) and consternation, Josue was commanded to renew the sign of the covenant, by which they were to take possession of the land, and it is supposed that he complied the day after he arrived at Galgal; (Haydock) so that the wound would be healing, when the feast of the Passover commenced four days later. On the third day it is most painful. (Genesis 34:25.) --- Of stone. Hebrew tsurim, which some translate, "sharp;" but the Septuagint and the best interpreters agree, that the word indicates a stone. Such a knife was used by Sephora. (Exodus 4:25.) It was supposed that sharp stones would cause less inflammation or danger. Samia testa....amputabant, nec aliter citra perniciem. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 25:12.) Herodotus (II. 86,) observes, that the Egyptian embalmers opened the body of the deceased with a "sharp Ethiopian stone." The people of Africa, and of America, have frequently used stone to cut wood, etc. Some of the Fathers assert, that Christ was circumcised with a knife of stone. But any other sharp instrument might be used for the purpose. Any person might perform the operation. Izates, king of the Adiabenians, received circumcision from the hand of a surgeon. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 20:2.) (Calmet) --- Time. Not that such as had been circumcised before were to be circumcised again: but that they were now to renew, and take up again the practice of circumcision; which had been omitted during their 40 years' sojourning in the wilderness; by reason of their being always uncertain when they should be obliged to march. (Challoner) --- St. Augustine (q. 6,) seems to think that the Israelites despised this ceremony in the desert. Theodoret (q. 2,) supposes it was disused because it was not then necessary, to distinguish the Israelites from other nations. Masius is of opinion that God would not allow them to employ it, after their revolt at Cades-barne, when they would not take possession of the land of Chanaan; and hence they could not resume that privilege, till God had authorized them again, ver 7., and Numbers 14:33. The covenant with God, of which circumcision was the seal, had been, in the mean time, suspended. But as the Israelites are no where blamed, in Scripture, on account of this omission, it seems that God dispensed with them during the 38 years after they left Sinai, that the children might not be exposed to the evident danger of perishing, as the people knew not how soon the cloud would give notice for an immediate departure. (Calmet) --- Since they were now in the midst of the nations of Chanaan, this distinctive mark (Menochius) was to be henceforth diligently observed. (Haydock)
Joshua 5:3 He did what the Lord had commanded, and he circumcised the children of Israel in the hill of the foreskins.

Hill, at Galgal. Josue took care to have this ceremony performed. (Calmet) --- Perhaps he circumcised some himself, as Abraham did those of his own house, Genesis 17:23. (Menochius)
Joshua 5:4 Now this is the cause of the second circumcision: All the people that came out of Egypt that were males, all the men fit for war, died in the desert, during the time of the long going about in the way:

Second. Hebrew, "this is the thing, (the cause why) Josue gave circumcision."
Joshua 5:5 Now these were all circumcised. But the people that were born in the desert,

Desert. After the departure from Sinai, where the Passover was celebrated, and where, of course, the people must have been circumcised. (Calmet)
Joshua 5:6 During the forty years of the journey in the wide wilderness, were uncircumcised: till all they were consumed that had not heard the voice of the Lord, and to whom he had sworn before, that he would not shew them the land flowing with milk and honey.

Forty. Some copies of the Septuagint add, "two," as if the 40 years' wandering in the desert, were to be dated from the time that the spies discouraged the people, in the second year of their departure from Egypt. But the Hebrew and the best chronologers allow only 40 years in the whole. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "For the children of Israel walked 40 years in the wilderness, till all the men fit for war, who came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord, unto whom the Lord swore that he would not shew them the land, which the Lord swore unto their fathers that he would give us, a land flowing with milk and honey; (7) and their children he raised up in their stead, them Josue circumcised." (Haydock) --- The Septuagint is also rather fuller than the Vulgate but gives the same sense. These children who receive, what their rebellious fathers had been refused, are a sensible figure of the Christian Church; as that second circumcision under Josue, represents the spiritual cleansing of the heart, which Jesus Christ has enjoined, Romans 2:28., and 1 Corinthians 7:19.
Joshua 5:7 The children of these succeeded in the place of their fathers, and were circumcised by Josue: for they were uncircumcised even as they were born, and no one had circumcised them in the way.

Joshua 5:8 Now after they were all circumcised, they remained in the same place of the camp, until they were healed.

Healed. The Passover lasted eight days: after which they proceeded to attack Jericho. Yet the people, unfit for war, remained at Galgal; where the camp continued a long time afterwards.
Joshua 5:9 And the Lord said to Josue: This day have I taken away from you the reproach of Egypt. And the name of that place was called Galgal, until this present day.

Egypt. The people of that country adopted circumcision only after this period, (Calmet) and it never became general among them. They were therefore held in abhorrence, like the rest of the uncircumcised nations, among the Jews, Genesis 34:14., and 1 Kings 14:6. Theodoret (q. 4,) looks upon circumcision as a symbol of the liberation from the servitude of Egypt, where, he says, history informs us, that many of the Hebrews had neglected this rite. --- Galgal is interpreted liberty, by Josephus; but moderns render it "a rolling away," (Calmet) or revolution. Hebrew, "I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you." (Haydock) --- Those Israelites who remained at the other side of the river, were ordered to be circumcised at the same time with their brethren. But they could not partake in the solemnity of the Passover, as they were at a distance from the ark. (Salien)
Joshua 5:10 And the children of Israel abode in Galgal, and they kept the Phase, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, in the plains of Jericho:

Phase. This was the third. The first was celebrated in Egypt, Exodus xii. The second at Sinai, Numbers ix. (Menochius) --- Afterwards it was disused till the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, as it was chiefly designed for that country, Exodus 12:25.
Joshua 5:11 And they ate on the next day unleavened bread of the corn of the land, and frumenty of the same year.

Corn. Some pretend that the Hebrew means "old corn." But the ancient interpreters take no notice of this restriction. The offering of corn was probably omitted on this occasion, as the Israelites had not cultivated the land. --- Frumenty. Septuagint, "new corn." Hebrew, "parched, on that same day." These last words are taken by the Septuagint as a part of the next sentence.
Joshua 5:12 *And the manna ceased after they ate of the corn of the land, neither did the children of Israel use that food any more, but they ate of the corn of the present year of the land of Chanaan.

Year of the World 2553. Land. The Septuagint intimate on the 15th. The Hebrew seems to say the 16th, Nisan, "on the morrow after they had eaten of the (old) corn." (Calmet) --- Grabe's Septuagint agrees with the Vulgate and Hebrew, and specifies that the Israelites "eat of the corn of the country on the day after the Passover, unleavened and new. On that day, the morrow, manna ceased." All depends on the determination of the first day of the festival. If we date from the eating of the paschal lamb on the 14th, or from the solemn day, which was the 15th, manna must have been withdrawn either on the 15th or 16th of the month; though Salien thinks that it ceased as soon as the Israelites had begun to eat of the fruit of the country, on the eastern side of the Jordan. This miraculous food was withholden as soon as the Israelites entered the land of promise; and so the blessed Eucharist, of which it was a figure, and all the sacraments, will cease, when the Christian people shall have taken possession of their heavenly country. (Haydock)
Joshua 5:13 And when Josue was in the field of the city of Jericho, he lifted up his eyes, and saw a man standing over-against him: holding a drawn sword, and he went to him, and said: Art thou one of ours, or of our adversaries?

Adversaries? Dost thou bear arms for or against us? (Calmet)
Joshua 5:14 And he answered: No; but I am prince of the host of the Lord, and now I am come.

Prince of the host of the Lord, etc. St. Michael, who is called prince of the people of Israel, Daniel 10:21. (Challoner) --- Some of the Fathers explain it of the Son of God. (Origen, hom. 6.) But St. Augustine, City of God 11:13., St. Jerome in Galatians iii., and interpreters in general agree, that the person who here appeared to Josue, was the archangel Michael. He came, in the name of God, to assure Josue of success, as the angel had appeared to Moses in the burning bush, as if to denote the distress of the Hebrews, and to encourage Moses to undertake their liberation. (Calmet) --- Chaldean, "I am the angel sent by God." In that character he is called the Lord. (Haydock)
Joshua 5:15 Josue fell on his face to the ground. And worshipping, add: What saith my lord to his servant?

Worshipping. Not with divine honour, but with a religious veneration of an inferior kind, suitable to the dignity of his person. (Challoner) --- He styles the angel Adonai, which is a title frequently given to men; and hence he does not seem to have designed to give him supreme worship. (Calmet) --- If he did, (Haydock) it was referred to God. (Calmet) (Exodus xx.)
Joshua 5:16 *Loose, saith he, thy shoes from off thy feet: for the place whereon thou standest is holy. And Josue did as was commanded him.

Exodus 3:5.; Acts 7:33.
Loose. The angel did not only accept of the honour done to him, but also required more, shewing that the field near Jericho was rendered holy, by his presence. (Worthington) --- Hence he ordered Josue to put off his shoes, as Moses had done at the bush, Exodus 3:5. The Turks leave their shoes at the doors of their mosques, and do not dare to tread on the bare floor. Formerly the pagans would not spit in their temples. (Arrian.) "If, says Porphyrius, in the sacrifices instituted by men, in honour of the gods, people be careful to have their shoes clean, with how much greater attention ought we to preserve our bodies, which are, as it were, the garments of the soul, free from every impurity and corruption!" (Abstin. 2.) (Calmet)
Joshua 6:0 After seven days' processions, the priests sounding the trumpets, the walls of Jericho fall down: and the city is taken and destroyed.

Joshua 6:1 Now *Jericho was close shut up and fenced, for fear of the children of Israel, and no man durst go out or come in.

Year of the World 2553, Year before Christ 1451.
Joshua 6:2 And the Lord said to Josue: Behold I have given into thy hands Jericho, and the king thereof, and all the valiant men.

The Lord, in the person of the angel, who appeared to Josue, as he was praying in silent meditation, or reconnoitring the city of Jericho, Josue 5:13. (Haydock) --- Men. People of the different nations had come to defend the city, Josue 24:11.
Joshua 6:3 Go round about the city all ye fighting men once a day: so shall ye do for six days.

Men. These went first. Afterwards the priests bore the ark, which was followed by all the people. (Calmet) --- The procession began on a Sunday. (Rabbins)
Joshua 6:4 And on the seventh day the priests shall take the seven trumpets, which are used in the jubilee, and shall go before the ark of the covenant: and you shall go about the city seven times, and the priests shall sound the trumpets.

Jubilee. (Numbers 10:2.) The number seven, is often used to express an indefinite number. But here a particular stress is laid upon it. See Masius. As, on the 7th year the Hebrews regained the possessions which they had sold: so now they assert their rights to the land of Chanaan. The sound of the trumpets announced joyful tidings to them. (Menochius)
Joshua 6:5 And when the voice of the trumpet shall give a longer and broken tune, and shall sound in your ears, all the people shall shout together with a very great shout, and the walls of the city shall fall to the ground, and they shall enter in every one at the place against which they shall stand.

Tune, with certain modulations, continued for a long time, Numbers 10:5. (Haydock) --- Ground. The Rabbins say they sink in, so that the ruins might not impede the march of the army. Some think only a large breach was made, opposite to the Israelites, as the house of Rahab upon the walls was preserved. (Calmet)
Joshua 6:6 Then Josue, the son of Nun, called the priests, and said to them: Take the ark of the covenant: and let seven other priests take the seven trumpets of the jubilee, and march before the ark of the Lord.

Joshua 6:7 And he said to the people: Go, and compass the city, armed, marching before the ark of the Lord.

He said. Some manuscripts and Hebrew editions have, "they said," though the points shew it must be singular, whatever Michaelis may object in favour of the Masora. Leudsen foolishly admits here a double literal sense. (Kennicott) (Haydock)
Joshua 6:8 And when Josue had ended his words, and the seven priests blew the seven trumpets before the ark of the covenant of the Lord,

Joshua 6:9 And all the armed men went before, the rest of the common people followed the ark, and the sound of the trumpets was heard on all sides.

Joshua 6:10 But Josue had commanded the people, saying: You shall not shout, nor shall your voice be heard, nor any word go out of your mouth: until the day come wherein I shall say to you: Cry and shout.

Joshua 6:11 So the ark of the Lord went about the city once a day, and returning into the camp, abode there.

There. This singular procession served to exercise the obedience of the people, and to teach them to despise the enemy, who durst not come out to attack them, though many were unarmed. (Calmet)
Joshua 6:12 And Josue rising before day, the priests took the ark of the Lord,

Joshua 6:13 And seven of them seven trumpets, which are used in the jubilee: and they went before the ark of the Lord, walking and sounding the trumpets: and the armed men went before them, and the rest of the common people followed the ark, and they blew the trumpets.

Joshua 6:14 And they went round about the city the second day once, and returned into the camp. So they did six days.

Joshua 6:15 But the seventh day, rising up early, they went about the city, as it was ordered, seven times.

Seventh day. The Jews say it was the sabbath; but of this there is no proof. Marcion hence took occasion to accuse God of inconsistency, as he forbad all working, and yet ordered the people to go round Jericho on a sabbath day. But Tertullian (IV. 12,) answers very well, that servile work is forbidden, and not the works of God or of religion, and God may change the ceremonial law as he thinks proper. (Calmet) --- Sabbato opera humana prohibentur non divina. (Du Hamel)
Joshua 6:16 And when in the seventh going about the priests sounded with the trumpets, Josue said to all Israel: Shout: for the Lord hath delivered the city to you:

Said, or "had said," when he gave the people the sound of the trumpet for a sign (Haydock) when they were to shout, ver. 5. He probably gave the regulations respecting the plunder of the city, before the army left the camp. (Calmet)
Joshua 6:17 And let this city be an anathema, and all things that are in it, to the Lord. Let only Rahab, the harlot, live, with all that are with her in the house: *for she hid the messengers whom we sent.

Josue 2:4.; Hebrews 11:31.
An anathema. That is, a thing accursed and devoted to utter destruction. (Challoner) --- Only the metal that was found, was consecrated to the Lord, (ver. 19,) and the family of Rahab saved. In devoting things, the person who laid on the curse, might extend its operation as he pleased. On some occasions, all was to be destroyed; on others, some things were preserved, Deuteronomy 2:34., and Leviticus 27:21. (Calmet) --- This first city, which the Israelites attacked, was treated with peculiar severity, to terrify the rest.
Joshua 6:18 But beware ye lest you touch ought of those things that are forbidden, and you be guilty of transgression, and all the camp of Israel be under sin, and be troubled.

Forbidden, transgression, sin. Hebrew has always anathema. (Haydock)
Joshua 6:19 But whatsoever gold or silver there shall be, or vessels of brass and iron, let it be consecrated to the Lord, laid up in his treasures.

Treasures, probably in the tabernacle. See Numbers 31:48. God claims the first-fruits of the booty, as an acknowledgment that he granted the victory, (Calmet) and all the riches of the country, to his people. (Haydock)
Joshua 6:20 *So all the people making a shout, and the trumpets sounding, when the voice and the sound thundered in the ears of the multitude, the walls forthwith fell down: and every man went up by the place that was over-against him: **and they took the city,

Hebrews 11:30. --- ** 2 Machabees 12:15.
Joshua 6:21 And killed all that were in it, man and woman, young and old. The oxen also, and the sheep, and the asses, they slew with the edge of the sword.

Joshua 6:22 *But Josue said to the two men that had been sent for spies: Go into the harlot's house, and bring her out, and all things that are hers, as you assured her by oath.

Josue 2:1.; Josue 2:14.
Joshua 6:23 *And the young men went in, and brought out Rahab, and her parents, her brethren also, and all her goods, and her kindred, and made them to stay without the camp.

Hebrews 11:31.
Men. Hebrew, "boys;" a name given to people advanced in years. --- Camp. A respect for the majesty of God, would not permit the Israelites to introduce unbelievers into the camp. They were first instructed, and then the men were circumcised, and the women received baptism. (Calmet)
Joshua 6:24 *But they burned the city, and all things that were therein; except the gold and silver, and vessels of brass and iron, which they consecrated unto the treasury of the Lord.

Josue 8:2.
Joshua 6:25 But Josue saved Rahab the harlot, and her father's house, and all she had, and they dwelt in the midst of Israel until this present day: because she hid the messengers whom he had sent to spy out Jericho. At that time, Josue made an imprecation, saying:

Day. Rahab prefigured the wild olive tree, which St. Paul says was engrafted on the good olive tree, (Romans 11:24,) and which will remain till the end of the world. (Theodoret, q. 8.) She married Salmon, of the tribe of Juda, and became the ancestor of David and of the Messias. (Calmet)
Joshua 6:26 *Cursed be the man before the Lord, that shall raise up and build the city of Jericho. In his firs-tborn may he lay the foundation thereof, and in the last of his children set up its gates.

3 Kings 16:34.
Cursed, etc. Jericho, in the mystical sense, signifies iniquity; the sounding of the trumpets by the priests, signifies the preaching of the word of God; by which the walls of Jericho are thrown down, when sinners are converted: and a dreadful curse will light on them who build them up again. (Challoner) --- Gates. Some copies of the Septuagint insert here that the curse fell upon Azan (Hiel) of Bethel, 3 Kings 16:34. Before his time, there was a city of palm-trees, or Jericho, built in the neighbourhood. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 5:4.) Though Hiel was so severely punished, no one made any scruple to live there. Elias and Jesus Christ himself honoured the place with their presence. The city is now almost in ruins, and the territory uncultivated. Ancient history mentions similar imprecations against obnoxious cities. Thus the Romans cursed the rebuilders of Carthage, and Agamemnon followed "the ancient custom," says Strabo, (xiii.) laying a curse upon those who should rebuild the city of Troy. The Ionians and Greeks forbad those temples to be re-established, which the Persians had destroyed, that they might remain eternal monuments of the impiety of the latter, and of the hatred which subsisted between the two nations. (Pausanias in Phoc.) (Calmet)
Joshua 6:27 And the Lord was with Josue, and his name was noised throughout all the land.

Joshua 7:0 For the sin of Achan, the Israelites are defeated at Hai. The offender is found out, and stoned to death; and God's wrath is turned from them.

Joshua 7:1 But *the children of Israel transgressed the commandment, and took to their own use of that which was accursed. *For Achan, the son of Charmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zare, of the tribe of Juda, took something of the anathema: and the Lord was angry against the children of Israel.

1 Paralipomenon 2:7.
Year of the World 2553.; Josue 22:20. Children. Achan was guilty of theft: some of the rest might have connived at his fault. He had taken what was reserved for the Lord. The offender was discovered, to inspire all with a horror for his conduct. Some of his brethren were punished, (ver. 5,) but they suffered for their own secret transgressions, or death might be no real punishment to them; while the Israelites were awakened to a sense of their own inability to conquer without the divine protection, and were forced to humble themselves. (Haydock) --- Chastisements are the marks of God's displeasure, though they frequently proceed also from his clemency. --- Achan is called Achar, 1 Paralipomenon 2:7. These five persons occupy the space of 265 years; so that they must have been 50 or 55 years old, when they had children.
Joshua 7:2 And when Josue sent men from Jericho against Hai, which is beside Bethaven, on the east side of the town of Bethel, he said to them: Go up, and view the country: and they fulfilled his command, and viewed Hai.

Against Hai, to see the situation and strength of that city, which was about 10 miles west, or rather north, of Jericho. It was afterwards rebuilt, 1 Esdras 2:28. --- Bethaven and Bethel are the same place; (St. Jerome; Calmet) though many distinguish them, with Cellarius. The former name means "the house of iniquity," because Jeroboam there set up a golden calf. Bethel was its former appellation, in consequence of the vision of Jacob, Genesis xxviii.
Joshua 7:3 And returning, they said to him: Let not all the people go up, but let two or three thousand men go, and destroy the city: why should all the people be troubled in vain, against enemies that are very few?

Few. It appears, however, that the city contained 12,000 fighting men; so that these spies must have formed a false notion of its strength, Josue 8:25.
Joshua 7:4 There went up therefore three thousand fighting men: who immediately turned their backs,

Joshua 7:5 And were defeated by the men of the city of Hai, and there fell of them six and thirty men: and the enemies pursued them from the gate as far as Sabarim, and they slew them as they fled by the descent: and the heart of the people was struck with fear, and melted like water.

Sabarim, which means people "broken and defeated." Septuagint, "they pursued them from the gate, till they had entirely broken them," destroying 36, and putting the rest to flight. (Calmet) --- This small disaster filled the whole camp with dismay, as the Lord generally caused the victories of his people to be complete, and without any loss, as long as they continued in his favour. None were found wanting of those who attacked and destroyed so many of the Madianites, Numbers 31:49. (Haydock)
Joshua 7:6 But Josue rent his garments, and fell flat on the ground, before the ark of the Lord, until the evening, both he and all the ancients of Israel: and they put dust upon their heads.

Heads. These marks of grief were very common. Achilles covered his head with ashes, tore his garments and face, when he received news of the death of his friend, Patroclus. Homer and Virgil, (Aeneid xii.) speaking of Latinus, the king, says, It scissa veste Latinus---Canitiem immundo perfusam pulvere turpans.
Joshua 7:7 And Josue said: Alas, O Lord God, why wouldst thou bring this people over the river Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorrhite, and to destroy us? would God, we had stayed beyond the Jordan, as we began.

Began. Some had established themselves in the land of Galaad. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "would to God we had been content, and dwelt on the other side of the Jordan." Josue speaks in this animated manner, through zeal for the glory of God, (Calmet) more than for any personal inconvenience. He was grieved that any one should have merited God's displeasure. He was afraid that the Chanaanites would blaspheme the great name of the Lord, ver. 9.
Joshua 7:8 My Lord God, what shall I say, seeing Israel turning their backs to their enemies?

Joshua 7:9 The Chanaanites, and all the inhabitants of the land, will hear of it, and being gathered together will surround us, and cut off our name from the earth: and what wilt thou do to thy great name?

Joshua 7:10 And the Lord said to Josue: Arise, why liest thou flat on the ground?

Joshua 7:11 Israel hath sinned, and transgressed my covenant: and they have taken of the anathema, and have stolen and lied, and have hid it among their goods.

Lied. Each one, on delivering up what he had taken, made profession, at least by his behaviour, (Haydock) that he retained nothing. Achan did like the rest, but he kept back of the plunder. (Calmet) --- He lied, and did not comply with the promise made by all Israel, which he was bound to observe, as much as if he had made it with his own mouth.
Joshua 7:12 Neither can Israel stand before his enemies, but he shall flee from them: because he is defiled with the anathema. I will be no more with you, till you destroy him that is guilty of this wickedness.

Joshua 7:13 Arise, *sanctify the people, and say to them: Be ye sanctified against to-morrow: for thus saith the Lord God of Israel: The curse is in the midst of thee, O Israel: thou canst not stand before thy enemies, till he be destroyed out of thee, that is defiled with this wickedness.

Leviticus 20:7.; Numbers 11:18.; Josue 3:5.; 1 Kings 16:5.
Sanctified. Prepared by washing, etc., to appear before the tabernacle, and to see the event. Septuagint, "purify the people." Chaldean, "call an assembly."
Joshua 7:14 And you shall come in the morning, every one by your tribes: and what tribe soever the lot shall find, it shall come by its kindreds, and the kindred by its houses, and the house by the men.

Find. Hebrew, "it shall be the tribe which the Lord taketh." (Haydock) --- This was done by lots, as on similar occasions, 1 Kings 10:20., and 14:41. When God authorized this method, there could be no danger in it. But to have recourse to lots without such authority, would be often tempting God. The apostles chose an apostle by lot: but they had first taken every precaution (Calmet) to select two persons, both fit for the important charge. (Haydock) --- To commit the choice of sacred ministers to chance would be extremely improper. "We forbid the use of lots in the elections," said Honorius. (Calmet)
Joshua 7:15 And whosoever he be that shall be found guilty of this fact, he shall be burnt with fire, with all his substance, because he hath transgressed the covenant of the Lord, and hath done wickedness in Israel.

Joshua 7:16 Josue, therefore, when he rose in the morning, made Israel to come by their tribes, and the tribe of Juda was found.

Joshua 7:17 Which being brought by its families, it was found to be the family of Zare. Bringing that also by the houses, he found it to be Zabdi:

Joshua 7:18 And bringing his house man by man, he found Achan, the son of Charmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zare, of the tribe of Juda.

Juda. The dignity of this tribe enhanced the fault of Achan. (Menochius)
Joshua 7:19 And Josue said to Achan: My son, give glory to the Lord God of Israel, and confess, and tell me what thou hast done, hide it not.

My son. Clemency is the virtue of great souls. --- Give glory. Confess candidly, John 9:24.
Joshua 7:20 And Achan answered Josue, and said to him: Indeed I have sinned against the Lord, the God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done.

Joshua 7:21 For I saw among the spoils a scarlet garment, exceeding good, and two hundred sicles of silver, and a golden rule of fifty sicles: and I coveted them, and I took them away, and hid them in the ground is the midst of my tent, and the silver I covered with the earth that I dug up.

Garment. Hebrew, "a robe of Sannaar, or of Babylon." This city was famous for embroidered, or painted robes, such as were worn by kings, Jonas 3:6. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 8:48.) --- Rule, or linget. No coin was yet used. (Calmet)
Joshua 7:22 Josue therefore sent ministers: who running to his tent, found all hid in the same place, together with the silver.

Joshua 7:23 And taking them away out of the tent, they brought them to Josue, and to all the children of Israel, and threw them down before the Lord.

Joshua 7:24 Then Josue, and all Israel with him, took Achan, the son of Zare, and the silver, and the garment, and the golden rule, his sons also, and his daughters, his oxen, and asses, and sheep, the tent also, and all the goods: and brought them to the valley of Achor:

His sons, etc. Probably conscious to, or accomplices of the crime of their father, (Challoner) as he could hardly have concealed these things in the midst of his tent without their knowledge. (Menochius) --- But granting, with St. Augustine (q. 8,) that they were innocent of this crime, God, who is the sovereign arbiter of life and death, might order them out of the world, on this occasion, without injustice.
Joshua 7:25 Where Josue said: Because thou hast troubled us, the Lord trouble thee this day. And all Israel stoned him: and all things that were his, were consumed with fire.

Day. Hence some have drawn a very weak argument, to prove the repentance of Achan, as if he had only to undergo a temporary punishment. It is probable, however, that his sincere confession, proceeding from a penitent heart, might influence God to shew him mercy. --- Fire. Children, as well as his other effects; though some have supposed that the former were spared, as they are not here specified. Hebrew seems to include them; "and burnt them with fire after they had stoned them with stones." Chaldean says they were stoned first. (Calmet)
Joshua 7:26 *And they gathered together upon him a great heap of stones, which remaineth until this present day. And the wrath of the Lord was turned away from them. And the name of that place was called the Valley of Achor, until this day.

2 Kings 18:17.
Achor. That is, trouble; (Challoner) in allusion to the name of Achar, as he is called in the Septuagint invariably, and in the Hebrew and Vulgate in the Book of Chronicles. (Haydock) --- This heap of stones was thrown upon the ashes of the deceased, or perhaps at his person, while he was burning at the stake, as it is the custom still among the Turks. (Roger. 2:7.) The king of Hai was treated in this manner, Josue 8:29. See 2 Kings 18:17. The vale of Achor was on the road between Jerusalem and Jericho, where a small castle, at Adommim, was built to protect travellers from the insults of robbers, who infested that part, Luke 10:30., and Josue 15:7.
Joshua 8:0 Hai is taken and burnt, and all the inhabitants slain. An altar is built, and sacrifices offered. The law is written on stones, and the blessings and cursings are read before all the people.

Joshua 8:1 And the Lord said to Josue: *Fear not, nor be thou dismayed: take with thee all the multitude of fighting men, arise, and go up to the town of Hai: Behold I have delivered into thy hand the king thereof, and the people, and the city, and the land.

Year of the World 2553. Men. Masius and Salien (Haydock) suppose that Josue selected out of them 30,000; 5000 of whom were to be placed in ambush, and the rest were to pretend that they were terrified at the approach of the king of Hai, and to flee with Josue. But the text seems to assert that all accompanied their general, (Calmet) excepting such as were left to guard the camp. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:2 And thou shalt do to the city of Hai, and to the king thereof, *as thou hast done to Jericho, and to the king thereof: but the spoils, and all the cattle, you shall take for a prey to yourselves: lay an ambush for the city behind it.

Josue 6:24.
King. There was this difference, that the king of Hai was to be gibbeted, and his corpse stoned, while the city was to be plundered by the Israelites. --- It. This mode of warfare is equally just, as if the enemy was attacked in the open field. Dolus an virtus quis in hoste requirat? (Virgil) --- God was pleased to authorize it on this occasion, that his people might be less exposed, being under some apprehensions on account of the former defeat. Some nations have preferred to encounter the enemy openly. (Grotius, Jur. 3:1, 20.) But their example is no law for others. "When the war is just, it matters not whether a person gain the victory by open fighting or by stratagem." (St. Augustine, q. 10.) "It is often prudent to conceal the truth." (contra Mend. x.) People engaged in warfare, allow each other to take such advantages. God could easily have routed these few men by means of the army of Israel, or by a miracle, as he did at Jericho. (Haydock) --- But he is at liberty to act as he thinks proper. The ambush was laid on the south-west side of Hai, so that those of Bethel might not perceive it, as they came out to the assistance of their countrymen, ver. 17. Five thousand were placed in one place, and 25,000 in another, while the main body of the army, under Josue, took a circuit by the east, and came to attack the city on the north side. (Calmet)
Joshua 8:3 And Josue arose, and all the army of the fighting men with him, to go up against Hai: and he sent thirty thousand chosen valiant men in the night.

