1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

Presents commentary in a tabular format for ease of reading.Click to learn more.

Proverbs 1:1 The parables of Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel,

Israel. The dignity of the author, and the importance of the subject, invite us to read. (St. Basil) --- Solomon is the first whose name is placed at the head of any work in Scripture. (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:2 To know wisdom, and instruction:

To know. This is the design of these parables. (Calmet) --- They tend to instruct both the unexperienced and the wise, ver. 5. There are three sorts of wisdom: the divine, which is God himself; (chap. 3:16.) the supernatural, which is his gift, to lead us into all virtue; and the worldly, which is mixed with error, etc. (Worthington) (Wisdom 7:25.)
Proverbs 1:3 To understand the words of prudence: and to receive the instruction of doctrine, justice, and judgment, and equity:

Proverbs 1:4 To give subtilty to little ones, to the young man knowledge and understanding.

Subtilty. Discretion to the innocent. (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:5 A wise man shall hear and shall be wiser: and he that understandeth shall possess governments.

Wiser. "Tamdiu audiendum et discendum est, quamdiu nescias, et si proverbio credimus, quamdiu vivas," says Seneca, ep. 77. --- Governments. And be fit to govern others, (Worthington) as well as himself. (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:6 He shall understand a parable, and the interpretation, the words of the wise, and their mysterious sayings.

Sayings. This science was much esteemed, 3 Kings 10:1., and Ecclesiasticus 39:2.
Proverbs 1:7 *The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. Fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Psalm 110:10.; Ecclesiasticus 1:16.
Fear. Thus we arrive at charity. (St. Augustine, in ep. Jo. ix.; Job 28:28., etc.) This fear includes religion, but not barren speculations. (Calmet) --- It implies a desire to act, and not simply to understand.
Proverbs 1:8 My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother:

Mother. The first precept is to learn of our elders, and the second to resist evil counsels, ver. 10. (Worthington) --- Our parents have the greatest influence over us. Solomon presupposes that they are virtuous and well informed. (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:9 That grace may be added to thy head, and a chain of gold to thy neck.

Proverbs 1:10 My son, if sinners shall entice thee, consent not to them.

Entice. Hebrew, "deceive." (Calmet) --- Pessimum inimicorum genus laudantes. (Tacitus, in vit. Agric.)
Proverbs 1:11 If they shall say: Come with us, let us lie in wait for blood, let us hide snares for the innocent without cause:

Proverbs 1:12 Let us swallow him up alive like hell, and whole as one that goeth down into the pit.

Pit. Grave, or hell, like Dathan, Numbers xvi. This shews the greatest rage, Job 31:31.
Proverbs 1:13 We shall find all precious substance, we shall fill our houses with spoils.

Proverbs 1:14 Cast in thy lot with us, let us all have one purse.

Proverbs 1:15 My son, walk not thou with them, restrain thy foot from their paths.

Proverbs 1:16 *For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.

Isaias 59:7.
Proverbs 1:17 But a net is spread in vain before the eyes of them that have wings.

Wings. If thou attend, therefore, to my instructions, their arts will be vain. (Ven. Bede) --- They unjustly seek to deceive the pious. (Calmet) --- Watchfulness will be the best protection against them. (Worthington)
Proverbs 1:18 And they themselves lie in wait for their own blood, and practise deceits against their own souls.

Proverbs 1:19 So the ways of every covetous man destroy the souls of the possessors.

Possessors. Of money. (Calmet) --- While they attempt to invade another's property, they ruin themselves, and come to the gallows. (Haydock)
Proverbs 1:20 Wisdom preacheth abroad, she uttereth her voice in the streets:

Streets. In every place we may learn wisdom. "The wise learn more from fools, than fools do from the wise," as Cato well observed. (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:21 At the head of multitudes she crieth out, in the entrance of the gates of the city she uttereth her words, saying:

Proverbs 1:22 O children, how long will you love childishness, and fools covet those things which are hurtful to themselves, and the unwise hate knowledge?

Fools. Hebrew, "and scorners delight in their scorning." (Protestants) --- Such are the pests of society. (Haydock) --- They turn piety to ridicule, and will talk about things which they do not understand, like our esprits forts, (Calmet) or pretended philosophers. (Haydock)
Proverbs 1:23 Turn ye at my reproof: behold I will utter my spirit to you, and will shew you my words.

Proverbs 1:24 *Because I called, and you refused: I stretched out my hand, and there was none that regarded.

Isaias 65:12.; Isaias 66:4.; Jeremias 7:13.
Proverbs 1:25 You have despised all my counsel, and have neglected my reprehensions.

Proverbs 1:26 I also will laugh in your destruction, and will mock when that shall come to you which you feared.

Mock. God is too much above us to act thus; but he will treat us as an enraged enemy. (Calmet) --- In hell, the damned will cry in vain, ver. 28. They had sufficient graces offered while they were alive. (Worthington)
Proverbs 1:27 When sudden calamity shall fall on you, and destruction, as a tempest, shall be at hand: when tribulation and distress shall come upon you:

Proverbs 1:28 Then shall they call upon me, and I will not hear: they shall rise in the morning, and shall not find me:

Find me. Because their repentance was false, like that of Antiochus, 2 Machabees 9:13., and Psalm 11:4. (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:29 Because they have hated instruction, and received not the fear of the Lord,

Proverbs 1:30 Nor consented to my counsel, but despised all my reproof.

Despised. Literally, "detracted," (Haydock) supposing my threats would not be put in execution. Hebrew, "they abhorred." (Calmet)
Proverbs 1:31 Therefore they shall eat the fruit of their own way, and shall be filled with their own devices.

Proverbs 1:32 The turning away of little ones shall kill them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them.

Turning. Hebrew, "the ease of the simple," who have given way to deceit. (Calmet) --- Them. The objects of their eager desires, prove their ruin, Ezechiel 16:49.
Proverbs 1:33 But he that shall hear me, shall rest without terror, and shall enjoy abundance, without fear of evils.

Evils. Both the just and the wicked, (ver. 31.; Haydock) shall be treated according to their deserts, 2 Corinthians 5:10. (Worthington) --- Even in this world, the just enjoy the peace of a good conscience. (Menochius)
Proverbs 2:0 The advantages of wisdom: and the evils from which it delivers.

Proverbs 2:1 My son, if thou wilt receive my words, and wilt hide my commandments with thee,

If. This proves free will. To become truly wise, we must desire it with the same avidity as a miser seeks for riches. (Worthington) --- We must also pray, (ver. 3.) with humility (ver. 2.) to God, the giver of wisdom, ver. 6. Every science which has not Him for the beginning and end, is vain and dangerous. (Calmet)
Proverbs 2:2 That thy ear may hearken to wisdom: incline thy heart to know prudence.

Proverbs 2:3 For if thou shalt call for wisdom, and incline thy heart to prudence:

Proverbs 2:4 If thou shalt seek her as money, and shalt dig for her as for a treasure:

Proverbs 2:5 Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and shalt find the knowledge of God:

Proverbs 2:6 Because the Lord giveth wisdom: and out of his mouth cometh prudence and knowledge.

Proverbs 2:7 He will keep the salvation of the righteous, and protect them that walk in simplicity,

Salvation. Protestants, "sound wisdom." Tushiya (Haydock) often occurs in this book, and is very comprehensive, (Calmet) denoting the substance (Haydock) of goodness, virtue, etc., Job 5:12.
Proverbs 2:8 Keeping the paths of justice, and guarding the ways of saints.

Justice. In his servants. (Calmet) --- God gives them grace to follow virtue, (Haydock) and protects them from every danger. (Calmet)
Proverbs 2:9 Then shalt thou understand justice, and judgment, and equity, and every good path.

Proverbs 2:10 If wisdom shall enter into thy heart, and knowledge please thy soul:

Proverbs 2:11 Counsel shall keep thee, and prudence shall preserve thee,

Proverbs 2:12 That thou mayst be delivered from the evil way, and from the man that speaketh perverse things:

Things. The danger of such company for young people is very great, as the heart is misled by the understanding, (Calmet) if it do not itself shew the way to error. (Haydock) --- We all possess a fund of corruption. (Calmet)
Proverbs 2:13 Who leave the right way, and walk by dark ways:

Proverbs 2:14 Who are glad when they have done evil, and rejoice in the most wicked things:

Evil. These signs prove whom we ought to shun. St. Augustine depicts his own conduct before his conversion in the darkest colours. (Calmet)
Proverbs 2:15 Whose ways are perverse, and their steps infamous.

Proverbs 2:16 That thou mayst be delivered from the strange women, and from the stranger, who softeneth her words;

Strange. Idolatress, (Grotius) or rather the abandoned woman, whether married or not. (Calmet) --- This description, as well as the former, guards us against heretics, who leave the right way of the Catholic Church, (ver. 13.) and devise perverse doctrines of rebellion against princes, etc., as if faith alone were sufficient. By this faith, Protestants do not mean any article which all must believe, but only that each one must be convinced that he himself is just, and will be saved. Like the strange woman, they preach a comfortable doctrine, and use sweet speeches, Romans 16:18. Their conversion is a very difficult matter, (ver. 19.) because they are condemned by their own judgment, (Titus 3:11.) and will not admit of the ordinary means of instruction in the Church. (Worthington)
Proverbs 2:17 And forsaketh the guide of her youth,

Youth. Her husband, whom she married young when love is more lasting. This increases her guilt. It may also signify her father, or preceptor.
Proverbs 2:18 And hath forgotten the covenant of her God: for her house inclineth unto death, and her paths to hell.

God. The law forbids adultery, and all impurities, Deuteronomy 23:17., and Leviticus 20:10. Both the parties, guilty of adultery, were punished with death. (Calmet)
Proverbs 2:19 None that go in unto her, shall return again, neither shall they take hold of the paths of life.

Life. A sincere conversion is so rare among people once addicted to impurity, (Haydock) which resembles a deep pit. (Calmet) --- This illness is hardly removed. (Menochius)
Proverbs 2:20 That thou mayst walk in a good way: and mayst keep the paths of the just.

Proverbs 2:21 For they that are upright, shall dwell in the earth; and the simple shall continue in it.

Earth. Happily. This was the wish of the carnal Jews. But the more enlightened raise their thoughts to heaven.
Proverbs 2:22 *But the wicked shall be destroyed from the earth: and they that do unjustly, shall be taken away from it.

Job 18:17.
Proverbs 3:0 An exhortation to the practice of virtue.

Proverbs 3:1 My son, forget not my law, and let thy heart keep my commandments.

My son. God speaks, or the master instructs his disciple, ver. 21. (Calmet) --- We must remember and love instruction, and reduce it to practice. (Worthington)
Proverbs 3:2 For they shall add to thee length of days, and years of life, and peace.

Peace. These prefigured more substantial blessings. (Calmet)
Proverbs 3:3 Let not mercy and truth leave thee, put them about thy neck, and write them in the tables of thy heart.

Truth. Be kind and faithful to all, Genesis 24:27., and Psalm 24:10.
Proverbs 3:4 And thou shalt find grace, and good understanding before God and men.

Good. Septuagint, "forecast good before the Lord and men." St. Paul seems to allude to this version, Romans 12:17., and 2 Corinthians 8:22. (Haydock)
Proverbs 3:5 Have confidence in the Lord with all thy heart, and lean not upon thy own prudence.

All. God will have nothing by halves. --- Lean not. By pride, 2 Corinthians 12:13. All must be referred to God. (Calmet) --- In him we may safely trust. (Worthington)
Proverbs 3:6 In all thy ways think on him, and he will direct thy steps.

Proverbs 3:7 *Be not wise in thy own conceit: fear God, and depart from evil:

Romans 12:16.
Proverbs 3:8 For it shall be health to thy navel, and moistening to thy bones.

Bones. Thou shalt enjoy perfect health.
Proverbs 3:9 *Honour the Lord with thy substance, and give him of the first of all thy fruits;

Tobias 4:7.; Luke 14:13.
Fruits. Septuagint add, "of justice;" to intimate that no presents will be acceptable, which have been unjustly acquired.
Proverbs 3:10 And thy barns shall be filled with abundance, and thy presses shall run over with wine.

Proverbs 3:11 *My son, reject not the correction of the Lord: and do not faint when thou art chastised by him:

Hebrews 12:5.; Apocalypse 3:10.
Him. Correction is rather a proof of love than of anger, Psalm 3:19. (Calmet) --- God thus shews that he approves of his servants; and therefore his other promises, which seem of a temporal nature, must be understood with reference to the next life. (Worthington)
Proverbs 3:12 For whom the Lord loveth, he chastiseth: and as a father in the son he pleaseth himself.

And as. Septuagint, "but he scourgeth every son whom he receiveth," as St. Paul quotes this passage, Hebrews 12:6. The verb is now wanting in Hebrew, or ceab; "as a father" may signify "scourgeth, in piel, (Menochius) with i prefixed. (Calmet)
Proverbs 3:13 Blessed is the man that findeth wisdom, and is rich in prudence:

Proverbs 3:14 The purchasing thereof is better than the merchandise of silver, and her fruit than the chief and purest gold:

Proverbs 3:15 She is more precious than all riches: and all the things that are desired, are not to be compared to her.

Riches. Hebrew peninim, (Haydock) "pearls," Job 28:18. (Calmet)
Proverbs 3:16 Length of days is in her right hand, and in her left hand riches and glory.

Glory. Her hands are full, and she grants favours with profusion, (Haydock) as with both hands, promising eternal life. (Worthington)
Proverbs 3:17 Her ways are beautiful ways, and all her paths are peaceable.

Proverbs 3:18 She is a tree of life to them that lay hold on her: and he that shall retain her is blessed.

Life. Like that planted in paradise, Genesis 2:9.
Proverbs 3:19 The Lord by wisdom hath founded the earth, hath established the heavens by prudence.

Wisdom. Hitherto he had spoken of that virtue. Now he treats of the uncreated wisdom, (Calmet) which is God the Son. (Menochius) (Jansenius) (St. Gregory, Mor. 12:4.)
Proverbs 3:20 By his wisdom the depths have broken out, and the clouds grow thick with dew.

Out. The higher and lower waters being divided, (Calmet) or the channels formed to receive the waters. (Piscator) --- It may also speak of the deluge. (Ven. Bede) --- With. Hebrew, "have distilled dew." This is so copious, as to resemble rain in Palestine, Judges 6:37., and 2 Kings 17:12.
Proverbs 3:21 My son, let not these things depart from thy eyes: keep the law and counsel:

Proverbs 3:22 And there shall be life to thy soul, and grace to thy mouth.

Mouth. There have been wise and virtuous men afflicted, ver. 11. But they have borne all with patience, and have merited a more glorious reward than what this earth could afford. (Calmet)
Proverbs 3:23 Then shalt thou walk confidently in thy way, and thy foot shall not stumble:

Proverbs 3:24 If thou sleep, thou shalt not fear: thou shalt rest, and thy sleep shall be sweet.

Proverbs 3:25 Be not afraid of sudden fear, nor of the power of the wicked falling upon thee.

Proverbs 3:26 For the Lord will be at thy side, and will keep thy foot that thou be not taken.

Proverbs 3:27 Do not withhold him from doing good, who is able: if thou art able, do good thyself also.

Able. Protestants, "withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it." Relieve the distressed. (Haydock) --- They have a title to that wealth, since those who possess it are bound to relieve the indigent. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "refrain not from doing good," etc. (Haydock)
Proverbs 3:28 Say not to thy friend: Go, and come again: and to-morrow I will give to thee: when thou canst give at present.

Present. Alms in season are doubly valuable. (Worthington) --- Antigonus acquired the title of Doson, "about to give," as he never gave, (Plutarch) but only promised.
Proverbs 3:29 Practise not evil against thy friend, when he hath confidence in thee.

Proverbs 3:30 Strive not against a man without cause, when he hath done thee no evil.

Cause. We may defend ourselves; but herein great discretion is necessary. (Calmet) --- Cum pari contendere anceps est: cum superiore furiosum; cum inferiore sordidum. (Seneca, Prov.)
Proverbs 3:31 *Envy not the unjust man, and do not follow his ways.

Psalm 36:1.
Ways. Of injustice. Seek not to attain his prosperity by the same means. (Calmet)
Proverbs 3:32 For every mocker is an abomination to the Lord, and his communication is with the simple.

Proverbs 3:33 Want is from the Lord in the house of the wicked: but the habitations of the just shall be blessed.

Want. Hebrew, "a curse." --- Shall be. Hebrew, "he blesseth." (Haydock)
Proverbs 3:34 He shall scorn the scorners, and to the meek he will give grace.

Scorners. Literally, "he will delude the scorners." (Haydock) --- He will treat them as they would treat others, Psalm 17:27. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the Lord resisteth the proud," etc. So the apostles quote this passage, 1 Peter 5:5., and James 4:6. (Haydock)
Proverbs 3:35 The wise shall possess glory: the promotion of fools is disgrace.

Disgrace. They are seen by more, and their fall is more dangerous. (Calmet) --- "A fool extols what is ignominious." (Pagnin) (Haydock)
Proverbs 4:0 A further exhortation to seek after wisdom.

Proverbs 4:1 Hear, ye children, the instruction of a father, and attend, that you may know prudence.

Father. He shews the greatest respect for his parents, ver. 3. (Calmet)
Proverbs 4:2 I will give you a good gift, forsake not my law.

Proverbs 4:3 For I also was my father's son, tender, and as an only son in the sight of my mother:

As. This is not expressed. (Haydock) --- But Solomon was not the only son of Bethsabee, as St. Luke 3:23. specifies Nathan, his brother. See 2 Kings 12:24. Septuagint have "beloved in," etc.
Proverbs 4:4 And he taught me, and said: Let thy heart receive my words, keep my commandments, and thou shalt live.

He. Hebrew is masculine. (Calmet) --- As David instructed his son, so the latter teaches all how they may learn wisdom. (Worthington)
Proverbs 4:5 Get wisdom, get prudence: forget not, neither decline from the words of my mouth.

Proverbs 4:6 Forsake her not, and she shall keep thee: love her, and she shall preserve thee.

Proverbs 4:7 The beginning of wisdom, get wisdom, and with all thy possession purchase prudence.

Beginning. The first part of wisdom is to desire it. For nothing hindereth from being just, but that justice is not desired. (St. Augustine, in Psalm 118:20.) (Worthington) --- "Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get," etc. (Protestants) (Haydock) --- It is the one thing necessary. (Calmet) --- The pearl, to acquire which we must part with every thing else, if required, Matthew 13:46. (Menochius)
Proverbs 4:8 Take hold on her, and she shall exalt thee: thou shalt be glorified by her, when thou shalt embrace her.

Proverbs 4:9 She shall give to thy head increase of graces, and protect thee with a noble crown.

Proverbs 4:10 Hear, O my son, and receive my words, that years of life may be multiplied to thee.

Proverbs 4:11 I will shew thee the way of wisdom, I will lead thee by the paths of equity:

Proverbs 4:12 Which when thou shalt have entered, thy steps shall not be straitened, and when thou runnest, thou shalt not meet a stumbling-block.

Proverbs 4:13 Take hold on instruction, leave it not: keep it, because it is thy life.

Proverbs 4:14 Be not delighted in the paths of the wicked, neither let the way of evil men please thee.

Proverbs 4:15 Flee from it, pass not by it: go aside, and forsake it.

Proverbs 4:16 For they sleep not, except they have done evil: and their sleep is taken away unless they have made some to fall.

Proverbs 4:17 They eat the bread of wickedness, and drink the wine of iniquity.

Wickedness. Acquired thereby, or they make sin their food, Proverbs 26:6.
Proverbs 4:18 But the path of the just, as a shining light, goeth forwards, and increaseth even to perfect day.

Day. They are children of light, (John 12:35.) and give edification, always advancing in virtue. (Menochius)
Proverbs 4:19 The way of the wicked is darksome: they know not where they fall.

Fall. They are unconcerned about sin, and neither avoid it, nor strive to repent. (Calmet)
Proverbs 4:20 My son, hearken to my words, and incline thy ear to my sayings.

Proverbs 4:21 Let them not depart from thy eyes, keep them in the midst of thy heart:

Proverbs 4:22 For they are life to those that find them, and health to all flesh.

Flesh. All may derive benefit from their consideration. (Haydock)
Proverbs 4:23 With all watchfulness keep thy heart, because life issueth out from it.

From it. As the heart is the principal part of the body, so the will is the chief power of the soul, from which good or evil proceeds. (Worthington) --- A clean heart gives life, a corrupt one, death, Matthew 15:11, 19.
Proverbs 4:24 Remove from thee a froward mouth, and let detracting lips be far from thee.

From thee. Neither detract, nor give any countenance to detractors.
Proverbs 4:25 Let thy eyes look straight on, and let thy eye-lids go before thy steps.

Steps. Be attentive to thy own affairs, Proverbs 17:24.
Proverbs 4:26 Make straight the path for thy feet, and all thy ways shall be established.

Straight. Hebrew, "ponder." Examine what thou takest in hand, and walk not at random, Hebrews 12:13.
Proverbs 4:27 Decline not to the right hand, nor to the left: turn away thy foot from evil. For the Lord knoweth the ways that are on the right hand: but those are perverse which are on the left hand. But he will make thy courses straight, he will bring forward thy ways in peace.

For, etc. What follows in not in Hebrew or the Complutensian (Calmet) Septuagint. But it is in the Roman [Septuagint], etc., (Haydock) and in the new edition of St. Jerome, as it was explained by Ven. Bede. Lyranus and Cajetan reject it. (Calmet)
Proverbs 5:0 An exhortation to fly unlawful lust, and the occasions of it.

Proverbs 5:1 My son, attend to my wisdom, and incline thy ear to my prudence,

Proverbs 5:2 That thou mayst keep thoughts, and thy lips may preserve instruction. Mind not the deceit of a woman.

Thoughts. Or wisdom; and act with discretion. --- Mind, etc., is omitted in Hebrew and St. Jerome. (Calmet) --- By woman all concupiscence, or the inducement to sin, is commonly understood. We must not think of such things. (Worthington)
Proverbs 5:3 For the lips of a harlot are like a honeycomb dropping, and her throat is smoother than oil.

Proverbs 5:4 But her end is bitter as wormwood, and sharp as a two-edged sword.

Sword. "It is a crime even to hearken." (St. Ambrose, de Abrah. 2:11.) She seeks thy ruin, ver. 5., and Proverbs 2:16.
Proverbs 5:5 Her feet go down into death, and her steps go in as far as hell.

Proverbs 5:6 They walk not by the path of life, her steps are wandering, and unaccountable.

They. Hebrew, "if perhaps thou ponder the path of life." (Pagnin) (Haydock) --- Or "she ponders not," etc. She walks inconsiderately, and consults only her passions, Proverbs 7:10. (Calmet) --- No one can depend on her love. (Menochius)
Proverbs 5:7 Now, therefore, my son, hear me, and depart not from the words of my mouth.

Proverbs 5:8 Remove thy way far from her, and come not nigh the doors of her house.

Proverbs 5:9 Give not thy honour to strangers, and thy years to the cruel.

Strangers. The world, the flesh, and the devil are such; cruelly devising our ruin. (Worthington)
Proverbs 5:10 Lest strangers be filled with thy strength, and thy labours be in another man's house,

Strength. Or children, ver. 16., and Genesis 49:3. (Calmet)
Proverbs 5:11 And thou mourn at the last, when thou shalt have spent thy flesh and thy body, and say;

Body. He alludes to a shameful disease, the just punishment of intemperance, Ecclesiasticus 19:3.
Proverbs 5:12 Why have I hated instruction, and my heart consented not to reproof,

Proverbs 5:13 And have not heard the voice of them that taught me, and have not inclined my ear to masters?

Proverbs 5:14 I have almost been in all evil, in the midst of the church and of the congregation.

Evil. Infirm and worn out, having lost my reputation, etc. (Calmet) --- Though I lived among the faithful, I was under no restraint. (Menochius)
Proverbs 5:15 Drink water out of thy own cistern, and the streams of thy own well:

Well. Live comfortably on your own property, (Cajetan) with your own wife. (Calmet)
Proverbs 5:16 Let thy fountains be conveyed abroad, and in the streets divide thy waters.

Waters. Mayst thou have a numerous offspring, (ver. 10.) and be liberal. Many copies of the Septuagint, etc., have a negation, with Aquila, "let not thy," etc., (Calmet) though it may be read with an interrogation, "are the waters of thy fountain to be?" etc. (De Dieu) --- By no means. Origen (in Numbers xii.) acknowledges both readings. (Calmet) --- Good instructions must be given to those who are well disposed, but not to scoffers, or obstinate infidels. (Worthington) --- Husbands are exhorted to be content with their own wives, (ver. 15, 20.) so that the negative particle seems to be here wanting, as it is, Proverbs 6:17., in Manuscript 60, (Kennicott) and Proverbs 14:33. (Septuagint, etc.) (Capellus)
Proverbs 5:17 Keep them to thyself alone, neither let strangers be partakers with thee.

Thee. Stick to thy own wife. In a moral sense, let those who instruct others, take care not to neglect themselves.
Proverbs 5:18 Let thy vein be blessed, and rejoice with the wife of thy youth:

Vein. Thou shalt have a numerous progeny, Psalm 67:28., and Isaias 48:1. (Calmet)
Proverbs 5:19 Let her be thy dearest hind, and most agreeable fawn: let her breasts inebriate thee at all times: be thou delighted continually with her love.

Love. This is spoken by way of permission, and to withdraw people from unlawful connections, Ecclesiastes 2:1., and 1 Corinthians 7:29. (Calmet)
Proverbs 5:20 Why art thou seduced, my son, by a strange woman, and art cherished in the bosom of another?

Proverbs 5:21 *The Lord beholdeth the ways of man, and considereth all his steps.

Job 14:16.; Job 31:4.; Job 34:21.
Proverbs 5:22 His own iniquities catch the wicked, and he is fast bound with the ropes of his own sins.

Ropes. "Evil habits unrestrained induce a necessity," (St. Augustine, Confessions 8:5.) though not absolute. (Haydock) --- The libertine thinks he can get free as soon as he pleases; not being aware of the chains which he is forging for himself. (Calmet) --- Sin requires punishment. (Menochius)
Proverbs 5:23 He shall die, because he hath not received instruction, and in the multitude of his folly he shall be deceived.

Proverbs 6:0 Documents on several heads.

Proverbs 6:1 My son, if thou be surety for thy friend, thou hast engaged fast thy hand to a stranger.

Hand. Agreements were made by shaking hands, Isaias 62:8. (Xenophon, Anab. iii.) --- Stranger. Septuagint, "enemy." He will presently be such, or thy friend's creditor will soon lay hold on thee. By standing surety for another, we expose ourselves to be ruined by his negligence. (Calmet) --- The Persians had a horror chiefly of lying and debts. (Herodotus 1:138.) --- All sureties are not condemned, but only such as are inconsiderate. (Menochius) --- A diligent compliance with engagements is commended. (Worthington)
Proverbs 6:2 Thou art ensnared with the words of thy mouth, and caught with thy own words.

Proverbs 6:3 Do, therefore, my son, what I say, and deliver thyself: because thou art fallen into the hand of thy neighbour. Run about, make haste, stir up thy friend:

Make. Hebrew, "humble thyself, and made sure thy friend," (Protestant) entreating (Haydock) and forcing him to pay his debts. The Fathers apply this to pastors, who have undertaken to direct others. Their soul is at stake. (St. Gregory) (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:4 Give not sleep to thy eyes, neither let thy eye-lids slumber.

Proverbs 6:5 Deliver thyself as a doe from the hand, and as a bird from the hand of the fowler.

Proverbs 6:6 Go to the ant, O sluggard, and consider her ways, and learn wisdom:

Proverbs 6:7 Which, although she hath no guide, nor master, nor captain,

Proverbs 6:8 Provideth her meat for herself in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest.

Harvest. The economy and diligence of this little republic is admirable. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 30:11.) --- Some copies of the Septuagint add with St. Ambrose, (Hex. V. []1., etc.; Calmet) "or go to the bee, and behold what a worker it is, and how beautiful is its work; whose labours kings and private people use for health. But it is desirable and glorious to all; and though it be weak in strength, by the love of wisdom it has got forward" (Haydock) in esteem. (Calmet) --- Nature has given the form of a monarchy in bees, and of a democracy in the regulations of the ant. (Tournemine)
Proverbs 6:9 How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard? when wilt thou rise out of thy sleep?

Proverbs 6:10 *Thou wilt sleep a little, thou wilt slumber a little, thou wilt fold thy hands a little to sleep:

Proverbs 24:33.
Proverbs 6:11 And want shall come upon thee, as a traveller, and poverty as a man armed. But if thou be diligent, thy harvest shall come as a fountain, and want shall flee far from thee.

A traveller. Septuagint add, "wicked," and Hebrew gives the idea of a robber. (Menochius) --- But, etc. This is not in Hebrew, Complutensian, or St. Jerome. (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:12 A man that is an apostate, an unprofitable man, walketh with a perverse mouth,

Apostate. Hebrew, "of Belial,["] without restraint of religion and law. (Calmet) --- Deuteronomy 13:13. (Menochius) --- Every one who sins through malice and particularly heretics, employ all their members to pervert others. (Worthington) --- Mouth. No reliance can be had on his promises. (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:13 He winketh with the eyes, presseth with the foot, speaketh with the finger.

Finger. These signs imply haughtiness, etc., Psalm 34:19., and Isaias 58:9. The posture indicates the interior sentiments, (St. Ambrose, off. 1:18.) insomuch, that St. Ambrose would not receive among the clergy one whose gestures were too light. The Persians still speak by signs. (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:14 With a wicked heart he deviseth evil, and at all times he soweth discord.

Proverbs 6:15 To such a one his destruction shall presently come, and he shall suddenly be destroyed, and shall no longer have any remedy.

Proverbs 6:16 Six things there are, which the Lord hateth, and the seventh his soul detesteth:

Detesteth. This expression does not always mean that the last is worse than the former. (Menochius) --- All the six sins are damnable, but the seventh is here most so, being against charity and unity, and the devil's sin. (Worthington) --- Lying seems to be reprobated by three different terms. (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:17 Haughty eyes, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood,

Proverbs 6:18 A heart that deviseth wicked plots, feet that are swift to run into mischief,

Proverbs 6:19 A deceitful witness that uttereth lies, and him that soweth discord among brethren.

Proverbs 6:20 My son, keep the commandments of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother.

Proverbs 6:21 Bind them in thy heart continually, and put them about thy neck.

Proverbs 6:22 When thou walkest, let them go with thee: when thou sleepest, let them keep thee, and when thou awakest, talk with them.

Proverbs 6:23 Because the commandment is a lamp, and the law a light, and reproofs of instruction are the way of life:

Instruction. Given for our improvement, (Haydock) with charity. See Deuteronomy 6:6., and Psalm 18:9.
Proverbs 6:24 That they may keep thee from the evil woman, and from the flattering tongue of the stranger.

Stranger. This is often inculcated, because nothing is more dangerous in youth, nor more contrary to the study of wisdom.
Proverbs 6:25 Let not thy heart covet her beauty, be not caught with her winks:

Proverbs 6:26 For the price of a harlot is scarce one loaf: but the woman catcheth the precious soul of a man.

Woman. Who is married, exposes her lover to the danger of death. She chooses the most accomplished men, while the harlot receives the first comer. (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:27 Can a man hide fire in his bosom, and his garments not burn?

Burn. No one can deal with an adulteress without guilt. (Menochius) --- All probable occasions of sin must be shunned. (Worthington)
Proverbs 6:28 Or can he walk upon hot coals, and his feet not be burnt?

Proverbs 6:29 So he that goeth in to his neighbour's wife, shall not be clean when he shall touch her.

Clean. Or be left unpunished. No crime disturbs the order of society so much, nor is pardoned with more difficulty.
Proverbs 6:30 The fault is not so great when a man hath stolen: for he stealeth to fill his hungry soul:

The fault is not so great, etc. The sin of theft is not so great, as to be compared with adultery: especially when a person pressed with hunger (which is the case here spoken of) steals to satisfy nature. Moreover the damage done by theft may much more easily be repaired, than the wrong done by adultery. But this does not hinder but that theft also is a mortal sin, forbidden by one of the ten commandments. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "they will not despise a thief, when he hath stolen to fill his soul, when he is hunger." (Mont.[Montanus?]) (Haydock) --- This was commonly supposed to be his motive, and he was only condemned to make restitution, without any further disgrace, Proverbs 19:24., and Exodus 22:1. But what necessity could the adulterer plead? Both he and the woman must suffer death, Leviticus 20:10.
Proverbs 6:31 And if he be taken, he shall restore seven-fold, and shall give up all the substance of his house.

Seven-fold. Or as much as may be required. The law never subjected the thief to restore above five-fold. If he had not enough, his person might be sold. (Calmet)
Proverbs 6:32 But he that is an adulterer, for the folly of his heart shall destroy his own soul:

Folly. Literally, "want," inopiam. Hebrew, "is faint-hearted, corrupting his own soul, he will do that." (Haydock)
Proverbs 6:33 He gathereth to himself shame and dishonour, and his reproach shall not be blotted out:

Proverbs 6:34 Because the jealousy and rage of the husband will not spare in the day of revenge,

Proverbs 6:35 Nor will he yield to any man's prayers, nor will he accept for satisfaction ever so many gifts.

Gifts. "A husband would rather hear that his wife had been slain, than that she had been defiled." (St. Jerome in Amos vi.)
Proverbs 7:0 The love of wisdom is the best preservative from being led astray by temptation.

Proverbs 7:1 My son, keep my words, and lay up my precepts with thee. Son,

Words. As dangerous temptations always threaten, the same instructions are frequently inculcated. (Worthington)
Proverbs 7:2 Keep my commandments, and thou shalt live: and my law as the apple of thy eye:

Proverbs 7:3 Bind it upon thy fingers, write it upon the tables of thy heart.

Proverbs 7:4 Say to wisdom: Thou art my sister: and call prudence thy friend,

Proverbs 7:5 That she may keep thee from the woman that is not thine, and from the stranger who sweeteneth her words.

Thine. But another's, ver. 19. Give thy heart to wisdom, that it may be guarded against impure love.
Proverbs 7:6 For I look out of the window of my house through the lattice,

Lattice. No glass was used, on account of the great heat. (Calmet)
Proverbs 7:7 And I see little ones, I behold a foolish young man,

Ones. Not in age, but prudence. (Menochius)
Proverbs 7:8 Who passeth through the street by the corner, and goeth nigh the way of her house,

Proverbs 7:9 In the dark, when it grows late, in the darkness and obscurity of the night.

Proverbs 7:10 And behold a woman meeteth him in harlot's attire, prepared to deceive souls: talkative and wandering,

Attire. Covered with a veil, (Genesis 38:15.) though different from that of honest women. (Calmet) --- The wanton are commonly the most gaudy; nullarum fere pretiosior cultus est quam quarum pudor vilis est. (St. Cyprian, de Habitu.) --- Prepared, etc. Hebrew, "guarded," (Calmet) or "subtle of heart." (Protestants) "who makes the hearts of youths take flight." (Septuagint) (Canticle of Canticles 6:4.) (Haydock)
Proverbs 7:11 Not bearing to be quiet, not able to abide still at home,

Not....quiet. Is not in Hebrew. (Calmet) --- "She is loud and stubborn, her feet abide not in her house." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Chaste women are guarded in their speech, and keep at home. (Menochius)
Proverbs 7:12 Now abroad, now in the streets, now lying in wait near the corners.

Proverbs 7:13 And catching the young man, she kisseth him, and with an impudent face, flattereth, saying:

Proverbs 7:14 I vowed victims for prosperity, this day I have paid my vows.

Prosperity. Or thy welfare, (Cornelius a Lapide; Tirinus) so great is my love for thee. (Menochius) --- Vows. And therefore I have a feast prepared. People might carry home the greatest part of the victim to eat, if they were clean, Leviticus 7:29. (Calmet)
Proverbs 7:15 Therefore I am come out to meet thee, desirous to see thee, and I have found thee.

Proverbs 7:16 I have woven my bed with cords, I have covered it with painted tapestry, brought from Egypt.

Cords. For greater ease, instead of boards, (Menochius) or the curtains are hung with precious cords from Egypt. (Calmet)
Proverbs 7:17 I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon.

Aloes. Of Syria, (John 19:39.) different from ours, Numbers 34:6. (Calmet)
Proverbs 7:18 Come, let us be inebriated with the breasts, and let us enjoy the desired embraces, till the day appear.

Inebriated. Protestants, "take our fill of love until the morning: let us solace ourselves with loves." (Haydock) --- This passion is a sort of intoxication. (Menochius)
Proverbs 7:19 For my husband is not at home, he is gone a very long journey.

My. Literally, "the man." (Haydock) --- She speaks thus out of contempt. (Calmet)
Proverbs 7:20 He took with him a bag of money: he will return home the day of the full moon.

The day. Septuagint, "after many days." Hebrew, "at the day concealed," or when the people will dwell under tents, (Chaldean; Calmet) or "at the new moon," when it does not appear. (Piscator) --- He will not return for a long time, so that we need apprehend no danger from him. (Menochius)
Proverbs 7:21 She entangled him with many words, and drew him away with the flattery of her lips.

Proverbs 7:22 Immediately he followeth her as an ox led to be a victim, and as a lamb playing the wanton, and not knowing that he is drawn like a fool to bonds,

Lamb. Protestants, "fool to the correction of the stocks," (Haydock) or "like a shackle (abs.) for the chastisement of a fool." (Mont.[Montanus?]) --- Interpreters have read different words. (Calmet) --- Sinners who have given way to temptations, are as inconsiderate as oxen, or birds which hasten to their own ruin. (Worthington)
Proverbs 7:23 Till the arrow pierce his liver: as if a bird should make haste to the snare, and knoweth not that his life is in danger.

Proverbs 7:24 Now, therefore, my son, hear me, and attend to the words of my mouth.

Proverbs 7:25 Let not thy mind be drawn away in her ways: neither be thou deceived with her paths.

Proverbs 7:26 For she hath cast down many wounded, and the strongest have been slain by her.

Her. Solomon gave a melancholy proof of this, as well as David, and Amnon. (Calmet)
Proverbs 7:27 Her house is the way to hell, reaching even to the inner chambers of death.

Death. There can be no precaution too great, Proverbs 2:18. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:0 The preaching of wisdom. Her excellence.

Proverbs 8:1 Doth not wisdom cry aloud, and prudence put forth her voice?

Voice. Men are wanting to themselves: they cannot plead ignorance. (Calmet) --- Wisdom stands on high in the Catholic Church inviting all to virtue and happiness. (Worthington) --- Some explain this of the light which is communicated to men; but the Fathers apply it to Jesus Christ, some of the expressions regarding his divine, and others his human nature, Ecclesiasticus xxiv.
Proverbs 8:2 Standing in the top of the highest places by the way, in the midst of the paths,

Proverbs 8:3 Beside the gates of the city, in the very doors she speaketh, saying:

Doors. Amid disputants, whose eagerness ought to convince us of the preference due to wisdom over all terrestrial concerns, ver. 10.
Proverbs 8:4 O ye men, to you I call, and my voice is to the sons of men.

Proverbs 8:5 O little ones, understand subtlety, and ye unwise, take notice.

Proverbs 8:6 Hear, for I will speak of great things: and my lips shall be opened to preach right things.

Proverbs 8:7 My mouth shall meditate truth, and my lips shall hate wickedness.

Proverbs 8:8 All my words are just, there is nothing wicked, nor perverse in them.

Proverbs 8:9 They are right to them that understand, and just to them that find knowledge.

Proverbs 8:10 Receive my instruction, and not money: choose knowledge rather than gold.

Money. They are generally incompatible.
Proverbs 8:11 For wisdom is better than all the most precious things: and whatsoever may be desired cannot be compared to it.

Proverbs 8:12 I, wisdom, dwell in counsel, and am present in learned thoughts.

Thoughts. All good comes from God, the eternal wisdom, (Calmet) which speaks here. (Worthington)
Proverbs 8:13 The fear of the Lord hateth evil; I hate arrogance, and pride, and every wicked way, and a mouth with a double tongue.

Proverbs 8:14 Counsel and equity is mine, prudence is mine, strength is mine.

Proverbs 8:15 By me kings reign, and lawgivers decree just things.

Things. Power and knowledge are the gift of the Almighty, Romans 12:1. A prince who resembles God the most, is his best present. (Pliny in Trajan)
Proverbs 8:16 By me princes rule, and the mighty decree justice.

Proverbs 8:17 I love them that love me: and they that in the morning early watch for me, shall find me.

Proverbs 8:18 With me are riches and glory, glorious riches and justice.

Glorious. Literally, "proud." (Haydock) --- But here it only means great, Isaias ix 15., and 61:6. Riches too commonly nourish pride, and it is very rare to see them joined with justice. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:19 For my fruit is better than gold and the precious stone, and my blossoms than choice silver.

Stone. So the Septuagint translate paz, (Haydock) which designates a more pure sort of gold, Genesis 2:11. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:20 I walk in the way of justice, in the midst of the paths of judgment,

Proverbs 8:21 That I may enrich them that love me, and may fill their treasures.

Enrich. Hebrew, "grant what is (real goods) an inheritance to them," etc. --- Treasures. Septuagint add, "with goods. If I announce to you daily occurrences, I will admonish you to number the things of the world," (Haydock) and all past events. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:22 The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his ways, before he made any thing from the beginning.

Possessed. As Christ was with God, equal to him in eternity, John 1:Septuagint, "created," which many of the Fathers explain of the word incarnate, (see Cornelius a Lapide; Bossuet) or he hath "placed me," (St. Athanasius 3:contra Arian. Eusebius) a pattern of all virtues. The Septuagint generally render kana, "possessed," as Aquila does here. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:23 I was set up from eternity, and of old, before the earth was made.

Up. Hebrew, "anointed." Septuagint, "he founded." Christ was appointed to be the foundation, on which we must be built. (St. Athanasius 3:Orat.)
Proverbs 8:24 The depths were not as yet, and I was already conceived, neither had the fountains of waters as yet sprung out.

Conceived. Having yet manifested none of my works. Since the creation, wisdom only seeks to communicate itself to us. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:25 The mountains, with their huge bulk, had not as yet been established: before the hills, I was brought forth:

Proverbs 8:26 He had not yet made the earth, nor the rivers, nor the poles of the world.

Poles. Hebrew, "head or height of the dust of the world." (Haydock) --- I subsisted with the chaos, before things appeared in their present form. (Calmet) --- The poles denote the north and south, or the four quarters of the world. (Menochius)
Proverbs 8:27 When he prepared the heavens, I was present: when with a certain law, and compass, he enclosed the depths:

Proverbs 8:28 When he established the sky above, and poised the fountains of waters:

Sky. Protestants, "clouds." Pagnin, "the air." Vulgate aethera. Septuagint, "the clouds above." (Haydock) --- Moses assigns the higher and lower waters the same origin, Genesis 1:7.
Proverbs 8:29 When he compassed the sea with its bounds, and set a law to the waters that they should not pass their limits: when he balanced the foundations of the earth;

Pass. This is often remarked, Psalm 41:8. --- Earth. See Job 38:8. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:30 I was with him forming all things: and was delighted every day, playing before him at all times;

Forming. Hebrew, "one nursed," (Calmet) or nursing, nutritius. (Pagnin) --- He was not an idle spectator. --- Playing. With ease and surprising variety. (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:31 Playing in the world: and my delights were to be with the children of men.

Men. God saw that all was good, but delighted most in his own image. (Menochius) --- He prefers man before all other corporeal creatures. (Worthington) --- To him alone below he has granted understanding, and a soul capable of virtue. The Son has also assumed our nature, Baruch 3:37.
Proverbs 8:32 Now, therefore, ye children, hear me: Blessed are they that keep my ways.

Proverbs 8:33 Hear instruction, and be wise, and refuse it not.

Proverbs 8:34 Blessed is the man that heareth me, and that watcheth daily at my gates, and waiteth at the posts of my doors.

Proverbs 8:35 He that shall find me, shall find life, and shall have salvation from the Lord.

Lord. Wisdom, or Jesus Christ, is our salvation, happiness, and life. Septuagint, "and the will is prepared by the Lord." St. Augustine often quotes this to prove the necessity of preventing grace. (Ep. ccxvii., and clxxxvi.) (Calmet)
Proverbs 8:36 But he that shall sin against me shall hurt his own soul. All that hate me love death.

Death. Not in itself, (Haydock) but by adhering to such things as bring death. (Menochius)
Proverbs 9:0 Wisdom invites all to her feast. Folly calls another way.

Proverbs 9:1 Wisdom hath built herself a house, she hath hewn her out seven pillars.

House. The sacred humanity, (St. Ignatius; St. Augustine, City of God 17:20.) or the Church. (St. Gregory, Mor. 33:15.) --- Here we may receive all instruction, the seven sacraments, and the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Pleasure had mentioned her attractions: now those of true wisdom are set before us. (Calmet) --- God sent his pastors at all times, to invite people to embrace the latter. They are all included in the number seven, both before and under the law, as well as in the gospel, where St. Paul styles Sts. Peter, James, and John, pillars, Galatians 2:This is the literal sense, on which the mystical is grounded, and both are intended by the Holy Ghost, intimating that the uncreated wisdom took flesh of the blessed Virgin Mary, prepared the table of bread and wine, as Priest according to the order of Melchisedec, and chose the weak of this world to confound the strong, as St. Augustine explains this passage. (Sup. and q. 51.) (Worthington)
Proverbs 9:2 She hath slain her victims, mingled her wine, and set forth her table.

Victims. Moses ordered the blood to be poured out at the door of the tabernacle, and a part given to the priests, after which the rest might be taken away. The like was probably done at Jerusalem, Leviticus 17:4. These victims are contrasted with those of pleasure, Proverbs 7:14. --- Mingled. It was not customary for any but barbarians and the gods to take pure wine. Some mixed two, others three, five, or even twenty parts of water. But the scholiast of Aristophanes says, the best method was to have three parts of water, and two of wine. Mercury complains that his wine was half water. (Arist. Plut. V. Sun. i.) --- The Fathers often apply this text to the feast of Jesus Christ in the blessed Eucharist. (Calmet) --- St. Cyprian (ep. iii.) citeth the whole passage of Christ's sacrifice in the forms of bread and wine. (Worthington)
Proverbs 9:3 She hath sent her maids to invite to the tower, and to the walls of the city:

Maids. Septuagint, "servant men," the pastors of the church, inviting all to piety in so public a manner, that none can plead ignorance. (St. Gregory) (Calmet) --- To invite. Protestants, "she crieth upon the highest places of the city." (Haydock) --- Christ enjoins his apostles to preach on the roofs, Matthew 10:37.
Proverbs 9:4 Whosoever is a little one, let him come to me. And to the unwise she said:

One. Simple, but not inconstant, like children, 1 Corinthians 14:20. Pleasure addresses the same, (chap. 7:7.) but for their destruction. (Calmet)
Proverbs 9:5 Come, eat my bread, and drink the wine which I have mingled for you.

Proverbs 9:6 Forsake childishness, and live, and walk by the ways of prudence.