Joshua 8:4 And commanded them, saying: Lay an ambush behind the city: and go not very far from it: and be ye all ready.

Ready to enter the city, when its soldiers are all in pursuit of us. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:5 But I, and the rest of the multitude which is with me, will approach on the contrary side against the city. And when they shall come out against us, *we will flee, and turn our backs, as we did before:

Josue 7:4.
And turn, etc. Josue had not fled before. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "against us, as at the first, we will flee before them."
Joshua 8:6 Till they pursuing us be drawn farther from the city: for they will think that we flee as before.

Joshua 8:7 And whilst we are fleeing, and they pursuing, you shall arise out of the ambush, and shall destroy the city: and the Lord your God will deliver it into your hands.

Joshua 8:8 And when you shall have taken it, set it on fire, and you shall do all things so as I have commanded.

Fire. They were to set some houses on fire for a signal, but the whole city was not to be destroyed (Calmet) till the Israelites had collected the plunder. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:9 And he sent them away, and they went on to the place of the ambush, and abode between Bethel and Hai, on the west side of the city of Hai. But Josue staid that night in the midst of the people,

Joshua 8:10 And rising early in the morning, he mustered his soldiers, and went up with the ancients in the front of the army, environed with the aid of the fighting men.

Ancients, who had a command in the army, and assisted Josue with their counsel. They gave him an account of the state and numbers of the army. (Calmet)
Joshua 8:11 And when they were come, and were gone up over-against the city, they stood on the north side of the city, between which and them there was a valley in the midst.

Joshua 8:12 And he had chosen five thousand men, and set them to lie in ambush between Bethel and Hai, on the west side of the same city:

Five thousand. These were part of the 30,000 mentioned above, ver. 3 . (Challoner) --- Josue had given orders to have them placed in ambush apart; (Calmet) unless, perhaps, he places these himself in some secret place. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:13 But all the rest of the army went in battle array on the north side, so that the last of that multitude reached to the west side of the city. So Josue went that night, and stood in the midst of the valley.

Night. He spent the forepart of it at Galgal, to prevent any suspicion, ver. 9. But setting out very early, (ver. 10,) he arrived at Hai before sun-rise.
Joshua 8:14 And when the king of Hai saw this, he made haste in the morning, and went out with all the army of the city, and set it in battle array, toward the desert, not knowing that there lay an ambush behind his back.

Desert of Bethel, fit only for pasturage, Josue 18:12.
Joshua 8:15 But Josue, and all Israel gave back, making as if they were afraid, and fleeing by the way of the wilderness.

Afraid. Hebrew, "made as if they were beaten before them, and fled." Thus they drew on the king of Hai, so as to leave the ambush in his rear. (Calmet)
Joshua 8:16 But they shouting together, and encouraging one another, pursued them. And when they were come from the city,

Joshua 8:17 And not one remained in the city of Hai and of Bethel, that did not pursue after Israel, leaving the towns open as they had rushed out,

Not one fit to bear arms. (Worthington) --- Bethel. As soon as the people of this city perceived the Israelites fleeing, they rushed out to assist the king of Hai in the pursuit. But when they saw the former rally, before they had joined their friends, (Calmet) they very prudently retired, and left the unhappy citizens of Hai to their fate. (Haydock) --- Hence all who were slain belonged to the latter city, ver. 25.
Joshua 8:18 The Lord said to Josue: Lift up the shield that is in thy hand, towards the city of Hai, for I will deliver it to thee.

Shield, as Moses lifted up his hands, Exodus 17:11. Some translate, "dart, spear," or "sword." (Septuagint; Ecclesiasticus 16:3.) (Calmet) --- The buckler might be suspended on a spear, (Menochius) that it might be seen afar off (Worthington) by some appointed to keep watch on purpose. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:19 And when he had lifted up his shield towards the city, the ambush, that lay hid, rose up immediately: and going to the city, took it, and set it on fire.

Joshua 8:20 And the men of the city, that pursued after Josue, looking back, and seeing the smoke of the city rise up to heaven, had no more power to flee this way or that way: especially as they that had counterfeited flight, and were going toward the wilderness, turned back most valiantly against them that pursued.

Joshua 8:21 So Josue, and all Israel, seeing that the city was taken, and that the smoke of the city rose up, returned, and slew the men of Hai.

Joshua 8:22 And they also that had taken and set the city on fire, issuing out of the city to meet their own men, began to cut off the enemies who were surrounded by them. So that the enemies being cut off on both sides, not one of so great a multitude was saved.

Joshua 8:23 And they took the king of the city of Hai alive, and brought him to Josue.

Josue. This king was reserved for greater torments and ignominy. It was the ancient custom to present kings and chief commanders to the victorious general, who rewarded those who brought them. (Grotius)
Joshua 8:24 So all being slain that had pursued after Israel, in his flight to the wilderness, and falling by the sword in the same place, the children of Israel returned and laid waste the city.

Joshua 8:25 And the number of them that fell that day, both of men and women, was twelve thousand persons, all of the city of Hai.

Joshua 8:26 But Josue drew not back his hand, which he had stretched out on high, holding the shield, till all the inhabitants of Hai were slain.

Joshua 8:27 And the children of Israel divided among them, the cattle and the prey of the city, as the Lord had commanded Josue.

Joshua 8:28 And he burnt the city, and made it a heap for ever:

For ever, or for a long time. It was rebuilt before the captivity, 2 Esdras 7:31.
Joshua 8:29 And he hung the king thereof on a gibbet, until the evening and the going down of the sun. Then Josue commanded, and they took down his carcass from the gibbet: and threw it in the very entrance of the city, heaping upon it a great heap of stones, which remaineth until this present day.

Gibbet. Septuagint, "a cross." Some say that the king was first killed; but that assertion is destitute of proof. The corpse was taken down before night, Deuteronomy 21:22.
Joshua 8:30 Then Josue built an altar to the Lord, the God of Israel, in Mount Hebal,

Hebal. The Samaritan Chronicle says, on Mount Garizim. No doubt Josue complied with the injunctions of Moses: but we have seen that there are reasons to doubt which mountain he pitched upon, Deuteronomy 27:4. (Haydock) --- It seems more probable that the altar would be upon Garizim, where the blessings were proclaimed, if the texts of Moses and of Josue did not formally assert the contrary. (Calmet) --- But if they have been interpolated, nothing certain can be deduced from those passages. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 4:8,) says that the altar was between the two mountains, not far from Sichem, which was built at the foot of Garizim; and it is not probable that this historian, the mortal enemy of the Samaritans, would have hesitated to assert that the altar was upon Hebal, if the texts had been so positive, in his time. It is undeniable that the tribes of Levi, and of Ephraim, were upon Garizim; and consequently Josue and the priests must have been there; and who would then officiate at the altar on Hebal? See Kennicott, who ably refutes the insinuations of the infidel, Collins, against the character of the Samaritans. When this altar was erected the learned are not agreed. (Haydock) --- Some say, immediately after the passage of the Jordan, and that the 12 stones taken from the bed of the river, were used for that purpose. Josephus says five years elapsed, and R. Ismael supposes that the altar was not built during the 14 years after the passage of the Jordan. But it is most probable that Josue complied with the command of God as soon as he had procured a sort of peace, (Haydock) by the conquest of these two cities, and was thus enabled to penetrate into the heart of the country, where Garizim was situated, not in the plain of Jericho, as Eusebius imagined, but near Sichem, (Calmet) about 30 or 40 miles to the north-west of Jericho. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:31 *As Moses, the servant of the Lord, had commanded the children of Israel, and it is written in the book of the law of Moses: an altar of unhewed stones, which iron had not touched: and he offered upon it holocausts to the Lord, and immolated victims of peace-offerings.

Exodus 20:25.; Deuteronomy 27:5.
Iron. Spencer complains that the Protestants have not translated barzel, "iron tool," as [in] Deuteronomy 27:5. This translation is found in their more ancient editions of 1537-49, etc. (Kennicott) --- But the difference is very unimportant. The reason of this prohibition is given, Exodus 20:25. --- He offered; so we read that he wrote, blessed and cursed, etc., because these things were done at least by his authority. It is not necessary to suppose that he engraved the words of the law with his own hands, or that he passed from Garizim, where he had been pronouncing the blessings, to Hebal, in order to denounce the curses. (Haydock) --- He probably commissioned some of the princes on Hebal to perform the office of cursing, after he had repeated the blessings himself from Garizim; and the select company of Levites before the ark, having answered or repeated the words, the whole multitude stationed at the foot of each mountain, testified their entire approbation by shouting Amen; the six tribes near Garizim thus ratifying the blessings; and the rest, at the foot of Hebal, giving their consent that the transgressors should be cursed. (Kennicott) --- Hence Josue must have sacrificed by the hands of the priests. (Haydock) --- Various instances are produced to shew that princes and prophets have, on extraordinary occasions, performed this office themselves, 1 Kings 6:15., and 7:9., and 3 Kings 18:32. (Calmet) --- But these must have either received a dispensation from God, or they must have employed the ministry of the legal priests; or, in fine, their actions, like that of Saul, (1 Kings 13:9,) of Absalom, (1 Kings 1:9,) Herod, etc., may have been deserving of blame. (Haydock) --- The Jews assert that in the desert no one was permitted to sacrifice, except in the tabernacle; but that this prohibition ceased at Galgal, as the ark had no fixed abode, and thus Josue might offer sacrifice himself. Afterwards the law was enforced, while the ark was at Silo. But upon its being removed to Nobe, Maspha, and Gabaon, people resumed their former liberty; and hence there was nothing to hinder Samuel, Saul, and David from offering sacrifice, till the temple was erected. (Outram de Sac. 1:2; Grotius in Deuteronomy 12:8.) This sacred office was formerly exercised by kings, particularly at Athens, where, after the people became more numerous, Theseus appointed the king of sacrifices to keep up the memory of the ancient practice. (Demost. c. Neream.) (Calmet) --- The like was done at Rome under the republic. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:32 And he wrote upon stones, the Deuteronomy of the law of Moses, which he had ordered before the children of Israel.

Stones, of which the altar was formed, (Calmet) or on a separate monument, (Masius) consisting of two stones of black marble, so as to leave the letters prominent, and to fill up the vacuities with white plaster, that they might be seen more plainly, and might, at the same time, be more durable than if they had been only written on the cement, whatever some may have said of the tenacity of the ancient plaster. --- Deuteronomy. etc., or copy of the Decalogue, which, by way of eminence, is called the law, Acts 7:53. It is distinguished from the blessings and the curses; (ver. 34,) and Moses referred to it, as already existing, (Deuteronomy 27:3, 8,) though the Book of Deuteronomy was not finished till afterwards. He might point to the very tables contained in the ark. "This law, consisting of only 16 verses, might easily be engraved on this solemn day; whereas to engrave the 80 verses of blessings and cursings, would be improbable; and engraving the Pentateuch, or indeed the Book of Deuteronomy, had been impossible." That the Decalogue was to be thus solemnly proclaimed is evident, from the Samaritan text, Exodus 20:18. (Kennicott) --- This was the covenant which God had made with his people, (Deuteronomy 4:13,) and which Moses cautions the Israelites to observe; as upon their fidelity, their present and future happiness entirely depended. It was on this title alone that they could hold the land of Chanaan; and therefore Josue takes care thus publicly to admonish them of their duty. (Haydock) --- The Rabbins say that the whole Pentateuch was written on this occasion in 70 languages, that no nation might plead ignorance. But we can hardly believe that even the Book of Deuteronomy could be written, and read, and explained to the people, as that would require many days. (Calmet)
Joshua 8:33 And all the people, and the ancients, and the princes, and judges, stood on both sides of the ark, before the priests that carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, both the stranger and he that was born among them, half of them by Mount Garizim, and half by Mount Hebal, as Moses, the servant of the Lord, had commanded. And first he blessed the people of Israel.

Hebal. "Gerizim and Ebal, says Maundrell, p. 59, are separated by a narrow valley, not above a furlong broad; and Naplosa, (the ancient Sychem) consisting chiefly of two streets lying parallel, is built at the foot of, and under Gerizim." The princes, representing the different tribes, were stationed on these mountains, and the crowd at the foot of them, while a select company of Levites attended the ark in the midst, and repeated what the princes proclaimed, that the multitude might answer Amen, as they turned successively to them; (Kennicott) or the princes might answer Amen, from the top of the two hills. (Calmet) --- And first. Protestants, "as Moses....had commanded before, that they should bless the people of Israel." But if Josue blessed them himself, (Haydock) all superiors might do so, as parents bless their children. (Worthington)
Joshua 8:34 After this, he read all the words of the blessing and the cursing, and all things that were written in the book of the law.

Words. Hebrew, "words of the law, the blessings," etc. (Haydock)
Joshua 8:35 He left out nothing of those things which Moses had commanded, but he repeated all before all the people of Israel, with the women and children, and strangers, that dwelt among them.

Repeated. Coverdale's Bible has "Josua caused it to be proclaimed." "It is very common in Scripture to represent a person as doing that which is done by another, in his name and by his authority." (Kennicott) --- Josue might be in the midst to preside, (Calmet) or rather he would be along with the princes of the six tribes on Mount Garizim, ver. 30. (Haydock) --- Thus the covenant entered into between God and the Israelites, was solemnly ratified when the latter first entered the promised land. The greatest part of those who had been present at Horeb had perished in the wilderness. (Calmet)
Joshua 9:0 Josue is deceived by the Gabaonites; who, being detected, are condemned to be perpetual servants.

Joshua 9:1 Now *when these things were heard of, all the kings beyond the Jordan, that dwelt in the mountains, and in the plains, in the places near the sea, and on the coasts of the great sea, they also that dwelt by Libanus, the Hethite, and the Amorrhite, the Chanaanite, the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite,

Year of the World 2553, Year before Christ 1451. These things. The solemn covenant by which the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, (Haydock) and the destruction of the two cities of Jericho and Hai. (Calmet) --- The kings on that side of the Jordan, and in all the neighbourhood, perceiving that, if the Israelites were suffered to attack them singly, in this manner, they would all presently lose their dominions and their lives. They resolved, therefore, to form a general league, offensive and defensive. (Haydock) --- Beyond. Hebrew, "on the side of." --- Mountains, on the south of Judea. --- Sea. All the nations of Phoenicia, and the country of the Philistines, (Calmet) who had seized a part of the country, which belonged to the Israelites. Josue divided their territory among the people, though he did not live to make the conquest of it. (Haydock) --- Libanus. Hebrew, "and in all the coasts of the great sea, over-against Libanus," as if the Phoenicians were alone meant. (Calmet)
Joshua 9:2 Gathered themselves together, to fight against Josue and Israel, with one mind, and one resolution.

Joshua 9:3 But they that dwelt in Gabaon, hearing all that Josue had done to Jericho and Hai:

Joshua 9:4 Cunningly devising, took for themselves provisions, laying old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles rent and sewed up again,

Provisions. By the alteration of a single letter, Hebrew means, "they feigned themselves to be ambassadors." But the Chaldean, Syriac, and Septuagint agree with the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- The Gabaonites were Hevites, though they are called by the more general name of Amorrhites, 2 Kings 21:2. St. Jerome says that their city stood in the tribe of Benjamin; according to Josephus, 40 or 50 stadia north of Jerusalem. (Menochius) --- They alone had the prudence to submit, (Calmet) being terrified and converted by the miracles of God. (Haydock) --- Again. In the East, goat skins with the hair inwards, are used to carry wine.
Joshua 9:5 And very old shoes, which for a shew of age were clouted with patches, and old garments upon them: the loaves also, which they carried for provision by the way, were hard, and broken into pieces:

Patches. Hebrew, "spotted," or of different colours, like shoes worn out and spoiled with dirt. --- Pieces. Hebrew, is translated, "dry, burnt, eaten, mouldy," etc. But it means fine thin bread, or wafers, (3 Kings 14:3,) full of holes. The Israelites partook of this bread, which they would hardly have done if it had been mouldy. (Calmet)
Joshua 9:6 And they went to Josue, who then abode in the camp at Galgal, and said to him, and to all Israel with him: We are come from a far country, desiring to make peace with you. And the children of Israel answered them, and said:

Joshua 9:7 Perhaps you dwell in the land which falls to our lot; if so, we can make no league with you.

You. The Gabaonites addressed themselves to the first whom they met in the camp; and these made this remark to them before they were brought into the presence of Josue. The Israelites could make no league with the Chanaanites, as with equals, but only on condition that the latter should embrace the true religion, and acknowledge the dominion of the former. (Grotius) (Exodus 23:32., and Deuteronomy 7:2.)
Joshua 9:8 But they said to Josue: We are thy servants. Josue said to them: Who are you? and whence came you?

Servants. They did not mean to submit to servitude, but to make a league; otherwise they would not have needed to have recourse to such artifices. (Calmet) --- But finding that no other terms could be procured, they were willing, at any rate, to save their lives. (Haydock)
Joshua 9:9 They answered: From a very far country thy servants are come, in the name of the Lord thy God. For we have heard the fame of his power, all the things that he did in Egypt.

God. So the queen Saba came to Solomon, 3 Kings 10. The people of Gabaon being convinced that the God of Israel was the only true God, came to join themselves to his people, and to worship him. (Serarius)
Joshua 9:10 *And to the two kings of the Amorrhites, that were beyond the Jordan, Sehon, king of Hesebon, and Og, king of Basan, that was in Astaroth:

Numbers 21:13.
Astaroth. They take care not to mention what had happened so recently at Jericho, lest they might be detected. (Calmet)
Joshua 9:11 And our ancients, and all the inhabitants of our country, said to us: Take with you victuals for a long way, and go meet them, and say: We are your servants, make ye a league with us.

Joshua 9:12 Behold, these loaves we took hot, when we set out from our houses to come to you, now they are become dry, and broken in pieces by being exceeding old.

Joshua 9:13 These bottles of wine when we filled them were new, now they are rent and burst. These garments we have on, and the shoes we have on our feet, by reason of the very long journey are worn out, and almost consumed.

And almost. This is added by way of farther explanation of the Hebrew, "are become old." (Haydock)
Joshua 9:14 They took therefore of their victuals, and consulted not the mouth of the Lord.

Victuals, to examine whether they were as old as they pretended; or they eat of them in sign of friendship. (Menochius) --- Thus we find a feast generally accompanied the making of a league, Genesis 26:30., and 31:54. To betray a guest was deemed a heinous injury, Psalm 54:15. (Euripides) --- Lord. By the high priest, clothed with the Urim and Thummim. (Calmet) --- This remark shews that the Israelites had been guilty of some negligence. (Haydock) --- Hence they were so easily deceived, being perhaps overjoyed that their friendship should be courted by so distant a nation. (Menochius) --- The high priest was ordered to consult the Lord for Josue, at the door of the tabernacle, Exodus 29:42., and Numbers 27:21. (Worthington)
Joshua 9:15 *And Josue made peace with them, and entering into a league, promised that they should not be slain: the princes also of the multitude swore to them.

2 Kings 21:2.
Them. Were they bound to keep this promise? Some maintain the negative, as it was obtained by fraud, and therefore the Gabaonites leave themselves to the mercy of Josue, (ver. 25,) who condemns them to perpetual servitude in the house of the Lord. He could not, however, have taken away their lives after what had passed. The error was not essential, but the people might have obtained the same conditions, if they had frankly told the truth. If we make a contract with a person who pretends to be of a nation to which he does not belong, the contract will hold good. The deceit of the Gabaonites was punished as it deserved. But God required that the conditions which were granted to them, should be diligently observed; and the family of Saul was severely punished, because he had slain some of them, 3 Kings xxi. If the rest of the Chanaanites had changed their religion, and submitted to the Israelites, they might have been preserved, as Rahab, and so many others were, with whom the pious kings scrupled not to form alliances, Josue 11:19., and Deuteronomy 20:10, etc. (Masius; Bonfrere; Calmet) --- They were, however, obliged to yield possession of the land to the Israelites, and to renounce idolatry. The Gabaonites were willing to accede to these conditions, and therefore Josue might justly make a peace with them. (Menochius)
Joshua 9:16 Now three days after the league was made, they heard that they dwelt nigh, and they should be among them.

Now. The five kings coming to attack the Gabaonites, these were forced to confess the truth, and to implore the assistance of the Israelites; (Calmet) or perhaps Rahab had given information who they really were. (Menochius) --- Josue flew to their assistance in the night, and arrived the day following, Josue 10:9.
Joshua 9:17 And the children of Israel removed the camp, and came into their cities on the third day, the names of which are Gabaon, and Caphira, and Beroth, and Cariathiarim.

Joshua 9:18 And they slew them not, because the princes of the multitude had sworn in the name of the Lord, the God of Israel. Then all the common people murmured against the princes.

Israel. This is one reason why their lives were spared. But we have seen that they could not, with justice, have treated them as enemies, on their submitting to the conditions required, even if they had not engaged themselves by oath. The Gabaonites knew with what respect oaths were then kept by the Hebrews, even when they might have some specious pretext for dispensing themselves from their obligation. "People had not yet begun to neglect God, as they do in the present age; nor did they allow themselves the liberty of interpreting an oath, and accommodating the laws to their own humour, but they rather regulated their morals by their prescription." Nondum haec quae nunc tenet saeculum, negligentia Dei venerat, etc. (Livy iii.)
Joshua 9:19 And they answered them: We have sworn to them in the name of the Lord, the God of Israel, and therefore we may not touch them.

Joshua 9:20 But this we will do to them: Let their lives be saved, lest the wrath of the Lord be stirred up against us, if we should be forsworn:

Joshua 9:21 But so let them live, as to serve the whole multitude in hewing wood, and bringing in water. As they were speaking these things,

Multitude. The common people, only considering their own private advantage, murmured at the conduct of their leaders, as they supposed that they were thus deprived of the plunder (Calmet) of many cities, and engaged in a dangerous war, with the five confederate kings. But this war was in no degree detrimental to them, as they knew they had to subdue the whole country; and as for the Gabaonites, they eased the people of Israel of a great burden, by doing the drudgery of the tabernacle, which otherwise must have fallen upon them. (Haydock) --- These people were dispersed through the country, particularly in the cities of the priests and Levites, whose servants they were forced to be. Gabaon was allotted to the priests. In latter ages, many of these poor people being slain by Saul, etc., David was obliged to select some others, called Nathineans, or "people given," to supply their place, (Calmet) unless these were all the remnants of the Gabaonites. (Menochius) --- Josephus (Jewish Wars 2:17,) speaks of the feast of Xylophoria, or "wood carrying," for the uses of the temple; and we read, (2 Esdras 10:34,) that lots were cast among the priests and the Levites, and the people, for the offering of wood, etc., which seems to insinuate that the ancient institution was then altered. Many authors speak of a fountain which furnished the temple with water, after the captivity, so that the service of the Gabaonites was not much wanted. We find no mention of them after that time.
Joshua 9:22 Josue called the Gabaonites and said to them: Why would you impose upon us, saying: We dwell very far off from you, whereas you are in the midst of us?

Joshua 9:23 Therefore you shall be under a curse, and your race shall always be hewers of wood, and carriers of water, into the house of my God.

Curse. Hebrew, "you are cursed, and there shall be none of you freed from being bondmen;" (Haydock) you are a part of those nations which are under an anathema, and you deserve to be severely punished. (Calmet) --- But we shall fulfil our engagements with you, only in punishment for your craftiness: (Haydock) you must submit to change your religion, (Calmet) which will be your greatest blessing, (Haydock) and to perform the meanest offices, which may be considered as a sort of curse. It is thought that some recompense was allowed the Gabaonites for their labour. (Serarius, q. 17.) --- This sentence was probably pronounced at Galgal, (Calmet) though we might as well conclude that Josue would wait till he came to Gabaon, before he arraigned the people, as no doubt they would make the best of their way out of the camp, as soon as they had obtained their request. (Haydock) --- Water. Slaves of the meanest condition were employed in these offices, Deuteronomy 29:11. (Athen. 10:22.)
Joshua 9:24 They answered: It was told us, thy servants, that the Lord thy God had promised his servant Moses, to give you all the land, and to destroy all the inhabitants thereof. Therefore we feared exceedingly, and provided for our lives. compelled by the dread we had of you, and we took this counsel.

Thereof. It seems they know not that any conditions would be admitted; and many interpreters have supposed, that none could be offered by the Israelites. See Deuteronomy 20:15.
Joshua 9:25 And now we are in thy hand: deal with us as it seemeth good and right unto thee.

Thee. They acknowledge not only that Josue is too strong for them, but also that he has a right to punish them for their deceit. They accept, therefore, of whatever terms he is pleased to allow them. (Calmet)
Joshua 9:26 So Josue did as he had said, and delivered them from the hand of the children of Israel, that they should not be slain.

Joshua 9:27 And he gave orders in that day, that they should be in the service of all the people, and of the altar of the Lord, hewing wood, and carrying water, until this present time, in the place which the Lord hath chosen.

Chosen in the tabernacle and temple. (Menochius) --- In these Gabaonites, of the race of Chanaan, the prediction of Noe, that he should serve Sem, was fulfilled, Genesis ix. (Worthington)
Joshua 10:0 Five kings war against Gabaon. Josue defeateth them: many are slain with hail-stones. At the prayer of Josue, the sun and moon stand still the space of one day. The five kings are hanged. Divers cities are taken.

Joshua 10:1 When *Adonisedec, king of Jerusalem, had heard these things, to wit, that Josue had taken Hai, and had destroyed it, (for as he had done to Jericho and the king thereof, so did he to Hai and its king) and that the Gabaonites were gone over to Israel, and were their confederates,

Year of the World 2553. Adonisedec means, "Lord of justice," as Melchisedec denotes "the king of justice;" perhaps Salem was originally styled Zedec. (Masius) --- This king had probably some control over the neighbouring cities. (Menochius) --- He was also in the greatest danger; and not daring to attack the Israelites, he resolves to fall upon the Gabaonites unawares, that other cities might be deterred from following their example. --- Confederates. Hebrew, "and were among them," which may signify either that the Israelites were to dwell in the towns belonging to the Gabaonites, or that the latter should live along with them, as one and the same people, following the same religion, and bound together by the same interests.
Joshua 10:2 He was exceedingly afraid. For Gabaon was a great city, and one of the royal cities, and greater than the town of Hai, and all its fighting men were most valiant.

Cities. Yet we read not of its king, Josue 9:11. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "It was like a royal metropolis." (Haydock) --- Valiant. Prudence therefore, and not fear, had influenced them to take this step.
Joshua 10:3 Therefore Adonisedec, king of Jerusalem, sent to Oham, king of Hebron, and to Pharam, king of Jerimoth, and to Japhia, king of Lachis, and to Dabir, king of Eglon, saying:

Hebron was about 24 miles south of Jerusalem, and Jerimoth 16. Lachis was a very famous city, (4 Kings xiv., and 18:14,) about nine miles south of Eleutheropolis, which was itself situated about 20,000 paces towards the south of Jerusalem; (Itin. Anton.) though some assert it was 22 or 32 miles distant. Eusebius and St. Jerome generally fix the situation of places by this city. Eglon was twelve miles to the eastward of it. The Septuagint read Odollam, (Calmet) which was either the same city, (Eusebius) or one probably near it, Josue 12:12-15.; and ver. 35, 39.
Joshua 10:4 Come up to me, and bring help, that we may take Gabaon, because it hath gone over to Josue, and to the children of Israel.

Joshua 10:5 So the five kings of the Amorrhites being assembled together, went up: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jerimoth, the king of Lachis, the king of Eglon, they and their armies, and camped about Gabaon, laying siege to it.

Amorrhites is a generical term, as well as Chanaanite, to denote the people of the country. The other kings did not come to the assistance (Calmet) of these five, ver. 40. (Haydock) --- Yet the people of Gabaon might suspect the worst, or exaggerate, in order to make Josue come with greater expedition. He was then at Galgal, above twenty miles distant, and set off the next night, coming unexpectedly upon the confederate kings early in the morning, ver. 9.
Joshua 10:6 But the inhabitants of the city of Gabaon, which was besieged, sent to Josue, who then abode in the camp at Galgal, and said to him: Withdraw not thy hands from helping thy servants: come up quickly, and save us, and bring us succour: for all the kings of the Amorrhites, who dwell in the mountains, are gathered together against us.

Joshua 10:7 And Josue went up from Galgal, and all the army of the warriors with him, most valiant men.

Joshua 10:8 But the Lord said to Josue: Fear them not: for I have delivered them into thy hands: none of them shall be able to stand against thee.

Joshua 10:9 So Josue going up from Galgal all the night, came upon them suddenly.

Joshua 10:10 *And the Lord troubled them, at the sight of Israel: and he slew them with a great slaughter, in Gabaon, and pursued them by the way of the ascent to Bethoron, and cut them off all the way to Azeca and Maceda.