Proverbs 9:7 He that teacheth a scorner, doth an injury to himself; and he that rebuketh a wicked man, getteth himself a blot.

Scorner. This is the reason why wisdom speaks only to the simple. The conceited would only laugh at her instructions. These scoffers represent heretics and libertines, Proverbs 1:22. (Calmet) --- Where there is no hope of amendment, prudence and charity require us to be silent, as our rebukes would only procure us enmity, and make the sinner worse. (Worthington) --- Of such St. John was afraid, and therefore ceased from writing, 3 John 9. Yet St. Paul commands public reprehension, 1 Timothy 5:20. (Menochius) --- When there is any prospect of good, all, particularly superiors, are bound to correct. (St. Augustine, City of God 1:9.; and St. Basil, reg. fus. 158.) (Worthington)
Proverbs 9:8 Rebuke not a scorner lest he hate thee. Rebuke a wise man, and he will love thee.

Proverbs 9:9 Give an occasion to a wise man, and wisdom shall be added to him. Teach a just man, and he shall make haste to receive it.

Occasion. This word is found in Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic. We might supply instruction, (Calmet) with Protestants.
Proverbs 9:10 *The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is prudence.

Psalm 110:10.; Proverbs 1:7.; Ecclesiasticus 1:16.
Prudence. Or "prudence is the science of the saints," (Haydock) directing what to choose on all occasions to obtain heaven. (Calmet) --- The knowledge contained in the holy Scriptures, and possessed by the saints, is superior to all other sciences. (Menochius)
Proverbs 9:11 For by me shall thy days be multiplied, and years of life shall be added to thee.

Proverbs 9:12 If thou be wise, thou shalt be so to thyself: and if a scorner, thou alone shalt bear the evil.

Proverbs 9:13 A foolish woman and clamorous, and full of allurements, and knowing nothing at all,

And full. Protestants, "she is simple and knoweth nothing." Septuagint, "is in want of a piece of bread." They have several verses before this, which are here omitted. (Haydock) --- Wisdom and pleasure are opposed to each other. (Calmet)
Proverbs 9:14 Sat at the door of her house, upon a seat, in a high place of the city,

Proverbs 9:15 To call them that pass by the way, and go on their journey:

Proverbs 9:16 He that is a little one, let him turn to me. And to the fool she said:

Proverbs 9:17 Stolen waters are sweeter, and hidden bread is more pleasant.

Pleasant. Impure pleasures are more delightful (Calmet) to sensual men. (Haydock) --- The prohibition increases appetite. (Menochius)
Proverbs 9:18 And he did not know that giants are there, and that her guests are in the depths of hell.

Giants. Who lived when all flesh had corrupted its ways, (Genesis 6:12.) and were sentenced to hell, Job 26:5., and Isaias 14:9. (Calmet)

Proverbs 10:1 A wise son maketh the father glad: but a foolish son is the sorrow of his mother.

Mother. A virtuous child cannot be indifferent to the joy of his parents.
Proverbs 10:2 *Treasures of wickedness shall profit nothing: but justice shall deliver from death.

Proverbs 11:4.
Wickedness. Riches ill acquired, or tending to corrupt the heart, Luke 16:9.
Proverbs 10:3 The Lord will not afflict the soul of the just with famine, and he will disappoint the deceitful practices of the wicked.

Famine. Psalm 36:25. The prophets and Lazarus rejoice in suffering.
Proverbs 10:4 The slothful hand hath wrought poverty: but the hand of the industrious getteth riches.

Poverty. Even of those who had plenty. This is true in a spiritual sense likewise. (Calmet) --- The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence. (Haydock) --- Otiositas mater nugarum, noverca virtutum. (St. Bernard, consid. ii.) --- He, etc. This is not in Hebrew, Greek, St. Jerome, or in several Latin copies. (Calmet) --- We find it in the Septuagint, Proverbs 9:13. --- Away. He derives no benefits from lies. (Menochius)
Proverbs 10:5 He that gathereth in the harvest, is a wise son: but he that snorteth in the summer, is the son of confusion.

He. Septuagint, "a son well educated shall be wise, and shall have the unwise for his servant. An intelligent son has been saved from the heat. But the wicked son is destroyed by the wind in time of harvest." (Haydock) --- A good part of this is not in the original; yet it is received by the Greeks.
Proverbs 10:6 The blessing of the Lord is upon the head of the just: but iniquity covereth the mouth of the wicked.

Wicked. Or, as the Hebrew seems to indicate, "the wicked covereth iniquity, by an hypocritical exterior," (Calmet) or, "the injury" (Mont.[Montanus?]) done to another, (chamas.; Haydock) "unseasonable, or infinite mourning," penthos auron. (Septuagint)
Proverbs 10:7 The memory of the just is with praises: and the name of the wicked shall rot.

Rot. Hebrew, "stink." His reputation shall be lost, Genesis 34:30. (Calmet)
Proverbs 10:8 The wise of heart receiveth precepts: a fool is beaten with lips.

Lips. He will not bear correction. (Menochius) --- But suffers the punishment of his own unguarded speeches; or rather the man who hath foolish lips, shall be beaten, ver. 13. (Calmet)
Proverbs 10:9 He that walketh sincerely, walketh confidently: but he that perverteth his ways, shall be manifest.

Sincerely. Or Simply, Hebrew, "in uprightness," (Haydock) or innocence. (Menochius) --- Manifest. The hypocrite shall be at last detected.
Proverbs 10:10 *He that winketh with the eye, shall cause sorrow: and the foolish in lips shall be beaten.

Ecclesiasticus 27:25.
Sorrow. Septuagint add, "to men as well as to himself." (Calmet) --- "But he who chides boldly shall make peace," (Haydock) or "work safety," as the Syriac and Arabic also read, instead of Hebrew, "a prating fool shall fall." "When a man connives at his friend's failings,...the offender is encouraged to sin on, and to heap up matter for very sorrowful reflections; but the man, who with an honest freedom, prudently reproves him, most effectually contrives his honour and safety." The consequences of a virtuous and a vicious friendship, seem to be also expressed in the next verse. Thus the latter hemistic generally illustrates the first. But here, part of ver. 8. may be improperly inserted. The two parts of the verses in Proverbs, etc., being arranged in distinct columns, has occasioned sometimes a part, and sometimes a whole verse, to be omitted, as the transcriber might mistake the line. (Kennicott)
Proverbs 10:11 The mouth of the just is a vein of life: and the mouth of the wicked covereth iniquity.

Life. Or a never-failing spring, fons perennis, as we should speak in Latin, Proverbs 13:14., and Apocalypse 7:17.
Proverbs 10:12 Hatred stirreth up strifes: *and charity covereth all sins.

1 Corinthians 13:4.; 1 Peter 4:8.
Sins. Septuagint, "all who contend." Charity pardons all, 1 Peter 4:8.
Proverbs 10:13 In the lips of the wise is wisdom found: and a rod on the back of him that wanteth sense.

Sense. Literally, "a heart." But the Hebrews use this expression in a different sense from what we do, and thus designate a fool, Osee 7:11.
Proverbs 10:14 Wise men lay up knowledge: but the mouth of the fool is next to confusion.

Confusion. He speaks inconsiderately, and involves himself in continual dangers, while the wise are cautious in their speech.
Proverbs 10:15 The substance of a rich man is the city of his strength: the fear of the poor is their poverty.

Poverty. Diffidence hinders the advancement of the poor, as presumption is too common among the rich. A happy mediocrity is best, ver. 16.
Proverbs 10:16 The work of the just is unto life: but the fruit of the wicked unto sin.

Life. In abundance he is not puffed up; but the wicked make use of their fruit or revenue to do evil. Their works are bad, unless they turn to God by at least an initial love of justice.
Proverbs 10:17 The way of life, to him that observeth correction: but he that forsaketh reproofs, goeth astray.

Proverbs 10:18 Lying lips hide hatred: he that uttereth reproach, is foolish.

Foolish. We must neither dissemble our resentment, through hypocrisy, nor manifest it without reason. (Calmet)
Proverbs 10:19 In the multitude of words there shall not want sin: but he that refraineth his lips, is most wise.

Sin. A prolix discourse on subjects of importance is not reprehended. (St. Augustine, Retrac. 1.) --- But it is very difficult to speak much, without going against some virtue. (Calmet)
Proverbs 10:20 The tongue of the just is as choice silver: but the heart of the wicked is nothing worth.

Proverbs 10:21 The lips of the just teach many: but they that are ignorant, shall die in the want of understanding.

Understanding. Literally, "hear." (Haydock) (Ver. 13.)
Proverbs 10:22 The blessing of the Lord maketh men rich: neither shall affliction be joined to them.

Proverbs 10:23 A fool worketh mischief as it were for sport: but wisdom is prudence to a man.

Man. He is enabled to see the evil of sin, and to avoid it, Job 15:16.
Proverbs 10:24 That which the wicked feareth, shall come upon him: to the just their desire shall be given.

Proverbs 10:25 As a tempest that passeth, so the wicked shall be no more: but the just is as an everlasting foundation.

Proverbs 10:26 As vinegar to the teeth, and smoke to the eyes, so is the sluggard to them that sent him.

Him. He spoils all their projects, (Calmet) and becomes a nuisance.
Proverbs 10:27 The fear of the Lord shall prolong days: and the years of the wicked shall be shortened.

Proverbs 10:28 The expectation of the just is joy: but the hope of the wicked shall perish.

Proverbs 10:29 The strength of the upright is the way of the Lord: and fear to them that work evil.

Evil. Conscience upbraids them, and punishment is before their eyes. (Haydock) Magna vis est conscientiae. (Cicero, pro Mil.)
Proverbs 10:30 The just shall never be moved: but the wicked shall not dwell on the earth.

Earth. This the Jews frequently experienced. The more enlightened understood, that such promises regarded also eternity. (Calmet)
Proverbs 10:31 The mouth of the just shall bring forth wisdom: the tongue of the perverse shall perish.

Proverbs 10:32 The lips of the just consider what is acceptable: and the mouth of the wicked uttereth perverse things.

Proverbs 11:1 A deceitful balance* is an abomination before the Lord: and a just weight is his will.

Proverbs 20:10.; Proverbs 23.
Balance. Both in commerce, (Deuteronomy 25:13.; Calmet) and in passing sentence on others. (Ven. Bede)
Proverbs 11:2 Where pride is, there also shall be reproach: *but where humility is, there also is wisdom.

Proverbs 15:33.
Wisdom. God resists the proud, Proverbs 16:18., and 18:12., and James 4:6.
Proverbs 11:3 The simplicity of the just shall guide them: and the deceitfulness of the wicked shall destroy them.

Proverbs 11:4 *Riches shall not profit in the day of revenge: but justice shall deliver from death.

Proverbs 10:2.
Proverbs 11:5 The justice of the upright shall make his way prosperous: and the wicked man shall fall by his own wickedness.

Proverbs 11:6 The justice of the righteous shall deliver them: and the unjust shall be caught in their own snares.

Proverbs 11:7 When the wicked man is dead, there shall be no hope any more: and the expectation of the solicitous shall perish.

Solicitous. Or ambitious. Hebrew, "the potent," or Septuagint, "the impious."
Proverbs 11:8 The just is delivered out of distress: and the wicked shall be given up for him.

For him. As comparatively nothing worth to his master, Proverbs 21:18., and Isaias 43:3
Proverbs 11:9 The dissembler with his mouth deceiveth his friend: but the just shall be delivered by knowledge.

Proverbs 11:10 When it goeth well with the just, the city shall rejoice: and when the wicked perish, there shall be praise.

Proverbs 11:11 By the blessing of the just the city shall be exalted: and by the mouth of the wicked it shall be overthrown.

Overthrown. Ten just men would have saved Sodom. Achan alone threw all Israel into confusion. (Calmet)
Proverbs 11:12 He that despiseth his friend, is mean of heart: but the wise man will hold his peace.

Mean. Literally, "indigent" of sense. (Haydock) --- We must put up with some faults, as none are without. (Horace 1:Sat. 3.) (Calmet)
Proverbs 11:13 He that walketh deceitfully, revealeth secrets: but he that is faithful, concealeth the thing committed to him by his friend.

Walketh. Septuagint, "the double-tongued," dissembler, or great talker. (Calmet)
Proverbs 11:14 Where there is no governor, the people shall fall: but there is safety where there is much counsel.

Proverbs 11:15 He shall be afflicted with evil, that is surety for a stranger: but he that is aware of the snares, shall be secure.

That is. Hebrew, "that hateth those who make agreements is secure." (Mont.[Montanus?])
Proverbs 11:16 A gracious woman shall find glory: and the strong shall have riches.

Gracious. Virtuous and beautiful, as God hath granted beauty also for good purposes. This and virtue tend to the advancement of women, while men can use their strength to acquire riches. (Calmet) --- Glory. Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic add, "of her husband. But she that hateth righteousness is a throne of disgrace. The slothful, though rich, shall come to poverty; but the laborious shall retain their riches." Two hemistics seem to be lost in Hebrew. (Kennicott) --- Most of the additions in the Septuagint are only glosses, or useless repetitions, (Calmet) though they seem not to be so in this place. (Haydock)
Proverbs 11:17 A merciful man doth good to his own soul: but he that is cruel casteth off even his own kindred.

Kindred. Hebrew, "flesh," Genesis 29:14. The miser is cruel even to himself.
Proverbs 11:18 The wicked maketh an unsteady work: but to him that soweth justice, there is a faithful reward.

Proverbs 11:19 Clemency prepareth life: and the pursuing of evil things death.

Proverbs 11:20 A perverse heart is abominable to the Lord: and his will is in them that walk sincerely.

Proverbs 11:21 Hand in hand the evil man shall not be innocent: but the seed of the just shall be saved.

In hand. At rest, or making agreements. God will punish the race of the wicked.
Proverbs 11:22 A golden ring in a swine's snout, a woman fair and foolish.

Foolish. Beauty, without prudence, leads to ruin, as ornaments are ill bestowed on swine. The women in the east sometimes wore rings in their noses, (Genesis 24:22.; Calmet) or hanging down upon them, Isaias 3:21. (Menochius)
Proverbs 11:23 The desire of the just is all good, the expectation of the wicked is indignation.

Proverbs 11:24 Some distribute their own goods, and grow richer: others take away what is not their own, and are always in want.

Others. Moderation is always requisite. Hebrew, "there is one withholding from rectitude, yet for a defect," (Mont.[Montanus?]) being too saving, he is a loser. (Haydock) --- Avarice does not always increase riches. (Calmet)
Proverbs 11:25 The soul that blesseth, shall be made fat: and he that inebriateth, shall be inebriated also himself.

Himself. He shall receive abundantly, 2 Corinthians 9:6. The beneficent shall be amply rewarded both in this world and in the next.
Proverbs 11:26 He that hideth up corn, shall be cursed among the people: but a blessing upon the head of them that sell.

Corn. In times of scarcity. See Amos 8:7.
Proverbs 11:27 Well doth he rise early who seeketh good things: but he that seeketh after evil things, shall be oppressed by them.

Proverbs 11:28 He that trusteth in his riches shall fall: but the just shall spring up as a green leaf.

Proverbs 11:29 He that troubleth his own house, shall inherit the winds: and the fool shall serve the wise.

House. By his profligacy, or law-suits, shall be impoverished, (ver. 17.; Calmet) or if he act with violence, he will make his house empty, Ecclesiasticus 4:35. (Menochius)
Proverbs 11:30 The fruit of the just man is a tree of life: and he that gaineth souls is wise.

Life. Producing excellent fruits of virtue and edification.
Proverbs 11:31 *If the just man receive in the earth, how much more the wicked and the sinner?

1 Peter 4:18.
Receive. Punishment, for almost inevitable faults, or be treated according to his deserts. Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic, "if the just be hardly saved, where shall the impious and the sinner appear?" (1 Peter 4:18.) (Calmet) --- Afflictions attend the just in this life. Shall the wicked escape? (Menochius)
Proverbs 12:1 He that loveth correction, loveth knowledge: but he that hateth reproof, is foolish.

Knowledge. It is a great kindness to shew us our faults. But God's grace is necessary to make us reap benefit from correction, (Calmet) as self-love recoils at it.
Proverbs 12:2 He that is good, shall draw grace from the Lord: but he that trusteth in his own devices, doth wickedly.

But. Hebrew, "and he will condemn the man of devices," (Mont.[Montanus?]; Haydock) or, "the man of thoughts doth wickedly," (Calmet) as he trusts in them, rather than in God. (Menochius)
Proverbs 12:3 Man shall not be strengthened by wickedness: and the root of the just shall not be moved.

Proverbs 12:4 A diligent woman is a crown to her husband: and she that doth things worthy of confusion, is as rottenness in his bones.

Diligent. Hebrew, "strong or virtuous," (Haydock) including all the perfections of the sex, and in particular those of economy and chastity, Proverbs 14:1., and 31:10.
Proverbs 12:5 The thoughts of the just are judgments: and the counsels of the wicked are deceitful.

Proverbs 12:6 The words of the wicked lie in wait for blood: the mouth of the just shall deliver them.

Proverbs 12:7 Turn the wicked, and they shall not be: but the house of the just shall stand firm.

Turn. In a moment the wicked is not to be found, Proverbs 10:25., and Psalm 36:35.
Proverbs 12:8 A man shall be known by his learning: but he that is vain and foolish, shall be exposed to contempt.

Learning. We apply to those things which we love, and those who study sacred (Calmet) or useful sciences, shall receive praise.
Proverbs 12:9 *Better is the poor man that provideth for himself, than he that is glorious and wanteth bread.

Ecclesiasticus 10:30.
Glorious. Or a boaster, (Haydock) as many noblemen are, who are involved in debt, Ecclesiasticus 10:30. (Menochius) --- It is better to have a sufficiency, than to be of noble parentage; and starving through a stupid idea, that work would be disgraceful.
Proverbs 12:10 The just regardeth the lives of his beasts: but the bowels of the wicked are cruel.

Beasts. Those who treat them with cruelty, would do the like with men. God gives regulations to let brute beasts have rest, Leviticus 22:28. (Calmet) (St. Chrysostom in Romans xxix.)
Proverbs 12:11 *He that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with bread: but he that pursueth idleness is very foolish.

Ecclesiasticus 20:30.
Idleness. Hebrew, "the idle." Their company is seducing. --- He that, etc. This occurs in the Septuagint, but not in the Hebrew or the new edition of St. Jerome. (Calmet) --- Wine. Or "in taverns." --- Holds. Soldiers have thus been often surprised. (Menochius) --- "Drunkenness is an incitement to lust and madness, the poison of wisdom." (St. Ambrose)
Proverbs 12:12 The desire of the wicked is the fortification of evil men: but the root of the just shall prosper.

Men. They wish to supplant one another.
Proverbs 12:13 For the sins of the lips ruin draweth nigh to the evil man: but the just shall escape out of distress.

Lips. Liars often become the victims of their own deceit.
Proverbs 12:14 By the fruit of his own mouth shall a man be filled with good things, and according to the works of his hands it shall be repaid him.

Proverbs 12:15 The way of a fool is right in his own eyes: but he that is wise hearkeneth unto counsels.

Proverbs 12:16 A fool immediately sheweth his anger: but he that dissembleth injuries is wise.

Wise. It is more difficult to repress, than to avoid anger. (St. Ambrose) --- To dissemble, so as to seek an opportunity of revenge, is not commended.
Proverbs 12:17 He that speaketh that which he knoweth, sheweth forth justice: but he that lieth, is a deceitful witness.

That. Hebrew, "the truth announceth justice." We easily give credit to an honest man. (Calmet)
Proverbs 12:18 There is that promiseth, and is pricked as it were with a sword of conscience: but the tongue of the wise is health.

Promiseth. Septuagint, "there are, who speaking, wound with the sword; but," etc. Hebrew bote (Haydock) means also, making a foolish promise, which causes remorse. (Menochius) --- This was the case with Herod, when he was pleased with Herodias, Matthew 14:8. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "speaketh like the piercings of a sword," (Protestants; Haydock) as detractors, and those who disseminate impious and scandalous maxims do.
Proverbs 12:19 The lip of truth shall be steadfast for ever: but he that is a hasty witness, frameth a lying tongue.

Frameth. He studies how to escape detection. Hebrew, "a lying tongue is but for a moment;" it is presently discovered.
Proverbs 12:20 Deceit is in the heart of them that think evil things: but joy followeth them that take counsels of peace.

Deceit. Or uneasiness. (Calmet) --- Honi soit qui mal y pense: "let him be covered with shame who thinks evil in it," seems nearly of the same import. (Haydock)
Proverbs 12:21 Whatsoever shall befall the just man, shall not make him sad: but the wicked shall be filled with mischief.

Sad. Even if he fall into sin, he will not lose all hope. (Calmet) --- The accidents accompanying this life will not overwhelm him. (St. Chrysostom) --- Hebrew, "no evil shall befall the just." If he be afflicted here, he will be amply rewarded hereafter. Septuagint, "the just will not be pleased with any injustice."
Proverbs 12:22 Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord: but they that deal faithfully, please him.

Proverbs 12:23 A cautious man concealeth knowledge: and the heart of fools publisheth folly.

Cautious. Versutus is taken in a good, as well as in a bad sense. The wise are reserved in speaking, Proverbs 16:14. (Calmet)
Proverbs 12:24 The hand of the valiant shall bear rule: but that which is slothful shall be under tribute.

Proverbs 12:25 Grief in the heart of a man shall bring him low, but with a good word he shall be made glad.

Grief. Septuagint, "a fearful speech troubleth the heart of a (just) man." (Grabe) (Haydock)
Proverbs 12:26 He that neglecteth a loss for the sake of a friend, is just: but the way of the wicked shall deceive them.

Just. A true friend will make any sacrifice. (Calmet) --- "I am convinced that friendship can subsist only among the good," says Cicero. Hebrew, "the just hath more, (Calmet; Protestants) or is more excellent than his neighbour." Septuagint, "the intelligent just is his own friend; (but the sentences of the impious are contrary to equity. Evils shall pursue sinners) but the way," etc. (Grabe) (Haydock)
Proverbs 12:27 The deceitful man shall not find gain: but the substance of a just man shall be precious gold.

Gain. Hebrew and Septuagint, "his prey," (Calmet) or what "he took in hunting." (Protestants) (Haydock)
Proverbs 12:28 In the path of justice is life: but the bye-way leadeth to death.

Bye-way. Of vice. Hebrew, "and a way which leadeth to death," or "its paths conduct to death." (Calmet)
Proverbs 13:1 A wise son heareth the doctrine of his father: but he that is a scorner, heareth not when he is reproved.

Doctrine. Or he gives proof of his good education, (Calmet) and excites even his father to advance in piety. (Ven. Bede) --- Septuagint, "is obedient to his father; but the disobedient son is in destruction." (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:2 Of the fruit of his own mouth shall a man be filled with good things: but the soul of transgressors is wicked.

Mouth. In reward of his good speeches. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "of justice the good man eateth; but the souls of the lawless perish before the time," Proverbs 12:13.
Proverbs 13:3 He that keepeth his mouth keepeth his soul: but he that hath no guard on his speech shall meet with evils.

Hath. Hebrew, "who openeth his lips inconsiderately, is lost, Judges 11:35. (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:4 The sluggard willeth and willeth not: but the soul of them that work, shall be made fat.

Willeth not. Hebrew, "hath not." He only desires riches, or to be converted, and will not labour, Proverbs 21:25., and Ecclesiasticus 5:8.
Proverbs 13:5 The just shall hate a lying word: but the wicked confoundeth, and shall be confounded.