1 Kings 7:10.
Troubled them. Septuagint, "filled them with consternation;" so that they knew not what to do, Exodus 23:17. --- Bethoron. There were two cities of this name in the tribe of Ephraim, rebuilt by Sara, 1 Paralipomenon vii.. 24. The lower was twelve miles from Jerusalem. Maceda was eight from Eleutheropolis to the east, as Azeca was about the same distance west of Jerusalem, and not far from Soco, 1 Kings 17:1. Thus Josue proceeded westward to Gabaon and Bethoron, where he defeated the confederates, and pursued them, as they fled to their respective cities in the south, on the road between Jerusalem and the country of the Philistines, as far as Maceda. (Haydock)
Joshua 10:11 And when they were fleeing from the children of Israel, and were in the descent of Bethoron, the Lord cast down upon them great stones from heaven as far as Azeca: and many more were killed with the hail-stones than were slain by the swords of the children of Israel.

Azeca, for the space of twelve miles. --- Hailstones, of an uncommon size, accompanied with thunder and lightning, Habacuc 3:11. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 5:1.) (Calmet) (Ecclesiasticus 46:6.) --- Of the same nature was the seventh plague of Egypt, Exodus 9:23. (Menochius) --- Real stones may very probably have been hurled against the enemy, by means of some hurricane or vulcano, which God directed against the Chanaanites. Several instances of showers of stones are recorded in history. (Calmet, Dissert.) --- Even quantities of stone and earth, sufficient to form new islands, have been thus thrown up. (Montfaucon.) --- The isle of Santorin, in the Archipelago, appeared in 1707.
Joshua 10:12 Then Josue spoke to the Lord, in the day that he delivered the Amorrhite in the sight of the children of Israel, and he said before them: Move not, O sun, toward Gabaon, nor thou, O moon, toward the valley of Aialon.

Them. This may be considered as a canticle of victory, containing a fervent prayer, which was presently followed with the desired effect. --- Aialon. Hebrew, "Sun, in Gabaon, be silent; (move not) and thou, moon, in the valley of Aialon," or "of the wood," which was probably not far from Gabaon. Josue had pursued the enemy at mid-day, to the west of that city, when turning round, he addressed this wonderful command to the sun. It is supposed that the moon appeared at the same time. But the meaning may only be, that the sun and the course of the stars should be interrupted for a time. (Calmet) --- The sun and the moon stood still in their habitation, Hebrews 3:11. (Menochius) --- Many have called in question this miracle, with Maimonides, or have devised various means to explain it away, by having recourse to a parhelion or reflection of the sun by a cloud, or to a light which was reverberated by the mountains, after the sun was set, etc. (Proedam 4:6.; Spinosa; Grotius; Le Clerc) --- But if these authors believe the Scriptures, they may spare themselves the trouble of devising such improbable explanations, as this fact is constantly represented as a most striking miracle. If St. Paul (Hebrews 11:30,) make no mention of it, he did not engage to specify every miracle that had occurred. He does not so much as mention Josue, nor the passage of the Jordan, etc., so that it is a matter of surprise that Grotius should adduce this negative argument, to disprove the reality of the miracle. (Calmet) --- The pretended impossibility of it, or the inconvenience arising to the fatigued soldiers from the long continuance of the day, will make but small impression upon those who consider, that God was the chief agent; and that he who made all out of nothing, might easily stop the whole machinery of the world for a time, and afterwards put it in motion again, without causing any derangement in the different parts. (Calmet) --- It is not material whether the sun turn round the earth, or the contrary. (Haydock) --- The Hebrews generally supposed that the earth was immovable; and on this idea Josue addresses the sun. Philosophers have devised various intricate systems: but the Scripture is expressed in words suitable to the conceptions of the people. The exterior effect would be the same, whether the sun or the earth stood still. Pagan authors have not mentioned this miracle, because none of the works of that age have come down to us. We find, however, that they acknowledged a power in magic capable of effecting such a change. Cessavere vices rerum dilataque longa, Haesit nocte dies: legi non paruit aether, Torpuit et praeceps audito carmine mundus. (Lucan, Phars. vi.) See Homer, Odyssey 12:382., and 23:242. This miracle would not render Josue superior to Moses, as some have argued. For all miracles are equally impossible to man, and equally easy to God: the greatness of a miracle is not a proof of greater sanctity. (Calmet) --- Aialon lay to the south-west of Gabaon. (Haydock) --- Josue ordered the moon to stop, as a necessary consequence of the sun's standing still. God condescended to grant his request. (Worthington)
Joshua 10:13 And the *sun and the moon stood still, till the people revenged themselves of their enemies. Is not this written in the book of the just? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down the space of one day.

Ecclesiasticus 46:5.; Isaias 28:21.
The book of the just. In Hebrew Sepher hayashar; an ancient book long since lost. (Challoner) --- It was probably of the same nature with that of the wars of the Lord, (Numbers 21:4,) containing an account of the most memorable occurrences which concerned the people of Israel, the just, or Ischuron, Deuteronomy 33:5. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 5:2,) says, such "records were kept in the archives of the temple." They were drawn up by people of character. The quotations inserted are in a poetical style, as the book might contain various canticles, though the rest was written in prose. See 2 Kings 1:18. It might appear unnecessary for Josue to appeal to this work, as the fact in question was known to all. (Calmet) --- But too great precaution could not be taken to prevent the danger of people calling in question the reality of the miracle. If the book of the just was a more detailed history of facts, out of which this work of Josue has been compiled, as Theodoret supposes, the author might very well remit the more inquisitive reader to that authentic source. (Haydock) --- Midst. It was then almost noon. (Calmet) --- Josue was nevertheless afraid lest the day should not allow them time to destroy their fleeing enemies completely. (Haydock) --- If the evening had been at hand, he would have said, return sun towards Gabaon, as it would have been on the west of his army. The battle had begun early in the morning, and the pursuit had lasted perhaps four or five hours. (Calmet) --- Day. Hebrew, "about a whole day." Many think that a day here comprises 24 hours; and as the sun had been above the horizon six hours, and continued other six, it must have been visible for the space of 36 hours, as the Jews believe, and as it is specified in St. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho. The author of Ecclesiasticus 46:5, says, Was not the sun stopped in his anger, and one day made as two? that is, 24 hour long, allowing 12 unequal ones to form a day, according to the reckoning of those times. Others suppose that the day of Josue might consist of 18 (Calmet) or of 48 hours. But how would the soldiers be able to support such a fatigue? They had been marching all the preceding night from Galgal. (Haydock) --- If they had stopped to take refreshment, their enemies would have escaped. Hence some of the Fathers imagine, that God enabled his people to pursue them without taking any food. (St. Jerome, contra Jov. ii.) They might, however, take some along with them, as it was then customary; and eat as they pursued, whenever they could find an opportunity. Josue had given no prohibition; and Jonathan observed that his father, Saul, had troubled Israel, by following a different plan, 1 Kings 14:24. (Calmet)
Joshua 10:14 There was not before, nor after, so long a day, the Lord obeying the voice of a man, and fighting for Israel.

Long. This word is not found in Hebrew, "and there was no day like that, before it, or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto," etc. But God had often wrought miracles before, at the prayer of his servants. The difference between this day and all others, must be therefore in the length, or in the stopping of the heavenly bodies. (Haydock) --- The long day which the prayer of Ezechias procured, (4 Kings xx., and Isaias xxxviii.) consisted of 32 hours; or, supposing that the retrograde motion of the sun was instantaneous on the dial, it might only be 22 hours in length. (Calmet) --- But if the day of Ezechias had been even longer, the words of this text may be verified, that neither in times past, nor while the author lived, had any such day been known. See Amama, p. 383. (Haydock) --- Obeying. God is ready to grant the requests of his servants, Isaias 58:9. "We remark something still stronger, in the power which he has given to priests, to consecrate the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the sacrament of the eucharist." (Calmet)
Joshua 10:15 And Josue returned, with all Israel, into the camp of Galgal.

Galgal. Masius supposes, that here the quotation from the book of the just terminates. The Roman and Alexandrian Septuagint place this verse at the end of the chapter. (Calmet) --- Grabe has it in both places with a star, to shew that it is taken from Theodotion. (Haydock) --- In effect, Josue did not return to his camp till he had completed the business of the day, by destroying the five kings. After which, he proceeded to conquer that part of the country. He might have designed to return, (Calmet) and even have begun his march, (Du Hamel) when he was diverted from proceeding, by the news that the kings had been discovered. So we often say, that a person does what he is on the point of doing. See Genesis 37:21., and Numbers 34:25.
Joshua 10:16 For the five kings were fled, and had hid themselves in a cave of the city of Maceda.

Joshua 10:17 And it was told Josue, that the five kings were found hid in a cave of the city of Maceda.

City, or territory. (Calmet) --- The kings had sought their own safety in flight, leaving their people to make their escape as well as they could. But their cowardly behaviour only brought upon them a more dishonourable death. Josue and some of the forces stopped in the environs of Maceda, while the rest pursued after the fugitives, and slew all that had not strength to enter the fenced cities. (Haydock) --- Then all the army assembled round their leader, took Maceda, and completed the victory of that most memorable day, by the ignominious death of the five kings. (Calmet) --- God permitted some to escape, lest the land should be overrun with wild beasts; (Exodus 23:29,) and to instruct us that his children must suffer tribulation, to prevent the growth of vice. (Worthington)
Joshua 10:18 And he commanded them that were with him, saying: Roll great stones to the mouth of the cave, and set careful men, to keep them shut up:

Joshua 10:19 And stay you not, but pursue after the enemies, and kill all the hindermost of them as they flee, and do not suffer them whom the Lord God hath delivered into your hands, to shelter themselves in their cities.

Joshua 10:20 So the enemies being slain with a great slaughter, and almost utterly consumed, they that were able to escape from Israel, entered into fenced cities.

Joshua 10:21 And all the army returned to Josue, in Maceda, where the camp then was, in good health, and without the loss of any one: and no man durst move his tongue against the children of Israel.

No man, (nullus.) Some supply canis, "dog," alluding to the proverbial expression, Exodus 11:7. (Masius, etc.) --- Septuagint, "not one of the Israelites moved his tongue." (Calmet) --- All was profound silence, in expectation of what would be determined respecting the unfortunate kings. (Haydock)
Joshua 10:22 And Josue gave orders, saying: Open the mouth of the cave, and bring forth to me the five kings that lie hid therein.

Joshua 10:23 And the ministers did as they were commanded: and they brought out to him the five kings out of the cave: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jerimoth, the king of Lachis, the king of Eglon.

Joshua 10:24 And when they were brought out to him, he called all the men of Israel, and said to the chiefs of the army that were with him: Go, and set your feet on the necks of these kings. And when they had gone, and put their feet upon the necks of them lying under them,

Feet, as Moses had foretold, Deuteronomy 33:29. The conduct of Josue would appear cruel, if we did not reflect that he was only the executioner of the divine justice, which was pleased thus to punish these proud and impious princes, that others might not imitate their example.
Joshua 10:25 He said again to them: Fear not, neither be ye dismayed, take courage, and be strong: for so will the Lord do to all your enemies, against whom you fight.

Joshua 10:26 And Josue struck, and slew them, and hanged them upon five gibbets; and they hung until the evening.

Joshua 10:27 *And when the sun was down, he commanded the soldiers to take them down from the gibbets. And after they were taken down, they cast them into the cave, where they had lain hid, and put great stones at the mouth thereof, which remain until this day.

Deuteronomy 21:23.
Down. (Deuteronomy xxi.) The victorious army had returned some time before the evening, and had time to take the city of Maceda; though some, without reason, believe that this took place the day following.
Joshua 10:28 The same day Josue took Maceda, and destroyed it with the edge of the sword, and killed the king and all the inhabitants thereof: he left not in it the least remains. And he did to the king of Maceda, as he had done to the king of Jericho.

Remains of inhabitants. (Calmet) --- The king was gibbeted and stoned. (Haydock)
Joshua 10:29 And he passed from Maceda with all Israel to Lebna, and fought against it:

Joshua 10:30 And the Lord delivered it with the king thereof into the hands of Israel: and they destroyed the city with the edge of the sword, and all the inhabitants thereof. They left not in it any remains. And they did to the king of Lebna, *as they had done to the king of Jericho.

Josue 6:2.
Lebna, not far from Eleutheropolis. From before this city Sennacherib dispatched his menacing order to Ezechias, 4 Kings 19:8. (Calmet)
Joshua 10:31 From Lebna he passed unto Lachis, with all Israel: and investing it with his army, besieged it.

Joshua 10:32 And the Lord delivered Lachis into the hands of Israel, and he took it the following day, and put it to the sword, and every soul that was in it, as he had done to Lebna.

Lachis was still farther south. Josue took it the second day of the siege.
Joshua 10:33 At that time Horam, king of Gazer, came up to succour Lachis: and Josue slew him with all his people, so as to leave none alive.

Gazer, near Azotus, in the country of the Philistines. It is not said that Josue took this city. It was given long after to Solomon by the king of Egypt, 3 Kings 9:15., and Josue 16:10. (Calmet)
Joshua 10:34 And he passed from Lachis to Eglon, and surrounded it,

Joshua 10:35 And took it the same day: and put to the sword all the souls that were in it, according to all that he had done to Lachis.

Joshua 10:36 He went up also with all Israel from Eglon to Hebron, and fought against it:

Joshua 10:37 Took it, and destroyed it with the edge of the sword: the king also thereof, and all the towns of that country, and all the souls that dwelt in it: he left not therein any remains: as he had done to Eglon, so did he also to Hebron, putting to the sword all that he found in it.

The king, viz., the new king, who succeeded him that was slain, ver. 26. (Challoner) --- Caleb afterwards took Hebron, which, it seems, the Chanaanites had seized again and fortified, while Josue was conquering other parts of the country. He could not leave garrisons in all the cities which he took, and hence he set many of them on fire. After the strength of the country was broken, he knew that the Israelites might easily subdue the few isolated cities which he was forced to leave behind. But they proved so negligent, that many places were left in the possession of the Chanaanites, which proved a stumbling block to God's people.
Joshua 10:38 Returning from thence to Dabir,

Dabir, which was formerly called Cariath sepher, "the city of the book," (chap. 15:15,) or of Senna, (chap. 15:45,) near Hebron. It was taken again by Othoniel and Caleb.
Joshua 10:39 He took it, and destroyed it: the king also thereofm and all the towns round about, he destroyed with the edge of the sword: he left not in it any remains: as he had done to Hebron and Lebna, and to their kings, so did he to Dabir, and to the king thereof.

Joshua 10:40 So Josue conquered all the country of the hills, and of the south, and of the plain, and of Asedoth, with their kings: he left not any remains therein, but slew all that breathed, as the Lord, the God of Israel, had commanded him.

Hills of Judea. --- South of the promised land. --- Plain. Hebrew, Sephela, a flat country near Eleutheropolis. (St. Jerome in Abd. 1:19; 1 Machabees 12:38.) --- Asedoth, "of the springs." --- Remains. God ordered these people to be utterly destroyed, in punishment of their manifold abominations; and that they might not draw the Israelites into the like sins. (Challoner)
Joshua 10:41 From Cades-barne even to Gaza. All the land of Gosen even to Gabaon,

Gaza. These cities were on the southern limits of the land of Chanaan, and of the Philistines. --- Gosen, or Gessen, where the Hebrews had formerly dwelt. It was then very fertile, Josue 13:3. The territory of Juda extended as far as the Nile; (Calmet) or this country may have resembled the country of Gessen, Genesis xlvi. (Menochius) --- It seems indeed rather wonderful, that if this was a part of the promised land, God should order his people to leave it, as it were, to the Egyptians; and after they had occupied another part of the country, should seize it again. But he might have secret reasons for this order. (Haydock)
Joshua 10:42 And all their kings, and their lands he took and wasted at one onset: for the Lord the God of Israel fought for him.

Joshua 10:43 And he returned with all Israel to the place of the camp in Galgal.

Joshua 11:0 The kings of the north are overthrown: the whole country is taken.

Joshua 11:1 And when Jabin king of Asor had heard these things, he sent to Jobab, king of Madon, and to the king of Semeron, and to the king of Achsaph:

Jabin, "the intelligent," was perhaps the common name of the kings of Asor, the most powerful city in the northern parts of the country, (ver. 10.; Calmet) not far from the Caesarea, (Menochius) which was built by Philip, where Lais stood before. (Haydock) --- Josue burnt Asor to the ground; but it was rebuilt by the Chanaanites, and a powerful king reigned here, and subjugated the Israelites, about 130 years after the death of Josue, Judges 4:1. (Calmet) --- Being the most interested in this warfare, Jabin assembled all the petty kings of the country as far as Dor, to resist the common enemy. (Haydock) --- He was the generalissimo, (Grotius) and went to stop the progress of Josue, who had conquered the southern parts, and was making ready to march against the north.
Joshua 11:2 And to the kings of the north, that dwelt in the mountains and in the plains over-against the south side of Ceneroth, and in the levels and the countries of Dor by the sea side :

Ceneroth, or having the lake Genesareth on the south. They city of Cineroth, or of Tiberias, was situated on the southern borders of the lake. (St. Jerome) --- Side. Dor lay on the Mediterranean, the last of the cities of Phoenicia. All below was in a manner subdued. The Philistines did not enter into this league, nor were they invited, as they bore a certain antipathy to the people of Chanaan.
Joshua 11:3 To the Chanaanites also, on the east and on the west, and the Amorrhite, and the Hethite, and the Pherezite, and the Jebusite, in the mountains: to the Hevite also who dwelt at the foot of Hermon, in the land of Maspha.

Chanaanite. Some lived near the Jordan, others upon the Mediterranean. --- Maspha. Probably where Laban and Jacob had met, Genesis 31:48. Hermon lay to the east of Libanus. (Calmet) --- There was another Hermon near the torrent of Cisson. (Menochius)
Joshua 11:4 And they all came out with their troops, a people exceeding numerous as the sand that is on the sea-shore, their horses also and chariots, a very great multitude.

Shore. The Scripture sometimes uses an hyperbole, as well as the other figures of speech. (St. Augustine, City of God 16:21.) Josephus says they had 300,000 foot, 10,000 horse, and 20,000 chariots. These were frequently armed with scythes. The ancient heroes often fought on chariots of a different kind. (Calmet)
Joshua 11:5 And all these kings assembled together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.

Merom, or the lake of Semechon, according to most interpreters; though it is more probable, that the confederates would advance to meet Josue near the lake of Cisson, to the important pass 12 miles north of Samaria, in the canton of Meron, or Merone, Judges 4:10., and 5:18. This place was famous for the victory of Barac, and for the defeat of king Josias.
Joshua 11:6 And the Lord said to Josue: Fear them not: for to-morrow at this same hour I will deliver all these to be slain in the sight of Israel: thou shalt hamstring their horses, and thou shalt burn their chariots with fire.

Hamstring their horses, etc. God so ordained, that his people might not trust in chariots and horses, but in him. (Challoner) --- He mentions the very time, when the victory will be obtained, to inspire the Israelites with greater confidence. Josue had proceeded from Galgal to Meron, about 90 miles; or if he had to go to the Semonite lake, 120 miles. Josephus says he had marched five days.
Joshua 11:7 And Josue came, and all the army with him, against them, to the waters of Merom, on a sudden, and fell upon them,

Joshua 11:8 And the Lord delivered them into the hands of Israel. And they defeated them, and chased them as far as the great Sidon, and the waters of Maserephoth, and the field of Masphe, which is on the east side thereof. He slew them all, so as to leave no remains of them:

Thereof. Josue divided his forces, and sent some to pursue the fugitives to Sidon and Sarepta, and others he dispatched to the east side of the Jordan. --- Sihon was famous for its commerce, and for its glass works. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 5:19.)
Joshua 11:9 And he did as the Lord had commanded him, he hamstringed their horses, and burnt their chariots.

Joshua 11:10 And presently turning back, he took Asor, and slew the king thereof with the sword. Now Asor, of old, was the head of all these kingdoms.

King. Jabin had thrown himself into the city, or perhaps a new king had been appointed, according to the custom of Persia, etc., when the former went to battle. Hence we find so many kings of Israel were chosen very young and while their fathers were living.
Joshua 11:11 And he cut off all the souls that abode there: he left not in it any remains, but utterly destroyed all, and burned the city itself with fire.

Joshua 11:12 And he took and put to the sword and destroyed all the cities round about, and their kings, *as Moses, the servant of God, had commanded him:

Deuteronomy 7:1.
Him. (Deuteronomy 7:22.) All the Chanaanites in arms, are ordered to be slain. (Calmet) --- Josue took the greatest part of the strong cities, and indeed all which he attacked. (Menochius)
Joshua 11:13 Except the cities that were on hills and high places, the rest Israel burnt: only Asor, that was very strong, he consumed with fire.

Fire. Several towns built on eminences, were reserved to keep the country in subjection. But it was thought proper to destroy Asor. Hebrew may be, "He burnt not the towns which remained standing, with their fortifications," etc., or such as had opened their gates to the Israelites. (Chaldean; Septuagint; etc.)
Joshua 11:14 And the children of Israel divided among themselves all the spoil of these cities, and the cattle, killing all the men.

Spoil, excepting what was found on the idols, which was burnt, Deuteronomy 7:25. (Calmet)
Joshua 11:15 *As the Lord had commanded Moses, his servant, so did Moses command Josue, and he accomplished all: he left not one thing undone, of all the commandments which the Lord had commanded Moses.

Exodus 34:11.; Deuteronomy 7:1.
Moses. It is not to be doubted but that the lawgiver would communicate many instructions, by word of mouth, to his successor. He would also tell him, in general, to observe whatever laws had been given to regulate the conduct of the leader, (Calmet) as they were given not only to Moses, but to all who should afterwards occupy his post. (Haydock)
Joshua 11:16 So Josue took all the country of the hills, and of the south, and the land of Gosen, and the plains, and the west country, and the mountain of Israel, and the plains thereof:

So. Here follows a recapitulation of the victories of Josue. --- Israel, or of Ephraim, which was the chief tribe of the kingdom of Israel: after the commencement of which, this seems to have been inserted; (Calmet) or having designated the southern parts by the name of Juda, (ver. 21,) the more northern countries are called the mountain of Israel, which refers particularly to Samaria, or Bethel, which might receive the appellation of Israel, among his descendants, from the vision of the ladder, with which that patriarch was favoured. (Haydock)
Joshua 11:17 And part of the mountain that goeth up to Seir, as far as Baalgad, by the plain of Libanus, under Mount Hermon: all their kings he took, smote, and slew.

And part. Hebrew, "from Mount Halak, (Haydock; or the bald mountain, destitute of wood) going up to Seir, (which is very shady; that is, from the southern parts of Chanaan, by Seir) as far as Baalgad," on the east side of the Jordan, perhaps unto Coelosyria. (Calmet)
Joshua 11:18 Josue made war a long time against these kings.

A long time. Seven years, as appears from Josue 14:10., (Challoner) where Caleb informs us that he was 85 years old. He was 40 when he went to explore the country, and 38 years were spent in the wilderness. God was pleased to allow the Chanaanites time to repent, and he would not render the country desolate all at once, lest wild beasts should overrun it, Exodus 23:19., and Wisdom 12:10. (Calmet)
Joshua 11:19 There was not a city that delivered itself to the children of Israel, except the Hevite, who dwelt in Gabaon: for he took all by fight.

Joshua 11:20 For it was the sentence of the Lord, that their hearts should be hardened, and they should fight against Israel, and fall, and should not deserve any clemency, and should be destroyed, as the Lord had commanded Moses.

Hardened. This hardening of their hearts, was their having no thought of yielding or submitting: which was a sentence or judgment of God upon them, in punishment of their enormous crimes. (Challoner) --- God might indeed by his all-powerful grace have changed their hearts, but their crimes caused him to withhold that grace; and thus they were suffered to shut their eyes to their true interest. (Calmet) --- They alone therefore were the cause of their own obduracy, which God only did not prevent, Exodus vii. (Worthington)
Joshua 11:21 At that time Josue came, and cut off the Enacims from the mountains, from Hebron, and Dabir, and Anab, and from all the mountain of Juda and Israel, and destroyed their cities;

Time. Among his other conquests, after the victory of Gabaon, Josue defeated the Enacim at Hebron, etc. Many of them fled into the country of the Philistines, and afterwards seized an opportunity of re-establishing themselves, so that Caleb had to drive them out afresh, Josue 15:14. --- Cities, or inhabitants. We have seen that he did not demolish all the cities, which were built on a commanding situation, ver. 13. --- Enacim. Goliah is supposed to have been of this family, being six cubits and a span high, 1 Kings 17:4. (Calmet) --- The Phoenicians probably took their name from Enak, bene anak, "sons of Enak;" whence Phoenix might easily be formed. (Bochart) --- Carthage was founded by them, and styled Chadre-Anak, "the dwelling of Anak," (Plautus) as they chose to pass for descendants of that giant, though they were not in reality. Anak means "a chain;" and some have asserted that he wore one, as the kings of the Madianites did when they were vanquished by Gedeon, and the Torquati at Rome, as a mark of honour. But this is uncertain. (Calmet)
Joshua 11:22 He left not any of the stock of the Enacims, in the land of the children of Israel: except the cities of Gaza, and Geth, and Azotus, in which alone they were left.

Gaza, the most southern city of the Philistines, was afterwards taken by the tribe of Juda, but lost again in a short time. It was particularly addicted to the worship of Jupiter, Marnas, or "the Lord." --- Geth was probably taken by David, who found a refuge with its king, 1 Kings xxi. After the reign of Solomon, it returned to its former masters. --- Azotus, or as the Hebrew writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 Kings 5:1,) which Jonathas destroyed. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 22:8.) (Calmet) --- Wars, of a general nature. The different tribes had only to take some cities, Josue 15:1. (Worthington)
Joshua 11:23 So Josue took all the land, as the Lord spoke to Moses, and delivered it in possession to the children of Israel, according to their divisions and tribes.* And the land rested from wars.

Josue 14:15.
Joshua 12:0 A list of the kings slain by Moses and Josue.

Joshua 12:1 These are the kings whom the children of Israel slew, and possessed their land, beyond the Jordan, towards the rising of the sun, from the torrent Arnon unto Mount Hermon, and all the east country that looketh towards the wilderness.

Wilderness. Hebrew, "all the plain country (Araba) on the east."
Joshua 12:2 Sehon, king of the Amorrhites, who dwelt in Hesebon, and had dominion from Aroer, which is seated upon the bank of the torrent Arnon, and of the middle part in the valley, and of half Galaad, as far as the torrent Jaboc, which is the border of the children of Ammon.

Galaad. Sehon occupied from the middle of the torrent Arnon, as far as half of the mountains of Galaad, and the torrent Jaboc. (Calmet) --- Og possessed the other half of the mountains northward, while the Ammonites had the eastern parts. (Haydock)
Joshua 12:3 And from the wilderness to the sea of Ceneroth, towards the east, and to the sea of the wilderness, which is the most salt sea, on the east side, by the way that leadeth to Bethsimoth: and on the south side, that lieth under Asedoth, Phasga.

Bethsimoth is ten miles from Jericho, (Eusebius) near the Dead Sea, in the plains of Moab. (Calmet) --- Phasga. Asedoth lay at the foot of this mountain, being well supplied with water. Subjacet Acedoth usque Phasga, the southern limits of Sehon's dominions had "abundance of springs, as far as Phasga." (Haydock)
Joshua 12:4 The border of Og, the king of Basan, of the remnant of the Raphaims, who dwelt in Astaroth, and in Edrai, and had dominion in Mount Hermon, and in Salecha, and in all Basan, unto the borders

Og. See Numbers 21:33., and Deuteronomy 3:11.
Joshua 12:5 Of Gessuri, and Machati, and of half Galaad: the borders of Sehon, the king of Hesebon.

Joshua 12:6 Moses, the servant of the Lord, and the children of Israel slew them, and Moses delivered their land in possession to the Rubenites, and Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses.

Joshua 12:7 These are the kings of the land, whom Josue and the children of Israel slew, beyond the Jordan, on the west side, from Baalgad, in the field of Libanus, unto the mount, part of which goeth up into Seir: and Josue delivered it in possession to the tribes of Israel, to every one their divisions,

Seir. The same expression occurs, chap 11:17. Hebrew, "from Baalgad, in the vale of Libanus, even unto Mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir." (Haydock) --- Halak means, "bald or naked." It is not know what mountain it denotes. Josue, (Calmet) or the Israelites, (Haydock) conquered "all the country beyond the Jordan, on the north from Baalgad, at the foot of Libanus, and from Hermon, where these mountains meet, as far as the mountains of separation," which divide the country of Chanaan from that of Seir, on the south of Judea. (Calmet) --- Baalgad was situated on the north western borders of this territory, not of the Jordan. (Haydock)
Joshua 12:8 As well in the mountains as in the plains, and the champaign countries. In Asedoth, and in the wilderness, and in the south, was the Hethite and the Amorrhite, the Chanaanite and the Pherezite, the Hevite and the Jebusite.