Confounded. The detractor is like swine, stirring up dirt. (St. Chrysostom, 32. ad Pop.) --- The liar is not believed, even when he speaks the truth. (Aristotle)
Proverbs 13:6 Justice keepeth the way of the innocent: but wickedness overthroweth the sinner.

Sinner. Symmachus, "draweth on sin." Virtue is the best safeguard.
Proverbs 13:7 One is as it were rich, when he hath nothing: and another is as it were poor, when he hath great riches.

Riches. Such was St. Paul, 2 Corinthians 6:10. Some affect to be rich, while others are never satisfied. Semper avarus eget. Lazarus was very rich in God's sight.
Proverbs 13:8 The ransom of a man's life are his riches: but he that is poor, beareth not reprehension.

Reprehension. Or is not able to defend himself, like the rich. (Calmet) --- He is not exposed so much to great revolutions. (Bayn.)
Proverbs 13:9 The light of the just giveth joy: but the lamp of the wicked shall be put out.

Out. They are hated as well as their offspring. (Calmet)
Proverbs 13:10 Among the proud there are always contentions: but they that do all things with counsel, are ruled by wisdom.

Contentions. As none will yield. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "only by pride cometh contention." (Protestants) --- "Pride is the mother of all sects." (St. Augustine)
Proverbs 13:11 Substance got in haste shall be diminished: but that which by little and little is gathered with the hand, shall increase.

Haste. Hebrew, "by vanity," and injustice. Those who become rich on a sudden fall under suspicion, as a Roman objected to Sylla, who had inherited nothing. (Plut.[Plutarch?]) --- By little. Hebrew, "he that gathereth by labour, (Septuagint, piety) shall increase." (Protestants) (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:12 Hope that is deferred afflicteth the soul: desire when it cometh, is a tree of life.

Hope. Septuagint, "(the just shews mercy and lends) better is he who begins heartily to assist, than he who promises and leads to hope. For a bad (Grabe substitutes good) desire is a tree of life." --- Soul. Protestants, "maketh the heart sick." (Haydock) --- The pain increases in proportion to our eager desire. Calvin maintains, that the souls of the blessed are not yet in heaven, but hope: and of course he would establish a sort of purgatory for them. (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:13 Whosoever speaketh ill of any thing, bindeth himself for the time to come: but he that feareth the commandment, shall dwell in peace.

Come. To defend what he has asserted, or to pass for a liar. Hebrew, "shall be destroyed by it." (Mont.[Montanus?]) (Haydock) --- Those who despise God's order shall perish. --- Deceitful, etc. This is not in Hebrew, nor in some of the Latin editions. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "to the deceitful son nothing shall be good. But the ways of the wise servant shall prosper, and his paths shall be made straight," Proverbs 14:15. (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:14 The law of the wise is a fountain of life, that he may decline from the ruin of death.

That. Septuagint, "but the fool is slain in the snare." (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:15 Good instruction shall give grace: in the way of scorners is a deep pit.

Grace. God assists those who strive to be well instructed. (Calmet)
Proverbs 13:16 The prudent man doth all things with counsel: but he that is a fool, layeth open his folly.

Proverbs 13:17 The messenger of the wicked shall fall into mischief: but a faithful ambassador is health.

Of the. Hebrew, "a wicked ambassador." A king generally chooses people like himself. (Menochius) --- Septuagint have read melec. "A rash king shall," etc.
Proverbs 13:18 Poverty and shame to him that refuseth instruction: but he that yieldeth to reproof shall be glorified.

To him. Hebrew, "destroy discipline," so that the most wretched are often noted for immorality. Septuagint, "instruction takes away poverty," as "the whole earth supports the man that has a trade," technion, according to the Greek proverb. (Calmet)
Proverbs 13:19 The desire that is accomplished, delighteth the soul: fools hate them that flee from evil things.

That is. Septuagint, "of the pious, but the works of the impious are far from knowledge." (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:20 He that walketh with the wise, shall be wise: a friend of fools shall become like to them.

Become. Septuagint, "be known." A person's disposition may be seen by the company which he frequents.
Proverbs 13:21 Evil pursueth sinners: and to the just good shall be repaid.

Proverbs 13:22 The good man leaveth heirs, sons, and grandsons: and the substance of the sinner is kept for the just.

Heirs. This was more observable under the old law: yet we often see the distress to which the unjust are exposed. De male quaesitis non gaudet tertius haeres. (Calmet)
Proverbs 13:23 Much food is in the tillage of fathers: but for others it is gathered without judgment.

Fathers. Heirs often lose their property by their misconduct. Hebrew and (Haydock) Chaldean read, "of the poor," who till their land better than those who have too large farms. (Menochius) --- Nature requires but little. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the just shall spend many years in affluence: but the unjust are cut off at once." (Haydock)
Proverbs 13:24 *He that spareth the rod, hateth his son: but he that loveth him, correcteth him betimes.

Proverbs 23:13.
Betimes. God has always treated his friends in this manner, to preserve them from sin, or to increase their reward. (Calmet)
Proverbs 13:25 The just eateth and filleth his soul: but the belly of the wicked is never to be filled.

Proverbs 14:1 A wise woman buildeth her house: but the foolish will pull down with her hands that also which is built.

House. Giving her children a proper education, and taking care of her house, Proverbs 12:4., and Titus 2:5. (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:2 He that walketh in the right way, and feareth God, *is despised by him that goeth by an infamous way.

Job 12:4.
And, is not in Hebrew. --- Is. Hebrew, "but the perverse in his ways despiseth him;" (Haydock) shewing by his conduct that he cares not for the Lord. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "he shall be dishonoured, that," etc.
Proverbs 14:3 In the mouth of a fool is the rod of pride: but the lips of the wise preserve them.

Pride. He chastiseth with haughtiness, and is ever quarrelling.
Proverbs 14:4 Where there are no oxen, the crib is empty: but where there is much corn, there the strength of the ox is manifest.

Empty. As the land has not bee cultivated. (Haydock) --- Strength, or number of oxen. (Calmet) --- "The virtue of the preachers is manifested where there are many converted to produce fruit." (St. Gregory vii. ep. viii.)
Proverbs 14:5 A faithful witness will not lie: but a deceitful witness uttereth a lie.

Proverbs 14:6 A scorner seeketh wisdom, and findeth it not: the learning of the wise is easy.

Not. Because they seek it ill, like the pagan sages. Septuagint, "thou shalt seek wisdom among the wicked, and shalt not find it," etc.
Proverbs 14:7 Go against a foolish man, and he knoweth not the lips of prudence.

Prudence. Thou wilt presently perceive his weakness. Hebrew, "abandon a," etc. He is not capable of hearing reason: keep at a distance.
Proverbs 14:8 The wisdom of a discreet man is to understand his way: and the imprudence of fools erreth.

Way. This science of the saints is the only true wisdom. --- Erreth. They are inconstant. Hebrew, "is deceit." They are bent on it.
Proverbs 14:9 A fool will laugh at sin, but among the just grace shall abide.

Sin. Proverbs 10:23. Hebrew, "excuse sin," (Calmet) or "mock at sin," (Haydock) committed by others. (Menochius) --- Grace, or good-will. They are agreeable to all. (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:10 The heart that knoweth the bitterness of his own soul, in his joy the stranger shall not intermeddle.

Stranger. Such cannot well comfort the afflicted. A man is alone acquainted with the affections of his own heart. Septuagint, "he mixeth not insult" (Symmachus) "with strangers."
Proverbs 14:11 The house of the wicked shall be destroyed: but the tabernacles of the just shall flourish.

Proverbs 14:12 There is a way which seemeth just to a man: but the ends thereof lead to death.

Death. How many, under the garb of piety, follow their passions! How many are misled by their singularity, or by unskilful directors! (Calmet) --- We must suspect our own judgment. (Menochius) --- If any Turks, Jews, or heretics, lead a moral good life, it seemeth both to themselves and to other ignorant people that they are in the right way to salvation; but their error in faith leadeth them to eternal damnation. (Worthington) --- The persecutors thought they did God a service by putting the apostles to death. Will they be excused? (Haydock)
Proverbs 14:13 Laughter shall be mingled with sorrow, and mourning taketh hold of the ends of joy.

Laughter. Septuagint, "with content sorrow is not mixed." (Haydock) --- Joy. Such is the condition of earthly things. (Pindar, Pyth. viii.)
Proverbs 14:14 A fool shall be filled with his own ways, and the good man shall be above him.

Above him. Septuagint, "with his counsels," enjoying the content of a good conscience, and a heavenly reward; while the wicked, with all his self-approbation, shall be punished.
Proverbs 14:15 The innocent believeth every word: the discreet man considereth his steps.

Innocent. Good, and unsuspecting; (Josue 9:14., and 1 Corinthians 13:7.) or rather credulous, 1 John 4:1. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the man who is not bad." --- Steps. Septuagint, "repenteth." (Haydock) --- No, etc. This occurs (chap. 13:13.) in several copies: but here it is omitted in Hebrew, etc.
Proverbs 14:16 A wise man feareth, and declineth from evil: the fool leapeth over, and is confident.

Proverbs 14:17 The impatient man shall work folly: and the crafty man is hateful.

Folly. Wrath betrays us into great extravagances. --- Hateful. Hebrew also, "hateth" folly. Septuagint, "the prudent beareth much," Job 5:2. (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:18 The childish shall possess folly, and the prudent shall look for knowledge.

Proverbs 14:19 The evil shall fall down before the good: and the wicked before the gates of the just.

Proverbs 14:20 The poor man shall be hateful even to his own neighbour: but the friends of the rich are many.

Many. "Riches make friends, poverty tries them." (Syrus.) --- False friends resemble swallows, which retire at the approach of winter. (Cicero, ad Heren. iv.)
Proverbs 14:21 He that despiseth his neighbour, sinneth: but he that sheweth mercy to the poor, shall be blessed.

He....mercy, is not found in Hebrew, Greek, or Latin manuscripts. (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:22 They err that work evil: but mercy and truth prepare good things.

Truth. Those who are kind and faithful. (Haydock) (Chap. 3:3.) --- Septuagint add, (Calmet) as a second version, (Grabe) "the workers of evils understand not mercy and truth: but kind and faithful actions are with those who do good."
Proverbs 14:23 In much work there shall be abundance: but where there are many words, there is oftentimes want.

Proverbs 14:24 The crown of the wise, is their riches: the folly of fools, imprudence.

Imprudence. This they always betray, while the wise use their riches to assist their fellow-creatures, and receive a crown of glory. (Haydock)
Proverbs 14:25 A faithful witness delivereth souls: and the double dealer uttereth lies.

Proverbs 14:26 In the fear of the Lord is confidence of strength, and there shall be hope for his children.

Proverbs 14:27 The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life, to decline from the ruin of death.

Proverbs 14:28 In the multitude of people is the dignity of the king: and in the small number of people the dishonour of the prince.

King. Who formerly was styled "a shepherd," to remind him of the care with which he ought to seek the welfare of his subjects. (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:29 He that is patient, is governed with much wisdom: but he that is impatient, exalteth his folly.

Proverbs 14:30 Soundness of heart is the life of the flesh: but envy is the rottenness of the bones.

Bones. As a sound heart preserves the rest of the body, so a good intention often excuses from mortal sin, when the error is not gross. But envy corrupts the works which seem good, and which cannot bear a strict examination. (St. Gregory, Mor. 5:34.) (Worthington) --- Envy ruins the health. (Menan. ap. Gort.[Grotius?]) --- Septuagint, "a too sensible heart is the," etc. This is beautiful; but not quite conformable to the Hebrew.
Proverbs 14:31 *He that oppresseth the poor, upbraideth his maker: but he that hath pity on the poor, honoureth him.

Proverbs 17:5.
Him. God takes the poor under his special protection, (Matthew 25:40.) and is the distributor of all riches. What would the rich do without the poor? (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:32 The wicked man shall be driven out in his wickedness: but the just hath hope in his death.

Proverbs 14:33 In the heart of the prudent resteth wisdom, and it shall instruct all the ignorant.

And. Protestants, "but that which is in the midst of fools is made known." (Haydock) --- A vessel full of gold makes no noise, while that which contains only a few pieces sounds much. (Munster.) (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Thus the fool makes a parade of all that he knows. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "but in the heart of fools, it is not known." (Haydock) --- Aquila and Theodotion have the negation, (Calmet) as well as the Syriac and Arabic. See Proverbs 5:16. (Kennicott)
Proverbs 14:34 Justice exalteth a nation: but sin maketh nations miserable.

Miserable. This sentence ought to be engraven in all public places. Hebrew, "and mercy the sinful people," whom God spares on account of their alms-deeds, (Daniel 4:24.) or "sin is the shame of peoples." (Calmet) --- Montanus renders chesed mercy, and Pagnin "ignominy." The former is scarcely intelligible, et misericordia populorum peccatum, unless sin be here taken for a sin-offering, (Haydock) as it is by Vatable, Grotius, etc. (Calmet)
Proverbs 14:35 A wise servant is acceptable to the king: he that is good for nothing shall feel his anger.

Nothing. Literally, "useless," which often means bad. (Haydock) --- A servant who does not discharge his duty is such. Hebrew, "he that causeth to blush," and has no economy. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "He removes shame by his good management. Anger destroys the prudent; but a mild," etc. (Haydock)
Proverbs 15:1 A mild answer *breaketh wrath: but a harsh word stirreth up fury.

Proverbs 25:15.
Fury. This was seen in Nabal and Roboam, while Gideon and Abigail shewed the good effects of a mild answer, Judges 8:1., and 1 Kings 10:25., and 3 Kings 12:11.
Proverbs 15:2 The tongue of the wise adorneth knowledge: but the mouth of fools bubbleth out folly.

Knowledge. It requires to be proposed in a proper manner.
Proverbs 15:3 The eyes of the Lord in every place behold the good and the evil.

Proverbs 15:4 A peaceable tongue is a tree of life: but that which is immoderate, shall crush the spirit.

Life. This comparison was become proverbial for something very excellent. Immoderate. Hebrew, "perverse." (Calmet) --- Evil discourse kills the souls both of those who speak, and of those who pay attention to it. (Haydock)
Proverbs 15:5 A fool laugheth at the instruction of his father: but he that regardeth reproofs shall become prudent.

In abundant, etc. Is omitted in Hebrew, Chaldean, and many Greek and Latin copies. The same idea is expressed in the following verse.
Proverbs 15:6 The house of the just is very much strength: and in the fruits of the wicked is trouble.

Proverbs 15:7 The lips of the wise shall disperse knowledge: the heart of fools shall be unlike.

Unlike. The wise, or themselves. Hebrew and Septuagint, "inconstant."
Proverbs 15:8 *The victims of the wicked are abominable to the Lord: the vows of the just are acceptable.

Proverbs 21:27.; Ecclesiasticus 34:21.
Wicked. Still unconverted, Ecclesiasticus 34:23. When they repent, and offer sacrifice with sincerity, they will obtain mercy. The Donatists abused this text, to prove that baptism conferred by wicked ministers was unavailing. But St. Augustine shewed them, that Christ was the principal agent, and conferred grace, even though the minister might draw down judgments on his own head. (Con. Parm. 2:6.) --- Even pagans confessed, that sacrifices, without virtue, could afford no benefit. "God was more pleased with the prayers of the Lacedemonians, than with all the sacrifices of the Greeks," say the idolatrous priests in Plato, Alcib. 2:Seneca de Ben. 1:5.
Proverbs 15:9 The way of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord: he that followeth justice is beloved by him.

Proverbs 15:10 Instruction is grievous to him that forsaketh the way of life: he that hateth reproof shall die.

Instruction. Hebrew, "a heavy punishment." (Haydock) --- The mind which gives way to vice, must have embraced some false doctrine.
Proverbs 15:11 Hell and destruction are before the Lord: how much more the hearts of the children of men?

Before. Naked. The state of the damned is known to God, Proverbs 9:18. (Calmet)
Proverbs 15:12 A corrupt man loveth not one that reproveth him: nor will he go to the wise.

Proverbs 15:13 *A glad heart maketh a cheerful countenance: but by grief of mind the spirit is cast down.

Proverbs 17:22.
Down. Compunction is salutary, but worldly grief blameable, Proverbs 25:20., and 2 Corinthians 7:10. (St. Gregory, past. 2:10.)
Proverbs 15:14 The heart of the wise seeketh instruction: and the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.

Proverbs 15:15 All the days of the poor are evil: a secure mind is like a continual feast.

Feast. Those who repine at their condition are miserable; while the poor may be delivered from many cares. (Calmet) --- -----O vitae tuta facultas Pauperis angustique laris. (Luc. Phar. v.) --- Under affliction every thing displeases; but all delights the cheerful temper.
Proverbs 15:16 Better is a little with the fear of the Lord, than great treasures without content.

Content. Septuagint, "fear." Hebrew, "with trouble," which is preferable, 1 Timothy 6:6.
Proverbs 15:17 It is better to be invited to herbs with love, than to a fatted calf with hatred.

Calf. Or feast after sacrifice, 1 Kings 17:19., and Luke 15:23.
Proverbs 15:18 A passionate man stirreth up strifes: he that is patient appeaseth those that are stirred up.

Proverbs 15:19 The way of the slothful is as a hedge of thorns; the way of the just is without offence.

Thorns. All seems to them impossible. (Calmet) --- In agriculture, however, (Haydock) "in domestic affairs, negligence is attended with more labour than diligence." (Colum. 12:2.)
Proverbs 15:20 A wise son maketh a father joyful: but the foolish man despiseth his mother.

Proverbs 15:21 Folly is joy to the fool: and the wise man maketh straight his steps.

Fool. He thinks himself the most happy of mortals. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the ways of the fools are senseless." (Haydock)
Proverbs 15:22 Designs are brought to nothing where there is no counsel: but where there are many counsellors, they are established.

Counsel. Hebrew, "secrecy." --- Established. We put in execution without fear, what has been resolved maturely. (Calmet)
Proverbs 15:23 A man rejoiceth in the sentence of his mouth: and a word in due time is best.

Proverbs 15:24 The path of life is above for the wise, that he may decline from the lowest hell.

Above. Literally, "upon the learned." (Haydock) --- One path leads to the realms above. (Calmet) --- The wise must be intent on God. (Menochius)
Proverbs 15:25 The Lord will destroy the house of the proud: and will strengthen the borders of the widow.

Proverbs 15:26 Evil thoughts are an abomination to the Lord: and pure words most beautiful, shall be confirmed by him.

Shall by, etc., is not added in Hebrew, etc., nor in several Latin manuscripts.
Proverbs 15:27 He that is greedy of gain troubleth his own house: but he that hateth bribes shall live.

Proverbs 16:6.
Troubleth. With all sorts of temporal misfortunes. A judge who receives bribes, is accursed, Exodus 23:8. --- By, etc., is not here in Hebrew, but [in] Proverbs 16:6. St. Cyprian (3 Test.) found it in his copy. --- Faith, or fidelity and truth, as it is elsewhere expressed, Proverbs 3:3. These virtues move God to pardon.
Proverbs 15:28 The mind of the just studieth obedience: the mouth of the wicked overfloweth with evils.

Studieth. And speaks deliberately. Roman Septuagint is more embarrassed in the rest of this, and the nine first verses of the following chapter, than the Complutensian edition.
Proverbs 15:29 The Lord is far from the wicked: and he will hear the prayers of the just.

Proverbs 15:30 The light of the eyes rejoiceth the soul: a good name maketh the bones fat.

Fat. And contributes to health. By less noble motives, the mind is gradually raised to the more excellent.
Proverbs 15:31 The ear that heareth the reproofs of life, shall abide in the midst of the wise.

Proverbs 15:32 He that rejecteth instruction, despiseth his own soul: but he that yieldeth to reproof, possesseth understanding.

Proverbs 15:33 The fear of the Lord, is the lesson of wisdom: and humility goeth before glory.

Lesson. Or "what teacheth." Humility, or docility, as those who acknowledge no master will never become wise, Matthew 23:12. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:1 It *is the part of man to prepare the soul: and of the Lord to govern the tongue.

Proverbs 16:9.
It is the part of man, etc. That is, a man should prepare in his heart and soul what he is to say; but after all, it must be the Lord that must govern his tongue, to speak to the purpose. Not that we can think any thing of good without God's grace: but after that we have (with God's grace) thought and prepared within our souls what we would speak; if God does not govern our tongue, we shall not succeed in what we speak. (Challoner) --- He will put into our mouths what we have to say to persecutors, Luke 21:14. He often causes us to utter the reverse of what we intended, as Balaam did, Numbers xxiii. (Menochius) --- The fairest prospects miscarry without God's blessing. The enemies of grace would infer from this text, that the beginning of salvation depends on free-will. But St. Augustine (con. 2. epist. Pelag. 2:8.) has solidly refuted them, and Solomon does not mean that man acts alone, Proverbs 8:35., (Septuagint) John 15:5., and 2 Corinthians 3:5. "Man," says St. Augustine, "does no good things, which God does not cause him to perform." (Calmet) --- The Scripture cannot contradict itself. A fresh grace is requisite to execute what God has enabled us to devise, ver. 9. (Worthington)
Proverbs 16:2 *All the ways of a man are open to his eyes: the Lord is the weigher of spirits.

Proverbs 20:24.; Proverbs 21:2.
Open. Or approved. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "pure in his own eyes." He sees not his own defects, Proverbs 21:2., and Job 28:23. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:3 Lay open thy works to the Lord: and thy thoughts shall be directed.

Open. Hebrew, "roll on," and refer all to God's glory. (Menochius) (Psalm 36:5.)
Proverbs 16:4 The Lord hath made all things for himself: the wicked also for the evil day.

Day. His obduracy is of his own choice, and must serve to set the divine justice in the clearest light, Ecclesiasticus 33:14., and Exodus 9:16. Others hence infer that predestination is gratuitous, and reprobation in consequence of sin. It seems rather that temporal goods and evils are here meant. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:5 Every proud man is an abomination to the Lord: though hand should be joined to hand, he is not innocent.

Hand. And he seems to be very quiet, Proverbs 11:21. Septuagint, "but he who putteth his hand in hands unjustly, to make a contract, is," etc. --- The, etc., is taken from the Roman Septuagint and occurs before, Proverbs 15:27.
Proverbs 16:6 *By mercy and truth iniquity is redeemed; and by the fear of the Lord men depart from evil.

Proverbs 15:27.
Mercy to the distressed, Proverbs 3:3., and 14:22.
Proverbs 16:7 When the ways of man shall please the Lord, he will convert even his enemies to peace.

Peace. Thus Jacob, Joseph, Daniel, etc., were admired by their former enemies.
Proverbs 16:8 Better is a little with justice, than great revenues with iniquity.

Proverbs 16:9 *The heart of man disposeth his way: but the Lord must direct his steps.

Proverbs 16:1.
Proverbs 16:10 Divination is in the lips of the king, his mouth shall not err in judgment.

Judgment. Or "let it not err," as people look upon the decisions of kings as so many oracles. We ought to act in this manner, as long as they are not visibly unjust. God gave a principal spirit (Psalm 50:14.) to Saul, David, Solomon, and to the judges whom he appointed, 1 Kings 10:9., Deuteronomy 34:9., and Judges 3:10. (Calmet) --- Solomon was thus enabled to decide difficult cases. (Menochius) (Job 29:7.)
Proverbs 16:11 Weight and balance are judgments of the Lord: and his work all the weights of the bag.

Bag. Many read saeculi, "of the world." So Ven. Bede, etc. All God's appointments are perfectly just, Proverbs 11:21. It was the custom for people to carry balances to weigh money, before it was coined. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:12 They that act wickedly are abominable to the king: for the throne is established by justice.

Proverbs 16:13 Just lips are the delight of kings: he that speaketh right things shall be loved.

Loved. Yet none are more exposed to flattery and deceit than kings. (Seneca, ep. xxi.)
Proverbs 16:14 The wrath of a king is as messengers of death: and the wise man will pacify it.

Proverbs 16:15 In the cheerfulness of the king's countenance is life: and his clemency is like the latter rain.

Life. A mild government resembles a serene sky. (Sen.) (Clem.) (Job 29:23.)
Proverbs 16:16 Get wisdom, because it is better than gold: and purchase prudence, for it is more precious than silver.

Get. Septuagint, "the nests of wisdom....and the nests of prudence;" or Churches of Christ, or places of education, may be intended. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:17 The path of the just departeth from evils: he that keepeth his soul keepeth his way.

Proverbs 16:18 Pride goeth before destruction: and the spirit is lifted up before a fall.

Fall. Our first parents had given way to pride, before they sinned publicly. (St. Augustine, City of God 14:13.)
Proverbs 16:19 It is better to be humbled with the meek, than to divide spoils with the proud.

Proverbs 16:20 The learned in word shall find good things: and he that trusteth in the Lord is blessed.

Proverbs 16:21 The wise in heart shall be called prudent: and he that is sweet in words, shall attain to greater things.

Shall. Hebrew, "adds learning," both to himself and to others. Those who are wise and eloquent, must be preferred before those who have only the former qualification. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:22 Knowledge is a fountain of life to him that possesseth it: the instruction of fools is foolishness.

Proverbs 16:23 The heart of the wise shall instruct his mouth: and shall add grace to his lips.

Heart. Or knowledge. (Haydock) --- Wisdom gives beauty to eloquence.
Proverbs 16:24 *Well ordered words are as a honeycomb: sweet to the soul, and health to the bones.

Proverbs 15:13.; Proverbs 17:22.
Proverbs 16:25 There is a way that seemeth to a man right: and the ends thereof lead to death.

Proverbs 16:26 The soul of him that laboureth, laboureth for himself, because his mouth hath obliged him to it.

Mouth. The want of food, Ecclesiastes 6:7.
Proverbs 16:27 The wicked man diggeth evil, and in his lips is a burning fire.

Diggeth. Earnestly pursues. --- Fire. James 3:16. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:28 A perverse man stirreth up quarrels: and one full of words separateth princes.

Words. Protestants, "a whisperer separateth chief friends."
Proverbs 16:29 An unjust man allureth his friend: and leadeth him into a way that is not good.

Proverbs 16:30 He that with fixed eyes deviseth wicked things, biting his lips, bringeth evil to pass.

Lips. These motions indicate fury and pensiveness.
Proverbs 16:31 Old age is a crown of dignity, when it is found in the ways of justice.

Justice. To the just longevity is promised. (Calmet)
Proverbs 16:32 The patient man is better than the valiant: and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh cities.

Valiant. Alexandrian Septuagint adds, "and a prudent man than a great farmer." Greek: Georgiou. (Haydock) --- Cities. To govern the passions is more difficult. (St. Gregory, Past. 3:p. Adm. x.; St. Thomas Aquinas 2:2. q. 128. a. 6.) Latius regnes avidum domando Spiritum, quam si Lybiam, etc. (Horace, 2:Od. 2.)
Proverbs 16:33 Lots are cast into the lap, but they are disposed of by the Lord.

Lord. So the apostles had recourse to them, (Acts 1:26.) as the Cophts[Copts?] and Nestorians still do when there is a dispute about the election of a patriarch. (Renaudot 4:Perpet. 1:7. and 9.) --- This mode may settle disputes, Proverbs 18:18. But we must not have recourse to it, except where the Church permits, lest we become the dupes of an idle curiosity. (Calmet) --- Nothing happens by chance. (St. Augustine, City of God 5:9.) --- Septuagint, "all things come into the breast of the unjust; but all just things proceed from the Lord." (Haydock)
Proverbs 17:1 Better is a dry morsel with joy, than a house full of victims with strife.

Victims. Of which part was used for a feast, Proverbs 7:14. (Calmet) --- Septuagint add, "of many goods, and unjust victims." (Haydock)
Proverbs 17:2 *A wise servant shall rule over foolish sons, and shall divide the inheritance among the brethren.

Ecclesiasticus 10:28.
Brethren. Partaking with them, (Abenezra; Tirinus; Menochius) or rather acting as his master's executor; which evinces the advantages of wisdom, so as to raise a slave above those whom his station requires him to serve. Such was Joseph, who was tried.
Proverbs 17:3 As silver is tried by fire, and gold in the furnace: so the Lord trieth the hearts.

Proverbs 17:4 The evil man obeyeth an unjust tongue: and the deceitful hearkeneth to lying lips.

Lips. They mutually deceive one another, as well as others.
Proverbs 17:5 *He that despiseth the poor, reproacheth his maker: and he that rejoiceth at another man's ruin, shall not be unpunished.

Proverbs 14:31.
Proverbs 17:6 Children's children are the crown of old men: and the glory of children are their fathers.

Fathers. Whose virtues they are bound to imitate.
Proverbs 17:7 Eloquent words do not become a fool, nor lying lips a prince.

Eloquent. Septuagint, "faithful." They cannot be expected from them.
Proverbs 17:8 The expectation of him that expecteth is a most acceptable jewel: whithersoever he turneth himself, he understandeth wisely.

Expecteth heavenly things. Septuagint, "instruction is the reward of good deeds to those who use it."
Proverbs 17:9 He that concealeth a transgression, seeketh friendships: he that repeateth it again, separateth friends.

Friends. Detractors cause dissensions, and even wars.
Proverbs 17:10 A reproof availeth more with a wise man, than a hundred stripes with a fool.

Fool. "A word is enough for the wise." Nobilis equus umbra virgae regitur, ignavus ne calcari quidem. (Q. Curt.)
Proverbs 17:11 An evil man always seeketh quarrels: but a cruel angel shall be sent against him.

Angel. Messenger of death, (Menochius) which is sometimes inflicted by good, at others by bad, angels of death, or satan, 2 Corinthians 12:7., and Psalm 77:49.
Proverbs 17:12 It is better to meet a bear robbed of her whelps, than a fool trusting in his own folly.

Fool. Hebrew, "fool in his folly." The danger is not greater in meeting (Calmet) a female bear, though it be the most terrible. (Aristotle, Anim. 9:1.)
Proverbs 17:13 *He that rendereth evil for good, evil shall not depart from his house.

Romans 12:17.; 1 Thessalonians 5:15.; 1 Peter 3:9.
Proverbs 17:14 The beginning of quarrels is as when one letteth out water: before he suffereth reproach, he forsaketh judgment.

Water. It is scarcely possible to prevent the bad effects of detraction. Frequent quarrels have also risen on account of springs, Genesis 26:20. --- Judgment. And gives up the cause, as being much more prudent, Matthew 5:25, 40.
Proverbs 17:15 *He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, both are abominable before God.

Isaias 5:23.
God. We ought to suspend our judgment, or incline to the more favourable side, Matthew 7:1., and Romans 2:1.
Proverbs 17:16 What doth it avail a fool to have riches, seeing he cannot buy wisdom?

He, etc., is not here in Hebrew, though it be equivalently (ver. 19.) where the Septuagint are silent. (Calmet)
Proverbs 17:17 He that is a friend loveth at all times: and a brother is proved in distress.

Distress. Like the real friend, Proverbs 18:24.
Proverbs 17:18 A foolish man will clap hands, when he is surety for his friend.

Hands. Through joy, or as a mark of his consent.
Proverbs 17:19 He that studieth discords, loveth quarrels: and he that exalteth his door, seeketh ruin.

Door. Sixtus V reads, "mouth:" as some explain the door to mean. A large door supposes that the house is elevated, and thus exposed to danger from winds, etc.
Proverbs 17:20 He that is of a perverse heart, shall not find good: and he that perverteth his tongue, shall fall into evil.

Proverbs 17:21 A fool is born to his own disgrace: and even his father shall not rejoice in a fool.

Proverbs 17:22 *A joyful mind maketh age flourishing: a sorrowful spirit drieth up the bones.

Proverbs 15:13.; Proverbs 16:24.
Proverbs 17:23 The wicked man taketh gifts out of the bosom, that he may pervert the paths of judgment.

Proverbs 17:24 *Wisdom shineth in the face of the wise: the eyes of fools are in the ends of the earth.

Ecclesiastes 2:14.; Ecclesiastes 8:1.
Earth. Wandering and insatiable, and deeming the acquisition of wisdom too difficult.
Proverbs 17:25 A foolish son is the anger of the father: and the sorrow of the mother that bore him.

Proverbs 17:26 It is no good thing to do hurt to the just: nor to strike the prince, who judgeth right.

No good. But very criminal. See Jeremias 7:31.
Proverbs 17:27 *He that setteth bounds to his words, is knowing and wise: and the man of understanding is of a precious spirit.

James 1:19.
Precious and reserved spirit. This is a mark of wisdom. (Calmet)
Proverbs 17:28 Even a fool, if he will hold his peace, shall be counted wise: and if he close his lips, a man of understanding.

Proverbs 18:1 He that hath a mind to depart from a friend, seeketh occasions: he shall ever be subject to reproach.

Reproach. True friendship resembles charity, and bears all things, 1 Corinthians 13:4. Hebrew now reads Thave, "desire;" instead of Thuane, occasion, or "pretext," which must have been in the copies of the Septuagint and Vulgate. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "through desire, a man having separated himself, seeketh and intermeddleth with all wisdom." The solitary seeks heaven. (Haydock)
Proverbs 18:2 A fool receiveth not the words of prudence: unless thou say those things which are in his heart.

Heart. Conformable to his passions. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "unless to lay open his heart." He wishes to appear wise, and to justify his wicked designs. (Haydock)
Proverbs 18:3 The wicked man, when he is come into the depth of sins, contemneth: but ignominy and reproach follow him.

Contemneth both God and man, Luke 18:4. Hebrew, "is contemned" in his turn. (Calmet) --- He is like a man abandoned by the physician. (Op. Imp. in Matt. Hom. 40.)
Proverbs 18:4 *Words from the mouth of a man are as deep water: and the fountain of wisdom as an overflowing stream.

Proverbs 20:5.
Man, who is just and wise. His advice deserves attention, Proverbs 20:5.
Proverbs 18:5 It is not good to accept the person of the wicked, to decline from the truth of judgment.

Proverbs 18:6 The lips of a fool intermeddle with strife: and his mouth provoketh quarrels.

Quarrels. Hebrew, "blows." Septuagint, "death;" (ver. 7.) which are the usual consequences of quarrels.
Proverbs 18:7 The mouth of a fool is his destruction: and his lips are the ruin of his soul.

Proverbs 18:8 The words of the double-tongued are as if they were harmless: and they reach even to the inner parts of the bowels.

Tongued. Hebrew, "calumniator." He pretends to wish well to those of whom he speaks, or else to guard the company against deceit. (Calmet) --- "If the devil be upon the detractor's tongue, he is in the ears of those who pay attention to him." (St. Francis de Sales) --- Fear, etc., is in the Septuagint, above. The Vulgate retains both this and the new version of St. Jerome.
Proverbs 18:9 He that is loose and slack in his work, is the brother of him that wasteth his own works.

Brother. Like him, as both end in poverty, Proverbs 10:4., and 12:11.
Proverbs 18:10 The name of the Lord is a strong tower: the just runneth to it, and shall be exalted.

Name. Essence, or protection of God. The rich depends on his own wealth.
Proverbs 18:11 The substance of the rich man is the city of his strength, and as a strong wall compassing him about.

Proverbs 18:12 *Before destruction, the heart of a man is exalted: and before he be glorified, it is humbled.

Proverbs 11:2.; Ecclesiasticus 10:15.
Proverbs 18:13 *He that answereth before he heareth, sheweth himself to be a fool, and worthy of confusion.

Ecclesiasticus 11:8.
Heareth the end of the question, Proverbs 1:5.
Proverbs 18:14 The spirit of a man upholdeth his infirmity: but a spirit that is easily angered, who can bear?

Infirmity of the flesh, Matthew 26:41. --- That is. Theodotion, "is wounded, who shall support?"
Proverbs 18:15 A wise heart shall acquire knowledge: and the ear of the wise seeketh instruction.

Proverbs 18:16 A man's gift enlargeth his way, and maketh him room before princes.

Princes. He easily finds access by showing submission. (Calmet) Placatur donis Jupiter ipse suis. (Ovid)
Proverbs 18:17 The just is first accuser of himself: his friend cometh, and shall search him.

Him. To see that he act with sincerity.
Proverbs 18:18 The lot suppresseth contentions, and determineth even between the mighty.

Lot. Proverbs 16:33. Septuagint, "silence." (Calmet) --- But Grabe substitutes "lot." (Haydock)
Proverbs 18:19 A brother that is helped by his brother, is like a strong city: and judgments are like the bars of cities.

Judgments of many are more deserving of credit. Hebrew, "a brother offended, is like a strong place, and their quarrels," etc. They are not easily reconciled. Civil wars are most terrible. (Calmet)
Proverbs 18:20 Of the fruit of a man's mouth shall his belly be satisfied: and the offspring of his lips shall fill him.

Satisfied. Those who are guarded in their words get employment. (Haydock) (Chap. 12:14.)
Proverbs 18:21 Death and life are in the power of the tongue: they that love it, shall eat the fruits thereof.

Love it, and speak well or ill, shall receive accordingly, Matthew 12:37.
Proverbs 18:22 He that hath found a good wife, hath found a good thing, and shall receive a pleasure from the Lord.

Good wife. Good is not in Hebrew, but should be understood, as it is expressed in the Complutensian (Calmet) and Alexandrian Septuagint. (Haydock) --- He that, etc., occurs not in Hebrew, Sixtus V, etc. But it is found in Septuagint and Arabic. The Syriac omits the last sentence. --- Wicked. St. Augustine had frequently asserted that a divorce was only of counsel: but this he retracted, when he reflected on this text. (Retractions 1:19.) --- The Hebrews, Athenians, and Romans, followed the same practice with adulteresses. (Selden, Ux. 3:16.; Dem. in Neaeram, etc.) --- Hermas (past. 1:4.) prescribes that the penitent shall be received again, but not often. In case of divorce, the fathers still permit not a second marriage, that the parties may be reconciled. They enjoin the husband to put away only such as are incorrigible. (St. Augustine, Adul. 2:3.) (Calmet)
Proverbs 18:23 The poor will speak with supplications, and the rich will speak roughly.

Proverbs 18:24 A man amiable in society, shall be more friendly than a brother.

Brother. The ties of nature are not so strong as those of friendship. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "a man that hath friends must shew himself friendly; and there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Ut ameris ama. (Martial)
Proverbs 19:1 Better is the poor man, that walketh in his simplicity, than a rich man that is perverse in his lips and unwise.

Rich, is not in Hebrew, Septuagint, Complutensian, or St. Jerome. (Calmet) --- But as there is no antithesis between a poor man and a fool, it ought to be inserted, as it is in the Syriac, which reads, "than he who is perverse in his ways, though he be rich." The Manuscript 2 confirms "ways." (Kennicott)
Proverbs 19:2 *Where there is no knowledge of the soul, there is no good: and he that is hasty with his feet shall stumble.

Proverbs 21:16.
Soul. Wholesome and spiritual. Hebrew, "the soul or life is not good." --- Stumble. "The more I make haste, the less I advance," said Plato; (Republic 7.) and Augustus often repeated; Sat cito, si sat bene. (Suetonius)
Proverbs 19:3 The folly of a man supplanteth his steps: and he fretteth in his mind against God.

Fretteth. Literally, "burneth." Septuagint, "blameth." Hebrew, "his heart rageth against the Lord." (Haydock) --- Thus Adam tacitly laid the blame on him, as all those do who excuse themselves on account of their temper, habits, stars, the violence of temptation, etc. (Calmet)
Proverbs 19:4 Riches make many friends: but from the poor man, even they whom he had, depart.

Proverbs 19:5 *A false witness shall not be unpunished: and he that speaketh lies, shall not escape.

Daniel 13:61.
Proverbs 19:6 Many honour the person of him that is mighty, and are friends of him that giveth gifts.

Proverbs 19:7 The brethren of the poor man hate him: moreover also his friends have departed far from him.

Only. Hebrew has lo, and the margin lu, with the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- The former word intimates that the words have no solidity, and the latter that they shall be his only portion who is so foolish as to trust in them. Sequens dicta non ispa; (Montanus) or ei ipsa, if we follow the margin. (Haydock)
Proverbs 19:8 But he that possesseth a mind, loveth his own soul, and he that keepeth prudence, shall find good things.

Mind. Hebrew, "heart," intelligence, Proverbs 15:32. --- Loveth. This does not contradict the gospel; (John 12:25.) as those who refrain from what the soul would crave to its own detriment, truly love it.
Proverbs 19:9 A false witness shall not be unpunished: and he that speaketh lies, shall perish.

Proverbs 19:10 Delicacies are not seemly for a fool: nor for a servant to have rule over princes.

Fool. He would eat them, so as to prejudice his health. --- Princes. Proverbs 30:21. Such are commonly insolent, and should attend to Ausonius. Fortunam reverenter habe.
Proverbs 19:11 The learning of a man is known by patience: and his glory is to pass over wrongs.

Wrongs. The wise man is not vindictive or punctilious.
Proverbs 19:12 As the roaring of a lion, so also is the anger of a king: and his cheerfulness as the dew upon the grass.

Anger. Is not their dominion enough? Having none to admonish them, they do not perceive their excesses.
Proverbs 19:13 A foolish son is the grief of his father: and a wrangling wife is like a roof continually dropping through.

Through. It cannot be endured long. (Calmet) --- Dos est uxoria lites. (Ovid, Art. 1.) --- "Quarrels are a wife's dowry."
Proverbs 19:14 House and riches are given by parents: but a prudent wife is properly from the Lord.

Properly. Septuagint, "fitted by." (Haydock) --- Hence the Fathers dissuade marrying with infidels. (St. Ambrose in Luke xvi.) --- All good comes from God.
Proverbs 19:15 Slothfulness casteth into a deep sleep, and an idle soul shall suffer hunger.

Hunger. Both temporal and eternal. (Calmet) --- Non progredi, regredi est. St. Bernard says, "Not to advance, is to go back."
Proverbs 19:16 He that keepeth the commandment, keepeth his own soul: but he that neglecteth his own way, shall die.

Neglecteth. Hebrew, "contemneth." In the law of Moses, many transgressions are punished with death, but here that of the soul is meant. (Calmet)
Proverbs 19:17 He that hath mercy on the poor, lendeth to the Lord: and he will repay him.

Lendeth. To receive interest, foeneratur. (Haydock) --- Such usury is lawful, and God will abundantly reward acts of mercy. (Calmet) --- He engages his word for the poor. (St. Augustine in Psalm xxxvi.)
Proverbs 19:18 Chastise thy son, despair not: but to the killing of him set not thy soul.

Killing. Protestants, "crying;" or by his complaint be not deterred. (Haydock) --- Chaldean agrees with us. The law permitted parents to sell their children, and to have them stoned to death, if they declared them disobedient, (Deuteronomy 21:18.; Calmet) and riotous, ver. 20. Timely chastisement may prevent such extremities. (Haydock) --- St. Paul dissuades unnecessary severity, Colossians 3:21.
Proverbs 19:19 He that is impatient, shall suffer damage: and when he shall take away, he shall add another thing.

Thing. A child neglected will continue to steal, or to offend; (Calmet) while too much harshness will do no good, but tend to the damage of all parties. (Haydock) --- Anger is productive of the worst effects.
Proverbs 19:20 Hear counsel, and receive instruction, that thou mayst be wise in thy latter end.

Proverbs 19:21 There are many thoughts in the heart of a man: but the will of the Lord shall stand firm.

Firm. Ignorance and weakness cause men to change.
Proverbs 19:22 A needy man is merciful: and better is the poor than the lying man.

Merciful. Hebrews 2:17. Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco. (Virgil, Aeneid 4.) --- Hebrew, "the desire of a man is his mercy," (Montanus; Haydock) or "shame," (R. Levi) as it leads to sin, Genesis 6:5. All wish to be esteemed merciful. --- Man of quality. Hebrew meish, "proe viro." (Montanus) --- "Rich man." (Septuagint) (Haydock)
Proverbs 19:23 The fear of the Lord is unto life: and he shall abide in fulness without being visited with evil.

Life. Both temporal and eternal, Proverbs 10:27. (Calmet) --- With evil. Literally, "the worst," pessima. (Haydock) --- Sixtus V, "by the most wicked one." The devil shall have no power over him.
Proverbs 19:24 *The slothful hideth his hand under his arm-pit, and will not so much as bring it to his mouth.

Proverbs 26:15.
Arm-pit. Or Hebrew tsallachath, "in the pot," out of which he eats; which shews his negligence. --- Mouth, to eat. This hyperbole indicates that he is too lazy to take the necessary sustenance, Proverbs 26:15. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "in his breast unjustly. Neither will he bring them to his mouth." (Haydock) --- He will bestow nothing, and shall reap no benefit from his avarice. (St. Bernard) --- He will not practise what he teaches. (St. Gregory, Mor. 12:10.)
Proverbs 19:25 *The wicked man being scourged, the fool shall be wiser: but if thou rebuke a wise man, he will understand discipline.

Proverbs 21:11.
Wicked. Hebrew, "scoffer." Chastisements have always some good effect either on the sufferer, or on the spectators, who will be cautioned not to imitate what is wrong.
Proverbs 19:26 He that afflicteth his father, and chaseth away his mother, is infamous and unhappy.

Infamous. Hebrew, "a son of confusion and reproach;" a spendthrift.
Proverbs 19:27 Cease not, O my son, to hear instruction, and be not ignorant of the words of knowledge.

Not. Hebrew seems to say the reverse. (Calmet) --- But we may read it with an interrogation. "Wilt thou cease?" etc. Or the instruction here meant is of a dangerous nature. Protestants, "that causeth to err from the words of knowledge." Septuagint, "a son who neglects to keep the instruction of his father, shall muse on bad sayings." (Haydock)
Proverbs 19:28 An unjust witness scorneth judgment: and the mouth of the wicked devoureth iniquity.

Proverbs 19:29 Judgments are prepared for scorners: and striking hammers for the bodies of fools.

Hammers, (Symmachus) "punishments." (Septuagint) See Judges 5:25. (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:1 Wine is a luxurious thing, and drunkenness riotous: whosoever is delighted therewith, shall not be wise.

A luxurious thing. Hebrew, "a scoffer." Chaldean, "renders one a scoffer." --- Drunkenness. Hebrew ssocor, any strong drink, particularly palm-wine. Intemperance places the strongest obstacles in the way of wisdom. It causes a person to mock at all sacred things, and to be quarrelsome, Proverbs 23:29., and Ephesians 5:18.
Proverbs 20:2 As the roaring of a lion, so also is the dread of a king: he that provoketh him, sinneth against his own soul.

Proverbs 20:3 It is an honour for a man, to separate himself from quarrels: but all fools are meddling with reproaches.

Reproaches. It is better not to commence a lawsuit, even when we are in the right, Proverbs 17:11. (Calmet) --- Plena victoria est ad clamantem tacere. (Val. Max.)
Proverbs 20:4 Because of the cold the sluggard would not plough: he shall beg therefore in the summer, and it shall not be given him.

Proverbs 20:5 *Counsel in the heart of a man is like deep water: but a wise man will draw it out.

Proverbs 18:4.
Out. So David discovered the meaning of the Thecuite, 2 Kings 14:18. A wise politician carefully examines everything in a foreign court.
Proverbs 20:6 Many men are called merciful: but who shall find a faithful man?