Asedoth, or "in the springs," or valleys, ver. 3.
Joshua 12:9 The king of Jericho, one; the king of Hai, which is on the side of Bethel, one;

Joshua 12:10 The king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one;

Joshua 12:11 The king of Jerimoth, one; the king of Lachis, one;

Joshua 12:12 The king of Eglon, one; the king of Gazer, one;

Joshua 12:13 The king of Dabir, one; the king of Gader, one;

Joshua 12:14 The king of Herma, one; the king of Hered, one;

Herma, "a curse," where the Israelites defeated king Arad, Numbers 14:45., and 21:3.
Joshua 12:15 The king of Lebna, one; the king of Odullam, one;

Odullam, ten miles east of Eleutheropolis, and famous for the retreat of David. (Calmet)
Joshua 12:16 The king of Maceda, one; the king of Bethel, one;

Bethel. Josue perhaps slew the king, but did not take the city, Judges 1:22. (Menochius)
Joshua 12:17 The king of Taphua, one; the king of Opher, one;

Joshua 12:18 The king of Aphec, one; the king of Saron, one;

Aphec. A place of this name was in the tribe of Aser, another in that of Juda. --- Saron. Hebrew, "Lasharon;" probably Sarona, (Acts 9:35,) or a canton near Joppe. (Eusebius)
Joshua 12:19 The king of Madon, one; the king of Asor, one;

Madon, or Maron. Septuagint, chap 11:1. This place is joined with Semeron, in Hebrew (ver. 20,) improperly. Perhaps it may be the Meros, (Judges 5:23,) or Maronia, a city of Phoenicia.
Joshua 12:20 The king of Semeron, one; the king of Achsaph, one;

Joshua 12:21 The king of Thenac, one; the king of Megeddo, one;

Thenac, a city of the Levites, but seized afterwards by the Chanaanites, Judges 1:27. It was near the town of Legion, built by the Romans. --- Mageddo, where Josias was overcome, 2 Paralipomenon 35:22. (Calmet)
Joshua 12:22 The king of Cades, one; the king of Jachanan, of Carmel, one;

Jachanan was near Mount Carmel. Sometimes Josue specifies both the city and the canton, where it was situated; at other times he only mentions the latter, as in the following verse.
Joshua 12:23 The king of Dor, and of the province of Dor, one; the king of the nations of Galgal, one;

Galgal, not where the Israelites had encamped, but that part which was afterwards called the Galilee of the Gentiles, in some corner of which the king in question had fixed his residence. For we cannot suppose that he ruled over all that country, extending from Tyre to beyond the Jordan. His people might probably be a mixed multitude of various nations, as Strabo (xvi.) observes, that many parts of Palestine were peopled by men of this description.
Joshua 12:24 The king of Thersa, one: all the kings, thirty and one.

Thersa. Here the kings of Israel kept their court, till Amri built Samaria, (Calmet) about nine miles more to the north. (Brocard.) --- One. The two kings slain by Moses (Worthington) are not included. (Menochius)
Joshua 13:0 God commandeth Josue to divide the land: the possessions of Ruben, Gad, and half tribe of Manasses, beyond the Jordan.

Joshua 13:1 Josue was old, *and far advanced in years, and the Lord said to him: Thou art grown old, and advanced in age, and there is a very large country left, which is not yet divided by lot,

Year of the World 2559. Age. Josue was now 100 years old. He lived ten more, (Calmet) having governed the people in all 17. (Haydock) --- During the first seven years, he had performed all that could be expected from an able general, and he probably designed to conquer the whole country before he divided it. But God, who chose to leave some of the ancient inhabitants in the country, to try the fidelity of his people, etc., ordered him to proceed to the distribution, that the different tribes might take care to exterminate those idolaters, who might be found in their territory. --- Lot. Hebrew, "to be possessed." Only the country east of the Jordan was yet divided.
Joshua 13:2 To wit, all Galilee, Philistia, and all Gessuri.

Galilee. As Josue had been making such conquests in that part lately, some would translate Geliloth, "the confines" of the Philistines, in which sense it seems to be taken, Josue 18:18., and 22:10. (Calmet) --- Bonfrere suspects that St. Jerome wrote Galila. --- Gessuri, either near Mount Hermon, (Menochius) or bordering upon Arabia, 1 Kings xv., and 27:10.
Joshua 13:3 From the troubled river, that watereth Egypt, unto the borders of Accaron northward: the land of Chanaan, which is divided among the lords of the Philistines, the Gazites, the Azotians, the Ascalonites, the Gethites, and the Accaronites.

Egypt. Hebrew, "from the Shicor, (or Sichor) which is on the face, (or over-against) Egypt." Jeremias 2:18. informs us that this river was in Egypt which is not true of the torrent of Rhinocorure; which the Septuagint and many commentators, understand in this place to be the boundary fixed for the promised land. Strabo, etc., attribute that torrent to Phoenicia; which they extend as far as Pelusium. St. Jerome (in Amos vi.) seems dubious whether the branch of the Nile passes by that city, or the aforesaid torrent be meant. David collected all his forces from the Sichor, or the torrent of Egypt, to the entrance of Emath, 1 Paralipomenon 13:5. Epiphanes constituted Lysanias governor of all the countries between the Euphrates and the river of Egypt, (2 Machabees 3:32,) and he undoubtedly had extended his conquests as far as the Nile. Though the country beyond Gaza be now mostly barren, and therefore little inhabited or noticed, yet the Israelites were entitled to assert their right to it, as they seem to have done by taking possession of Gosen, Josue 10:41. Some parts were formerly well peopled, 1 Kings 27:8. It is not unusual for the Nile, and other great rivers, to be styled torrents. The Hebrew nél, is often applied to rivers, Ecclesiastes 1:7. The troubled state in which the waters of the Nile generally appear, is very remarkable, as their taste is most excellent. The natives have discovered a method of rendering them clear, by the mixture of almond powder. The names of this river bear some relation to the Hebrew term which is here used. It was formerly called Siris; and the star, which rose when it overflowed, received the name of Sirius. The Ethiopians style it Schichri. Another name was Melas, or Egyptus, denoting "blackness." The people of the country idolized this river, because it supplied the want of rain. (Tibul, 1:8.) (Calmet) --- Accaron, the most northern city of the Philistian principalities, (Haydock) attributed to Juda or Dan, though neither held it for any length of time. Beelzebub was chiefly adored here, 4 Kings 1:2. --- Lords, who seem to have been independent. They are styled Sornim, as the next in dignity to the king of Persia was a Surena. (Marcellin. 24.) The Philistines took this country from the Chanaanites, or Eveans, (Calmet) who are a different people from the Hevites. (Bochart)
Joshua 13:4 And on the south side are the Hevites, all the land of Chanaan, and Maara of the Sidonians, as far as Apheca, and the borders of the Amorrhite,

Chanaan. From the south to Sidon was yet undivided, and thence eastward, (Haydock) to Apheca of Syria, where was the capital of the kings of that country, and a famous temple of Venus, 3 Kings 20:26. (Sozom. 1:58.) --- Amorrhite, or perhaps Aramean, (Calmet) though we may understand that all the country of the Amorrhite on the south, as well as the northern parts of Chanaan, were to be divided, (Haydock) as far as Emesa. --- Will, etc., provided the Israelites observe their part of the covenant. (Calmet)
Joshua 13:5 And his confines. The country also of Libanus towards the east, from Baalgad under Mount Hermon, to the entering into Emath.

Joshua 13:6 Of all that dwell in the mountains, from Libanus to the waters of Maserephoth, and all the Sidonians. I am he that will cut them off from before the face of the children of Israel. So let their land come in as a part of the inheritance of Israel, as I have commanded thee.

Joshua 13:7 And now divide the land in possession to the nine tribes, and to the half tribe of Manasses,

Joshua 13:8 With whom Ruben and Gad have possessed the land, *which Moses, the servant of the Lord, delivered to them beyond the river Jordan, on the east side.

Numbers 32:33.
With whom. That is, with the other half of that same tribe.
Joshua 13:9 From Aroer, which is upon the bank of the torrent Arnon, and in the midst of the valley, and all the plains of Medaba, as far as Dibon:

Aroer, and part of the town of Dibon, belonged to Gad, Numbers 32:34.
Joshua 13:10 And all the cities of Sehon, king of the Amorrhites, who reigned in Hesebon, unto the borders of the children of Ammon.

Joshua 13:11 And Galaad, and the borders of Gessuri and Machati, and all Mount Hermon, and all Basan, as far as Salecha,

Joshua 13:12 All the kingdom of Og, in Basan, who reigned in Astaroth and Edrai, he was of the remains of the Raphaims: and Moses overthrew and destroyed them.

Joshua 13:13 And the children of Israel would not destroy Gessuri and Machati: and they have dwelt in the midst of Israel, until this present day.

Day. The Israelites were satisfied with what they had already conquered. (Menochius) --- But herein they deserved blame, as they were ordered to reduce them entirely, and never suffer them to continue their idolatrous practices in the country which God had chosen for his people. (Haydock)
Joshua 13:14 *But to the tribe of Levi he gave no possession: but the sacrifices and victims of the Lord God of Israel, are his inheritance, as he spoke to him.

Numbers 18:20.
Victims. Hebrew, "the sacrifices of the Lord made by fire."
Joshua 13:15 And Moses gave a possession to the children of Ruben, according to their kindreds.

Joshua 13:16 And their border was from Aroer, which is on the bank of the torrent Arnon, and in the midst of the valley of the same torrent: all the plain that leadeth to Medaba,

Joshua 13:17 And Hesebon, and all their villages, which are in the plains. Dibon also, and Bamothbaal, and the town of Baalmaon,

Joshua 13:18 And Jassa, and Cedimoth, and Mephaath,

Mephaath, near the desert, where the Romans afterwards kept a garrison. It was given to the Levites, but was seized by the Moabites after the reign of David. (Calmet)
Joshua 13:19 And Cariathaim, and Sabama, and Sarathasar in the mountain of the valley.

Joshua 13:20 Bethphogor and Asedoth, Phasga and Bethiesimoth,

Joshua 13:21 And all the cities of the plain, and all the kingdoms of Sehon, king of the Amorrhites, that reigned in Hesebon, *whom Moses slew, with the princes of Madian: Hevi, and Recem, and Sur, and Hur, and Rebe, dukes of Sehon, inhabitants of the land.

Numbers 31:8.
The princes of Madian. It appears from hence that these were subjects of king Sehon: they are said to have been slain with him, that is, about the same time, but not in the same battle. (Challoner) --- After the death of their sovereign, they looked upon themselves as independent. They had reigned before as viceroys of Sehon, being natives of the country, and not come from some other part, like the Amorrhites. (Calmet)
Joshua 13:22 Balaam also, the son of Beor, the soothsayer, the children of Israel slew with the sword among the rest that were slain.

Slain. Septuagint, "they slew Balaam....with the sword in the moment," Numbers 22:5., and 31:8. (Haydock)
Joshua 13:23 And the river Jordan was the border of the children of Ruben. This is the possession of the Rubenites, by their kindreds, of cities and villages.

Joshua 13:24 And Moses gave to the tribe of Gad, and to his children, by their kindreds, a possession, of which this is the division.

Joshua 13:25 The border of Jaser, and all the cities of Galaad, and half the land of the children of Ammon; as far as Aroer, which is over-against Rabba:

Rabba, "the great," being a title of Ar, the capital of the Moabites. The Israelites thought themselves justified in keeping what had been taken from the children of Ammon, by Sehon, (Judges 11:13.; Calmet) and the Amorrhites. (Worthington)
Joshua 13:26 And from Hesebon unto Ramoth, Masphe, and Betonim: and from Manaim unto the borders of Dabir.

Joshua 13:27 And in the valley Betharan, and Bethnemra, and Socoth, and Saphon, the other part of the kingdom of Sehon, king of Hesebon: the limit of this also is the Jordan, as far as the uttermost part of the sea of Cenereth, beyond the Jordan, on the east side.

Betharan, which was enlarged by Herod, and called Livias, or Julias, as the Greeks called Livia, the wife of Augustus, Julia. (Josephus) --- Saphon, or "the northern part of," etc.
Joshua 13:28 This is the possession of the children of Gad, by their families, their cities, and villages.

Joshua 13:29 He gave also to the half tribe of Manasses, and his children, possession according to their kindreds,

Joshua 13:30 The beginning whereof is this: from Manaim, all Basan, and all the kingdoms of Og, king of Basan, and all the villages of Jair, which are in Basan, threescore towns:

Towns, which were conquered by Jair, of the tribe of Juda; though he belonged, in some degree, to that of Manasses, by his grandmother, Numbers 32:41.
Joshua 13:31 And half Galaad, and Astaroth, and Edrai, cities of the kingdom of Og, in Basan: to the children of Machir, the son of Manasses, to one half of the children of Machir, according to their kindreds.

Joshua 13:32 This possession Moses divided in the plains of Moab, beyond the Jordan, over-against Jericho, on the east side.

Joshua 13:33 *But to the tribe of Levi he gave no possession: because the Lord, the God of Israel, himself is their possession, as he spoke to them.

Numbers 18:20.
Joshua 14:0 Caleb's petition. Hebron is given to him, and to his seed.

Joshua 14:1 This is what the children of Israel possessed in the land of Chanaan, which Eleazar the priest, and Josue, the son of Nun, and the princes of the families, by the tribes of Israel, gave to them:

Princes, whose names are given, Numbers 34:17. There were 12, including Josue and Eleazar. The tribes of Ruben and Gad sent none of their princes, as they were not concerned in this distribution.
Joshua 14:2 Dividing all by lot, *as the Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses, to the nine tribes, and the half tribe.

Numbers 34:13.
Tribe. God regulated the lots, as he had authorized Jacob and Moses to foretell how the country should be divided. By this method, he precluded every pretence of discontent among the tribes. Each of them drew a ticket, on which a certain portion of land was described; or perhaps in one urn the names of the tribes, and in another the lands were specified, (Calmet) and the tickets were drawn by two persons of irreproachable character, probably by Eleazar and Josue. (Haydock) (Numbers 26:54.) --- Only the tribes of Juda and of Joseph received their portions at Galgal, Josue 18.
Joshua 14:3 For to two tribes and a half, Moses had given possession beyond the Jordan: besides the Levites, who received no land among their brethren:

Joshua 14:4 But in their place succeeded the children of Joseph, divided into two tribes, of Manasses and Ephraim: neither did the Levites receive other portion of land, but cities to dwell in, and their suburbs to feed their beasts and flocks.

Suburbs. A certain quantity of ground, which the Levites were not allowed to till or plant with vines. (Grotius) (Numbers 35:4.) --- The tribe of Manasses, which was divided, fell heir to the portion which would have been allotted to Levi, who was also scattered among his brethren. (Haydock) --- Thus Joseph obtained the birth-right of Ruben. (Calmet) --- Twelve portions were made, as Jacob had adopted Ephraim and Manasses, Genesis xlviii. (Worthington)
Joshua 14:5 As the Lord had commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel, and they divided the land.

Land: or they were making all necessary preparations for the work, when Caleb came to remind Josue of what had been promised to him. No doubt land-measurers would be sent through the country.
Joshua 14:6 Then the children of Juda came to Josue, in Galgal; and Caleb, the son of Jephone, the Cenezite, spoke to him: *Thou knowest what the Lord spoke to Moses, the man of God, concerning me and thee in Cades-barne.

Numbers 14:24.
Jephone was the father of Caleb. Esron and Cenez probably some of his ancestors, 1 Paralipomenon 2:18., and Numbers 33:12. What Caleb here asserts, must have been delivered by word of mouth, in the hearing of the people, Deuteronomy 1:36. Moses declared not that Caleb was to have the whole country but that he should enter into it, and possess the environs of Hebron. (Calmet)
Joshua 14:7 I was forty years old when Moses, the servant of the Lord, sent me *from Cades-barne, to view the land, and I brought him word again as to me seemed true.

Deuteronomy 2:14.
Joshua 14:8 But my brethren, that had gone up with me, discouraged the heart of the people: and I nevertheless followed the Lord my God.

Joshua 14:9 And Moses swore in that day, saying: The land which thy foot hath trodden upon, shall be thy possession, and thy children's, for ever, because thou hast followed the Lord my God.

Joshua 14:10 The Lord therefore hath granted me life, as he promised, until this present day. It is forty and five years since the Lord spoke this word to Moses, when Israel journeyed through the wilderness: this day I am eighty-five years old.

Joshua 14:11 As strong as I was at that time when I was sent to view the land: *the strength of that time continueth in me until this day, as well to fight, as to march.

Ecclesiasticus 46:11.
March. Hebrew, "to enter and to go out." Septuagint add, "to war."
Joshua 14:12 Give me therefore this mountain, which the Lord promised, in thy hearing also, wherein are the Enacims, and cities great and strong: if so be the Lord will be with me, and I shall be able to destroy them, as he promised me.

Me. He trusts not in his own strength, but in the assistance of God, which he modestly acknowledges is not due to him. (Calmet) --- God's promises are indeed sure on his part; but being conditional, and the will of man being free, he adds perhaps. (Worthington)
Joshua 14:13 And Josue blessed him, and gave him Hebron in possession.

Blessed him, wishing him all success. --- Gave him. Some think that Josue himself attacked the giants of that country with all the forces, as it is mentioned by anticipation, Josue 10:28. But there seems to be no need of this, as Caleb might attack them a second time with his own family and the assistance of the tribe of Juda, after they had seized those places again, while Josue was in the north. Hebron was granted to him without drawing lots. When he was besieging Cariath Sepher, he promised his daughter to the person who should first enter; and Othoniel, his brother, or nephew, obtained her in marriage, Josue 15:17., and Judges 1:10. It seems, therefore, that this family carried on this war, as the Fabii did at Rome, without the interference of the commonwealth, though Grotius asserts the contrary. (Calmet)
Joshua 14:14 And from that time Hebron belonged to Caleb, the son of Jephone, the Cenezite, until this present day: because he followed the Lord, the God of Israel.

Hebron belonged, etc. All the country thereabouts, depending on Hebron, was given to Caleb; but the city itself, with the suburbs, was one of those that were given to the priests to dwell in. (Challoner) --- Caleb might also dwell, (Calmet) and be lord of the city, (Salien) though the profits (Haydock) or the town belonged to the priests, Josue 21:11. (Worthington)
Joshua 14:15 The name of Hebron before was called Cariath Arbe: Adam, the greatest among the Enacims, was laid there: *and the land rested from wars.

Josue 11:23.
Cariath Arbe, "the city of Arbe," and ancient giant; or "of four," which the Jews explain of four great patriarchs, who were buried there. --- Adam, etc. St. Jerome seems to favour the opinion that Adam was one of these, whose tomb ennobled Hebron, though many of the Fathers think he was buried on Mount Calvary. Others think that his body, or skull at least, was translated thither. But we cannot depend on any of these traditions. Most commentators explain the Hebrew, "The ancient name of Hebron with Cariath Arbe; (Calmet) he was a man great among the Enacim." (Haydock) --- Adam is often put for a man in general, 2 Kings 7:19., and Osee 11:4. (Calmet; Amama) --- Septuagint, "the city of Arbo. This was the metropolis of the Enacim." (Haydock) --- Wars, for a time, particularly from such wars as engaged the attention of all Israel. The different tribes had to encounter and drive out the Chanaanites who might be left in their respective districts. (Calmet)
Joshua 15:0 The borders of the lot of Juda. Caleb's portion and conquest. The cities of Juda.

Joshua 15:1 Now *the lot of the children of Juda, by their kindreds, was this: *From the frontier of Edom, to the desert of Sin, southward, and to the uttermost part of the south coast.

Numbers 34:3.
Year of the World 2560. Sin, or Sina, (ver. 3,) bordering upon Idumea, where the city of Cades-barne was situated, Numbers 13:22. It is now impossible to ascertain the precise situation of all the place mentioned in Scripture, as the land of Chanaan has been subject to so many changes. But this inconvenience attends all ancient geography. If those who attempt to unravel such labyrinths in profane authors, deserve praise, much more do those who do their utmost to explain the difficulties of sacred history. It was once very necessary to have the limits of the tribes marked out with precision, that, at the return from captivity, they might occupy their own. Now we may be satisfied if we can point out some of the places of the greatest importance. The limits of the tribe of Juda are specified with particular care, on account of the dignity and power of that tribe, which was to give kings to all the land, and a Messias to the world, as well as to preserve the true religion. The greatest part of the southern regions of Chanaan fell to their share, from the Dead Sea, by Idumea, to the Nile, and as far north as Jerusalem and the torrent of Cedron. (Calmet)
Joshua 15:2 Its beginning was from the top of the most salt sea, and from the bay thereof, that looketh to the south:

Bay, (lingua,) tongue. Chaldean, "a promontory," or rather a gulph. (Calmet)
Joshua 15:3 And it goeth out towards the ascent of the Scorpion, and passeth on to Sinai: and ascendeth into Cades-barne, and reacheth into Esron, going up to Addar, and compassing Carcaa,

Scorpion. A mountain infested with those creatures, by which people travelled from Idumea into Chanaan, leaving Sina on the left.
Joshua 15:4 And from thence passing along into Asemona, and reaching the torrent of Egypt: and the bounds thereof shall be the great sea: this shall be the limit of the south coast.

Asemona, which lies nearest to the river of Egypt of all the cities of Juda, Numbers 34:4., Josue 13:3.
Joshua 15:5 But on the east side, the beginning shall be the most salt sea, even to the end of the Jordan: and towards the north, from the bay of the sea unto the same river Jordan.

Jordan, where it discharges itself into the Dead Sea, or mixes its waters with the latter; which, as we observe, (chap. 5:16,) does not take place for three miles. (Haydock) --- the north-western part of this sea belonged to Benjamin.
Joshua 15:6 And the border goeth up into Beth-Hagla, and passeth by the north into Beth-Araba: going up to the stone of Boen, the son of Ruben:

Stone. It is not certain that this was a city.
Joshua 15:7 And reaching as far as the borders of Debara, from the valley of Achor, and so northward, looking towards Galgal, which is opposite to the ascent of Adommim, on the south side of the torrent: and the border passeth the waters that are called the fountain of the sun: and the goings out thereof shall be at the fountain Rogel.

Galgal. Hebrew Gilgal, may designate "the limits." The valley of Achor lay south of Galgal. --- Sun. Hebrew, "Hen-Shemesh." It was not "a city." --- Rogel, "of the fuller." This fountain was in the king's gardens, running eastward from Sion into the torrent of Cedron. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 7:11.) It was used to wash linen. Rogel, signifies "to trample on," as they formerly washed their linen with their feet. Nausicrae is represented in Homer doing so, in holes or basins, prepared for the purpose. (Odyssey S)
Joshua 15:8 And it goeth up by the valley of the son of Ennom, on the side of the Jebusite towards the south, the same is Jerusalem: and thence ascending to the top of the mountain, which is over-against Geennom to the west, in the end of the valley of Raphaim, northward.

Ennom. Hebrew, Ge-ben-Hinnom, or simply Ge-ennom, whence Gehenan has probably been formed. In this vale, children were immolated to Moloc: the beating of drums, to hinder their lamentations from being heard, caused it perhaps to be called Tophet. It was to the east of Jerusalem, (Calmet) inclining to the south. (Haydock) --- Northward. The valley extends south to Bethlehem. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 7:10.) Here David gained a great victory, 2 Kings 5:23. (Calmet) --- Woods. This explanation is added by St. Jerome. (Haydock) --- The ark remained at this city for some time, 1 Kings 15:6. It was 10 miles north of Jerusalem.
Joshua 15:9 And it passeth on from the top of the mountain, to the fountain of the water of Nephtoa: and reacheth to the towns of Mount Ephron: and it bendeth towards Baala, which is Cariathiarim, that is to say, the city of the woods.

Joshua 15:10 And it compasseth from Baala westward, unto Mount Seir: and passeth by the side of Mount Jarim to the north into Cheslon: and goeth down into Bethsames, and passeth into Thamna.

Bethsames, "the house of the sun," was at the same distance, westward. Here the sight of the ark proved so fatal to 50,070 of the inhabitants, 1 Kings 6:19. (Calmet)
Joshua 15:11 And it reacheth northward to a part of Accaron, at the side: and bendeth to Sechrona, and passeth Mount Baala: and cometh into Jebneel, and is bounded westward with the great sea.

Joshua 15:12 These are the borders round about of the children of Juda, in their kindreds.

Joshua 15:13 But to Caleb, the son of Jephone, he gave a portion in the midst of the children of Juda, as the Lord had commanded him; Cariath Arbe, the father of Enac, which is Hebron.

Arbe, who was the father, and the greatest man of the race of Enac, Josue 14:15. (Haydock)
Joshua 15:14 *And Caleb destroyed out of it the three sons of Enac, Sesai, and Ahiman, and Tholmai, of the race of Enac.

Judges 1:20.; Numbers 13:23.
Enac. These three giants were at Hebron when the spies came thither, Numbers xiii.
Joshua 15:15 And going up from thence, he came to the inhabitants of Dabir, which before was called Cariath Sepher, that is to say, the city of letters.

Letters, as the Septuagint render it. St. Jerome adds this interpretation. (Haydock) --- It means literally "the city of the book." Senna, may also mean "instruction," ver. 49. Here probably a famous school was kept, before the arrival of the Israelites; or the archives of the nation might be deposited among these giants, as the Chaldean Kiriat-arche, "the city of the library, or archives," insinuates. (Bochart, Phaleg. 2:17.)
Joshua 15:16 And Caleb said: He that shall smite Cariath Sepher, and take it, I will give him Axa, my daughter, to wife.

Wife. Parents had full authority to do this. Saul promised his daughter to the person who should overcome Goliah. Something was required by way of dowry for the lady. (Grotius) (1 Kings 17:25.)
Joshua 15:17 And Othoniel, the son of Cenez, the younger brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him Axa, his daughter, to wife.

Brother. It is not clear in the original whether this relates to Cenez or to Othoniel, (Haydock) as younger is not found in [the] Hebrew but it is in the Syriac, Septuagint, and Judges 1:13. Many think that Cenez was the brother of Caleb. If Othoniel had been brother of the latter, they say he could not have legally married his niece. (Calmet) --- But though Moses forbids a nephew to marry his aunt, it does not follow that uncles could not take their nieces to wife, as they would be still the head; (Worthington) whereas there would be a sort of indecency for a nephew to command his aunt. The Jews allow these marriages, while the Samaritans condemn them, Leviticus 18:14. In confirmation of the Vulgate, we may remark, that Cenez is never (Calmet) clearly (Haydock) represented as the brother of Caleb; and there is no inconvenience in asserting that Othoniel was the brother of the latter, whether we take this word to denote a near relation, or strictly. In the former supposition, Othoniel might marry his cousin, Axa, the daughter of Caleb, while he himself was descended from Cenez, the brother of Jephone. (Calmet) --- But if we take the word strictly, as the remark of his being younger brother, both here and Judges 1:13., may seem to imply, we must then allow that Othoniel followed the custom of his nation, (Haydock) in marrying his niece. (Menochius) --- Septuagint here make him "the younger son of Cenez, who was brother of Caleb;" and in the Book of Judges, they say, "Gothoniel, the son of Cenez, (and) the younger brother of Caleb, first made himself master of it, under him;" as if Othoniel and Caleb had been born of the same mother, but of a different father, unless we suppose that they were only nearly related, and the former much less advanced in years; so that he might well marry the daughter of Caleb and afterwards become a judge and deliverer of Israel, Judges 3:9. See Masius; Bonfrere. (Haydock)
Joshua 15:18 And as they were going together, she was moved by her husband to ask a field of her father, and she sighed as she sat on her ass. And Caleb said to her: What aileth thee?

Was moved; as the Syriac, Arabic, Junius, etc., represent the matter. Others render the Hebrew in a different sense: "she moved him to ask of her father a field, and she lighted off her ass, and Caleb said unto her," etc., which seems very abrupt, as she herself is represented as soliciting for the favour in the next verse, instead of her husband. The Chaldean supposes that she was restrained by natural modesty, from preferring the petition; but when Othoniel refused to do it, or was denied what he requested, she took courage and asked herself. The sense of the Vulgate seems more natural, (Calmet) as the husband might easily suppose that she would have greater influence with her father. (Haydock) --- Sighed. The original term is found only in this history, and in that of the death of Sisara, Judges 4:21. Septuagint, "she cried out." Others translate, "she remained fixed," (Menochius) or "she waited sitting on the ass," till she had obtained her request.
Joshua 15:19 But she answered: Give me a blessing: thou hast given me a southern and dry land, give me also a land that is watered. And Caleb gave her the upper and the nether watery ground.

Blessing, or "favour, present," etc., 1 Kings 25:27. (Calmet) --- And dry. This is a farther explanation of southern; as the lands in that situation being exposed to the sun-beams, in Palestine, are often destitute of sufficient moisture, which is the cause of the sterility of Mount Hebal, etc. --- Watery ground. Hebrews, "springs of water, and he gave her the upper springs and the lower springs." Aquila leaves springs untranslated. (Haydock) --- Golgot. Septuagint, "Golathmaim, and the upper Golath," etc. Symmachus translates "possession on the high places," Judges 1:(Calmet) --- Caleb had probably given his daughter a part of the mountain. He now grants her also some field that lay lower down, and was better supplied with water on all sides (Haydock) by springs above, and cisterns below.
Joshua 15:20 This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Juda, by their kindreds.

Joshua 15:21 And the cities from the uttermost parts of the children of Juda, by the borders of Edom, to the south: were Gabseel, and Eder, and Jagur,

Joshua 15:22 And Cina, and Dimona, and Adada,

Joshua 15:23 And Cades, and Asor, and Jethnam,

Joshua 15:24 Ziph, and Telem, and Baloth,

Joshua 15:25 New Asor and Carioth, Hesron, which is Asor,

New Asor, to distinguish it from the capital of Jabin, in the north. This was dependent on Ascalon. (Eusebius) --- Hebrew, "and Hazor, Hadatta, and (or) Kerioth ("the towns") of Hezron, which is Hazor." The Septuagint only specify the same town of Asor by different names. There was one towards Arabia, Numbers 11:35.
Joshua 15:26 Amam, Sama, and Molada,

Joshua 15:27 And Asergadda, and Hassemon, and Bethphelet,

Joshua 15:28 And Hasersual, and Bersabee, and Baziothia,

Bersabee, noted for the residence of Abraham, etc. It is attributed to Simeon, (chap. 19:2,) with some other of these towns, as the two tribes lived intermixed, and some changes might be made in the first regulation, to bring things to a greater equality, and as circumstances might require.
Joshua 15:29 And Baala, and Jim, and Esem,

Joshua 15:30 And Eltholad, and Cesil, and Harma,

Joshua 15:31 And Siceleg, and Medemena, and Sensenna,

Siceleg. The Philistines kept possession of it till king Achis gave it to David; and it continued afterwards the property of the kings of Juda.
Joshua 15:32 Lebaoth, and Selim, and Aen, and Remmon: all the cities, twenty-nine, and their villages.