Faithful. Few continue steady to their engagements or friends, whom they will assist to a certain point. In God these two virtues always go together, Psalm 84:11. But they are rarely found in men. (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:7 The just that walketh in his simplicity, shall leave behind him blessed children.

Proverbs 20:8 The king, that sitteth on the throne of judgment, scattereth away all evil with his look.

Look. It is the duty of kings to administer justice.
Proverbs 20:9 *Who can say: My heart is clean, I am pure from sin?

3 Kings 8:46.; 2 Paralipomenon 6:36.; Ecclesiastes 7:21.; 1 John 1:8.
Sin. Protestants, "my sin?" We know not when it is remitted. (Haydock) --- Without a special revelation, no one can be secure, 1 John 1:8., and Ecclesiastes 9:1. (Bayn.) (St. Augustine in Psalm cxlix.)
Proverbs 20:10 *Diverse weights and diverse measures, both are abominable before God.

Proverbs 11:1.; Proverbs 20:23.
Measures. In commerce, (Calmet) as well as in judging. (St. Gregory in Ezechiel iv.)
Proverbs 20:11 By his inclinations a child is known, if his works be clean and right.

Right. We may form some judgment of his future conduct, from the inclinations which he manifests in his infancy. Naturam expellas furca, tamen ipsa recurret, Et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia victrix. (Horace)
Proverbs 20:12 The hearing ear, and the seeing eye, the Lord hath made them both.

Both. Consequently he will know all our actions, Psalm 93:9. We must refer all to him, as he gives us the means of learning. (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:13 Love not sleep, lest poverty oppress thee: open thy eyes, and be filled with bread.

Sleep. Septuagint, "back-biting, that thou mayst not be taken off." (Haydock)
Proverbs 20:14 It is naught, it is naught, saith every buyer: and when he is gone away, then he will boast.

Buyer. This is the common practice; yet it is not without exceptions. St. Augustine (Trin. 13:3.) observes, that the mountebank having promised to tell what every person had in his heart, many came to the theatre, when he told them that they all wished to buy cheap, and to sell dear. They all applauded the remark. (Calmet) --- Septuagint is here defective. (Haydock)
Proverbs 20:15 There is gold and a multitude of jewels: but the lips of knowledge are a precious vessel.

Proverbs 20:16 *Take away the garment of him that is surety for a stranger, and take a pledge from him for strangers.

Proverbs 27:13.
Strangers. For whom he has bound himself foolishly, Proverbs 6:1. All who have the care of others, must answer for them. (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:17 The bread of lying is sweet to a man: but afterwards his mouth shall be filled with gravel.

Lying. Deceit, and unlawful pleasures, Proverbs 9:17. But God mingles disgust with them, and will punish the guilty, at least hereafter. Worldly enjoyments seem sweet, but they are full of gravel, and hurtful.
Proverbs 20:18 Designs are strengthened by counsels: and wars are to be managed by governments.

Governments. Or prudence, else the best designs may prove abortive.
Proverbs 20:19 Meddle not with him that revealeth secrets, and walketh deceitfully, and openeth wide his lips.

Lips. And speaketh much. These people are unworthy of our friendship.
Proverbs 20:20 *He that curseth his father, and mother, his lamp shall be put out in the midst of darkness.

Exodus 21:17.; Leviticus 20:9.; Matthew 15:4.
Lamp. Prosperity, or children.
Proverbs 20:21 The inheritance gotten hastily in the beginning, in the end shall be without a blessing.

Blessing. It is morally impossible that they should have been acquired justly, Proverbs 13:11., and 21:5.
Proverbs 20:22 *Say not: I will return evil: wait for the Lord, and he will deliver thee.

Romans 12:17.; 1 Thessalonians 5:15.; 1 Peter 3:9.
Evil. And revenge myself. This belongs to the Lord, Deuteronomy 32:35. Man would be too favourable to himself, and would also pronounce his own condemnation, as he is also a sinner.
Proverbs 20:23 *Diverse weights are an abomination before the Lord: a deceitful balance is not good.

Proverbs 20:10.
Proverbs 20:24 *The steps of man are guided by the Lord: but who is the man that can understand his own way?

Proverbs 16:2.
Way? Jeremias 10:23. Independently of God, who can do any good? (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:25 It is ruin to a man to devour holy ones, and after vows to retract.

Ones. Hebrew, "the saint or holy thing." (Haydock) --- Chaldean, "to make a vow for the sanctuary, and afterwards repent;" having acted inconsiderately at first. To attack the persons or relics of the saints, or to plunder what is consecrated to pious uses, will bring on destruction; so also to make vows, and then seek to evade them, will not pass unpunished. (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:26 A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth over them the wheel.

Wheel. Or triumphal arch, fornicem. (Ven. Bede; Jansenius) --- He will make his enemies lie prostrate under his chariot-wheels, 2 Kings 12:31.
Proverbs 20:27 The spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord, which searcheth all the hidden things of the bowels.

Lamp. The breath of life, (Genesis 2:7.) and the light of man, 1 Corinthians 2:11.
Proverbs 20:28 Mercy and truth preserve the king, and his throne is strengthened by clemency.

Clemency. Such a king need not fear rebellion. (Calmet)
Proverbs 20:29 The joy of young men, is their strength: and the dignity of old men, their grey hairs.

Hairs, and experience. They have a greater contempt of death and pleasures. (St. Ambrose, Hex. 1:8.)
Proverbs 20:30 The blueness of a wound shall wipe away evils: and stripes in the more inward parts of the belly.

Evils. The wicked shall derive benefit from correction. --- Belly. They shall feel the remorse of conscience, as Chaldean seems to indicate. (Calmet) --- A serious illness often causes people to repent. (Menochius)
Proverbs 21:1 As the divisions of waters, so the heart of the king is in the hand of the Lord: whithersoever he will, he shall turn it.

It. Though it be free, and may resist grace or embrace virtue, Isaias 45:22., Jeremias 3:14., and 7:3., and Josue 24:23. (Calmet) --- Yet God knows how to turn the heart even of a king, so as to preserve his liberty, with the same ease as a gardener brings the streams of water to his plants. (Menochius)
Proverbs 21:2 *Every way of a man seemeth right to himself: but the Lord weigheth the hearts.

Proverbs 16:2.; Proverbs 20:24.
Proverbs 21:3 To do mercy and judgment, pleaseth the Lord more than victims.

Mercy. Septuagint, "justice and truth." (Haydock) See Osee 6:6. (Menochius)
Proverbs 21:4 Haughtiness of the eyes is the enlarging of the heart: the lamp of the wicked is sin.

Heart. Or when it is proud, it causes the eyes to appear so too. (Calmet) --- Lamp. Protestants, "ploughing of the wicked is sin." When it is done with a bad motive, out of pride. Hebrew, "the haughtiness of the eyes, and the enlarging of the heart, are the labour ("tillage," Montanus; "thought," Pagnin) of the wicked; yea, sin." (Haydock) --- Those things are their employment, and their sin. (Calmet) --- Septuagint and Vulgate may also mean, "sin is the lamp and exultation of the wicked." (Haydock)
Proverbs 21:5 The thoughts of the industrious always bring forth abundance: but every sluggard is always in want.

Sluggard. Hebrew, "hasty man," as the slothful is ironically styled. He would see his desires accomplished without labouring; and will never stick to work. This levity is most injurious to his advancement.
Proverbs 21:6 He that gathereth treasures by a lying tongue, is vain and foolish, and shall stumble upon the snares of death.

Death. Their injustice shall be punished.
Proverbs 21:7 The robberies of the wicked shall be their downfall, because they would not do judgment.

Proverbs 21:8 The perverse way of a man is strange: but as for him that is pure, his work is right.

Strange. Unknown, impure way, Leviticus 10:1., and Deuteronomy 17:15. (Calmet)
Proverbs 21:9 *It is better to sit in a corner of the house-top, than with a brawling woman, and in a common house.

Proverbs 25:24.
Top, (domatis) as the roofs in Palestine were flat. (St. Jerome, ad Sun.) --- Any inconvenience had better be endured, than to live with the quarrelsome. (Menochius)
Proverbs 21:10 The soul of the wicked desireth evil, he will not have pity on his neighbour.

Neighbour. Symmachus, "he has no idea of friendship." Septuagint, "he shall not be treated with mercy by any man." (Haydock)
Proverbs 21:11 *When a pestilent man is punished, the little one will be wiser: and if he follow the wise, he will receive knowledge.

Proverbs 19:25.
Knowledge. These are the effects of chastisements and good company.
Proverbs 21:12 The just considereth seriously the house of the wicked, that he may withdraw the wicked from evil.

Evil. He tries every expedient to save him. --- That. Septuagint, "he despises." Symmachus, "throws down."
Proverbs 21:13 He that stoppeth his ear against the cry of the poor, shall also cry himself, and shall not be heard.

Proverbs 21:14 A secret present quencheth anger: and a gift in the bosom, the greatest wrath.

Bosom. In private. (Calmet) --- They put all valuable things in the bosom. (Haydock)
Proverbs 21:15 It is joy to the just to do judgment: and dread to them that work iniquity.

To do judgment. Or to see it done, while the wicked depend only on the corruption of their judges.
Proverbs 21:16 A man that shall wander out of the way of doctrine, shall abide in the company of the giants.

Giants, in hell, chap 15:11., Job 26:5., and Ezechiel 22:21.
Proverbs 21:17 He that loveth good cheer, shall be in want: he that loveth wine, and fat things, shall not be rich.

Rich. Economy is constantly recommended. (Calmet) --- Those who squandered away their goods, were fined by the Areopagites. (Athen. 4:19.)
Proverbs 21:18 The wicked is delivered up for the just: and the unjust for the righteous.

Righteous. Many are deterred from wickedness by the punishment of malefactors, whose injuries are frequently irreparable. God abandoned Pharao and Aman to save his people. He treated them as victims of wrath, Isaias 43:3.
Proverbs 21:19 *It is better to dwell in a wilderness, than with a quarrelsome and passionate woman.

Proverbs 21:9.; Ecclesiasticus 25:23.
Proverbs 21:20 There is a treasure to be desired, and oil in the dwelling of the just: and the foolish man shall spend it.

Treasure of provisions. Temporal blessings were promised as a figure of more lasting ones, which are set before Christians.
Proverbs 21:21 He that followeth justice and mercy, shall find life, justice, and glory.

Proverbs 21:22 The wise man hath scaled the city of the strong, and hath cast down the strength of the confidence thereof.

Thereof. Nothing can resist, Matthew 12:29., and Ecclesiastes 9:16. (Calmet)
Proverbs 21:23 He that keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth his soul from distress.

Mouth, from eating too much. (Lyranus)
Proverbs 21:24 The proud and the arrogant is called ignorant, who in anger worketh pride.

Ignorant. Hebrew, "a scoffer." Septuagint, "pestilent." (Haydock) --- Such a one is always actuated by pride, when he attempts to turn good advice and religion to ridicule.
Proverbs 21:25 Desires kill the slothful: for his hands have refused to work at all.

At all. Hence his desires of riches and wisdom prove fruitless, Proverbs 13:4.
Proverbs 21:26 He longeth and desireth all the day: but he that is just, will give, and will not cease.

Proverbs 21:27 *The sacrifices of the wicked are abominable, because they are offered of wickedness.

Proverbs 15:8.; Ecclesiasticus 34:21.
Wickedness. Hebrew, "with an evil thought." (Montanus) Ecclesiasticus 34:24. (Haydock)
Proverbs 21:28 A lying witness shall perish: an obedient man shall speak of victory.

Obedient. Attentive, faithful witness, shall speak with triumph, or he who obeys the law, shall gain the victory over the devil, etc. (Philippians 2:8.)
Proverbs 21:29 The wicked man impudently hardeneth his face: but he that is righteous, correcteth his way.

Face. Never blushing, or yielding to good advice.
Proverbs 21:30 There is no wisdom, there is no prudence, there is no counsel against the Lord.

Proverbs 21:31 The horse is prepared for the day of battle: but the Lord giveth safety.

Battle. It was kept for no other purpose by the eastern nations, who used oxen to till the land; asses and camels to carry burdens, Job 39:18., and Psalm 19:8., and 32:17. (Calmet)
Proverbs 22:1 A good name *is better than great riches: and good favour is above silver and gold.

Ecclesiastes 7:2.
Good. Hebrew, "a name," or reputation. (Haydock) --- It is preferable to riches, but not to be compared with virtue, which is the only solid good; and even to be placed above riches, it must be well grounded. (Calmet) --- Favour with all. (Haydock)
Proverbs 22:2 The rich and poor have met one another: the Lord is the maker of them both.

Another. They stand in need of one another. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxiv. in 1 Corinthians.) --- They are equal in God's sight, who only values real virtue. He disposes of riches, so that the poor may one day become rich. (Calmet)
Proverbs 22:3 The prudent man saw the evil, and hid himself: the simple passed on, and suffered loss.

Proverbs 22:4 The fruit of humility is the fear of the Lord, riches and glory and life.

Fruit. Literally, "the end of modesty, (Haydock) or moderation, which must accompany every virtue.
Proverbs 22:5 Arms and swords are in the way of the perverse: but he that keepeth his own soul, departeth far from them.

Perverse. They are always in danger and in trouble.
Proverbs 22:6 It is a proverb: A young man according to his way, even when he is old, he will not depart from it.

It is a proverb, is added by St. Jerome, to make the sentence more striking. --- It. He is like a tender plant, (Calmet) or wax, or a new vessel. Quo semel est imbuta recens servabit odorem Testa diu. (Horace, ep. 1:ad Lol.) --- "Shall wool regain its whiteness after it has been dyed purple?" (St. Jerome, ad Laetam.) --- Hebrew, "initiate a young," etc. Proportion your lessons to his capacity, and make him relish them.
Proverbs 22:7 The rich ruleth over the poor: and the borrower is servant to him that lendeth.

Servant. He might be sold, etc., Exodus 22:3., and Matthew 18:25. (Gell. 20:1.) Plato (Leg. viii.) would have nothing sold on credit. These laws appear to be severe; but they are founded on wisdom, as nothing impoverishes more than the facility of borrowing.
Proverbs 22:8 He that soweth iniquity shall reap evils, and with the rod of his anger he shall be consumed.

Consumed. Or beaten with the flail of God's anger.
Proverbs 22:9 *He that is inclined to mercy, shall be blessed: for of his bread he hath given to the poor.

Ecclesiasticus 31:28.
Is. Hebrew, "has a good eye," in opposition to the evil, or malicious one, Matthew 20:15. --- He, etc., is not in Hebrew, or in the Latin edition of Comp. and St. Jerome.
Proverbs 22:10 Cast out the scoffer, and contention shall go out with him, and quarrels and reproaches shall cease.

Proverbs 22:11 He that loveth cleanness of heart, for the grace of his lips shall have the king for his friend.

He. Septuagint, "the Lord loveth pious hearts. All the irreproachable are acceptable to him. The king feeds with lips," by his just ordinances. (Haydock) --- Kings hate duplicity; but require that the truth should be disclosed to them in a suitable manner.
Proverbs 22:12 The eyes of the Lord preserve knowledge: and the words of the unjust are overthrown.

Proverbs 22:13 The slothful man saith: There is a lion without, I shall be slain in the midst of the streets.

Streets. Vain excuses of sloth!
Proverbs 22:14 The mouth of a strange woman is a deep pit: he whom the Lord is angry with, shall fall into it.

It. Debauchery resembles hell, Proverbs 23:23. (Calmet) --- Facilis descensus Averni, etc. (Virgil, Aeneid vi.)
Proverbs 22:15 Folly is bound up in the heart of a child, and the rod of correction shall drive it away.

Folly. Ignorance and innate corruption are corrected by a good education.
Proverbs 22:16 He that oppresseth the poor, to increase his own riches, shall himself give to one that is richer, and shall be in need.

Proverbs 22:17 Incline thy ear, and hear the words of the wise: and apply thy heart to my doctrine:

Incline. Thus Solomon concludes his discourse, (chap. 24:23.) in the same manner as he began it, to Proverbs 10. Some commence the third book of Proverbs in this place; others, Proverbs 25. (Calmet)
Proverbs 22:18 Which shall be beautiful for thee, if thou keep it in thy bowels, and it shall flow in thy lips:

Lips. Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. (Haydock)
Proverbs 22:19 That thy trust may be in the Lord, wherefore I have also shewn it to thee this day.

Proverbs 22:20 Behold I have described it to thee three manner of ways, in thoughts and knowledge:

Ways. Repeatedly. (Bossuet; Tirinus) (2 Corinthians 12:8., and Amos 1:11.) (Calmet) --- Protestants, "have not I written to thee excellent things in counsels and knowledge?" "Shalishim," perfect, (Pagnin) or "three things," (Montanus) means also (Haydock) such as might suit princes and great officers. (Calmet)
Proverbs 22:21 That I might shew thee the certainty, and the words of truth, to answer out of these to them that sent thee.

Sent. Septuagint, "are sent to thee." Thou mayst become a teacher, (Haydock) or give satisfaction to thy parents, who have sent thee to my school. (Calmet)
Proverbs 22:22 Do no violence to the poor, because he is poor: and do not oppress the needy in the gate:

Gate. Where judges passed sentence. (Menochius)
Proverbs 22:23 Because the Lord will judge his cause, and will afflict them that have afflicted his soul.

Proverbs 22:24 Be not a friend to an angry man, and do not walk with a furious man:

Proverbs 22:25 Lest perhaps thou learn his ways, and take scandal to thy soul.

Soul. By imitating him, or by falling a victim to his rage.
Proverbs 22:26 Be not with them that fasten down their hands, and that offer themselves sureties for debts:

Hands. Engaging to stand bond. (Haydock) (Chap. 6:1.) --- Such a one might be required to pay the debt, Proverbs 20:16.
Proverbs 22:27 For if thou have not wherewith to restore, what cause is there that he should take the covering from thy bed?

Proverbs 22:28 Pass not beyond the ancient bounds which thy fathers have set.

Set. The pagans made a god of Terminus, to prevent disputes. (Ovid, Fast. ii.) --- If it be unlawful to disturb land-marks, how much more so is it to give way to novelty in religion? (Deuteronomy 19:14.) (Calmet) --- Solomon is addressing those who follow the true faith. Else the conduct of infidel ancestors should not deter any from embracing the truth. (Haydock)
Proverbs 22:29 Hast thou seen a man swift in his work? he shall stand before kings, and shall not be before those that are obscure.

Obscure. By industry he shall raise himself to notice. (Haydock) --- Kings employ those who are most active. (Calmet)
Proverbs 23:1 When thou shalt sit to eat with a prince, consider diligently what is set before thy face:

Sit. Saul sat at table, and the custom of lying down was adopted only a little while before the captivity. It was recent among the Romans. (Calmet) --- Soliti patres considere mensis. (Virgil, Aeneid 7:170.)
Proverbs 23:2 And put a knife to thy throat, if it be so that thou have thy soul in thy own power.

Throat. Restrain intemperance and talkativeness, Ecclesiasticus 31:12. Septuagint, "stretch forth thy hand, knowing that thou must prepare the like; but if thou be more insatiable, (3.) desire not his meats, for he has them of a deceitful life." They cannot afford real happiness, (Haydock) and to vie with the rich would only reduce them to poverty, Ecclesiasticus 13:2. St. Augustine (tr. xlvii. in Joan.) explains this text of the blessed Eucharist, observing, that we must give our life for our brethren, as Christ did for us. Before communion, we must slay the old man, and subdue our passions. (Calmet) --- Power. Protestants, "if thou be a man given to appetite." The situation of a courtier is very critical. (Haydock) --- Those who eat with the kings of Persia, were nicely observed by an eunuch, lest they should cast their eyes on any of his concubines. (Lucian. de Merced.)
Proverbs 23:3 Be not desirous of his meats, in which is the bread of deceit.

Deceit. Poison. He wishes to discover thy secret.
Proverbs 23:4 Labour not to be rich: but set bounds to thy prudence.

Prudence. Be more solicitous for this, than to acquire riches. (Calmet) --- Yet this wisdom must be sober, Romans 12:3., and 1 Timothy 6:9. Septuagint, "being poor, do not stretch forth thyself to the rich, but prudently retire,["] ver. 2. (Haydock)
Proverbs 23:5 Lift not up thy eyes to riches which thou canst not have: because they shall make themselves wings like those of an eagle, and shall fly towards heaven.

Riches. Septuagint, "to him, the rich man, he no where appears. He has prepared," etc. (Haydock) --- Like. Hebrew, "as the eagle, it will fly," etc. (Haydock) --- We must therefore fix our hearts on more durable goods.
Proverbs 23:6 Eat not with an envious man, and desire not his meats:

Man. Hebrew, "eat not bread of an evil eye," the envious, or rather the sordid miser.
Proverbs 23:7 Because, like a soothsayer, and diviner, he thinketh that which he knoweth not. Eat and drink, will he say to thee: and his mind is not with thee.

Like. Protestants, "as he thinketh in his heart, so is he: eat," etc. (Haydock) --- He is still convinced that his guests will ruin him: or "like one guarding, or trembling for his soul." Septuagint, "swallowing a hair, he saith," etc. He is afraid of expense, and would allow himself as little as possible. --- Diviner. Such endeavour to speak what may come to pass, but are full of anxiety; so the miser's words are contrary to his real sentiments, (Calmet) as the diviner knows that he is imposing on mankind. (Haydock)
Proverbs 23:8 The meats which thou hadst eaten, thou shalt vomit up: and shalt lose thy beautiful words.

Words. Thou wilt be disgusted, and repine, Ecclesiasticus 31:25.
Proverbs 23:9 Speak not in the ears of fools: because they will despise the instruction of thy speech.

Proverbs 23:10 Touch not the bounds of little ones: and enter not into the field of the fatherless:

Ones. Hebrew and Septuagint, "ancient boundaries."
Proverbs 23:11 For their near kinsman is strong: and he will judge their cause against thee.

Kinsman. Hebrew Gaal, "tutor, defendant, or redeemer," the Lord (Haydock) himself, Leviticus 25:25.
Proverbs 23:12 Let thy heart apply itself to instruction: and thy ears to words of knowledge.

Proverbs 23:13 *Withhold not correction from a child: for if thou strike him with the rod, he shall not die.

Proverbs 13:24.; Ecclesiasticus 30:1.
Proverbs 23:14 Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and deliver his soul from hell.

Proverbs 23:15 My son, if thy mind be wise, my heart shall rejoice with thee:

Proverbs 23:16 And my reins shall rejoice, when thy lips shall speak what is right.

Reins. Inmost affections.
Proverbs 23:17 *Let not thy heart envy sinners: but be thou in the fear of the Lord all the day long:

Proverbs 24:1.
Proverbs 23:18 Because thou shalt have hope in the latter end, and thy expectation shall not be taken away.

Thou. Protestants, "surely there is an end." Marginal note, "reward." (Haydock) --- The testimony of a good conscience affords the greatest comfort in death. Septuagint, "if thou observe these things, thou shalt have posterity." Hebrew, "hopes."
Proverbs 23:19 Hear thou, my son, and be wise: and guide thy mind in the way.

Proverbs 23:20 Be not in the feasts of great drinkers, nor in their revellings, who contribute flesh to eat:

Eat. Such feasts tend to corrupt the morals, and to misspend time.
Proverbs 23:21 Because they that give themselves to drinking, and that club together, shall be consumed: and drowsiness shall be clothed with rags.

Rags. At death the indolent shall be exposed to shame.
Proverbs 23:22 Hearken to thy father, that beget thee: and despise not thy mother when she is old.

Proverbs 23:23 Buy truth, and do not sell wisdom, and instruction, and understanding.

Sell. Acquire as much wisdom as possible, and keep it with care. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "do not drive wisdom from thee."
Proverbs 23:24 The father of the just rejoiceth greatly: he that hath begotten a wise son, shall have joy in him.

Proverbs 23:25 Let thy father and thy mother be joyful, and let her rejoice that bore thee.

Proverbs 23:26 My son, give me thy heart: and let thy eyes keep my ways.

Proverbs 23:27 For a harlot is a deep ditch: and a strange woman is a narrow pit.

Pit. It is difficult to overcome this passion, when once it has got possession of the heart. We must therefore watch over it, and consecrate it invariably to wisdom, ver. 26.
Proverbs 23:28 She lieth in wait in the way as a robber, and him whom she shall see unwary, she will kill.

Him. Protestants, "increaseth the transgressors among men," (Haydock) and like a harpy, kills all whom she can entrap.
Proverbs 23:29 Who hath wo? whose father hath wo? who hath contentions? who falls into pits? who hath wounds without cause? who hath redness of eyes?

Whose father. St. Jerome has read ab avi, instead of abo, (Calmet) which is an interjection, (Bochart) alas! or it means, "trouble." Septuagint, "drunkenness," (Chaldean; Calmet) or "sorrow." (Protestants) --- Falls. Septuagint, "hath sorrows." Hebrew, "babbling," (Protestants; Haydock) or discontents of mind. (Calmet) --- Cause. Drunkards often fall upon their best friends, as Alexander did on Clytus. (Menochius)
Proverbs 23:30 Surely they that pass their time in wine, and study to drink off their cups.

Proverbs 23:31 Look not upon the wine when it is yellow, when the colour thereof shineth in the glass: it goeth in pleasantly,

Yellow. Or bright, as it is said there is only one red wine in Palestine. --- Pleasantly. Hebrew, "it goeth right," and is excellent. (Calmet)
Proverbs 23:32 But in the end, it will bite like a snake, and will spread abroad poison like a basilisk.

Basilisk, (regulus). Hebrew Tsiphoni, (Haydock) as asp. (Cerastes, etc.) (Psalm 90:13.)
Proverbs 23:33 Thy eyes shall behold strange women, and thy heart shall utter perverse things.

Women. Wine excites to lust. (Calmet) See Proverbs 20:1. --- Shall. Septuagint, "shall these." (Haydock)
Proverbs 23:34 And thou shalt be as one sleeping in the midst of the sea, and as a pilot fast asleep when the stern is lost.

When. Septuagint, "in a great wave." Never is reason more wanted, nor less able to perform her duty.
Proverbs 23:35 And thou shalt say: They have beaten me, but I was not sensible of pain: they drew me, and I felt not: when shall I awake and find wine again?

Drew. Chaldean, "plundered." Septuagint, "mocked at me." --- Again. This is the woeful effect of drunkenness, that men are not deterred from it, though they be sensible of its dreadful consequences. (Menochius)
Proverbs 24:1 Seek *not to be like evil men, neither desire to be with them:

Like. Be not allured by their prosperity to imitate them, Psalm 36:1.
Proverbs 24:2 Because their mind studieth robberies, and their lips speak deceits.

Proverbs 24:3 By wisdom the house shall be built, and by prudence it shall be strengthened.

Wisdom and virtue, and not by injustice can the house be established.
Proverbs 24:4 By instruction the store-rooms shall be filled with all precious and most beautiful wealth.

Proverbs 24:5 A wise man is strong: and a knowing man, stout and valiant.

Valiant, as well as a good economist, ver. 4. (Calmet)
Proverbs 24:6 Because war is managed by due ordering: and there shall be safety where there are many counsels.

Counsels. "Consult many what ought to be done, but only a few of the most faithful, or rather thyself alone, what thou art about to do." (Veget. 3:9., and 27.)
Proverbs 24:7 Wisdom is too high for a fool; in the gate he shall not open his mouth.

High. Thus the fool excuses himself. But wisdom condescends to our weakness, if we be truly in earnest, Deuteronomy 32:12. Mouth. To defend himself, or to give advice. (Calmet)
Proverbs 24:8 He that deviseth to do evils, shall be called a fool.

Proverbs 24:9 The thought of a fool is sin: and the detracter is the abomination of men.

Of a fool. In as much as he is wicked. Though he may have some pious thoughts, he attends not to them. (Haydock) --- He thinks how he may commit evil, and renders himself hateful. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "a wicked thought is the sin of folly." Septuagint, "the fool dieth in sins." --- Detractor. Hebrew, "scoffer." (Haydock)
Proverbs 24:10 If thou lose hope, being weary in the day of distress, thy strength shall be diminished.

Diminished. This is the sad consequences of too much dejection, Ephesians 4:19. Despairing, they abandon themselves to impurities. (Haydock)
Proverbs 24:11 *Deliver them that are led to death: and those that are drawn to death, forbear not to deliver.

Psalm 81:4.
Deliver. The Jews often put people to death without any formal trial, pretending zeal, as they did St. Stephen, etc. Our Saviour rescued the adulteress from such a situation, as Daniel had done Susanna. Yet this text may regard poor debtors, Psalm 71:4. (Calmet) --- Christian bishops used all their influence to preserve the lives of those who did not deserve death. (St. Ambrose in Psalm cxviii. Ser. viii. Off. 1:36., and ep. xxv., and xxvi.)
Proverbs 24:12 If thou say: I have not strength enough: he that seeth into the heart, he understandeth, and nothing deceiveth the keeper of thy soul, and he shall render to a man according to his works.

I have. Hebrew, "behold, we know not this man." (Pagnin) (Haydock) --- He is a stranger. But all mankind are brethren, and have a charge to assist one another, even though they be enemies, Ecclesiasticus 17:12., and Exodus 23:4. (Calmet) --- Keeper. Hebrew notser, "preserver." As thou hast received many good things from God, shew mercy to thy neighbour.
Proverbs 24:13 *Eat honey, my son, because it is good, and the honeycomb most sweet to thy throat.

Proverbs 25:16.; Proverbs25:27.
Honey. Of wisdom, which is most delicious. (Menochius)
Proverbs 24:14 So also is the doctrine of wisdom to thy soul: which when thou hast found, thou shalt have hope in the end, and thy hope shall not perish.

Thou shalt. Hebrew, "yea, it is the last." (Montanus) --- "Then there shall be a reward." (Protestants) --- Thou shalt enjoy old age, or have posterity. (Calmet)
Proverbs 24:15 Lie not in wait, nor seek after wickedness in the house of the just, nor spoil his rest.

Proverbs 24:16 For a just man shall fall seven times, and shall rise again: but the wicked shall fall down into evil.

Fall into smaller sins, (St. Gregory vi. in 2 Reg. xv. etc.) or into disgrace, as yippol (Haydock) rather intimates. (Vatable) (St. Augustine, City of God 11:31.) --- Both significations agree with the context. See Job 5:27., and Matthew 18:21. (Calmet) --- He who is not subject to mortal sin, may still be exposed to many failings, and venial sins, which do not deprive him of the title of just; whereas the wicked consents to mortal sin, from which he riseth not so easily. Hence the wise man admonishes us not to lie in wait, or calumniously seek impiety in the house or soul of the just. (Worthington)
Proverbs 24:17 When thy enemy shall fall, be not glad, and in his ruin let not thy heart rejoice:

Proverbs 24:18 Lest the Lord see, and it displease him, and he turn away his wrath from him.

From. To punish thee. (Calmet) --- Thus will thy thirst of vengeance be disappointed. (Haydock) --- The Hebrews believed that there was no evil, which was not caused by sin; and this was true in some sense. But still God often afflicts his servants, (ver. 16,) as the whole book of Job tends to prove. (Calmet)
Proverbs 24:19 Contend not with the wicked, nor seek to be like the ungodly.

Contend. Or Hebrew, "associate." --- Like. Ver. 1., and Psalm 36:1.
Proverbs 24:20 For evil men have no hope of things to come, and the lamp of the wicked shall be put out.

Come. Protestants, "no reward," (Haydock) posterity, etc., as designated also by the lamp, ver. 14. (Calmet)
Proverbs 24:21 My son, fear the Lord, and the king: and have nothing to do with detractors.

Detractors. Or those who speak ill of God or the king. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "that are given to change," (Haydock) and relapses.
Proverbs 24:22 For their destruction shall rise suddenly: and who knoweth the ruin of both?

Proverbs 24:23 These things also to the wise: *It is not good to have respect to persons in judgment.

Leviticus 19:15.; Deuteronomy 1:17.; Deuteronomy 16:19.; Ecclesiasticus 42:1.
These. Septuagint have an addition, and then our Proverbs 30:1-15., after which follows the remainder of this chapter and the ten first verses of the 31st. [chapter.] (Haydock) --- Solomon here resumes the sententious style, Proverbs 22:17. (Calmet)
Proverbs 24:24 They that say to the wicked man: Thou art just: shall be cursed by the people, and the tribes shall abhor them.

Proverbs 24:25 They that rebuke him shall be praised: and a blessing shall come upon them.

Proverbs 24:26 He shall kiss the lips, who answereth right words.

Lips. And be deemed a friend. (Menochius)
Proverbs 24:27 Prepare thy work without, and diligently till thy ground: that afterward thou mayst build thy house.

House, and support thy family. Before building, great deliberation is requisite, Luke 14:28. Those who attempt to instruct others, must first set good example.
Proverbs 24:28 Be not witness without cause against thy neighbour: and deceive not any man with thy lips.

Cause, and necessity. Septuagint, "be not a false witness against thy fellow-citizen."
Proverbs 24:29 *Say not: I will do to him as he hath done to me: I will render to every one according to his work.

Proverbs 20:22.
Work. Revenge is often reprobated, though the law allowed of retaliation, which the more virtuous did not insist upon.
Proverbs 24:30 I passed by the field of the slothful man, and by the vineyard of the foolish man:

Man. Those who neglected their land were despised. (Calmet) --- The ancient Romans esteemed agriculture as a most laudible and profitable employment. (Cato, Rust. i.; Cicero, Off. i.)
Proverbs 24:31 And behold it was all filled with nettles, and thorns had covered the face thereof, and the stone wall was broken down.

Proverbs 24:32 Which when I had seen, I laid it up in my heart, and by the example I received instruction.

Which. Septuagint, "at last I repented: I looked forward to receive instruction."
Proverbs 24:33 Thou wilt sleep a little, said I, thou wilt slumber a little, thou wilt fold thy hands a little to rest.

Said I, is not in Hebrew, Proverbs 6:10. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "I will slumber a while," to rest. Septuagint, "I will enfold my breast in my hands a little." (Haydock)
Proverbs 24:34 And poverty shall come to thee as a runner, and beggary as an armed man.

Proverbs 25:1 These are also parables of Solomon, which the men of Ezechias, king of Juda, copied out.

These. Solomon wrote 3,000, and we have only 915 verses extant. (Calmet) --- The rest perhaps shewed his genius, but were less useful. (Tostat. in 3 Kings 4:9.) --- Men. Isaias, Sobna, etc. (Calmet) --- Out of other records, (Menochius) or "translated" into a language better understood. (Denis the Carthusian) (Bayn.)
Proverbs 25:2 It is the glory of God to conceal the word, and the glory of kings to search out the speech.

Speech. The Scriptures will denounce the truth to them, and shew them how to reign with justice. We must adore the mysteries of God; but are allowed to examine the secret designs of princes.
Proverbs 25:3 The heaven above and the earth beneath, and the heart of kings is unsearchable.

Unsearchable. Their counsellors must not betray their secrets, Tobias 12:7. The greatest enterprises depend on secrecy.
Proverbs 25:4 Take away the rust from silver, and there shall come forth a most pure vessel:

Proverbs 25:5 Take away wickedness from the face of the king, and his throne shall be established with justice.

Justice. The wicked in a kingdom resemble rust on silver. (Calmet)
Proverbs 25:6 Appear not glorious before the king, and stand not in the place of great men.

Glorious, or a boaster. (Haydock) --- We must not seek the first places, Luke 14:10. Vive sine invidia, mollesque inglorius annos Exige; amicitias et tibi junge pares. (Ovid, Trist. 3:4.)
Proverbs 25:7 For it is better that it should be said to thee: Come up hither; than that thou shouldst be humbled before the prince.

Proverbs 25:8 The things which thy eyes have seen, utter not hastily in a quarrel: lest afterward thou mayst not be able to make amends, when thou hast dishonoured thy friend.

Not. Septuagint, "repent when thy friend may reproach thee." (Haydock) --- Friend. A word spoken in haste may expose him to ridicule.
Proverbs 25:9 Treat thy cause with thy friend, and discover not the secret to a stranger:

Stranger. It sometimes happens that friends fall out; but if either disclose the secret of the other, he will be deemed infamous. (Calmet) (Josephus, contra Apion 2.) --- St. Ambrose says of his brother Satyrus, "though we had all things in common, yet the secret of our friends was not so."
Proverbs 25:10 Lest he insult over thee, when he hath heard it, and cease not to upbraid thee.

Grace, etc., is no in Hebrew, Complutensian, St. Jerome, etc. But it is in the Septuagint, "favour and friendship may give liberty; which keep thou for thyself, that thou mayst not be exposed to great shame. But guard thy ways unchangeably." (Haydock) --- Avoid quarrels.
Proverbs 25:11 To speak a word in due time, is like apples of gold on beds of silver.

Time, (Symmachus) "on its wheels," (Hebrew) flowing smoothly, (Calmet) or "according to his two faces, is apples of gold in network of silver." The Scriptures have a double sense. The exterior one leads to that sense which is interior, and more excellent. (Maimonides) (Parkhurst, p. 366.) --- Gold, oranges. --- Beds. On such the kings of Parthia slept, and these metals were very common under Solomon, 3 Kings 10:27., and Esther 1:6. (Calmet) --- Montanus renders mascioth "transparent cases." Protestants, "pictures of silver."
Proverbs 25:12 As an ear-ring of gold and a bright pearl, so is he that reproveth the wise, and the obedient ear.

Bright. Hebrew chali cathem, "an ornament of fine gold," (Montanus; Protestants; Haydock) may probably denote a collar or ring. The eastern nations wore rings fixed at the top of the ears, and under the nose. Some were so large that they put their meat through them. The Scripture often alludes to these customs, which are so different from ours. (Canticle of Canticles 7:1.)
Proverbs 25:13 *As the cold of snow in the time of harvest, so is a faithful messenger to him that sent him, for he refresheth his soul.

Proverbs 26:6.
Harvest. In June and July, when the heat was most intense, people of quality had snow from Libanus to mix with what they drank, Jeremias 18:14. (Calmet)
Proverbs 25:14 As clouds, and wind, when no rain followeth, so is the man that boasteth, and doth not fulfil his promises.

Proverbs 25:15 By patience a prince shall be appeased, *and a soft tongue shall break hardness.

Proverbs 15:1.
Hardness. Hebrew and Septuagint, "bones." (Haydock)
Proverbs 25:16 Thou hast found honey, eat what is sufficient for thee, lest being glutted therewith thou vomit it up.

Up. We must moderate the sensual appetite, (Menochius) and even the study of wisdom, which is compared to honey, Proverbs 24:13., Romans 12:3., and Ecclesiastes 7:17. (Calmet) --- We must not be too familiar, ver. 17. (Ven. Bede) (Cajetan)
Proverbs 25:17 Withdraw thy foot from the house of thy neighbour, lest having his fill he hate thee.

Having. Hebrew, "being tired of thee." No man is so perfect, but he will manifest some defect, and become importunate. (Calmet) Nulli te facias nimis sodalem. (Martial)
Proverbs 25:18 A man that beareth false witness against his neighbour, is like a dart and a sword and a sharp arrow.

Proverbs 25:19 To trust in an unfaithful man in the time of trouble, is like a rotten tooth, and weary foot,

Proverbs 25:20 And one that looseth his garment in cold weather.

And. Protestants, "as he that taketh away a, etc., and as vinegar....to a heavy heart." (Haydock) --- The former sentence may be joined with the preceding, as it is improper to deprive a person of his garment, no less than to trust in the faithless; though some would suppose (Calmet) that this conduct, as well as the mixing of vinegar with nitre, is no less absurd than to attempt to relieve by music those who are extremely afflicted, Ecclesiasticus 22:6. (Tirinus) --- But Solomon does not speak of such, but only of those who are "heavy;" and we know that music has wonderful efficacy in relieving them, (1 Kings 16:17.) in like manner as this mixture serves to cleanse the skin and garments, (Jeremias 2:22.; Calmet) and to purify the ears, when they are deafish. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 31:10.; Vales. lx.) --- As a, etc., is not in Hebrew, St. Jerome, etc. (Calmet) --- The Chaldean has the latter part, (Haydock) "grief tries the heart, as fire does silver. As the worm eats wood, so folly," etc. (Calmet)
Proverbs 25:21 *If thy enemy be hungry, give him to eat: if he thirst, give him water to drink:

Romans 12:20.
Proverbs 25:22 For thou shalt heap hot coals upon his head, and the Lord will reward thee.

Coals of charity; (St. Chrysostom in Romans 12:20.) or, if he prove obstinate, his punishment will be the greater. (Geier.) --- The former sense is more received. (Calmet)
Proverbs 25:23 The north wind driveth away rain, as doth a sad countenance a backbiting tongue.

Rain; (Symmachus; Protestants) or marginal note, "bringeth forth rain." (Haydock) --- But St. Jerome, who live din the country, knew that this wind was rather dry; and therefore he has abandoned the Septuagint, raiseth the clouds," Job 37:9., Joel 2:20., and Ecclesiasticus 18:23. The countries north of Palestine were not calculated to produce vapours and rain, which came rather from the south. (Calmet) --- Tongue. If the hearers would shew their displeasure, detractors would soon be reduced to silence. (St. Jerome, ad. Rust.) (St. Bernard)
Proverbs 25:24 *It is better to sit m a corner of the house-top, than with a brawling woman, and in a common house.

Proverbs 21:9.
It is. Proverbs 21:9. Sixtus V does not insert this verse here.
Proverbs 25:25 As cold water to a thirsty soul, so are good tidings from a far country.

Tidings. Hebrew and Septuagint. The Vulgate seems rather to speak of a "good messenger." Homer said that a good messenger honoured the business most. (Pindar, Pyth. viii.) (Calmet)
Proverbs 25:26 A just man falling down before the wicked, is as a fountain troubled with the foot and a corrupted spring.

Falling into disgrace, or sin, occasions the wicked to exult, as if there were no God or religion. (Calmet)
Proverbs 25:27 As it is not good for a man to eat much honey, *so he that is a searcher of majesty shall be overwhelmed by glory.

Ecclesiasticus 3:22.
Majesty, viz., of God. For to search into that incomprehensible Majesty, and to pretend to sound the depths of the wisdom of God, is exposing our weak understanding to be blinded with an excess of light and glory, which it cannot comprehend. (Challoner) --- When the Church proposes to us any mystery, we have only to believe. Hebrew, "but it is glorious to sound their glory," and see where the wicked end, that we may not envy them, Proverbs 3:31., and Psalm 36:7. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "so for men to search their own glory, is not glory," but a sin. (Haydock) --- "It is not good to eat too much honey," (Chaldean) or to sound the glorious words of God and wisdom, or the mysteries of religion. Septuagint, "But it is right to reverence glorious speeches," (Calmet) with esteem and humility. (Cat. Graec.)
Proverbs 25:28 As a city that lieth open and is not compassed with walls, so is a man that cannot refrain his own spirit in speaking.

Speaking. He lays himself open to every attack, Proverbs 29:11.
Proverbs 26:1 As snow in summer and rain in harvest, so glory is not seemly for a fool.

Glory and power. A fool in a high office will endanger himself and the public; (Calmet) while the virtuous, seeing that merit is not regarded, will not push themselves forward. (Aeschines.)
Proverbs 26:2 As a bird flying to other places, and a sparrow going here or there: so a curse uttered without cause shall come upon a man.

As a bird, etc. The meaning is, that a curse uttered without cause shall do no harm to the person that is cursed, but will return upon him that curseth; as whithersoever a bird flies, it returns to its own nest. (Challoner) --- Come. Chaldean, "shall not come in vain," if it be just, like that of Noe, Josue, etc. Hebrew, "shall not come" (Calmet) to the person against whom it is uttered, though God will not hold the curser guiltless, as the Vulgate intimates. (Haydock) Curses, anathemas, etc., vented without reason, do not injure any but those who denounce them. Yet out of respect for ecclesiastical authority, those who are under censures, must abstain from their functions till they be absolved. (Calmet)
Proverbs 26:3 A whip for a horse, and a snaffle for an ass, *and a rod for the back of fools.

Proverbs 23:13.
Snaffle. "Bit," or muzzle, (camus) to prevent the animal from biting. (Haydock) --- Septuagint, Arabic, etc., "a goad for an ass." But metheg denotes a bridle. (Montanus; Haydock) asses being there very large, and commonly used for riding, Proverbs 13:13. (Calmet)
Proverbs 26:4 Answer not a fool according to his folly, lest thou be made like him.

Answer not a fool, etc. Viz., so as to imitate him; but only so as to reprove his folly. (Challoner) --- If thou answer at all, (ver. 5.) do it to the purpose, and to prevent others from taking scandal, (Calmet) as well as to humble the wicked, for his good. (Haydock)
Proverbs 26:5 Answer a fool according to his folly, lest he imagine himself to be wise.

Proverbs 26:6 *He that sendeth words by a foolish messenger, is lame of feet and drinketh iniquity.

Proverbs 25:13.
Iniquity. He is exposed to shame, (Septuagint) and must condemn his own folly. (Calmet)
Proverbs 26:7 As a lame man hath fair legs in vain: so a parable is unseemly in the mouth of fools.

Fair. Hebrew, "unequal legs," or "lifted up," so, etc. (Haydock)
Proverbs 26:8 As he that casteth a stone into the heap of Mercury: so is he that giveth honour to a fool.

Mercury. The god of travellers, who were wont to throw a stone at the foot of his statue, as the Indians (Vincent. Bellor. xxiv.) and Arabs did. Mahomet would not disturb this superstitious custom. The Rabbins style these statues Mercolis. But Septuagint, etc., give another sense, "as he that bindeth a stone (Calmet) in the boss of a ring, sphendone, (Menochius) or in a sling," can do no good, but only endanger himself or others, "so," etc. Yet margema is never used elsewhere for a sling, and it means undoubtedly "a heap of stones," (Calmet) as Montanus substitutes instead of "the sling," in Pagnin. "As a small piece of precious stone in a heap of stones is lost, so," etc. (Pole. Syn. Parkhurst in rogom.) (Haydock) --- Honour, or an office, in which he may do harm. (Calmet)
Proverbs 26:9 As if a thorn should grow in the hand of a drunkard: so is a parable in the mouth of fools.

If. Hebrew, "as a thorn goeth up into the," etc. (Protestants) (Haydock) --- If he attempt to handle or to extract one, he will wound himself the more, as the fool would render truth and wisdom contemptible. (Calmet) --- Parable. Septuagint, "but slavery in the hands of fools" groweth up. (Haydock)
Proverbs 26:10 Judgment determineth causes: and he that putteth a fool to silence, appeaseth anger.

Anger, and prevent lawsuits. Hebrew is variously read and translated. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "the great God, that formed all things, both rewardeth the fool and rewardeth the transgressors." Marginal note, "a great man giveth all, and he hireth the fool," etc. Septuagint, "all the flesh of fools is exposed to many storms, for their excess is punished." (Haydock)
Proverbs 26:11 *As a dog that returneth to his vomit, so is the fool that repeateth his folly.