Villages. Twenty-nine of the former cities were of greater note; the six, or taking in the three belonging to Caleb, the nine others which are mentioned, (Calmet) were only villages. (Menochius) --- Others think that these nine towns are not numbered here, because they were allotted to the tribe of Simeon, Josue 19:2, etc.
Joshua 15:33 But in the plains: Estaol, and Sarea, and Asena,

Plains. Hebrew Schephela, near Eleutheropolis, Josue 10:40. --- Estaol was afterwards given to Dan. Samson was buried near it and Sarea, Judges xvi.
Joshua 15:34 And Zanoe, and Engannim, and Taphua, and Enaim,

Joshua 15:35 And Jerimoth, and Adullam, Socho, and Azeca,

Joshua 15:36 And Saraim, and Adithaim, and Gedera, and Gederothaim: fourteen cities, and their villages.

Fourteen. One of those mentioned above, may have been a village. (Menochius) --- Others think that Enaim may be the name of a fountain, near which perhaps Juda met Thamar, Genesis 38:14.
Joshua 15:37 Sanan, and Hadassa, and Magdalgad,

Joshua 15:38 Delean, and Masepha, and Jecthel,

Joshua 15:39 Lachis, and Bascath, and Eglon,

Joshua 15:40 Chebbon, and Leheman, and Cethlis,

Joshua 15:41 And Gideroth, and Bethdagon, and Naama, and Maceda: sixteen cities, and their villages.

Joshua 15:42 Labana, and Ether, and Asan,

Joshua 15:43 Jephtha, and Esna, and Nesib,

Joshua 15:44 And Ceila, and Achzib, and Maresa: nine cities, and their villages.

Ceila, which David took from the Philistines, and were he was nearly betrayed into the hands of Saul, 1 Kings xxiii. Habacuc was buried here, on the road between Eleutheropolis and Hebron.
Joshua 15:45 Accaron, with the towns and villages thereof.

Joshua 15:46 From Accaron, even to the sea: all places that lie towards Azotus, and the villages thereof.

Joshua 15:47 Azotus, with its towns and villages. Gaza, with its towns and villages, even to the torrent of Egypt, and the great sea, that is the border thereof.

Joshua 15:48 And in the mountain: Samir, and Jether, and Socoth,

Joshua 15:49 And Danna, and Cariath-senna, this is Dabir:

Joshua 15:50 Anab, and Istemo, and Anim,

Joshua 15:51 Gosen, and Olon, and Gilo: eleven cities, and their villages.

Joshua 15:52 Arab, and Ruma, and Esaan,

Joshua 15:53 And Janum, and Bethaphua, and Apheca,

Joshua 15:54 Athmatha, and Cariath Arbe, this is Hebron, and Sior: nine cities, and their villages.

Joshua 15:55 Maon, and Carmel, and Ziph and Jota,

Carmel. Not where Elias dwelt, but a city and mountain 10 miles east of Eleutheropolis. Nabal rendered it famous by his imprudence, (1 Kings xxv.) and Saul by a triumphal arch, 1 Kings 15:12.
Joshua 15:56 Jezrael, and Jucadam, and Zanoe,

Joshua 15:57 Accain, Gabaa, and Thamna: ten cities, and their villages.

Joshua 15:58 Halhul, and Bessur, and Gedor,

Bessur. About 20 miles from Jerusalem, fortified by Simon, 1 Machabees 14:33. It is there said to be only five stadia distant from that city. But the Alexandrian copy reads five schoenus, or cords, each of which consisted of at least 30 stadia. (Cellarius)
Joshua 15:59 Mareth, and Bethanoth, and Eltecon: six cities, and their villages.

Eltecon: given afterwards to the tribe of Dan, (chap. 19:44,) and then to the Levites, Josue 21:13. The Alexandrian Septuagint here add many cities, which are omitted in Hebrew. (Calmet) --- "Theco and Ephrata, (this is Bethlehem) and Phagor, and Artam, and Koulon, and Tatami, and Sores, and Karem, and Gallim, and Baither, and Manocho, eleven cities and their villages." (Haydock) See St. Jerome in Micheas 5:1. (Calmet) (Deuteronomy 27:4.) --- Dr. Wall says, "these cities were doubtless in the Hebrew copy of the Septuagint" and "they are of such a nature, that it is scarcely possible to think them an interpolation." The former critic thinks "the omission in the Hebrew was occasioned by the word villages occurring immediately before, and at the end of the words thus omitted; and indeed the same word occurring in different places, has been the cause of many and great omissions in the Hebrew manuscripts. He thinks it less likely that the Jews should have designedly omitted Bethlehem here, because that place is mentioned as belonging to Juda, in several other parts of Scripture." But is Ephrata ever joined with it, except in this passage, and in the text of Micheas? "And, therefore, though this remarkable omission was probably owing, at first, to some transcriber's mistake, its not being reinserted might be owing to the reason specified by St. Jerome, out of malice to Christianity." (Kennicott, 2 Diss. 56.) --- Reland is astonished to find a place which was to be rendered so famous by the birth of the Messias, not enumerated in this place among the cities of Juda. But he observes that it is found in the Alexandrian version, p. 643. (Palest.) --- St. Jerome will not decide absolutely whether the Jews have erased these cities, or the Septuagint have inserted them. As he undertook to translate the Hebrew as he found it, he has not admitted these cities into his translation, though there seems to be abundant reason for supposing that they are genuine. (Haydock)
Joshua 15:60 Cariathbaal, the same is Cariathiarim, the city of woods, and Arebba: two cities, and their villages.

Joshua 15:61 In the desert Betharaba, Meddin and Sachacha,

Joshua 15:62 And Nebsan, and the city of salt, and Engaddi: six cities, and their villages.

Salt. Bonfrere supposes it is Segor, which was preserved for Lot's sake. --- Engaddi, which was famous for its balm and palm-trees, in the desert of Jericho. (Solin. xxxv.) --- We may here remark that in the preceding catalogues, many towns are repeated like Zanoe, (ver. 34., and 56,) and others are left out. Some are also afterwards attributed to other tribes. Hence some have inferred that alterations have been made in the original copies. But we may rather believe that the reason of these variations is, because the cities were parcelled out among the 10 families of Juda, (1 Paralipomenon 2:3,) as was the case in the distribution of land to Manasses; (chap. 17:2,) and hence the same cities were sometimes given to two different families. They are also attributed to different tribes, because many families of the respective tribes dwelt in them. The priests, for example, lived along with their brethren of other tribes. (Calmet)
Joshua 15:63 But the children of Juda could not destroy the Jebusite, that dwelt in Jerusalem: and the Jebusite dwelt with the children of Juda, in Jerusalem, until this present day.

Jerusalem. The Benjamites claimed the northern part of this city; (Haydock) and they did not drive out the Jebusites, but lived with them, Judges 1:21. The tribe of Juda had burnt a part of the city, Judges 1:8. But it seems the Jebusites kept their hold, (Calmet) at least in the citadel, (Haydock) and frequently in the lower town, till they were entirely banished by David, 2 Kings 5:7. See Judges 19:11. In latter times, the Jews considered this place as the common city of all the nation, to which none of the tribes had an exclusive right; and hence, in the last siege, there was no head, and all the Jews were admitted without examination. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 4:5, etc.) (Calmet) --- Day, and even till the reign of David. The author of this observation must have lived before that period. Josue might have made this and many other similar remarks, when he finished this work, towards the end of his life. (Haydock)
Joshua 16:0 The lot of the sons of Joseph. The borders of the tribe of Ephraim.

Joshua 16:1 And *the lot of the sons of Joseph fell from the Jordan over-against Jericho, and the waters thereof, on the east: the wilderness which goeth up from Jericho to the mountain of Bethel:

Year of the World 2560. Joseph. The double portion is given to him, as Ruben forfeited his birth-right. (Chaldean) (Worthington) --- Waters; or the celebrated fountain, which renders the territory so fruitful, and which was made sweet, by Eliseus casting salt into it, 4 Kings 2:19. --- Wilderness of Bethaven, Josue 18:12., and 8:14. (Calmet) --- Which, is not to be referred to wilderness, but to the word lot. (Masius; Menochius)
Joshua 16:2 And goeth out from Bethel to Luza: and passeth the border of Archi, to Atharoth:

To Luza. The Vulgate reads Bethel Luza, which may be supposed to be two names, (chap. 18:13.; Haydock) for the same city. (Menochius) (Genesis 28:29.) --- Bethel was probably the country, (Calmet) or mountain, (Haydock) to the east of Luza, on the frontiers of Benjamin and of Ephraim; for which reason it is sometimes attributed to both. --- To Atharoth. This city, and Archi, are supposed by some to be the same city. Archi seems, however, to have been a distinct place, where Chusai ws born, 2 Kings 15:32. Atharoth is styled Addar, "the illustrious," ver. 5. It was 15 miles from Jericho.
Joshua 16:3 And goeth down westward, by the border of Jephleti, unto the borders of Bethoron the nether, and to Gazer: and the countries of it are ended by the great sea:

Nether. See Josue 10:11. The upper Bethoron was of much less note, near the Jordan. --- Gazer was in the vicinity of Azotus, 1 Machabees 14:34., Josue 10:33. (Calmet)
Joshua 16:4 And Manasses and Ephraim, the children of Joseph, possessed it.

Possessed it, or divided the country between them. The territories of Ephraim are henceforward described, to the end of the chapter. (Menochius)
Joshua 16:5 And the border of the children of Ephraim was according to their kindreds: and their possession towards the east was Atharoth-addar unto Bethoron the upper.

Joshua 16:6 And the confines go out unto the sea: but Machmethath looketh to the north, and it goeth round the borders eastward into Thanath-selo; and passeth along on the east side to Janoe.

Looketh to the north, etc. The meaning is, that the border went towards the north, by Machmethath; and then turned eastward to Thanathselo. (Challoner) --- Borders. It should be terminus. "The border turneth eastward," Septuagint. (Bonfrere) --- Janoe, twelve miles east of Sichem. (Eusebius) (4 Kings 15:29.)
Joshua 16:7 And it goeth down from Janoe into Atharoth and Naaratha: and it cometh to Jericho, and goeth out to the Jordan.

Joshua 16:8 From Taphua it passeth on towards the sea into the valley of reeds, and the goings out thereof are at the most salt sea. This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Ephraim, by their families.

Reeds. Septuagint, "of Cana." The vale belonged to Manasses, but the cities were ceded to Ephraim, ver. 9., Josue 17:19. The limits of these two tribes are very confused. (Calmet) --- Most salt. This is the title generally applied to the lake of Sodom. But here the Mediterranean is meant, which, compared with many of the seas of Palestine, is certainly most salt. (Menochius) --- The epithet is not, however, found in Hebrew or Septuagint (Calmet) and Serarius thinks it has crept in here by mistake. (Menochius)
Joshua 16:9 And there were cities with their villages, separated for the children of Ephraim, in the midst of the possession of the children of Manasses.

Joshua 16:10 And the children of Ephraim slew not the Chanaanite, who dwelt in Gazer: and the Chanaanite dwelt in the midst of Ephraim until this day, paying tribute.

Gazer. It is not certain when the Ephraimites rendered this city tributary, or when it threw off the yoke. The king of Egypt afterwards conquered it, and gave it with his daughter to Solomon, Josue 10:33. (Calmet) See Judges 1:29. --- The negligence of Ephraim was contrary to God's order, Exodus xx. (Menochius) --- The Alexandrian Septuagint here inserts after day, "till Pharao, king of Egypt, went up and took the city, and burnt it with fire, and the Chanaanites and Pherezites, and the inhabitants of Gazer, he slew; and Pharao gave it as a dowry to his daughter." Grabe adds what seems deficient, "and they became tributary slaves." (Haydock)
Joshua 17:0 The lot of the half tribe of Manasses.

Joshua 17:1 And *this lot fell to the tribe of Manasses, (for he is the first-born of Joseph) to Machir, the first-born of Manasses, the father of Galaad, who was a warlike man, and had for possession Galaad and Basan:

Year of the World 2560. Born. Machir was the only son of Manasses. But the Scripture uses the word first-born for such, as it does for our Saviour, Matthew 1:(Menochius) --- If Machir was living when Moses assigned the territory to the half tribe of Manasses, he must have been 180 years old. (Calmet) --- But he probably received the inheritance only in his posterity. (Haydock) --- Galaad did not give his name to the country, as it was called so in the days of Jacob. Perhaps he took his name from the land, as many noblemen do, though he is styled Galaad before the war against Sehon commenced, Numbers 26:29. By giving Ephraim the preference before his elder brother, Jacob did not deprive the latter of his birth-right. (Calmet) --- In effect, Manasses was partly (Haydock) provided for before Ephraim received any portion. (Calmet) --- This, however, was a privilege, and not a right. He had also two allotments, because his numbers required so much land. (Haydock)
Joshua 17:2 *And to the rest of the children of Manasses, according to their families: to the children of Abiezer, and to the children of Helec, and to the children of Esriel, and to the children of Sechem, and to the children of Hepher, and to the children of Semida; these are the male children of Manasses, the son of Joseph, by their kindreds.

Numbers 26:30.
Children here comprises grandchildren, etc. These who are specified sprang from Galaad or from Jair, as they all dwelt on the east side of the Jordan, 1 Paralipomenon 5:23., and 7:14. (Calmet)
Joshua 17:3 *But Salphaad, the son of Hepher, the son of Galaad, the son of Machir, the son of Manasses, had no sons, but only daughters: whose names are these, Maala, and Noa, and Hegla, and Melcha, and Thersa.

Numbers 27:1.; Numbers 11:36.
Joshua 17:4 And they came in the presence of Eleazar, the priest, and of Josue, the son of Nun, and of the princes, saying: The Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, that a possession should be given us in the midst of our brethren. And he gave them, according to the commandment of the Lord, a possession amongst the brethren of their father.

Father, adjoining to Ephraim. See Numbers xxvii., and xxxvi.
Joshua 17:5 And there fell ten portions to Manasses, beside the land of Galaad and Basan, beyond the Jordan.

Jordan. Some of the families, which had possessions there already, were permitted to have a share on the west side also. Here Manasses had ten portions, schoenus, or cords, which Herodotus (II. 6,) reckons to contain each 60 stadia; so that he would have 600 stadia, (Calmet) or at least half of that quantity, Josue 15:58. (Herodotus ii.) (Haydock) --- There were six sons and five daughters to be provided for. But the portion of Hepher, the father of Salphaad, being given to his granddaughters, he is not counted. (Masius) --- The Jews say the five daughters had only four portions, two for their grandfather, who, they say, was the eldest of the family; one for their father, and another for their uncle, who died without children. (Selden) --- But of this no proof is adduced. (Calmet) --- The five daughters would only have the one portion, which would have been enjoyed by the father. (Menochius) See 1 Paralipomenon 5:23.
Joshua 17:6 For the daughters of Manasses possessed inheritance in the midst of his sons. And the land of Galaad fell to the lot of the rest of the children of Manasses.

Joshua 17:7 And the border of Manasses was from Aser, Machmethath, which looketh towards Sichem: and it goeth out on the right hand by the inhabitants of the fountain of Taphua.

Aser was contiguous to Machmethath, 15 miles from Sichem, towards Scythopolis. (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- The limits of Manasses are described from the south, where he joins Ephraim, Josue 16:6. (Calmet)
Joshua 17:8 For the lot of Manasses took in the land of Taphua, which is on the borders of Manasses, and belongs to the children of Ephraim.

Taphua; which city, though situated in the territory of Manasses, belonged to Ephraim, (Worthington) as the Hebrew intimates.
Joshua 17:9 And the border goeth down to the valley of the reeds, to the south of the torrent of the cities of Ephraim, which are in the midst of the cities of Manasses: the border of Manasses is on the north side of the torrent, and the outgoings of it are at the sea:

Joshua 17:10 So that the possession of Ephraim is on the south, and on the north that of Manasses, and the sea is the border of both; and they are joined together in the tribe of Aser, on the north, and in the tribe of Issachar, on the east.

East. These two tribes are contiguous to the tribe of Joseph, taken all together, ver. 14. (Menochius) --- Aser extended as far as Mount Carmel, which was not far from Dor, a city of Manasses, ver. 11., Josue 19:26. The tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon seem, indeed, to come between Manasses and Aser; so that we might say, that the tribe of Joseph finding itself too much straitened, was forced to seek for more room in the cities of the other tribes, which we find it really inhabited, ver. 11. We might avoid all difficulties, by translating "they invaded (or made an irruption into) the tribe of Aser," etc., as the Hebrew will allow. Thus Dan conquered Lais, which lies at so great a distance from his own portion, and the tribes of Juda and Simeon were frequently intermixed. (Calmet) --- Aser and Manasses may, however, have been really united on the north-west, or Mediterranean point. (Menochius)
Joshua 17:11 And the inheritance of Manasses, in Issachar and in Aser, was Bethsan and its villages, and Jeblaam with its villages, and the inhabitants of Dor, with the towns thereof: the inhabitants also of Endor, with the villages thereof: and in like manner the inhabitants of Thenac, with the villages thereof: and the inhabitants of Mageddo, with their villages: and the third part of the city of Nopheth.

In Aser. The following towns were upon the frontiers of these two tribes, (Menochius) or they properly belonged to them respectively. But the children of Manasses took possession of them, after conquering by degrees, the former inhabitants, who were suffered to live among them, as the Jebusites were for some time, at Jerusalem, Josue 15:63. (Haydock) --- Bethsan, or Scythopolis, as it was called by the Greeks, after the Scythians had invaded those countries, (Herodotus 50:105,) in the year of the world 3391, almost 100 years from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel. Unless these Scythians may rather be the Cutheans, who were sent to people the kingdom of Samaria, most of whom embraced the Jewish religion, while those of Bethsan adhered to their ancient idolatry, and therefore retained their name. Even in the days of Josephus, most of the inhabitants were heathens: the kings of Juda were not able to subdue them entirely. Bethsan was situated to the south of the sea of Tiberias, 600 stadia from Jerusalem; (2 Machabees 12:29,) that is, about 37 leagues, (Calmet) or 111 miles. (Haydock) --- Dor, nine miles north of Caesarea. --- Endor, "the fountain of Dor," four miles south of Mount Thabor. (Eusebius) --- Here Saul consulted the witch, 1 Kings 38:7. --- Thenac, near Legion, and the torrent of Cisson, where Barac gained a victory, Judges 5. --- Nopheth, means "a canton," and thus Manasses may have had three portions of land round the three aforesaid cities, in which sense it is translated, Josue 11:2. (Calmet; Masius) --- But Serarius takes Nopheth to mean a city, (Menochius) agreeably to the Septuagint, "the third part of Naphetha, and its villages." (Haydock) --- The other two parts of the city might be occupied by Zabulon. (Bonfrere) --- No mention is made of Nopheth, Judges 1:27. (Haydock)
Joshua 17:12 Neither could the children of Manasses overthrow these cities, but the Chanaanite began to dwell in his land.

Could, because they would not, Judges 1:27. The children of Manasses took these cities; but not putting the inhabitants to death, the latter got possession again, as was the case with respect to many other cities taken (Calmet) and destroyed (Haydock) by Josue. Hebrew, "the Chanaanite consented to dwell," etc. The Israelites spared their lives on their paying tribute; and this prevarication was the cause of their being afterwards reduced to submit to the yoke of these nations. (Calmet) (Judges 2:20., Deuteronomy 20:16.) (Menochius) --- The Chanaaite dwelt with Manasses for a time; (Worthington) perhaps they were never wholly expelled. (Haydock)
Joshua 17:13 But after that the children of Israel were grown strong, they subdued the Chanaanites, and made them their tributaries, and they did not kill them.

Joshua 17:14 And the children of Joseph spoke to Josue, and said: Why hast thou given me but one lot and one portion to possess, whereas I am of so great a multitude, and the Lord hath blessed me?

Spoke. Septuagint, "contradicted Josue." In effect, they spoke with a good deal of emotion. --- Portion. Hebrew, "cord." (Calmet) --- They addressed themselves to the general, before their territory was divided. (Masius) --- Or they insinuate that the portion allotted to them both, would scarcely suffice for one tribe, and there was but little room for them to enlarge their dominions by subduing the Chanaanites, as the rest might do. Manasses was most concerned, as his numbers had increased 20,500 since he left Egypt, while his brother had diminished, Numbers 26:34. (Calmet) --- But then he had an extensive country on the other side of the Jordan. (Haydock)
Joshua 17:15 And Josue said to them: If thou be a great people, go up into the woodland, and cut down room for thyself, in the land of the Pherezite and the Raphaims: because the possession of Mount Ephraim is too narrow for thee.

Joshua 17:16 And the children of Joseph answered him: We cannot go up to the mountains, for the Chanaanites that dwell in the low lands, (wherein are situate Bethsan, with its towns, and Jezrael, in the midst of the valley) have chariots of iron.

Thee. Destroy the Pherezite, etc., (Menochius) take their cities, and destroy the inhabitants, like so many trees, or cut down the wood to build houses, and in order to cultivate the land for the production of corn and grass.
Joshua 17:17 And Josue said to the house of Joseph, to Ephraim and Manasses: Thou art a great people, and of great strength, thou shalt not have one lot only:

Iron, armed with scythes, who will obstruct our passage to the mountains, as we dare not encounter them in the open field. (Haydock) (4 Kings 20:23.) --- Hebrew, "the hill is not enough for us, (or it will not be found, or be attacked by us) and all the Chanaanites," etc. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the mountain of Ephraim will not contain us; all the Chanaanites who dwell in the land of Emek, (or of the valley) in Bethsan, and its villages, and in the vale of Jezrael, have chosen cavalry and iron." (Haydock) --- They are invincible. (Calmet) --- The slothful man saith there is a lion without, Proverbs 22:13. Josue over-rules the cowardly objection, and argues, from their own boasting, that they were numerous enough to overcome all their opponents. He was himself of the tribe of Ephraim. (Haydock) --- Valley, extending about 10,000 paces from Bethsan to Legion. Jezrael was in the middle of it, and is attributed to Issachar, Josue 19:18. But it was probably on the frontiers of Manasses, who seems to have spoken as if it would belong to the first who had driven out the Chanaanites. The kings of Israel had a palace at Jezrael, and the vineyard of Naboth being contiguous to it, gave occasion to the sin of Jazabel, and to the destruction of Achab's family, 3 Kings 21:1. In this vale, Gedeon routed the Madianites, Judges 6:33.
Joshua 17:18 But thou shalt pass to the mountain, and shalt cut down the wood, and make thyself room to dwell in: and mayst proceed farther, when thou hast destroyed the Chanaanite, who, as thou sayst, hath iron chariots, and is very strong.

Mountain, probably of Gelboe, as that of Ephraim was not sufficient, ver. 15. Gelboe extended almost as far as Bethsan, and it would afford a fine opportunity of attacking the nations below. Josue persists in his first resolution; and though of the same tribe, he is so little actuated by partiality towards his brethren, that they alone seem to have been dissatisfied with their portion. (Calmet)
Joshua 18:0 Surveyors are sent to divide the rest of the land into seven parts, for the other seven tribes. The lot of Benjamin.

Joshua 18:1 And *all the children of Israel assembled together in Silo, and there they set up the tabernacle of the testimony, and the land was subdued before them.

Year of the World 2560. Silo was delightfully situated, about the midst of the country, 12 miles south of Sichem. Hither the Israelites removed with the ark from Galgal after having had their camp in the latter place seven years at least; the Jews say 14. But Josue might reproach the Israelites for their indolence, (ver. 3,) without waiting seven years after the country was divided. --- Tabernacle. The Jews pretend that this was not the same as that set up by Moses; and others say that a house was built for the Lord at Silo, 1 Kings 1:23. But there seems to be no reason for these assertions. David informs us that the ark of the Lord was covered with skins, 2 Kings 7:2. If any repairs were found necessary for the tabernacle erected by Moses, they might be made. The ark was certainly in it till the Israelites unfortunately sent it into the camp, where it was taken by the Philistines. When they sent back the ark, it was deposited at Gabaa, and not in the tabernacle, which was at Silo. Then it was sent to Nobe. We find the tabernacle was at Gabaon some time after the ark was translated to Jerusalem. (Calmet) --- Them. They might, therefore, removed the ark into the interior, and measure the country without danger. (Menochius) --- The greatest part of the country had submitted to Josue. (Calmet)
Joshua 18:2 But there remained seven tribes of the children of Israel, which as yet had not received their possessions.

Joshua 18:3 *And Josue said to them: How long are you indolent and slack, and go not in to possess the land which the Lord, the God of your fathers, hath given you?

Year of the World 1561[2561?], Year before Christ 1443. Slack. These seven tribes had been accustomed to live in indolence, having their food provided for them in a miraculous manner. They were perhaps afraid lest, if the army of Israel should be divided, the different tribes would be too weak to make head against the enemy. (Calmet) --- Josue had, however, made all things easy, and they might at their leisure conquer the few towns which yet remained in the hands of the Chanaanites, if they had not cherished this indolent disposition, which was so displeasing to God, and brought upon them so many evils. (Haydock)
Joshua 18:4 Choose of every tribe three men, that I may send them, and they may go and compass the land, and mark it out according to the number of each multitude: and bring back to me what they have marked out.

Tribe: it is not clear whether any but these seven were concerned. --- Out. Josephus says, that people well skilled in geometry accompanied them. (Calmet) --- They had to mark out seven portions of land, which might suffice for these remaining tribes, (Haydock) who would receive them by lot, to take away all cause of discontent. They still received according to their numbers, Numbers 26:54. (Worthington)
Joshua 18:5 Divide to yourselves the land into seven parts: let Juda be in his bounds on the south side, and the house of Joseph on the north.

North, with respect to Silo. Juda had taken possession of his territory, as well as the tribes of Joseph.
Joshua 18:6 The land in the midst between these, mark ye out into seven parts; and you shall come hither to me, that I may cast lots for you before the Lord your God.

The land in the midst, between these mark ye out into seven parts: that is to say the rest of the land, which is not already assigned to Juda or Joseph. (Challoner) --- For we must not suppose that Joseph occupied the most northern parts of the country, so as, with Juda on the south, to enclose all the other tribes. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "As for you, you shall describe the land into seven parts." (Calmet) --- Only the tribe of Benjamin was between these two tribes, (ver. 11,) so that Serarius thinks that mediam has been substituted for aliam, "the other." (Menochius) --- Lots. The deputies divided the country into seven portions, equal in goodness, though not in extent. After the lots were drawn, some alterations might be made by common consent, and those tribes which were too much straitened for room, received what was requisite among those who had too large a territory. Hence we find Joseph occupying the cities of Issachar, etc., chap 17:10. It was equally inconvenient to have too much or too little.
Joshua 18:7 For the Levites have no part among you; but the priesthood of the Lord is their inheritance. And Gad and Ruben, and the half tribe of Manasses, have already received their possessions beyond the Jordan eastward: which Moses, the servant of the Lord, gave them.

Priesthood, and the rights attached to it, tithes, etc. (Calmet) --- It was therefore necessary to make eight portions. (Menochius)
Joshua 18:8 And when the men were risen up, to go to mark out the land, Josue commanded them, saying: Go round the land and mark it out, and return to me: that I may cast lots for you before the Lord, in Silo.

Joshua 18:9 So they went: and surveying it, divided it into seven parts, writing them down in a book. And they returned to Josue, to the camp, in Silo.

Book. Hebrew, "described it, according to the cities, into seven parts, in a volume," (Haydock) or table, resembling a map. The ancients commonly wrote on boards covered with wax, and engraved on stone, lead, etc.
Joshua 18:10 And he cast lots before the Lord, in Silo, and divided the land to the children of Israel, into seven parts.

Joshua 18:11 And first came up the lot of the children of Benjamin, by their families, to possess the land between the children of Juda and the children of Joseph.

First. A person might proclaim that the tribe, whose name was drawn first out of the urn, should have the territory which was described in the book by the land surveyors; or the names of the seven tribes might be in one urn, and seven parcels of land in another. (Calmet)
Joshua 18:12 And their border northward was from the Jordan: going along by the side of Jericho on the north side, and thence going up westward to the mountains, and reaching to the wilderness of Bethaven,

Bethaven, or Bethel. Josephus says, (Antiquities 5:3,) that the territory of Benjamin extended as far as the Mediterranean: but it only went to Ataroth, ver. 13. (Menochius)
Joshua 18:13 And passing along southward by *Luza, the same is Bethel: and it goeth down into Ataroth-addar to the mountain, that is on the south of the nether Bethoron:

Genesis 28:19.
Joshua 18:14 And it bendeth thence, going round towards the sea, south of the mountain that looketh towards Bethoron to the south-west: and the outgoings thereof, are into Cariathbaal, which is called also Cariathiarim, a city of the children of Juda. This is their coast towards the sea, westward.

Joshua 18:15 But on the south side, the border goeth out from part of Cariathiarim, towards the sea, and cometh to the fountain of the waters of Nephtoa:

Sea, on the west. (Haydock) --- The northern limits of Juda form the southern ones of Benjamin, only here Josue proceeds in a contrary direction, from west to east. (Menochius) See Josue 15:5, 8.
Joshua 18:16 And it goeth down to that part of the mountain, that looketh on the valley of the children of Ennom: and is over-against the north quarter, in the furthermost part of the valley of Raphaim, and it goeth down into Geennom, (that is the valley of Ennom) by the side of the Jebusite to the south: and cometh to the fountain of Rogel,

Part. Hebrew, "end, or summit." (Calmet) --- That is, etc., an explication added by St. Jerome. Some say this dreadful vale (Haydock) was on the south of Jerusalem. (Button.)
Joshua 18:17 Passing thence to the north, and going out to Ensemes, that is to say, the fountain of the sun:

Joshua 18:18 And it passeth along to the hills that are over-against the ascent of Adommim: and it goeth down to Abenboen, that is, the stone of Boen, the son of Ruben: and it passeth on the north side to the champaign countries, and goeth down into the plain,

Hills. Hebrew Geliloth, "the limits," (Calmet) or Galgal, on the road to Jerusalem from Jericho, and different from that where the Israelites encamped, Josue 15:7. --- Adommim is a narrow pass in the vicinity, much infested with robbers. --- Abenboen. The explication is alone given, Josue 15:6. --- Plain. Septuagint, "and it shall pass by Betharaba, on the south from the north, and it shall descend." Grabe supplies "to Araba;" or the plain desert country. (Haydock) --- Betharaba is, in effect, mentioned as one of the cities of Benjamin, (ver. 22,) as it had before been assigned to Juda, (Calmet) being inhabited by both tribes. (Haydock)
Joshua 18:19 And it passeth by Bethhagla northward: and the outgoings thereof are towards the north of the most salt sea, at the south end of the Jordan,

Towards, (contra linguam) " the bay on the north," etc. (Haydock) --- There is another on the south, Josue 15:2.
Joshua 18:20 Which is the border of it on the east side. This is the possession of the children of Benjamin by their borders round about, and their families.

Joshua 18:21 And their cities were, Jericho, and Bethhagla, and Vale-Casis,

Vale of Casis, "incision," so called, as some pretend, on account of the balm, which was extracted by cutting the bark with a stone, or with glass. But this etymology seems too far fetched, and there is no proof that balm was cultivated there in the days of Josue. (Calmet) --- Some of the cities of Benjamin have been here omitted, as two others are mentioned, Josue 21:18. (Menochius)
Joshua 18:22 Betharaba, and Samaraim, and Bethel,

Joshua 18:23 And Avim, and Aphara, and Ophera,

Joshua 18:24 The town Emona, and Ophni, and Gabee: twelve cities, and their villages,

Ophni, the Gophna so celebrated in latter times, fifteen miles from Gabaa. St. Jerome attributes it to Ephraim, as perhaps it was chiefly inhabited by people of that tribe. --- Gabee. The wickedness of its citizens almost involved the whole tribe in destruction, Judges xix. It was twenty mile north of Jerusalem. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 5:2.)
Joshua 18:25 Gabaon, and Rama, and Beroth,

Joshua 18:26 And Mesphe, and Caphara, and Amosa,

Mesphe, where Samuel assembled the people, 1 Kings 7:5. It was regarded as a place of devotion, while the temple was in the hands of the profane, 1 Machabees 3:46.
Joshua 18:27 And Recem, Jarephel, and Tharela,

Joshua 18:28 And Sela, Eleph, and Jebus, which is Jerusalem, Gabaath, and Cariath: fourteen cities, and their villages. This is the possession of the children of Benjamin by their families.

Jebus. The city was called Salem in the days of Abraham, Genesis 14:18., and Psalm 75:3. St. Jerome supposes that Melchisedec resided near Scythopolis, at Salem. (Genesis 33:17., ep. ad Evag.) Usher thinks he lived at Salim, John 3:23. --- Gabaath. There seems to have been two cities of this name; one famous for the tomb of Habacuc, (St. Jerome) and the other in the tribe of Ephraim, Josue 24:33. (Calmet)
Joshua 19:0 The lots of the tribes of Simeon, Zabulon, Issachar, Aser, Nephthali, and Dan. A city is given to Josue.

Joshua 19:1 And the second lot came forth for the children of Simeon by their kindreds: and their inheritance was

Joshua 19:2 In the midst of the possession of the children of Juda: Bersabee, and Sabee, and Molada,

Juda. Thus was verified the prediction of Jacob, that Simeon and Levi, who had been too much united for the destruction of Sichem, should be scattered among their brethren, Genesis xxxiv., and 49:6. The tribe of Simeon was not very numerous, Numbers 26:14. Yet all his cities are not here enumerated, but only such as served to point out the limits. The Jews suppose that this tribe occupied the cities of Juda only as long as the latter pleased, and that it was driven out of them in the days of David, (1 Paralipomenon 4:31.; Rabbins ap. Mas.) or at least under the reign of Ezechias, when it was forced to seek fresh settlements in Gador and Seir, 1 Paralipomenon 5:39. It was, however, led into captivity by Salmanasar along with the other nine tribes, in the sixth year of Ezechias, 4 Kings 17:6. The lot of Simeon was not in the centre of Juda, but only within his limits, (Calmet) either on the south, (Cellarius) or on the west side, (Calmet) or on both. (Haydock) --- And Sabee. This is the same town with the preceding, otherwise there would be 14 instead of 13, ver. 6. (Menochius) -- If this be not the case, we may give the same solution as Josue 15:62.
Joshua 19:3 And Hasersual, Bala, and Asem,

Joshua 19:4 And Eltholan, Bethul, and Harma,

Bethul. We shall see elsewhere whether this be the Bethulia of Judith. Some place a town of this name in Galilee, near Tiberias, (Brocard) of which, however, there is no proof. (Cellar. 3:31.)
Joshua 19:5 And Siceleg, and Bethmarchaboth, and Hasersusa,

Joshua 19:6 And Bethlebaoth, and Sarohen: thirteen cities, and their villages:

Joshua 19:7 Ain, and Remmon, and Athor, and Asan: four cities, and their villages.

Joshua 19:8 And all the villages round about these cities to Baalath Beer Ramath, to the south quarter. This is the inheritance of the children of Simeon according to their kindreds,

Joshua 19:9 In the possession and lot of the children of Juda: because it was too great, and therefore the children of Simeon had their possession in the midst of their inheritance.

Great. The land measurers, it seems, had been under a mistake, (Menochius) which was corrected by the ancients. Distributive justice was to be observed.
Joshua 19:10 And the third lot fell to the children of Zabulon by their kindreds: and the border of their possession was unto Sarid.

Joshua 19:11 And it went up from the sea, and from Merala, and came to Debbaseth: as far as the torrent, which is over-against Jeconam.

From the sea. Hebrew, "towards the sea." Bonfrere asserts that Zabulon did not extend quite to the shore of the Mediterranean, Josue 17:10. (Calmet) --- Torrent, near Sidon, which some call the river Belus or Papis. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 5:19.
Joshua 19:12 And it returneth from Sarid eastward to the borders of Ceseleththabor: and it goeth out to Dabereth, and ascendeth towards Japhie.

Joshua 19:13 And it passeth along from thence to the east side of Gethhepher and Thacasin: and goeth out to Remmon, Amthar and Noa.

Geth-hepher, the birth-place of Jonas, 4 Kings 14:25. See Josue 12:17.
Joshua 19:14 And it turneth about to the north of Hanathon: and the outgoings thereof are the valley of Jepthahel,

Joshua 19:15 And Cateth, and Naalol, and Semeron, and Jedala, and Bethlehem: twelve cities and their villages.

Bethlehem, very different from that of Juda. --- Twelve. Nineteen are mentioned, but some of them belong to other tribes, (Calmet) or were not properly cities. (Menochius) --- All the towns of Zabulon are not specified. (Calmet)
Joshua 19:16 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Zabulon, by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.

Joshua 19:17 The fourth lot came out to Issachar by their kindreds.

Issachar. The reason why he has been placed after his younger brother, Zabulon, both here and in the blessing of Jacob, is not known.
Joshua 19:18 And his inheritance was Jezrael, and Casaloth, and Sunem,

Jezrael. This was a city of the first note, (Menochius) situated in the vale between Mount Hermon and Gelboe, having Bethsan on the east. --- Sunem, where Eliseus raised the child to life, five miles south of Thabor. (St. Jerome) --- Here the Philistines were encamped the day before the battle, in which Saul was slain and Israel dispersed, 1 Kings 28:4. (Calmet)
Joshua 19:19 And Hapharaim, and Seon, and Anaharath,

Joshua 19:20 And Rabboth, and Cesion, Abes,

Rabbath. These four cities formed the western boundary, though Serarius observes, this tribe extended as far as the Mediterranean, being in possession of Carmel, which lay close to the shore. (Menochius)
Joshua 19:21 And Rameth, and Engannim, and Enhadda, and Bethphases.

Engannim, called Enam, 1 Paralipomenon 6:73. --- Enhadda. There was another town of this name, 10 miles from Eleutheropolis. (Calmet) --- This and the four following towns lay on the north of Issachar. (Menochius) --- Bethsames, "the house of the sun." Juda and Nephthali had also a Bethsames.
Joshua 19:22 And the border thereof cometh to Thabor, and Sehesima, and Bethsames: and the outgoings thereof shall be at the Jordan: sixteen cities, and their villages.

Joshua 19:23 This is the possession of the sons of Issachar by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.

Joshua 19:24 And the fifth lot fell to the tribe of the children of Aser by their kindreds:

Joshua 19:25 And their border was Halcath, and Chali, and Beten, and Axaph,

Joshua 19:26 And Elmelech, and Amaad, and Messal: and it reacheth to Carmel by the sea, and Sihor, and Labanath,

Carmel, so famous for the miracles of Elias, 3 Kings 18:20. Josephus (Jewish Wars 2:17,) places it 120 stadia south of Ptolemais. This range of mountains extended northward through the tribes of Issachar and of Zabulon. Pliny ([Natural History?] 5:17,) speaks of a promontory and of a town of this name. Here also the god Carmel was adored, having an altar, but no temple or image, as the ancients had decreed. Nec simulacrum Deo aut templum, (sic tradidere majores) ara tantum et reverentia. (Tacitus, Hist. 2:78.) --- Vespasian consulted the priest Basilides. Carmel means "the vineyard of the Lord," or the excellent vineyard, etc. It was so rich and beautiful as to become proverbial. The spouse compares the head of his beloved to Carmel, Josue 7:5. Isaias (xxxii. 15,) foretels that the deserts shall be equal to Carmel. It was covered with wood and fruit. (St. Jerome in Isaias 10:18., and Jeremias 4:26.) The city, which was built upon this mountain, and which Pliny calls by the same name, was formerly styled Ecbatana. The oracle had denounced to Cambyses that he should die at Ecbatana, and he concluded that the city of Media was meant; but it was "that of Syria," says Herodotus, (III. 64,) where he died. --- Labanath. Hebrew leaves out the conjunction. --- Sihor means a "troubled" river, (chap. 13:3,) or brook, which probably ran near the white promontory mentioned by Pliny, (V. 19,) near Tyre. Labanath signifies "white."
Joshua 19:27 And it returneth towards the east to Bethdagon: and passeth along to Zabulon and to the valley of Jephthael towards the north to Bethemec and Nehiel. And it goeth out to the left side of Cabul,

Bethdagon. "The temple of Dagon, or of the fish," different from the town of Juda, Josue 15:41. --- Zabulon, a city which took its name from the tribe, and separated Ptolemais from Judea. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 2:37.) --- Left; that is, the north side of Cabul, which means either the canton where the 20 cities of Hiram were situated, or a village which Josephus (Vita) calls Chabolo, which lies near the sea, and Ptolemais.
Joshua 19:28 And to Abaran, and Rohob, and Hamon, and Cana, as far as the great Sidon.

Rohob, on the northern extremity of the land, Numbers 13:22. It was assigned to the Levites. But the tribe of Aser never drove out the Chanaanites, Judges 1:31. --- Cana, where Christ wrought his first miracle, about 23 miles west of Tiberias, as we may gather from Josephus. (Vita) (Cellarius) --- Some would admit another Cana nearer Sidon.
Joshua 19:29 And it returneth to Horma to the strong city of Tyre, and to Hosa: and the outgoings thereof shall be at the sea from the portion of Achziba:

Horma. Hebrew, Septuagint, etc., Rama, "a height." --- Of Tyre. When this city was founded, is wrapped up in obscurity. The Tyrian priests claim a very high antiquity; whereas Josephus (Antiquities 8:2,) allows that the city was founded only 200 years after Josue, on which supposition this name must have been added by a subsequent writer. The matter, however, is so uncertain, that nothing can be concluded. It was a colony of Sidon, Isaias 23:12. Old Tyre was on the continent; the new city was built in an island, where the temple of Jupiter Olympius formerly stood. Alexander made a road between the two cities, when he besieged New Tyre: which, on that account, may be considered either as an island, or as part of the continent. He used for this purpose the ruins of the old city, which he threw into the sea. Hiram had formed a similar road to the temple of Jupiter. (Dius. ap. Josephus, contra Apion I.) Whether Nebuchodonosor besieged the Old or the New Tyre, soon after he had taken Jerusalem, authors are not agreed. St. Jerome (in Ezechiel 28., and Amos 1., etc.) seems to think that he attacked the new city; whereas Marsham believes that it was built only after the other had fallen a prey to the arms of the Chaldeans. It was only five or 700 paces from the continent. Tyrus quondam insula praealto mari septingentis passibus divisa, nunc vero Alexandri oppugnantis operibus continens. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 5:19.) --- Portion. Hebrew, "from the coast of Achzib," which is the same town as Ecdippe, south of Tyre, and nine miles from Ptolemais. (Calmet)
Joshua 19:30 And Amma, and Aphec, and Rohob: twenty-two cities, and their villages.

Amma; perhaps on mount Amana, a part of Libanus, Canticle of Canticles 4:8. For though the Israelites had possession of these parts only a short time, they had a right to them, and to the countries as far as the Euphrates and Pelusium. Septuagint read, "Akom or Archob," (Calmet) in some copies, though the Alexandrian agrees with the Vulgate. (Haydock) --- Perhaps Acco, the ancient name of Ptolemais, may be meant, as it is hardly probable that so famous a city should be omitted. --- Aphec, beyond Antilibanus, from which city the Israelites could not drive the Chanaanites, Judges 1:31. Here the kings of Syria assembled their forces to attack the people of God, 1 Kings 20:26. Profane authors speak of the temple of Venus Aphachitis, who appeared in the eyes of the superstitious to shed tears. The city lay between Biblus and Heliopolis. (Zozimus, 1:58.; Eusebius (laud. Const.); Macrob. 1:21.) --- Twenty-two. More are mentioned above, but some might belong to other tribes.
Joshua 19:31 This is the possession of the children of Aser by their kindreds, and the cities and their villages.

Joshua 19:32 The sixth lot came out to the sons of Nephthali by their families:

Joshua 19:33 And the border began from Heleph and Elon to Saananim, and Adami, which is Neceb, and Jebnael even to Lecum: and their outgoings unto the Jordan:

Heleph seems to have been on the north-eastern limits of Nephthali. The cities on the Jordan southwards, as far as Genesareth, are specified. (Haydock)
Joshua 19:34 And the border returneth westward to Azanotthabor, and goeth out from thence to Hucuca, and passeth along to Zabulon southward, and to Aser westward, and to Juda upon the Jordan towards the rising of the sun.

Juda was in possession of the southern parts of the Jordan, as Nephthali had the northern, so that by means of navigation they might enjoy the riches (Calmet) of each other, and of the other tribes. (Haydock) (Deuteronomy 33:23.) --- Septuagint do not read Juda, which forms all the difficulty, as five tribes lay between these two. They have "and the Jordan is towards the rising sun." (Calmet) --- Grabe inserts, with a star, "to Juda, the Jordan," etc., intimating that to Juda, was not a part of the Septuagint version.
Joshua 19:35 And the strong cities are Assedim, Ser, and Emath, and Reccath and Cenereth,

Ser. The Septuagint seem to have read rather differently. "And the fortified, or walled cities of the Tyrians, Tyre and Emath, (and) Bekkath," etc. (Haydock) --- Assedim may be the name of a people. The situation of Ser is also unknown. --- Emath is the famous Emesa, Numbers 13:22. (Calmet) --- Tyre, etc., belong to Aser, and not to Nephthali, as the Septuagint might insinuate. But Emesa would be within the borders of the latter. (Haydock) --- Cenereth, the lake of that name, as St. Jerome says that the city of Cenereth was Tiberias, on the southern extremity of the lake whereas Nephthali possessed only the northern part. (Calmet) --- Bonfrere supposes that Caphernaum, or some adjacent city, is meant; and indeed the first words of the verse indicate that a list is given of the strong cities, unless that should be restricted to those of the Assedim, which are not specified. (Haydock)
Joshua 19:36 And Edema, and Arama, Asor,

Arama. Hebrew, "Rama." --- Asor, the capital of Jabin, Josue 11:1.
Joshua 19:37 And Cedes, and Edrai, Enhasor,

Enhasor, "the fountain of Asor," or Daphne, a delightful spot resembling the famous suburbs of Antioch. (Josephus, Jewish Wars 4:init.)
Joshua 19:38 And Jeron, and Magdalel, Horem, and Bethanath, and Bethsames: nineteen cities, and their villages.

Bethanath, "the house of poverty," is Betanea, 15 miles from Caesarea. (Eusebius) --- Nineteen. Twenty-three places are mentioned. But some might only be villages, etc., Josue 15:62.
Joshua 19:39 This is the possession of the tribe of the children of Nephthali, by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.

Joshua 19:40 The seventh lot came out to the tribe of the children of Dan by their families:

Joshua 19:41 And the border of their possession was Saraa, and Esthaol, and Hirsemes, that is, the city of the sun.

Sun. Some suppose that it is the same with Bethsames of Juda, which was ceded to the Levites. (Calmet) --- Dan lay on the west of Juda. (Haydock) --- Selebin, where the Amorrhites maintained themselves, Judges 1:35.
Joshua 19:42 Selebin, and Aialon, and Jethela,

Joshua 19:43 Elon, and Themna, and Acron,

Themna; the Thamna of the tribe of Juda, Josue 15:10. --- Acron, or Accaron.
Joshua 19:44 Elthece, Gebbethon, and Balaath,

Elthece, or Elthecon of Juda, given to the Levites. All the three tribes might dwell in it.
Joshua 19:45 And Jud, and Bane, and Barach, and Gethremmon:

Barach. Hebrew, "Bene-barac," or "Jud, of the sons of Barac."
Joshua 19:46 And Mejarcon, and Arecon, with the border that looketh towards Joppe,

Mejarcon, "the waters of Jarcon" and Arecon, were near Joppe. (Calmet)
Joshua 19:47 And is terminated there. And the children of Dan went up and fought against Lesem, and took it: and they put it to the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt in it, calling the name of it Lesem Dan, by the name of Dan their father.

There. Hebrew, "and the limits of Dan went out from them. They were not able to keep the cities in subjection; so that, finding themselves too much confined, they sought for fresh settlements at Lessem; or, their borders were known by these cities, through which they passed, (Calmet) though most of them had been already assigned to the tribe of Juda. (Menochius) --- Dan. This city was not Peneas, or Caesarea, but the utmost boundary of Palestine on the north, as Bersabee was on the south. This history is given more at large, Judges 18:1. The Septuagint vary from the Hebrew in verses 46, 47, and 48, (Calmet) and add that "the children of Dan did not destroy the Amorrhites, who afflicted them in the mountain, and would not suffer them to descend into the plain....But the hand of Ephraim lay heavy upon them, and they became tributary to them. (See Josue 17:13.) 49. And they went to take possession of their limits, and the children of Israel," etc. (Haydock)
Joshua 19:48 This is the possession of the tribe of the sons of Dan, by their kindreds, the cities and their villages.

Joshua 19:49 And when he had made an end of dividing the land by lot to each one by their tribes, the children of Israel gave a possession to Josue, the son of Nun, in the midst of them,

Joshua 19:50 According to the commandment of the Lord, the city which he asked for, Thamnath Saraa in Mount Ephraim: and he built up the city, and dwelt in it.

Lord, by the mouth of Eleazar. Josue was content with one of the most barren parts of the country. He waits till all are provided for, shewing throughout his life a pattern of moderation and disinterestedness, which render him worthy to be considered as a figure of Jesus Christ, who reduced himself to the lowest state of abjection for our sakes. (Calmet) See Josue 14:6. (Menochius) --- Ephraim. It was before called Gaas; and the city, which Josue enlarged, lay on the north side of it, Josue 24:30., and Judges 2:9.
Joshua 19:51 These are the possessions, which Eleazar, the priest, and Josue, the son of Nun, and the princes of the families, and of the tribes of the children of Israel, distributed by lot in Silo, before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the testimony, and they divided the land.

Joshua 20:0 The cities of refuge are appointed for casual manslaughter.

Joshua 20:1 And *the Lord spoke to Josue, saying: Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them:

Year of the World 2562, Year before Christ 1442.
Joshua 20:2 Appoint cities of refuge, *of which I spoke to you by the hand of Moses:

Numbers 35:10.; Deuteronomy 19:2.
Joshua 20:3 That whosoever shall kill a person unawares may flee to them: and may escape the wrath of the kinsman, who is the avenger of blood:

Of blood, and authorized to kill the manslayer, (Menochius) if he find him out of one of these cities. See Numbers 35:6., and Deuteronomy 19:4. Revenge was never lawful: but to prosecute offenders in the courts of justice, (Calmet) or agreeably to the law of God, can never deserve blame. (Haydock) --- If some of the saints of the old law seem to have taken delight in revenge, their expressions must be explained in a favourable sense. David, who is accused of this crime, (Calmet) repels the charge with horror, Psalm 7:5. The evils which he denounces to his adversaries, were predictions of what they had reason to expect, Psalm 57:11., and Jeremias 11:20. (Haydock) --- If some of the Jews looked upon vengeance as lawful, it cannot be a matter of surprise, when we reflect that even some, who have been taught the mild law of the gospel, think themselves bound, in some cases, to revenge an affront. (Calmet) --- So far have the maxims of the world supplanted Christianity in their breasts! How severely does Jacob rebuke his children for what they had done to the Sichemites, though they falsely thought that the affront offered to their sister, would justify them! (Genesis xxxiv.) (Haydock)
Joshua 20:4 And when he shall flee to one of these cities: he shall stand before the gate of the city, and shall speak to the ancients of that city, such things, as prove him innocent: and so they shall receive him, and give him a place to dwell in.

Gate, where justice was administered. (Menochius) --- Here the ancients heard what the manslayer had to say in his own defence; and if they thought his account plausible, they gave him a retreat till he might be safely brought to answer the charges of the avenger, who might endeavour to prove that the murder was wilful.
Joshua 20:5 And when the avenger of blood shall pursue him, they shall not deliver him into his hands, because he slew his neighbour unawares, and is not proved to have been his enemy two or three days before.

Before. This is generally taken literally. But if sufficient proof could be brought that the contending parties were at variance, or reconciled some time before the accident happened, the person who had taken refuge, would be judged accordingly. It might lawfully be presumed that they were enemies, if, after being at variance, they had given no signs of reconciliation. (Calmet)
Joshua 20:6 And he shall dwell in that city, till he stand before judgment to give an account of his fact, and till the death of the high-priest, who shall be at that time: then shall the manslayer return, and go into his own city and house from whence he fled.

Fact. Septuagint, "before the synagogue for judgment." (Haydock) --- Whether this took place in the same city, or where the murder was committed, (see Numbers 35:12, 25.) the reasons are given why the manslayer was released at the death of the high priest. (Calmet) --- By the death of Christ, the greatest criminals are redeemed. (Menochius)
Joshua 20:7 And they appointed Cedes in Galilee, of Mount Nephthali, and Sichem in Mount Ephraim, and Cariath-arbe, the same is Hebron in the mountain of Juda.

Cedes and Gaulon lay on the north, Sichem and Ramoth in the middle, Hebron and Bosor on the south of the country. (Haydock)
Joshua 20:8 And beyond the Jordan to the east of Jericho, *they appointed Bosor, which is upon the plain of the wilderness of the tribe of Ruben, and Ramoth in Galaad of the tribe of Gad, and Gaulon in Basan of the tribe of Manasses.

Deuteronomy 4:43.
Joshua 20:9 These cities were appointed for all the children of Israel, and for the strangers that dwelt among them: that whosoever had killed a person unawares might flee to them, and not die by the hand of the kinsman, coveting to revenge the blood that was shed, until he should stand before the people to lay open his cause.

Strangers. The limitations of the Jews in favour of their own nation are rejected. The civil and criminal law should affect all alike, except God order it otherwise. --- Stand. This was the posture of the people accused, while the judges sat. (Drusius) (Calmet)
Joshua 21:0 Cities, with their suburbs, are assigned for the priests and Levites.

Joshua 21:1 Then *the princes of the families of Levi came to Eleazar, the priest, and to Josue, the son of Nun, and to the princes of the kindreds of all the tribes of the children of Israel:

Year of the World 2562. The priest, who seems to have presided, as he is always placed first. A select number of the tribe of Levi came to represent the priests, and those of an inferior order; and to obtain what God had promised them, Numbers 35:2. There was one family of priests who sprang from Aaron, the son of Caath. The rest of Caath's family, with the children of Gerson and Merari, were simply Levites, constituting three other families. God was pleased that they should be dispersed through Israel, that they might instruct the people both by word and by example, 1 Paralipomenon 26:29. (Calmet) --- Josue would not have neglected them. (Menochius) --- But they were naturally solicitous to know where they were to live, as the tribes had now all received their portions. (Haydock)
Joshua 21:2 And they spoke to them in Silo, in the land of Chanaan, and said: *The Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, that cities should be given us to dwell in, and their suburbs to feed our cattle.

Numbers 35:2.
Joshua 21:3 And the children of Israel gave out of their possessions, according to the commandment of the Lord, cities and their suburbs.

Gave, by lot, ver. 4, etc. (Menochius) --- Whether any changes were afterwards made, to grant more or less, in proportion to the numbers of the four families, (as seems to have been done with regard to the other tribes) or the cities were specified in four parcels, and the priests received the first lot, the text does not explain. (Calmet) --- It is also uncertain what right the Levites had to these 48 cities. Some say that they had only the use of them, while others maintain that the cities were their property entirely, so that no other could live there without their consent. They could sell the houses, which returned to them in the year of the jubilee, if not redeemed before; but the suburbs were a common property of all the Levites, and could not be sold by any, Leviticus xxv. The cities, therefore, belonged to God, and he abandoned the property to his ministers. Other people might live among them, as they were not debarred from choosing their habitation in places which were not originally allotted to them. Thus we find that Gabaa was chiefly peopled by the tribe of Benjamin, when the outrage was offered to the Levite's wife, and no blame attached to the latter, Judges xix. Saul and his family were of the same town, though it belonged to the Levites, and David kept his court at Hebron, a sacerdotal city, for the first seven years of his reign. (Calmet) --- Here also Caleb had probably resided, Josue 14:14. The priests and Levites were not indeed at this time sufficiently numerous to people all these cities; and Calmet supposes that they only received as many houses as they might occupy, being supplied with more by the magistrates as their numbers increased. But might not they let the houses, which they did not want to occupy, and receive the profits, so as to take possession of them when they had occasion? Were these 48 cities, which were the only part of the land to which the Levites had any claim, too many or too rich to compensate the labours of this most deserving tribe? It seems, therefore, unnecessary to call in the aid or interference of the magistrate, except any person were so bold as to refuse to give up what the law had so positively assigned to the Levites. Their rights were as well defined as those of any of the other tribes. (Haydock) --- The land beyond the suburbs, was cultivated by the proprietors, who might either live in the town or country. Many of the priests and Levites chose to reside near the tabernacle, as Moses had encouraged them to do, Deuteronomy 18:6. Thus Nobe became a sacerdotal city; (1 Kings 21:1,) and after the temple was built, Jerusalem and its environs were the places of abode for most of the priests. (Calmet)
Joshua 21:4 And the lot came out for the family of Caath, of the children of Aaron the priest, out of the tribes of Juda, and of Simeon, and of Benjamin, thirteen cities.

Thirteen. These three tribes give more cities than any of the others, because their territories were the largest, Numbers 35:8. Juda in particular, had a most extensive portion allotted to him at first; so that a part was afterwards taken away to accommodate Simeon and Dan, and now so many cities are appointed for the priests, (Calmet) who would thus have their residence near the temple, when it should be built. (Haydock) --- God ordered the lots according to the designs of his providence; and gave the priests, though so few in number, more than what fell to the share of all the rest of the family of Caath. (Calmet) --- This family had in all twenty-three cities, lying south of Dor and Bethsan, and leaving the tribe of Issachar on the north. Gerson had thirteen cities among the three other northern tribes, and that of Manasses on the east side of the Jordan; while Merari had twelve, more southward on the same side, in the tribes of Gad and of Ruben, and on the west of the Jordan, in the tribe of Zabulon. Thus these two families were more intermixed. (Haydock)
Joshua 21:5 And to the rest of the children of Caath, that is, to the Levites who remained, out of the tribes of Ephraim, and of Dan, and the half tribe of Manasses, ten cities.

Joshua 21:6 And the lot came out to the children of Gerson, that they should take of the tribes of Issachar, and of Aser, and of Nephthali, and of the half tribe of Manasses in Basan, thirteen cities.

Joshua 21:7 And to the sons of Merari, by their kindreds, of the tribes of Ruben, and of Gad, and of Zabulon, twelve cities.

Joshua 21:8 And the children of Israel gave to the Levites the cities and their suburbs, as the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, giving to every one by lot.

Joshua 21:9 Of the tribes of the children of Juda and of Simeon, Josue gave cities: *whose names are these,

1 Paralipomenon 6:2.
Joshua 21:10 To the sons of Aaron, of the families of Caath, of the race of Levi, (for the first lot came out for them)

Joshua 21:11 The city of Arbe, the father of Enac, which is called Hebron, in the mountain of Juda, and the suburbs thereof round about.

Joshua 21:12 *But the fields and the villages thereof he had given to Caleb, the son of Jephone, for his possession.

Josue 14:14.; 1 Paralipomenon 6:56.
Possession. Only the houses which the priests occupied, were taken from him. (Calmet) --- Caleb enjoyed all the dependencies of Hebron, and took the city, as he would not have been secure while the Chanaanites dwelt there. (Magalian.) --- Serarius thinks that he abandoned the city to the priests, in which he follows Tostat, who supposes that they had to pay tribute to the tribes among whom they lived; and that mines, etc., belonged to the latter. (Menochius)
Joshua 21:13 He gave therefore to the children of Aaron the priest, Hebron a city of refuge, and the suburbs thereof: and Lobna with the suburbs thereof,

Joshua 21:14 And Jether, and Estemo,

Joshua 21:15 And Holon, and Dabir,

Joshua 21:16 And Ain, and Jeta, and Bethsames, with their suburbs: nine cities out of the two tribes, as hath been said.

Ain and Jeta. Septuagint of Grabe agrees with the Vulgate. But the Vatican copy (Haydock) has, "Asa....and Tanu." In 1 Paralipomenon 6:59, only Asan and Bethsemes are mentioned. Several other variations may also be observed, which may be attributed either to the changes which were afterwards made when the Chanaanites kept their hold, (Rabbins) or to the different places having two names, or to the mistakes of transcribers, etc. See chap 15:62. Only eleven cities are specified in the Book of Paralipomenon, though it observes that there were thirteen. (Calmet) --- As hath, etc., words added by St. Jerome, or rather expressing more fully the Hebrew, "those" two tribes. (Haydock)
Joshua 21:17 And out of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, Gabaon, and Gabae,

Joshua 21:18 And Anathoth, and Almon, with their suburbs: four cities.

Joshua 21:19 All the cities together of the children of Aaron the priest, were thirteen, with their suburbs.

Joshua 21:20 And to the rest of the families of the children of Caath, of the race of Levi, was given this possession.

Joshua 21:21 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Sichem one of the cities of refuge, with the suburbs thereof in Mount Ephraim, and Gazer,

One of, (urbes confugii Sichem....and Gazer.) Literally, " cities of refuge, Sichem,....Gazer," etc., as if all the Levitical cities had enjoyed this privilege, which we have seen (Numbers 35:6,) is the opinion of some. But the Hebrew, Septuagint, and Chaldean read in the singular, "Sichem, a city of refuge;" and interpreters generally allow only six cities of this description. (Calmet) --- Without extending this privilege to all the rest, we may observe that all the cities of refuge were given to the Levites, ver. 11, 21, 27, 32, 36, 37. Protestants, "For they give them Shechem, with her suburbs in Mount Ephraim, to be a city of refuge for the slayer; and Gazer," etc. By inserting to be, they seem to countenance the opinion that all the subsequent towns were of the same nature as Sichem. The text would be clearer without the addition, to prove the contrary sentiment. (Haydock) --- See Bonfrere how the Vulgate may be vindicated. (Menochius)
Joshua 21:22 And Cibsaim, and Beth-horon, with their suburbs, four cities.

Beth-horon. Grabe's Septuagint adds, "the upper," which is the received opinion. (Calmet)
Joshua 21:23 And of the tribe of Dan, Eltheco and Gabathon,

And of, etc. This verse is omitted in Paralipomenon, (Haydock) whence we find Helon and Gethremmon (probably the same as Aialon and Beth-remmon, ver. 24, assigned to Ephraim. --- Eltheco. See Josue 15:59., and 19:44. --- Gabathon continued a long time in the hands of the Philistines, 3 Kings 15:27.
Joshua 21:24 And Aialon and Gethremmon, with their suburbs, four cities.

Joshua 21:25 And of the half tribe of Manasses, Thanac and Gethremmon, with their suburbs, two cities.

Cities. Instead of these, Aner and Balaam are mentioned in Paralipomenon. (Calmet)
Joshua 21:26 All the cities were ten, with their suburbs, which were given to the children of Caath of the inferior degree.

Degree, who were not priests. Caath is placed before his eldest brother Gerson, on account of the honour of the priesthood and of Moses. (Menochius)
Joshua 21:27 To the children of Gerson also, of the race of Levi, out of the half tribe of Manasses, Gaulon, in Basan, one of the cities of refuge, and Bosra, with their suburbs, two cities.

Refuge. Literally, "the cities of refuge, Gaulon...and Bosra." See ver. 21. (Haydock) --- The latter gives place to Asteroth, in Paralipomenon.
Joshua 21:28 And of the tribe of Issachar, Cesion, and Dabereth,

Joshua 21:29 And Jaramoth, and Engannim, with their suburbs, four cities.

Cities. These are called Cedes and Daboreth, Ramoth and Anem, in Paralipomenon.
Joshua 21:30 And of the tribe of Aser, Masal, and Abdon,

Joshua 21:31 31And Helcath, and Rohob, with their suburbs, four cities.

Joshua 21:32 Of the tribe also of Nephthali, Cedes in Galilee, one of the cities of refuge: and Hammoth Dor, and Carthan, with their suburbs, three cities.

Joshua 21:33 All the cities of the families of Gerson, were thirteen, with their suburbs.

Joshua 21:34 And to the children of Merari, Levites of the inferior degree, by their families, were given of the tribe of Zabulon, Jecnam, and Cartha,

Joshua 21:35 And Damna and Naalol, four cities, with their suburbs.

Suburbs. Paralipomenon only mentions two, Remmono and Thabor.
Joshua 21:36 Of the tribe of Ruben, beyond the Jordan over-against Jericho, Bosor in the wilderness, one of the cities of refuge, Misor, and Jaser, and Jethson, and Mephaath, four cities, with their suburbs.

Four cities. There are no more, though there be five names: for Misor is the same city as Bosor, which is to be observed in some other places, where the number of names exceeds the number of cities. (Challoner) --- With regard to the 36th and 37th verses, there seems to have been great confusion in the Hebrew manuscripts both ancient and modern. In some they have been totally omitted, in others only a part. (Haydock) --- The famous manuscript of Hillel, and the Masorets, reject them, (Calmet) because they had reckoned only 656 verses in Josue, and these two verses would destroy their authority. Hence they erased them wherever they might be found; and Kimchi assures us, that he never could meet with them "in any manuscript (thus) corrected." Yet the Paralipomena universally acknowledge them, (Kennicott) as the context of Josue must also do, otherwise there will be only eight cities instead of twelve, and four will be wanting to complete the number of forty-eight. The Protestant version therefore is forced to admit them, (Haydock) as they are found in the Eng. Polyglot, on the authority of some ancient manuscripts. They do not, however, express them so fully as the Septuagint have done. (Kennicott) --- These read, "And beyond the Jordan, over-against Jericho, out of the tribe of Ruben, the city of refuge for the slayer, Bosor, in the wilderness, (Misor) and her suburbs, and Jazer and her suburbs, (37) and Gedson and her suburbs, and Mapha (Alexandrian copy reads Maspha) and her suburbs, four cities." (Grabe) --- Protestants only admit, "And out of the tribe of Ruben, Bezer with her suburbs, and Jahazah....Kedemoth....and Mephaath with her suburbs, four cities." Kennicott finds in some Hebrew manuscripts, "the city of refuge for the slayer, Bosor;" one manuscript has, "in the wilderness," etc. (Haydock) --- These verses were not in the Hebrew text of the Hexapla, as they are obelized in the Septuagint and in the Syriac manuscript of Masius; and yet, as they are found in the old Greek and Syriac versions, and in the Chaldean paraphrase, they were probably omitted between the year 100 and 200. They are left out in several printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, and even in that of Jablonski, (1699) though in opposition to his better judgment and all the manuscripts which he had consulted: legunt omnia nostra manuscripts. Michaelis (1720) reprinted this text, with some few emendations, particularly with these two verse very laudably inserted. (Kennicott, 2 Diss.) --- In the Bened.[Benedictine?] edition of St. Jerome, Martianay observes, that the Hebrew manuscripts of St. Jerome seem to have been mutilated, for if they had admitted this 36th verse, St. Jerome would have translated it, and it would have been found in the more ancient manuscripts of the Latin edition, where it is wanting. Hence this editor leaves it out. He also remarks that other Hebrew manuscripts omit "a city of refuge for the slayer, in the desert." The last word, he says, occurs in several copies of the best note; and Houbigant inserts it on the authority of the oratorian manuscript 54. (Haydock) --- In some editions of the Vulgate, this verse is transposed, and placed after the cities of Gad. (Louvain; R. Steph.; etc.) --- It is therefore, probable that St. Jerome found it not in Hebrew but, if he inserted it, he borrowed it from the Septuagint. The Syriac version places these verses before the 34th and 35th. All this shews that the Hebrew manuscripts have not been kept with great care in this place. Some have surmised that the Septuagint have inserted this necessary supplement from Paralipomenon. But they do not entirely agree with that book, so that it seems that they found these verses in their Hebrew copies. (Calmet) --- We have already given the Hebrew and Septuagint as it is found in the common editions. In 1 Paralipomenon 6:78, it is thus expressed:q Beyond the Jordan also, over-against Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, out of the tribe of Ruben, Bosor in the wilderness, with its suburbs, and Jassa....79. Cademoth also....and Mephaath with its suburbs.\ft The word Misor, which Grabe's Septuagint and the Vulgate leave untranslated, is the Hebrew word which denotes a plain, (Haydock) as Aquila and Symmachus agree, and as appears [in] Josue 20:8. Deuteronomy 4:43, where Bosor is said to have been upon the plain of the wilderness. This city was the famous Bosra, in the desert Arabia, between Philadelphia and Jazer, towards the east. (Calmet) --- We might translate, "the cities of refuge, Bosor in the wilderness, which is also the plain" of Moab, ver. 21. (Haydock) --- Jaser, or Jassa, (chap. 13:18,) different from that [in] ver. 37, which lay on the river of the same name in the tribe of Gad. (Calmet)
Joshua 21:37 Of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Galaad, one of the cities of refuge, and Manaim, and Hesebon, and Jaser, four cities, with their suburbs.

Joshua 21:38 All the cities of the children of Merari by their families and kindreds, were twelve.

Joshua 21:39 So all the cities of the Levites within the possession of the children of Israel were forty-eight,

Joshua 21:40 With their suburbs, each distributed by the families.

Families, the four great ones, which parcelled out the cities among the several branches. (Haydock) --- The Levites were only 23,000, (Numbers 26:62,) yet they receive more cities than what are specified for any other tribe. It must be observed, however, that all the cities of the different tribes are not mentioned, and the Israelites might live along with those of the tribe of Levi, ver. 3. Moreover, these had only the cities, with 2000 cubits of land round them. The Septuagint here insert that Josue divided the land, and received the city of Thamnasachar; (Grabe substitutes Thamnasarach) where he deposited the knives of stone with which he had circumcised those who were born in the desert. (Haydock) --- They farther remark, that they were buried in his tomb, Josue 24:30.
Joshua 21:41 And the Lord God gave to Israel all the land that he had sworn to give to their fathers: and they possessed it, and dwelt in it.

Joshua 21:42 And he gave them peace from all nations round about: and none of their enemies durst stand against them, but were brought under their dominion.

Joshua 21:43 Not so much as one word, which he had promised to perform unto them, was made void, but all came to pass.

Pass. How then did the Chanaanites keep possession of so many places? St. Augustine (q. 21,) answers, that they were suffered to do it for the "utility and trial" of the Israelites. For the latter were not sufficiently numerous at first to cultivate all the land. God had therefore promised that the nations should not be driven out all at once, lest the country should fall a prey to wild beasts, Exodus 23:29. (Masius) --- During the life-time of Josue, none of them durst make head against him; and if many of the tribes did not take possession of all their cities, it was owing to their own negligence. After this hero was no more, the natives took courage, and greatly harassed the Israelites; but it is plain that the latter were not straitened for room, while Josue lived, since they invited the other tribes east of the Jordan to come and reside with them on the west, if they thought proper, Josue 17:19. (Calmet)
Joshua 22:0 The tribes of Ruben and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasses, return to their possessions. They build an altar by the side of the Jordan, which alarms the other tribes. An embassage is sent to them, to which they give a satisfactory answer.

Joshua 22:1 At *the same time Josue called the Rubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses,

Year of the World 2562, Year before Christ 1442. Time; before the assembly broke up. The 40,000 had continued to fight along with their brethren, (Calmet) as long as there was occasion. Now peace being obtained, they are permitted to return to their families. (Haydock)
Joshua 22:2 And said to them: You have done all that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you: you have also obeyed me in all things,

Joshua 22:3 Neither have you left your brethren this long time, until this present day, keeping the commandment of the Lord your God.

Joshua 22:4 Therefore as the Lord your God hath given your brethren rest and peace, as he promised: return and go to your dwellings, and to the land of your possession, *which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you beyond the Jordan:

Numbers 32:33.; Josue 1:13.; Josue 13:8.
And peace. This is a farther explication of rest, (Haydock) which alone occurs in Hebrew. It may denote a fixed and permanent abode, Deuteronomy 3:20., and Ruth 1:9.
Joshua 22:5 Yet so that you observe attentively, and in work fulfil the commandment, and the law which Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you: that you love the Lord your God, and walk in all his ways, and keep all his commandments, and cleave to him, and serve him with all your heart, and with all your soul.

Joshua 22:6 And Josue blessed them, and sent them away, and they returned to their dwellings.

Blessed them, like a good magistrate, having given them a solemn admonition not to forget God, the source of all blessings. (Haydock) --- This expression may also intimate that he loaded them with praises and with presents, and wished them all prosperity. --- Dwellings. Literally, "tents," in which they had been accustomed to live, in the desert. Hence they gave the name to houses, temples, etc.
Joshua 22:7 Now to half the tribe of Manasses, Moses had given a possession in Basan: and therefore to the half that remained, Josue gave a lot among the rest of their brethren, beyond the Jordan to the west. And when he sent them away to their dwellings, and had blessed them,

Joshua 22:8 He said to them: With much substance and riches, you return to your settlements, with silver and gold, brass and iron, and variety of raiment: divide the prey of your enemies with your brethren.

Riches. Hebrew, Septuagint, etc., "cattle." --- Brethren. Grotius pretends that they were to keep what they had gotten. But his proofs rather shew that they were to follow the ancient custom and law, which prescribed that those who had remained at home to guard the country, should share the booty with those who had gone to battle, 1 Kings 30:24., and Numbers 31:27. Some suppose that the booty was divided into equal parts, and the 40,000 would retain as much as all the rest of their brethren, who had been less exposed. The Israelites, however, made all alike, as other nations seem to have been, Exodus 15:9., etc.
Joshua 22:9 So the children of Ruben, and the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses, returned, and parted from the children of Israel in Silo, which is in Chanaan, to go into Galaad, the land of their possession, which they had obtained according to the commandment of the Lord, by the hand of Moses.

Galaad here denotes all that country, (Calmet) as Chanaan does that on the west of the Jordan (Haydock) and Ephraim, the ten tribes. (Calmet)
Joshua 22:10 And when they were come to the banks of the Jordan, in the land of Chanaan, they built an altar immensely great near the Jordan.

Banks. Hebrew Goliluth, which is (chap. 13:2, etc.) rendered Galilee, Galgal, "limits," etc. (Haydock) --- Chanaan, consequently on the western banks. Vatable, however, says that the eastern country went sometimes by this name, on account of the Amorrhites having dwelt in it. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 5:1.) and the Jews affirm, that the altar was built on that side; and it seems natural that these tribes would erect it in their own territories, for the benefit of their children. (Calmet) --- The effect would nevertheless have been equal, on which side soever it appeared, as the Jordan was not so broad but they might see over. (Haydock) --- Immensely. Hebrew, "a great altar to be seen," like those heaps which Bacchus and Alexander raised to perpetuate the memory of their victories. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 6:16.)
Joshua 22:11 And when the children of Israel had heard of it, and certain messengers had brought them an account that the children of Ruben, and of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses, had built an altar in the land of Chanaan, upon the banks of the Jordan, over-against the children of Israel:

Joshua 22:12 They all assembled in Silo, to go up and fight against them.

In Silo, without being called, as they were all fired with a holy zeal, (Menochius) to prevent the growth of idolatry among their brethren. (Haydock) --- They knew that one altar was to be allowed (Menochius) in the place which the Lord should appoint, Leviticus 17:8., and Deuteronomy 12:5., etc. (Haydock) --- God had ordered such cities as embraced idolatry among them, to be exterminated, Deuteronomy 13:12. (Calmet)
Joshua 22:13 And in the mean time they sent to them, into the land of Galaad, Phinees the son of Eleazar the priest,

Joshua 22:14 And ten princes with him, one of every tribe,

Tribe. Another of the tribe of Levi, and deputies from the other nine tribes, accompanied Phinees on this important occasion. The Levites were most of all concerned, as their rights seemed to be particularly invaded. (Haydock) --- The princes of the tribes did not (Calmet) perhaps (Haydock) go, but only men of high rank. Kimchi says, men set over a thousand. Hebrew, "ten princes with him of each chief house, a prince of all the tribes of Israel, and each one head of the house of his fathers, among the thousands of Israel." (Calmet) --- These were commissioned by Eleazar, Josue, and all the congregation, to endeavour to bring back their brethren to a sense of their duty, if they had so soon forgotten God, (Haydock) or if they should persist in their rebellion, to denounce an eternal war against them. (Menochius)
Joshua 22:15 Who came to the children of Ruben, and of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses, into the land of Galaad, and said to them:

Joshua 22:16 Thus saith all the people of the Lord: What meaneth this transgression? Why have you forsaken the Lord, the God of Israel, building a sacrilegious altar, and revolting from the worship of him?

Lord. Thus Phinees shews that he speaks in the name of those who still continued faithful to the Lord. He imputes the crime of apostacy to Ruben, etc., that they may declare more openly for what reason they had built this altar. (Menochius)
Joshua 22:17 Is it a small thing to you *that you sinned with Beelphegor, and the stain of that crime remaineth in us to this day? and many of the people perished.

Numbers 25:3.; Deuteronomy 4:3.
Beelphegor. As they lived in the country, where this idol had been adored, Phinees was afraid lest they might have built the altar in his honour. He reminds them what destruction that worship had brought upon all Israel. He had been particularly zealous in appeasing the wrath of God, and therefore speaks with more authority. Hebrew, "is not the crime of Phegor enough for us, that we should not wish to expiate it until this day?" (Calmet) or Protestants, "is the iniquity of Peor too little for us, from which we are not cleansed until this day? (although there was a plague in the congregation of the Lord)." The stain of this impiety still remained upon Israel. They ought, therefore, to endeavour by sincere repentance, to obliterate it entirely, and not, by fresh provocations, enkindle the dreadful wrath of God. (Haydock) --- There was reason to fear lest the Lord should punish this sin still more, as he is accustomed to do, when people relapse. (Calmet) --- All must therefore shew their zeal to prevent such crimes, as the multitude sometimes suffers for the offence of one, when they do not take all possible care to prevent it, ver. 20. (Haydock)
Joshua 22:18 And you have forsaken the Lord to-day, and to-morrow his wrath will rage against all Israel.

Joshua 22:19 But if you think the land of your possession to be unclean, pass over to the land wherein is the tabernacle of the Lord, and dwell among us: only depart not from the Lord, and from our society, by building an altar beside the altar of the Lord our God.

Unclean, as being destitute of the ark, etc. The Israelites had the greatest veneration for the land which God had chosen for their habitation. Naaman loaded two mules with some of the earth. We cannot help admiring the zeal and the disinterestedness of Phinees. He proposes to abandon some of the possessions on the other side of the Jordan, rather than that his brethren should forsake God, or offend him.
Joshua 22:20 *Did not Achan, the son of Zare, transgress the commandment of the Lord, and his wrath lay upon all the people of Israel? And he was but one man, and would to God he alone had perished in his wickedness.

Josue 7:1.
Wickedness. Hebrew, "he did not expire in his sin," (Calmet) but repented; (Haydock) or, Did he not? etc. The Septuagint, "he did not alone die in his sin." Chaldean, "but this man alone did not die in his transgression." (Calmet) --- All Israel was in consternation, and 36 were slain. If this secret offence was so severely punished, what judgments will not the public apostacy of so many thousands draw down upon our heads!
Joshua 22:21 And the children of Ruben, and of Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasses, answered the princes of the embassage of Israel:

Israel. Septuagint, "answered the Chiliarchs of Israel," who had spoken by the mouth of their president. They repel the charge with earnestness. (Haydock)
Joshua 22:22 The Lord the most mighty God, the Lord the most mighty God, he knoweth, and Israel also shall understand: If with the design of transgression we have set up this altar, let him not save us, but punish us immediately:

God. In Hebrew there are three terms, (Calmet) El, Elohim, Yehova, "the strong, the judge, the self-existent Being." To him they make their appeal. Him they acknowledge in the first place, as the only true God, as they had been accused of departing from him, ver. 19. (Haydock) --- They are willing to undergo any punishment, if they had any evil intention. (Menochius)
Joshua 22:23 And if we did it with that mind, that we might lay upon it holocausts, and sacrifice, and victims of peace-offerings, let him require and judge:

Sacrifice. Hebrew intimates particularly "of flour or libations." (Calmet)
Joshua 22:24 And not rather with this thought and design, that we should say: To-morrow your children will say to our children: What have you to do with the Lord the God of Israel?

To-morrow. At any future period. (Haydock) --- Israel. The same idea is expressed, ver. 27. You have no part in the Lord. You are not his peculiar people. Of this title the Israelites were always very jealous, even when they neglected the worship and covenant of the Lord. (Calmet) --- Hence these tribes take these precautions, that they may not be excluded from the society and privileges of their brethren on the other side of the Jordan. They profess openly that they do not esteem it lawful to offer sacrifice in any other place, besides that which God had chosen. (Haydock)
Joshua 22:25 The Lord hath put the river Jordan for a border between us and you, O ye children of Ruben, and ye children of Gad: and therefore you have no part in the Lord. And by this occasion your children shall turn away our children from the fear of the Lord. We therefore thought it best,

Joshua 22:26 And said: Let us build us an altar, not for holocausts, nor to offer victims,

Joshua 22:27 But for a testimony between us and you, and our posterity and yours, that we may serve the Lord, and that we may have a right to offer both holocausts, and victims and sacrifices of peace-offerings: and that your children to-morrow may not say to our children: You have no part in the Lord:

Joshua 22:28 And if they will say so, they shall answer them: Behold the altar of the Lord, which our fathers made, not for holocausts, nor for sacrifice, but for a testimony between us and you.

Joshua 22:29 God keep us from any such wickedness that we should revolt from the Lord, and leave off following his steps, by building an altar to offer holocausts, and sacrifices, and victims, beside the altar of the Lord our God, which is erected before his tabernacle.

Joshua 22:30 And when Phinees the priest, and the princes of the embassage, which were with him, had heard this, they were satisfied: and they admitted, most willingly the words of the children of Ruben, and Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasses.

Joshua 22:31 And Phinees the priest, the son of Eleazar, said to them: Now we know that the Lord is with us, because you are not guilty of this revolt, and you have delivered the children of Israel from the hand of the Lord.

Lord, who would not have failed to punish Israel for such a crime. (Calmet) --- They rejoice, therefore, not only at the fidelity of their brethren, but also on their own account, because they may now confidently look up for protection to God, instead of being in continual apprehensions of feeling his avenging arm. (Haydock)
Joshua 22:32 And he returned with the princes from the children of Ruben and Gad, out of the land of Galaad, into the land of Chanaan, to the children of Israel, and brought them word again.

Into, etc. (finium Chanaan) "of the confines of Chanaan," which is ambiguous. (Haydock) --- But the Hebrew removes the difficulty in this manner.
Joshua 22:33 And the saying pleased all that heard it. And the children of Israel praised God, and they no longer said that they would go up against them, and fight, and destroy the land of their possession.

Joshua 22:34 And the children of Ruben, and the children of Gad, called the altar which they had built, Our testimony, that the Lord is God.

God. Hebrew seems rather defective; (Calmet) "called the altar, (Syriac supplies the altar of witness) for it shall be a witness between us, that the Lord he is the God. Ed, "witness," is placed in the margin of Plantin's edition (Kennicott) and the Protestants have inserted it in the text, though in a different character, (Haydock) as "it is confirmed by the Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate versions." Kimchi quotes the Chaldean paraphrase, as having the word seid, "witness," twice, which, if read in two places formerly, has been lately omitted in one, as many other alterations have perhaps been made in it, in conformity to the later copies of the Hebrew text. It is still found in one Chaldean manuscript and in that of Masius. Between the two last words of this verse, some Hebrew manuscripts read eva, "He." "The Lord, He is the God;" which not only gives an emphasis, but is expressly confirmed by the Chaldean; and indeed this seems to have been a common form of confessing the belief of the one true God, 3 Kings 18:39. (Kennicott, Diss. I.) --- Masius would translate, "They made an inscription upon the altar, declaring that it should be an eternal witness of their attachment to the Lord." Cora, in effect, sometimes means to write, as Alcoran, in the Arabic tongue, signifies "the scripture" (Calmet) of the Mahometans, which they hold in the utmost veneration, as containing the life and doctrine of their great prophet. The Septuagint (Grabe) insinuate that Josue approved of what had been done, "and Jesus gave a name to the altar,....and said, it is a witness in the midst of them, that the Lord God is their God." Thus, instead of war and destruction, which seemed to threaten Israel on all sides, all ended in peace and harmony. If Christians would imitate the conduct of the Israelites, they would not so rashly condemn their neighbours on every idle report; and, if our adversaries would condescend to examine seriously into the grounds of charging idolatry upon us, and on that account waging an eternal war against us, it is to be hoped they would pronounce our doctrine innocent, and reform their own iniquitous proceedings. (Haydock)
Joshua 23:0 Josue being old, admonisheth the people to keep God's commandments; and to avoid marriages, and all society, with the Gentiles, for fear of being brought to idoltary.

Joshua 23:1 And* when a long time was passed, after that the Lord had given peace to Israel, all the nations round about being subdued, and Josue being now old, and far advanced in years:

Year of the World 2570, Year before Christ 1434. Long time. Josue governed only ten years after the distribution of the land. Towards the close of his life, perceiving that the Israelites were too indolent in subduing the people of the country, and fearing lest they should by degrees begin to imitate their corrupt manners, he called a general assembly either at his own city, or at Silo, or more probably at Sichem, (as it is mentioned [in] Josue 24:1, which seems to give farther particulars of this assembly) and laid before his people, in the strongest terms, the dangers to which they would be exposed, by entertaining a friendship for the enemies of God, and by abandoning him. (Calmet) --- He called together all the heads of the people. (Menochius)
Joshua 23:2 Josue called for all Israel, and for the elders, and for the princes, and for the judges, and for the masters, and said to them: I am old, and far advanced in years:

Joshua 23:3 And you see all that the Lord your God hath done to all the nations round about, how he himself hath fought for you:

For you. God fought for his people three ways: 1. By destroying their enemies himself in a miraculous manner, as he did the Egyptians; 2. By assisting their endeavours, as at Jericho, and in the victory of Gabaon, when he caused the walls of the former town to fall down, and hurled stones upon the fleeing enemy near the latter; (chap. 10.) 3. By giving courage and strength to Israel, while he filled their opponents with dismay, and this was most frequently the case. He continues to assist his servants in their spiritual warfare against the world, the flesh, and the devil, in all these different ways. (Worthington)
Joshua 23:4 And now since he hath divided to you by lot all the land, from the east of the Jordan unto the great sea, and many nations yet remain:

And now. Hebrew, "Behold, I have divided unto you by lot these nations, which remain to be subdued, to be an inheritance for your tribes from the Jordan, (these two words are transposed, and should come after; Calmet) with all the nations that I have cut off---even unto the great sea westward." He mildly expostulates with them for not following up his victories, by reducing the few scattered nations whom he had abandoned to them as a prey. (Haydock) --- They ought to be considered not only as the enemies of God, but also as unjust detainers of another's right, and Josue promises that nothing will be wanting on the part of God to render their reduction easy, if they will but do their duty to Him and to themselves. (Haydock)
Joshua 23:5 The Lord your God will destroy them, and take them away from before your face, and you shall possess the land, as he hath promised you.

Joshua 23:6 Only take courage, and be careful to observe all things that are written in the book of the law of Moses: and turn not aside from them, neither to the right hand nor to the left:

Joshua 23:7 Lest after that you are come in among the Gentiles, who will remain among you, you should swear by the name of their gods, and serve them, and adore them:

Come in, an expression which may denote any familiarity, or marriage. (Menochius) --- Hebrew is in the form of a prohibition, "Come not among (have no connections with) these nations....Neither mention their gods, nor swear (or cause to swear by them.") The psalmist (Psalm 15:4,) says, speaking either of idols, (Haydock) or of sinners, Nor will I be mindful of their names by my lips. Osee 2:16. says, She shall call me no more Baali, ("my lord," a term applied by wives to their husbands) on account of its reminding one of the idol Baal. Hence David calls Jerobaal, or Gedeon, Jeroboschot, 2 Kings 11:21. St. Paul would not have Christians so much as to name the sins of impurity, Ephesians 5:3. The more religious Jews will not even mention an idol, or an unclean animal; and they beg pardon before they speak of a heretic. (Drusius) --- Some understand that the worship of idols is meant by naming them, as those who invoked the name of Jesus Christ, were his disciples, Acts 9:14., 1 Timothy 2:19., and Exodus 20:24. To swear by idols is always sinful, (Exodus 23:13,) while it is an act of religion to swear on proper occasions, by the name of God. Theophrastus (ap. Josephus, contra Apion I.) observes, that the laws of the Tyrians prohibit the using of foreign oaths, such as that of the Corban, which was peculiar to the Jews. (Calmet)
Joshua 23:8 But cleave ye unto the Lord your God: as you have done until this day.

Day. Those who had formerly given way to idolatry were all cut off, and all Israel had lately given a proof of their attachment unto the Lord. (Haydock)
Joshua 23:9 And then the Lord God will take away before your eyes nations that are great and very strong, and no man shall be able to resist you.

Joshua 23:10 One of you shall chase a thousand men of the enemies: because the Lord your God himself will fight for you, as he hath promised.

Thousand. This Moses had repeatedly foretold, Leviticus 26:13., and Deuteronomy 28:7.
Joshua 23:11 This only take care of with all diligence, that you love the Lord your God.

Joshua 23:12 But if you will embrace the errors of these nations that dwell among you, and make marriages with them, and join friendships:

Joshua 23:13 Know ye for a certainty that the Lord your God will not destroy them before your face, but they shall be a pit and a snare in your way, and a stumbling block at your side, and stakes in your eyes, till he take you away and destroy you from off this excellent land, which he hath given you.

Side. Hebrew, "snares and traps unto you, and scourges in your side." Children and slaves were formerly beaten on this part, Ecclesiasticus 30:12., and 42:5. Horace (epod. iv.) says, Ibericis peruste funibus latus. The first word St. Jerome seems to have read with th at the end, as peth, means a hole, (Calmet) by which means it was customary to take wild beasts, and to annoy the enemy. (Haydock) --- Septuagint render side, "they shall be nails in your heels."
Joshua 23:14 *Behold this day I am going into the way of all the earth, and you shall know with all your mind, that of all the words which the Lord promised to perform for you, not one hath failed.

3 Kings 23:2.
This day: shortly I must die. (Calmet) --- Metam properamus ad unam. (Horace) "We hasten to one common goal." (Haydock) --- The pagans called death, or the grave, the common place; and Plautus says, in the same sense, Quin prius me ad plures penetravi. (Calmet) "Before I penetrate the receptacle of the many." (Haydock) --- Mind. Hebrew, "you know in your hearts, and in all your souls;" you are convinced, you cannot be ignorant that God has fulfilled his engagements. (Calmet) --- The Septuagint read, "you shall know," etc. The experience of future ages will only establish this truth more fully. (Haydock)
Joshua 23:15 Therefore as he hath fulfilled in deed what he promised, and all things prosperous have come: so will he bring upon you all the evils he hath threatened, till he take you away and destroy you from off this excellent land, which he hath given you,

Joshua 23:16 When you shall have transgressed the covenant of the Lord your God, which he hath made with you, and shall have served strange gods, and adored them: then shall the indignation of the Lord rise up quickly and speedily against you, and you shall be taken away from this excellent land which he hath delivered to you.

And speedily. This word is added to express the force of the Hebrew term. (Menochius) --- "Punishment is seldom lame in overtaking the wicked. (Haydock) --- This. He emphatically sets before them what labours they had sustained in making the acquisition, and what ingratitude they will be guilty of, if they ever forfeit so great a blessing. (Menochius) --- The threat or prediction was verified during the captivity, and still more after the destruction of Jerusalem. (Calmet)
Joshua 24:0 Josue assembleth the people, and reneweth the covenant between them and God. His death and burial.

Joshua 24:1 And* Josue gathered together all the tribes of Israel in Sichem, and called for the ancients, and the princes, and the judges, and the masters: and they stood in the sight of the Lord:

Year of the World 2570. Of Israel. There seems no reason for restricting this to the ancients, etc. On this solemn occasion, when all Israel was probably assembled at one of the great festivals, Josue concluded his exhortation, by renewing the covenant (Calmet) in the place where he had formerly complied with the injunction of Moses, Josue 8:31. (Haydock) --- In Sichem, in the field which Jacob had purchased, and where a great oak (ver. 26,) was growing, that had been honoured, it is thought, with the presence of the patriarchs. It was near the two famous mountains of Garizim and Hebal. (Calmet) --- Sichem was at the foot of the former mountain of blessings; and Josephus informs us, the altar was erected in its vicinity. No fitter place could therefore have been selected by the aged chief, to conclude the actions of his life, and to attach the people to the religion which they had once received, in the most signal manner. The Vatican and Alexandrian copies (Haydock) of the Septuagint, followed by St. Augustine (q. 30,) read Silo, where the tabernacle was fixed: but all the rest agree with the original, and with the ancient versions, in retaining Sichem, to which place the ark was removed on this occasion, (Calmet) the distance of ten (St. Jerome) or twelve miles. (Eusebius) --- It is not probable that an oak would be growing in the sanctuary, near the altar, contrary to the express prohibition of the Lord, ver. 26., and Deuteronomy 16:21. (Calmet) --- Many interpreters suppose that the assembly might be held at Silo, in the territory of Sichem. (Tirinus; Menochius; Serarius) --- But the distance seems too great; and Bonfrere rather thinks that the copies of the Septuagint have been altered. (Haydock) --- Salien remarks, that they might go in solemn procession from Sichem to Silo. (In the year of the world 2600)
Joshua 24:2 And he spoke thus to the people: Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old on the other side of the river, *Thare, the father of Abraham, and Nachor: and they served strange gods.

Genesis 11:26.
Of the river. The Euphrates. (Challoner) --- Gods. Some think that Abraham himself was in his youth engaged in the worship of idols, (though this is denied by St. Augustine, City of God 16:13.; Theodoret, q. 18.; etc.; Worthington) as well as his father, etc., ver. 14., and Genesis 11:31. Thare was the father of both Abraham and Nachor, (Genesis 11:26,) unless (Haydock) the grandfather (Menochius) of Abraham be meant, who was also called Nachor, (Haydock) as well as Rebecca's grandfather, Genesis xxiv. (Worthington)
Joshua 24:3 *And I took your father, Abraham, from the borders of Mesopotamia: and brought him into the land of Chanaan: and I multiplied his seed,

Genesis 11:31.
From the. Hebrew and Septuagint, "other side of the flood or river," where Mesopotamia commences. (Haydock)
Joshua 24:4 *And gave him Isaac: **and to him again I gave Jacob and Esau.*** And I gave to Esau Mount Seir for his possession:**** but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt.

Genesis 21:2.; Genesis 25:26.; Genesis 36:8.; Genesis 46:6.
Isaac, the promised seed and heir of the blessings, (Calmet) after Ismael was born. (Haydock)
Joshua 24:5 *And I sent Moses and Aaron, and I struck Egypt with many signs and wonders.

Exodus 3:10.
Joshua 24:6 *And I brought you and your fathers out of Egypt, and you came to the sea: **and the Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen, as far as the Red Sea.

Exodus 12:37.; Exodus 14:9.
You. Many still survived, and had seen these wonders, as God had only exterminated those who had murmured.
Joshua 24:7 And the children of Israel cried to the Lord: and he put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them. Your eyes saw all that I did in Egypt, and you dwelt in the wilderness a long time.

Joshua 24:8 And I brought you into the land of the Amorrhite, who dwelt beyond the Jordan.* And when they fought against you, I delivered them into your hands, and you possessed their land, and slew them.

Numbers 21:24.
Joshua 24:9 And Balac, son of Sephor, king of Moab, arose and fought against Israel.* And he sent and called for Balaam, son of Beor, to curse you:

Numbers 22:5.
Fought, not perhaps with the sword, but by endeavouring to get Israel cursed, that so he might be unable to make any resistance. He had the will to fight, and in this sense princes are said to be at war, though they never come to an engagement, 3 Kings 14:38. (Calmet) --- Balac shut his gates against Israel. (St. Augustine, q. 26.)
Joshua 24:10 And I would not hear him, but on the contrary I blessed you by him, and I delivered you out of his hand.

Joshua 24:11 *And you passed over the Jordan, and you came to Jericho. And the men of that city fought against you, the Amorrhite, and the Pherezite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, and the Gergesite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite: and I delivered them into your hands.

Josue 3:14.; Josue 6:1.; Josue 11:3.
Men. Hebrew, "the masters of Jericho," which may denote either the king or the inhabitants. It is thought that people of the different nations were come to defend the city, or the text may signify that not only Jericho, but these different people, (Calmet) fought successively against the people of God, but all in vain. (Haydock) --- The fighting of the inhabitants of Jericho was only intentional; a miracle rendered all their efforts abortive. Yet this is called fighting in scripture (ver. 9,) as well as in other authors. "We judge of actions by the intention, says St. Isidore: (Pelus. 2:ep. 289,) the person who intended to murder is punished, though he only inflicted a wound; and on the other hand, he who dills undesignedly receives a pardon." So Orion was said to have violated Diana, because he wished to do it; and Virgil, (Aeneid viii.) speaking of some who already thought they were in possession of the capital, says, Galli per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant, "they seized the citadel," though they never entered it. (Calmet) --- Yet it is probable that the inhabitants of Jericho would defend themselves. (Menochius)
Joshua 24:12 *And I sent before you hornets: and I drove them out from their places, the two kings of the Amorrhites, not with thy sword, nor with thy bow.

Exodus 23:28.; Deuteronomy 7:20.; Josue 11:20.
Hornets. St. Augustine explains this of the rumours, or devils, which terrified the people of the country. But it is generally understood literally, Wisdom 12:8. (Menochius) (Exodus 23:28.) (Calmet) --- The two, etc., not only the nations on the west, but also those on the east side of the Jordan, who fell, not so much by the valour of the Israelites, as by the terror and judgments of God. (Haydock) --- The resistance which they made was hardly worth mentioning.
Joshua 24:13 And I gave you a land, in which you had not laboured, and cities to dwell in, which you built not, vineyards and olive-yards, which you planted not.

Joshua 24:14 *Now therefore fear the Lord, and serve him with a perfect and most sincere heart: and put away the gods which your fathers served in Mesopotamia, and in Egypt, and serve the Lord.

1 Kings. 7:3.; Tobias 14:10.
The gods. Some still retained in their hearts an affection for these idols, though privately; (Calmet) so that Josue could not convict them, or bring them to condign punishment; as no doubt he, and Moses before him, would have done, if they had been apprized of any overt act of idolatry. Amos 5:26, says, You carried a tabernacle for your Moloch and the image of your idols, etc., which is confirmed by Ezechiel 23:3, 8., and Acts 7:42. For these acts many of the people were punished, (Numbers 25:3, 9,) and the rest were either sincerely converted, or took care to hide their impiety till after the death of Josue. Yet the secret inclination of many was still corrupt; and these no sooner found a proper opportunity than they relapsed repeatedly into the worship of idols, for which reason the prophets represent their disposition as criminal from their youth. (Haydock) --- St. Augustine (q. 29,) cannot think that the people, who are so often praised for their fidelity during the administration of Josue and of the ancients, (chap. 22:2., and 23:3, 8., and 24:31,) and who had testified such zeal against every appearance of idolatry in Ruben, (chap. 22.) should be themselves infected with this deadly poison. He therefore supposes that Josue exhorts them to repent, if any of them should have retained a predilection for the worship of their ancestors in Mesopotamia, and in Egypt, (Calmet) which, by the prophetic light he saw, was secretly the case. (Worthington) --- Yet, though the great majority was clear of this crime, it seems many concealed from their leaders their secret attachment to it, ver. 23; (Calmet) or if they were sincere, for a time, their former bad habits soon gained the ascendancy, and involved them in perdition. (Haydock) --- Fathers. He does not exempt Abraham, and the Jews acknowledge that he was once an idolater, which is the opinion of St. Ephrem, of the author of the Recognitions, B. I., and of many moderns; some of whom think that St. Paul gives him the epithet of impious, or ungodly, on that account, Romans 4:5. The idolatry of the Hebrews in Egypt, is no less certain than that of their ancestors in Mesopotamia, Ezechiel 23:2, 8, 27. (Calmet)
Joshua 24:15 But if it seem evil to you to serve the Lord, you have your choice: choose this day that which pleaseth you, whom you would rather serve, whether the gods which your fathers served in Mesopotamia, or the gods of the Amorrhites, in whose land you dwell: but as for me and my house we will serve the Lord.

Choice. Josue was persuaded that no restraint could bind the will; (Haydock) and that, if the Israelites did not freely adhere to the Lord, they would not serve him long, nor would their adoration have any merit. (Calmet) --- Hence he endeavours by all means to draw from them a free and candid acknowledgment of his divinity; and he leads the way, by declaring that all his house will adhere to the true and only God. They answer his fullest expectations, and profess in the most cordial manner, that every tie of gratitude must bind them for ever to the service of the same Lord. (Haydock) --- Elias makes a similar proposition; (3 Kings 18:21. See Ecclesiasticus 15:18.; Menochius) not that it can be ever lawful to choose evil and to reject the sovereign good. But by this method the minds and hearts of the audience are stimulated to make the free and decided election of what alone can ensure their eternal happiness. (Haydock) --- Thus we often set before the people hell or heaven for their choice. (Menochius)
Joshua 24:16 And the people answered, and said: God forbid we should leave the Lord, and serve strange gods:

Joshua 24:17 The Lord our God he brought us and our fathers out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage: and did very great signs in our sight, and preserved us in all the way by which we journeyed, and among all the people through whom we passed.

Joshua 24:18 And he hath cast out all the nations, the Amorrhite, the inhabitant of the land, into which we are come. Therefore we will serve the Lord, for he is our God.

Joshua 24:19 And Josue said to the people: You will not be able to serve the Lord: for he is a holy God, and mighty and jealous, and will not forgive your wickedness and sins.

You will not be able to serve the Lord, etc. This was not said by way of discouraging them; but rather to make them more earnest and resolute, by setting before them the greatness of the undertaking, and the courage and constancy necessary to go through with it. (Challoner) --- Josue knew the fickle temper of his subjects. He insinuates, therefore, that if they do not lay that aside, they will not stand to their engagements, (Calmet) and will irritate God the more, if they enter into a covenant with him, and afterwards prove inconsistent. Hebrew La thuclu, "you cannot," may perhaps have the first u redundant; (Kennicott) as that is a letter which is often inserted or omitted at the transcriber's pleasure. (Aben Ezra. Simon) --- Hallet suggests that we ought to read lo thucelu, "you shall not cease," which would obviate the apparent difficulty of Josue's attempting, as it were, to cool the fervour of the people, by insinuating that they will not be able to stick to their resolutions, and that at a time when he is exerting every nerve to make them sensible of their duty, and to engage them to swear an inviolable fidelity to the Lord. "Cease not to serve the Lord, for he is a holy God, he is a jealous God, he will not forgive your rebellion, (Copssácos. Job 34:27,) nor your sins; if you forsake the Lord, and serve strange gods, then he will turn and consume you." (Kennicott, Dis. 2.) --- If we were to read with an interrogation, "Will you not be able? etc., it might answer the same end. Josue may be considered as starting an objection, which is but too common in the mouth of the slothful, and of many of the pretended reformers, Luther, etc., who endeavour to persuade the world that they are not able to comply with the rigour of God's law, and even make his severity an encouragement for their despair. Josue replies that these pretexts are groundless, and that God, who has already done so much for them, (ver. 20,) will not abandon them in their wants, if they cry unto him; and that, instead of being dejected by the thought of his judgments, they ought to strive, with the utmost fervour, to comply with his divine will. (Haydock) --- A general sometimes withholds the ardour of his soldiers, telling them that they are not a match for the enemy, in order to inflame their courage the more. (Menochius) --- A torrent which has been long repressed, rushes forward with greater fury when the dam is broken down. (Haydock)
Joshua 24:20 If you leave the Lord, and serve strange gods, he will turn, and will afflict you, and will destroy you, after all the good he hath done you.

Turn, and alter his conduct in your regard, instead of being your protector, he will destroy you.
Joshua 24:21 And the people said to Josue: No, it shall not be so as thou sayest, but we will serve the Lord.

Lord. We shall not experience the chastisements with which thou hast threatened us, because we will adhere inviolably to the Lord. (Calmet)
Joshua 24:22 And Josue said to the people: You are witnesses, that you yourselves have chosen you the Lord to serve him. And they answered: We are witnesses.

Joshua 24:23 Now therefore, said he, put away strange gods from among you, and incline your hearts to the Lord, the God of Israel.

Joshua 24:24 And the people said to Josue: We will serve the Lord our God, and we will be obedient to his commandments.

Joshua 24:25 Josue therefore on that day made a covenant, and set before the people commandments and judgments in Sichem.

Covenant. He renewed the one that had been formerly made, stipulating, on the part of God, that the people should serve Him alone, ver. 23. After which he probably read some of the most striking passages of Deuteronomy, (Calmet) particularly the Decalogue, or ten commandments, with the blessings and curses which enforced the observance of them, Deuteronomy 5., and 27., and 28., and 29., and 30. (Haydock) --- Then the people swore that they would observe the law, the customary sacrifices were offered, and a record of the whole was subjoined by Josue to that of Moses, in order that it might be deposited in or near the ark, Deuteronomy 31:26. (Calmet) --- This renewal of the covenant prefigured the law of grace. (St. Augustine, q. 30.) (Worthington)
Joshua 24:26 And he wrote all these things in the volume of the law of the Lord: and he took a great stone, and set it under the oak that was in the sanctuary of the Lord:

Lord, particularly what related to the ratification of the covenant, which was the last public act of this great man. He placed it in its proper order in the continuation of the sacred history, which Moses had commenced. (Haydock) --- Stone unpolished, except where there was an inscription, relating what had taken place. (Menochius) --- This monument of religion was not forbidden, Deuteronomy 16:22. (Calmet) --- Oak. Hebrew alla, is translated a turpentine tree, Genesis 35:4., (Haydock) and by the Septuagint here. But most people translate the oak. (Chaldean; Aquila; etc.) Under it Jacob buried the idols of Laban, and Abimelech was chosen king; (Judges 9:6,) as Abraham had entertained the angels under the same tree, Genesis 18:1., (Calmet) and had sat under it when he first came into Sichem, Genesis 12:6. On which supposition it must have subsisted about 500 years. (Menochius) --- It was even shewn some ages after Christ. But it is hardly credible that the same tree should have continued for such a length of time. --- Sanctuary, or tent, where the ark was placed on this occasion under the oak. (Calmet; Bonfrere) --- Some think it was at Silo. (Menochius; ver. 1.) --- Kennicott denies that the ark was present, and supposes that they offered sacrifice upon the very altar which Josue had erected on Garizim, between 20 and 30 years before; and that this mountain is here called the sanctuary or "holy place." Upon it the oak might very well grow, and Josue might "with great propriety take some large stone, and set it up for a witness, making at the same time this striking remark, that this stone had heard all the words of the Lord, or had been present when his law was inscribed and read to the people at their former solemn convention." Hence he infers against Collins, "that the Jews had thoughts of worshipping, and did worship at Gerizim long before the separation of Israel from Juda;" and it was probably for fear of the Israelites returning to a sense of their duty, by the sight of these monuments of the old religion, that Jeroboam refrained from setting up his golden calves in the vicinity. (Diss. 2:p. 119.) (Haydock)
Joshua 24:27 And he said to all the people: Behold this stone shall be a testimony unto you, that it hath heard all the words of the Lord, which he hath spoken to you: lest perhaps hereafter you will deny it, and lie to the Lord your God.

It hath heard. This is a figure of speech, by which sensation is attributed to inanimate things; and they are called upon, as it were, to bear witness in favour of the great Creator, whom they on their part constantly obey, (Challoner) which is the best manner of hearing. They rise up to our confusion. (Theodoret, q. 19.) (Worthington) --- The oriental writers delight in these strong figurative expressions, which are not confined to poetry. Jesus Christ says, that if the children were silent, the stones would cry out, Luke 19:40. See Numbers 13:33., and Genesis 4:10. (Calmet) --- Lest. Hebrew, "it shall be therefore a witness unto you, lest you deny your God;" or literally, "lie unto your Elohim." (Haydock) --- The expression often means to revolt and prove faithless, Deuteronomy 33:29., etc.
Joshua 24:28 And he sent the people away, every one to their own possession.

Joshua 24:29 And after these things Josue, the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being a hundred and ten years old:

And after, etc. If Josue wrote this book, as is commonly believed, these last verses were added by Samuel, or some other prophet. (Challoner) --- Scholastic History. (Worthington) --- Josue had governed Israel 17 years with the greatest prudence and fidelity. (Calmet) --- Some extend his administration to a longer period. (Haydock) --- He paid the debt of nature (that is, he died) probably not long after the ratification of the covenant. It does not appear that he was ever married. (St. Jerome, contra Jov. 1.; St Chrysostom) --- The Scripture does not mention that the people mourned for him, as they had done for Moses, etc. Yet we cannot doubt but they would shew this mark of respect to his memory, on account of the many benefits which they had received from him. The Holy Ghost has vouchsafed to be his panegyrist, Numbers 27:12., and Ecclesiasticus 46:1., etc. Josephus ([Antiquities?] 5:1,) represents him as a most universal character, equally perfect in every thing that he took in hand. His greatest honour is to have been so striking a figure of Jesus, whose name he bore, (Calmet) and whose sacred office in administering a second circumcision after he had caused the people to cross the Jordan, he so well described. Like him he introduces the faithful into the land of promise, overthrows their enemies, and establishes them in peace, taking care both at the beginning and at the end of his administration, to set before their eyes the will of the heavenly Father, the God who is both holy and jealous, ver. 19. Under Josue the Israelites are invincible, only as long as they continue faithful, Josue 7. But Jesus secures his Church both from infidelity and from the attacks of all her enemies, by his all-powerful grace. (Haydock) --- The Jews have attributed to Josue ten regulations, which are too trifling to have been made by him. (Selden, Jur. 6:2.) --- The Samaritan chronicle embellishes the account of this great man with many surprising and puerile fictions, as if the true history were not sufficient to excite our attention. See Basnage and Serarius. (Calmet) --- The Jews say Josue died on the 26th of Nisan, unmarried. The Roman martyrology honours his memory on the 1st of September. (Salien, in the year before Christ 1453.) It is probable that the Egyptian or Tyrean Hercules, who encountered so many giants and difficulties, was no other than Josue, whose history the pagans have obscured with fables. (Vossius.) (Haydock)
Joshua 24:30 And they buried him in the border of his possession, in Thamnathsare, which is situate in Mount Ephraim, on the north side of Mount Gaas.

Thamnathsare. Judges 2:9. The last word is written hares (eros) the first and last letters being transposed in one of these places. It may probably be in this verse, as we read of Mount Hares, Judges 1:35. Kennicott rather thinks that Sare is the proper reading, as it is found in the Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate versions of the Book of Judges. He observes, that if we were to read in an English historian that the renowned Marlborough was buried at Blenheim, near Woodstock, and a few pages after that his remains were interred "at Blenmeih, etc., we should naturally conclude that two letters had exchanged their places. And may we not allow the same in this part of the sacred history, as it is universally printed" in Hebrew? (Dis. I.) Some, however, maintain that Thamnath hares was so called, on account of "the image of the sun" being placed in the tomb of Josue, along with the knives of stone used by him in circumcision, which last the Septuagint and St. Augustine (q. 30,) admit. But these must be reckoned among the Jewish or Oriental fables, (Calmet) though it is not improbable but the circumcising knives might be thus preserved, as a monument of the covenant made with the Israelites. (Haydock) --- Gaas. This was another name for Mount Sare, or Hares, a part of Mount Ephraim; where St. Jerome tells us St. Paula visited the tomb of Josue. It was shewn near Thamna in the days of Eusebius. (Calmet) --- No mention is made of mourning, as for Moses, etc., to insinuate that under the law the saints descended into limbo, but are admitted into paradise under the gospel. (St. Jerome, mans. 34.) (Worthington)
Joshua 24:31 And Israel served the Lord all the days of Josue, and of the ancients that lived a long time after Josue, and that had known all the works of the Lord, which he had done in Israel.

Long time; perhaps fifteen years. These ancients kept the people in order by their authority (Calmet) and good example, so great an influence have the manners of superiors upon those of the subjects. (Menochius) --- Regis ad exemplar totus componitur orbis. See 2 Paralipomenon 24:2, 16. After the death of these virtuous rulers, who had been formed in the school of Moses and of Josue, and had beheld the wonders of God, (Haydock) the people began to embrace the worship of Baalim, Judges 2:11.
Joshua 24:32 *And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel had taken out of Egypt, they buried in Sichem, in that part of the field **which Jacob had bought of the sons of Hemor, the father of Sichem, for a hundred young ewes, and it was in the possession of the sons of Joseph.

Genesis 59:24.; Exodus 13:9.; Genesis 33:19.
Sichem. Joseph had charged his brethren to take his bones with them, Genesis 50:24., and Exodus 13:19. Masius supposes that they were solemnly interred after the altar was erected near Sichem, and the covenant ratified, when all the people were together. Others think that they deferred doing this till the country was conquered and divided. Josue would lose no time unnecessarily in performing these last rites to the revered patriarch. --- Field. Jacob had given this field to his son. He had first purchased it; (Genesis 33:19,) and when the Amorrhite had taken possession again, after the unhappy affair at Sichem, he recovered it by the sword, Genesis 48:22. --- Ewes. Hebrew Kesita may denote also some species of money, though not perhaps marked with any figure of a lamb, etc. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "pieces of silver." (Haydock) --- The mausoleum of Joseph at Sichem, was to be seen in St. Jerome's time. (q. Heb. in Gen.) (Worthington)
Joshua 24:33 Eleazar also, the son of Aaron, died: and they buried him in Gabaath, that belongeth to Phinees, his son, which was given him in Mount Ephraim.

Eleazar, the second high priest, was succeeded by his son Phinees. They were both of a very unexceptionable character. The Holy Ghost says, (Ecclesiasticus 45:28,) Phinees, the son of Eleazar, is the third in glory, by imitating him (his father or grandfather) in the fear of the Lord, etc. The Jews seem to have adopted the doctrine of Pythagoras, with respect to Phinees, (Haydock) as they say that he was the man of God, (3 Kings 2:27,) who appeared to Heli, (Trad. Heb. in Reg.) and that he was consulted by Jephte, and gave him advice to fulfil his vow; that he was the same person with Elias, and with one Phinees, who returned from the captivity with Esdras, 1 Paralipomenon 9:20. They will even have him to be an incarnate angel. (Ap. Munster, etc.) But without dwelling any longer on these fabulous accounts, (Calmet) he was surely a man of the greatest zeal and piety. (Haydock) --- In consideration of his extraordinary merit, the city of Gabaath was given to him, though it was not properly a sacerdotal city, and priests could not regularly possess any land as their inheritance. Grotius supposes that he obtained this city along with his wife, as she was an heiress of the tribe of Ephraim. But if that had been the case, must she not have married some of the same tribe? Numbers 36:8. (Calmet) --- Septuagint (Grabe) add, "In that day the children of Israel taking the ark of the covenant of God, carried it about among themselves, and Phinees was priest instead of his father, till he died, and he was buried in Gabaath, his own city. But the Israelites went each to his own place and city; and the children of Israel worshipped Astarte and Asteroth, and the gods of the surrounding nations, and the Lord delivered them into the hands of Eglon, the king of Moab, and he held them in subjection 18 years." See Judges 3:12, 14. Why this is recorded in this place does not appear, unless it be to insinuate that the servitude under Eglon did not commence till after the death of Phinees, who had been high priest 40 years. Abisue, his son, entered upon the pontificate in the first year of the administration of Aod, 1 Paralipomenon 6:4, 50. (Salien, in the year of the world 2641, in the year before Christ 1412.) Josue and Eleazar had reigned nearly during the same period of time, and finished their course together. They had assisted each other in keeping the people of God under due restraint. Their successors in office acted with the like zeal and concord, though they were not quite so successful. It is probable that Phinees would have the chief sway in "the aristocracy" of the ancients, which Josephus says took place between Josue and Othoniel. Their government is acknowledged by most authors, though Salien supposes that their authority, as distinct from the Sanhedrim, consisted in giving good example. Many assert that Phinees ruled the people twenty-three years. (Haydock)