2 Peter 2:22.
Dog. This is the only animal which is known to do so. St. Peter uses this comparison to deter any from renouncing the faith; as the Fathers do, to shew the misery attending a relapse. Septuagint here add, "there is a confusion," etc., taken from Ecclesiasticus 4:25. (Calmet)
Proverbs 26:12 Hast thou seen a man wise in his own conceit? there shall be more hope of a fool than of him.

Fool. The ignorant may be convinced that he wants instruction. (Calmet) --- But "none are worse than the half-learned." (Quintil. 1:Jo. 5:21.)
Proverbs 26:13 The slothful man saith: There is a lion in the way, and a lioness in the roads.

Proverbs 26:14 As the door turneth upon its hinges, so doth the slothful upon his bed.

Bed, which he will scarcely leave, though avarice push him forward. (St. Augustine, ser. xxii. or clxiv.)
Proverbs 26:15 *The slothful hideth his hand under his arm-pit, and it grieveth him to turn it to his mouth.

Proverbs 19:24.
Proverbs 26:16 The sluggard is wiser in his own conceit, than seven men that speak sentences.

Seven, or many wise men, who used to speak in a sententious manner. (Calmet) --- So seven is used, ver. 25.
Proverbs 26:17 As he that taketh a dog by the ears, so is he that passeth by in anger, and meddleth with another man's quarrel.

Anger. Hebrew, "passeth by, and meddleth with a quarrel not to him" pertaining. (Haydock) --- Such expose themselves foolishly to danger. Great discretion is requisite to reconcile those at variance.
Proverbs 26:18 As he is guilty that shooteth arrows and lances unto death:

Proverbs 26:19 So is the man that hurteth his friend deceitfully: and when he is taken, saith: I did it in jest.

Jest. He will not escape, no more than the person who had committed murder involuntarily, if he were not in a city of refuge, Numbers 35:22.
Proverbs 26:20 When the wood faileth, the fire shall go out: and when the tale-bearer is taken away, contentions shall cease.

Faileth. Hebrew, Symmachus, Calmet, "aboundeth, the fire is bright, or flourisheth" (Septuagint) (Haydock)
Proverbs 26:21 As coals are to burning coals, and wood to fire, *so an angry man stirreth up strife.

Proverbs 15:18.
Proverbs 26:22 The words of a tale-bearer are as it were simple, but they reach to the innermost parts of the belly.

Proverbs 26:23 Swelling lips joined with a corrupt heart, are like an earthen vessel adorned with silver dross.

Dross. Hence the proud will be detested, and appear contemptible.
Proverbs 26:24 An enemy is known by his lips, when in his heart he entertaineth deceit.

Lips. He will speak of what he hates much.
Proverbs 26:25 When he shall speak low, trust him not: because there are seven mischiefs in his heart.

Proverbs 26:26 He that covereth hatred deceitfully, his malice shall be laid open in the public assembly.

Deceitfully. Hebrew, "in desolation." He will cringe, but when he finds an opportunity, he will discover his evil designs. (Calmet)
Proverbs 26:27 He that diggeth a pit, shall fall into it: and he that rolleth a stone, it shall return to him.

Him. "Bad advice is worst to him who gives it." (Varro. Rust. 3:22.)
Proverbs 26:28 A deceitful tongue loveth not truth: and a slippery mouth worketh ruin.

Proverbs 27:1 Boast not for to-morrow, for thou knowest not what the day to come may bring forth.

Proverbs 27:2 Let another praise thee, and not thy own mouth: a stranger, and not thy own lips.

Lips. All hate affectation and vanity, John 5:51.
Proverbs 27:3 *A stone is heavy, and sand weighty: but the anger of a fool is heavier than them both.

Ecclesiasticus 22:18.
Both. He is insupportable to himself and to others, Ecclesiasticus 22:17.
Proverbs 27:4 Anger hath no mercy: nor fury, when it breaketh forth: and who can bear the violence of one provoked?

And who. Septuagint, "but envy (zeal) beareth nothing." The more we yield to the envious, the more he is offended at our good behaviour.
Proverbs 27:5 Open rebuke is better than hidden love.

Love. Which can be of no service to us, while reproof may cause us to amend.
Proverbs 27:6 Better are the wounds of a friend, than the deceitful kisses of an enemy.

Enemy. Joab slew Amasa, while he kissed him, 2 Kings 20:9., and Matthew 26:48. True friendship is not attentive to outward appearances.
Proverbs 27:7 *A soul that is full shall tread upon the honeycomb: and a soul that is hungry shall take even bitter for sweet.

Job 6:7.
Proverbs 27:8 As a bird that wandereth from her nest, so is a man that leaveth his place.

Place, or vocation, like the prodigal son, Luke xv. The Israelites were much attached to their own country, where they might practise the true religion. (Calmet)
Proverbs 27:9 Ointment and perfumes rejoice the heart: and the good counsels of a friend are sweet to the soul.

And. Septuagint add, "wine and incense....but accidents tear the soul." (Haydock)
Proverbs 27:10 Thy own friend, and thy father's friend, forsake not: and go not into thy brother's house in the day of thy affliction.

Affliction. He will be less compassionate than a tried friend. --- Better, etc. This daily experience evinces. "Those who purchase land, should consider if there be plenty of water, and a neighbour." (Pliny, [Natural History?] 18:5.) --- The Persians honour most those who live nearest to them. (Herodotus 1:134.)
Proverbs 27:11 Study wisdom, my son, and make my heart joyful, that thou mayst give an answer to him that reproacheth.

Thou. Hebrew, Complutensian, and Sixtus V, "I may," etc. Septuagint, "and cast reproaches from thee."
Proverbs 27:12 The prudent man seeing evil hideth himself: little ones passing on have suffered losses.

Proverbs 27:13 *Take away his garment that hath been surety for a stranger: and take from him a pledge for strangers.

Proverbs 20:16.
Proverbs 27:14 He that blesseth his neighbour with a loud voice, rising in the night, shall be like to him that curseth.

In the night. Or "early in the morning," de nocte, as the Hebrew implies. --- Curseth. His importunity will be equally displeasing. (Haydock) --- Flattery is dangerous, (Calmet) and unworthy of a free man. (Cicero, de Amic.)
Proverbs 27:15 *Roofs dropping through in a cold day, and a contentious woman are alike.

Proverbs 19:13.
Proverbs 27:16 He that retaineth her, is as he that would hold the wind, and shall call in the oil of his right hand.

Hand. As it will flow away, such a woman is commonly incorrigible. (Calmet)
Proverbs 27:17 Iron sharpeneth iron, so a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend.

Sharpeneth. Or instructeth. Fungar vice cotis. (Horace, Art.)
Proverbs 27:18 He that keepeth the fig-tree, shall eat the fruit thereof: and he that is the keeper of his master, shall be glorified.

Glorified. He who serves his master well shall be promoted.
Proverbs 27:19 As the faces of them that look therein, shine in the water, so the hearts of men are laid open to the wise.

Are. Hebrew, "to men." Our hearts have all something similar. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "as faces are not like each other, so neither are the hearts of men." They have all some peculiarity. (Haydock) --- But this agrees not with the original.
Proverbs 27:20 Hell and destruction are never filled: *so the eyes of men are never satisfied.

Ecclesiasticus 14:9.
Destruction. Hebrew abaddo, or abadon, Proverbs 15:11., and Apocalypse 9:11. People die, and are plunged in hell daily. --- Eyes. Avarice and ambition, Ecclesiasticus 14:9.
Proverbs 27:21 *As silver is tried in the fining pot, and gold in the furnace: so a man is tried by the mouth of him that praiseth.

Proverbs 17:3.
Praiseth. If he be not puffed up, or if all agree in his praises, we may conclude that they are well founded. --- The, etc., is not in Hebrew, Comp.[Complutensian?], St. Jerome, or Chaldean, and destroys the connection.
Proverbs 27:22 Though thou shouldst bray a fool in the mortar, as when a pestle striketh upon sodden barley, his folly would not be taken from him.

Mortar. Such were used by those who could not afford handmills. (Calmet)
Proverbs 27:23 Be diligent to know the countenance of thy cattle, and consider thy own flocks:

Flocks. John 10:3., and Ecclesiasticus 7:24. This may be applied to pastors.
Proverbs 27:24 For thou shalt not always have power: but a crown shall be given to generation and generation.

Generation. Thou wilt be cited as an example of prudence, if thou hast forseen the change of thy affairs, and provided for it. In the east it was not unusual to see a general of an army reduced to the meanest condition, and economy is necessary for all.
Proverbs 27:25 The meadows are open, and the green herbs have appeared, and the hay is gathered out of the mountains.

Proverbs 27:26 *Lambs are for thy clothing: and kids for the price of the field.

1 Timothy 9:8.
Field. If thou wishest to purchase, or to pay the workmen.
Proverbs 27:27 Let the milk of the goats be enough for thy food, and for the necessities of thy house, and for maintenance for thy handmaids.

Milk. We cannot but admire such frugality. Septuagint are rather different; (Calmet) ver. 25., "Be careful of the grass in thy field....that thou mayst have lambs for thy clothing. Honour the field, that there may be lambs for thee. (27) Son, thou hast from me solid instructions for thy life, and for that of thy servants." (Haydock)
Proverbs 28:1 The wicked man fleeth, when no man pursueth: but the just, bold as a lion, shall be without dread.

Pursueth. "A crime is its own punishment." (Seneca, ep. 93.) (Leviticus 26:36.) --- Dread. Of any thing terrestrial, as long as the object of his love is not attacked, Romans 8:35.
Proverbs 28:2 For the sins of the land many are the princes thereof: and for the wisdom of a man, and the knowledge of those things that are said, the life of the prince shall be prolonged.

Princes. Who each contend for the sovereign power. (Calmet)
Proverbs 28:3 A poor man that oppresseth the poor, is like a violent shower, which bringeth a famine.

Proverbs 28:4 They that forsake the law, praise the wicked man: they that keep it, are incensed against him.

Proverbs 28:5 Evil men think not on judgment: but they that seek after the Lord, take notice of all things.

Proverbs 28:6 *Better is the poor man walking in his simplicity, than the rich in crooked ways.

Proverbs 19:1.
Proverbs 28:7 He that keepeth the law, is a wise son: but he that feedeth gluttons, shameth his father.

Proverbs 28:8 He that heapeth together riches by usury and loan, gathereth them for him that will be bountiful to the poor.

Poor. It seldom happens that the unjust leave their riches to their children, Proverbs 13:22., and Job 27:16.
Proverbs 28:9 He that turneth away his ears from hearing the law, his prayer shall be an abomination.

His. Septuagint, "he rendereth his prayer abominable."
Proverbs 28:10 He that deceiveth the just in a wicked way, shall fall in his own destruction: and the upright shall possess his goods.

Proverbs 28:11 The rich man seemeth to himself wise: but the poor man that is prudent shall search him out.

Proverbs 28:12 In the joy of the just there is great glory: when the wicked reign, men are ruined.

Proverbs 28:13 He that hideth his sins, shall not prosper: but he that shall confess, and forsake them, shall obtain mercy.

Mercy. This is true repentance, which enjoins, "not only to bewail past sins, but also to amend." (St. Ambrose, 2:Pen. v.) --- Sacramental confession was not required of the Jews, but they confessed their sins, when they laid their hands on the victim, etc., Leviticus 4., and 5. (Calmet)
Proverbs 28:14 Blessed is the man that is always fearful: but he that is hardened in mind, shall fall into evil.

Proverbs 28:15 As a roaring lion, and a hungry bear, so is a wicked prince over the poor people.

Proverbs 28:16 A prince void of prudence shall oppress many by calumny: but he that hateth covetousness, shall prolong his days.

Prudence. Septuagint, "riches." Poverty is a great temptation to people in authority, more than avarice itself. (Calmet)
Proverbs 28:17 A man that doth violence to the blood of a person, if he flee even to the pit, no man will stay him.

Proverbs 28:18 He that walketh uprightly, shall be saved: he that is perverse in his ways, shall fall at once.

Proverbs 28:19 *He that tilleth his ground, shall be filled with bread: but he that followeth idleness, shall be filled with poverty.

Proverbs 12:11.; Ecclesiasticus 20:30.
Proverbs 28:20 A faithful man shall be much praised: *but he that maketh haste to be rich, shall not be innocent.

Proverbs 13:11.; Proverbs 20:21.; Proverbs 28:22.
Innocent. Unpunished, if he employ fraud, ver. 22., and Proverbs 13:21.
Proverbs 28:21 He that hath respect to a person in judgment, doth not well: such a man even for a morsel of bread forsaketh the truth.

Forsaketh. Hebrew, "oppresseth (Septuagint, selleth) a man." (Calmet) --- Neither small nor great bribes must be taken. (Justinian)
Proverbs 28:22 A man that maketh haste to be rich, and envieth others, is ignorant that poverty shall come upon him.

Poverty. Septuagint, "the merciful shall have power over him," ver. 8. (Haydock)
Proverbs 28:23 He that rebuketh a man, shall afterward find favour with him, more than he that by a flattering tongue deceiveth him.

Proverbs 28:24 He that stealeth any thing from his father, or from his mother: and saith, This is no sin, is the partner of a murderer.

Proverbs 28:25 He that boasteth, and puffeth up himself, stirreth up quarrels: but he that trusteth in the Lord, shall be healed.

Proverbs 28:26 He that trusteth in his own heart, is a fool: but he that walketh wisely, he shall be saved.

Proverbs 28:27 He that giveth to the poor shall not want: he that despiseth his intreaty, shall suffer indigence.

Proverbs 28:28 When the wicked rise up, men shall hide themselves: when they perish, the just shall be multiplied.

Men. Septuagint, "the just groan," and all are under "apprehensions." (Calmet)
Proverbs 29:1 The man that with a stiff neck despiseth him that reproveth him, shall suddenly be destroyed: and health shall not follow him.

Proverbs 29:2 When just men increase, the people shall rejoice: when the wicked shall bear rule, the people shall mourn.

Proverbs 29:3 A man that loveth wisdom, rejoiceth his father: but he that maintaineth harlots, shall squander away his substance.

Proverbs 29:4 A just king setteth up the land: a covetous man shall destroy it.

Proverbs 29:5 A man that speaketh to his friend with flattering and dissembling words, spreadeth a net for his feet.

Proverbs 29:6 A snare shall entangle the wicked man when he sinneth: and the just shall praise and rejoice.

Proverbs 29:7 The just taketh notice of the cause of the poor: the wicked is void of knowledge.

Proverbs 29:8 Corrupt men bring a city to ruin: but wise men turn away wrath.

Corrupt. Hebrew, "scoffers," who provoke both God and men.
Proverbs 29:9 If a wise man contend with a fool, whether he be angry, or laugh, he shall find no rest.

Rest; or bring him to hear reason. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "a wise man shall rule nations; but the wicked being angry, is laughed at, and does not frighten."
Proverbs 29:10 Blood-thirsty men hate the upright: but just men seek his soul.

Soul. They wish to protect the upright, Psalm 141:5.
Proverbs 29:11 A fool uttereth all his mind: a wise man deferreth, and keepeth it till afterwards.

Proverbs 29:12 A prince that gladly heareth lying words, hath all his servants wicked.

Proverbs 29:13 *The poor man and the creditor have met one another: the Lord is the enlightener of them both.

Proverbs 22:2.
Enlightener. Septuagint, "visitor," with punishment, as they seem to speak of palliated usury, which cannot escape God. See Proverbs 22:2.
Proverbs 29:14 The king that judgeth the poor in truth, his throne shall be established for ever.

Proverbs 29:15 *The rod and reproof give wisdom: but the child that is left to his own will, bringeth his mother to shame.

Proverbs 23:13.; Proverbs 29:17.
Proverbs 29:16 When the wicked are multiplied, crimes shall be multiplied: but the just shall see their downfall.

Proverbs 29:17 Instruct thy son and he shall refresh thee, and shall give delight to thy soul.

Proverbs 29:18 When prophecy shall fail, the people shall be scattered abroad: but he that keepeth the law, is blessed.

Prophecy, by the urim, or by the mouth of prophets, who were in great power and estimation, 3 Kings 1:24., and 12:23., and 2 Paralipomenon 25:6., and 28:8. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "There shall be none to explain the law to the impious nation." (Haydock) --- When pastors are wanting, all goes to ruin, 1 Corinthians 11:4. (Ven. Bede) (Calmet)
Proverbs 29:19 A slave will not be corrected by words: because he understandeth what thou sayest, and will not answer.

Proverbs 29:20 Hast thou seen a man hasty to speak? folly is rather to be looked for, than his amendment.

Amendment. St. Jerome (ad Evag.) says, after Thucydides: "Ignorance produces confidence, and learning fear."
Proverbs 29:21 He that nourisheth his servant delicately from his childhood, afterwards shall find him stubborn.

Proverbs 29:22 A passionate man provoketh quarrels: and he that is easily stirred up to wrath, shall be more prone to sin.

Proverbs 29:23 *Humiliation followeth the proud: and glory shall uphold the humble of spirit.

Job 22:29.
Proverbs 29:24 He that is partaker with a thief, hateth his own soul: he heareth one putting him to his oath, and discovereth not.

Soul, and exposeth himself to death, though this was only inflicted for stealing a man, Exodus 21:16. The night-thief might also be killed in the fact, Exodus 22:2. But if the person who had stolen denied it on oath, he was put to death for perjury, Leviticus 5:1.
Proverbs 29:25 He that feareth man shall quickly fall: he that trusteth in the Lord, shall be set on high.

Fall. Human respects will not long preserve him from sin. (Calmet) --- Septuagint have a double version: "Those who fear and are ashamed of men, shall be thrown down. But he who confideth in the Lord, shall rejoice. Impiety overturneth man, while he who trusteth in the Lord shall be saved." (Grabe) (Haydock)
Proverbs 29:26 Many seek the face of the prince: but the judgment of every one cometh forth from the Lord.

Proverbs 29:27 The just abhor a wicked man: and the wicked loathe them that are in the right way.

Proverbs 30:1 The words of Gatherer, the son of Vomiter. The vision which the man spoke, with whom God is, and who being strengthened by God, abiding with him, said:

Gatherer, etc., or, as it is in the Latin, Congregans, the son of Vomens. The Latin interpreter has given us in this place the signification of the Hebrew names, instead of the names themselves, which are in the Hebrew, Agur, the son of Jakeh. But whether this Agur be the same person as Solomon, as many think, or a different person, whose doctrine was adopted by Solomon, and inserted among his parables or proverbs, is uncertain. (Challoner) --- Vomiter may denote David, who delivered many excellent canticles; Eructavit cor, Psalm xliv. De Dieu translates, "The words of him who is recollected the son of obedience." The author styles himself foolish, and asks for neither beggary nor riches, (ver. 2, 8.) which seems not to agree with Solomon; though there can be no doubt but this chapter is inspired. (Calmet) --- In effect, that great king might form this petition, being mindful of the instability of human greatness, and confess that of himself he was foolish. --- Vision. Hebrew massa (Haydock) generally implies something disagreeable, but here it is put for a collection of moral sentences. --- With, etc. Hebrew also, "to Ithiel, even unto Ithiel and Ucal," (Protestants; Haydock) friends of Agur, (Calmet) or his children, (Menochius) or rather Solomon speaks to all the faithful. We never find Agur mentioned as a canonical writer; and if he were, he would have been placed after Solomon. (Worthington)
Proverbs 30:2 I am the most foolish of men, and the wisdom of men is not with me.

With me. He speaks of what he could claim of his own, abstracting from the prophetic light. (Calmet) --- In his humility, he supposeth that others are more perfect. The wisest know best their own defects. (Worthington)
Proverbs 30:3 I have not learned wisdom, and have not known the science of saints.

Proverbs 30:4 Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? who hath held the wind in his hands? who hath bound up the waters together as in a garment? who hath raised up all the borders of the earth? what is his name, and what is the name of his son, if thou knowest?

Descended. How then could I acquire such a sublime science? (Deuteronomy 30:11.) (Calmet) --- Christ alone could impart it, (John 3:13.; Haydock) who is the perfect wisdom. (Worthington) --- Hands. Septuagint, "breast." (Haydock) --- It is no less difficult to fathom the designs of Providence. Some understand the "spirit" of prophecy to be here meant. --- Son. Septuagint, "children." But many Greek copies, and all the interpreters, have Son, which the Fathers explain of the second person of the blessed Trinity, specified [in] Proverbs 8:22. (Calmet)
Proverbs 30:5 *Every word of God is fire-tried: he is a buckler to them that hope in him.

Psalm 11:7.
Is fire-tried; that is, most pure, like gold purified by fire. (Challoner) (Psalm 17:31., and Jeremias 23:29.) --- It cannot deceive.
Proverbs 30:6 *Add not any thing to his words, lest thou be reproved, and found a liar:

Deuteronomy 4:2.; Deuteronomy 12:32.
And not any thing contrary, Deuteronomy 4:2., and 12:32. --- Liar. Our Saviour condemned the false explanations of the Pharisees, as his Church does those of all heretics.
Proverbs 30:7 Two things I have asked of thee, deny them not to me before I die.

Proverbs 30:8 Remove far from me vanity, and lying words. Give me neither beggary, nor riches: give me only the necessaries of life:

Words, which are so opposite to thine, ver. 5. --- Riches. The former often prompts men to deceive, the latter to grow proud and forget God.
Proverbs 30:9 Lest perhaps being filled, I should be tempted to deny, and say: Who is the Lord? or being compelled by poverty, I should steal, and forswear the name of my God.

Proverbs 30:10 Accuse not a servant to his master, lest he curse thee, and thou fall.

Accuse. Septuagint, "deliver not" to an idolater, Deuteronomy 23:15. (Rabbins) --- Servant. Add not to his affliction. (Worthington) --- We must suppose that the accusation is frivolous or false. (Lyranus) --- A servant may do a person much injury: but this ought not to deter the other from performing what justice and charity require.
Proverbs 30:11 There is a generation that curseth their father, and doth not bless their mother.

Proverbs 30:12 A generation, that are pure in their own eyes, and yet are not washed from their filthiness.

Proverbs 30:13 A generation, whose eyes are lofty, and their eye-lids lifted up on high.

Proverbs 30:14 A generation that for teeth hath swords, and grindeth with their jaw-teeth, to devour the needy from off the earth, and the poor from among men.

Proverbs 30:15 The horse-leech hath two daughters that say: Bring, bring.

The horse-leech: concupiscence, which hath two daughters that are never satisfied, viz., lust and avarice. (Challoner)
Proverbs 30:16 Hell and the mouth of the womb, and the earth which is not satisfied with water: and the fire never saith: It is enough.

Womb. Septuagint, "the love of a woman," (Haydock) a harlot, or rather Hebrew, "a barren woman." --- Enough. The more fuel, the brighter the flame. These four similitudes may denote cruelty, lust, avarice, and prodigality; (Calmet) or the first and last may be understood (Haydock) of envy and ambition. (Worthington)
Proverbs 30:17 The eye that mocketh at his father, and that despiseth the labour of his mother in bearing him, let the ravens of the brooks pick it out, and the young eagles eat it.

Labour. Septuagint, etc., "old age." Hebrew, "the obedience or admonition." Those who cursed their parents, were sentenced to death, Leviticus 20:6.
Proverbs 30:18 Three things are hard to me, and the fourth I am utterly ignorant of.

Proverbs 30:19 The way of an eagle in the air, the way of a serpent upon a rock, the way of a ship in the midst of the sea, and the way of a man in youth.

Youth. Hebrew, "a virgin." The "conception of a mighty man (the Messias; Haydock) in a virgin," is fitly compared to the flight of an eagle in the air, which leaves no trace behind, and is the most difficult to comprehend. See Jeremias 31:22.; Univ. Hist. 3:p. 144, note. Isaiah 7:14.; Parkhurst in alm. (Haydock) --- Some of the Jews have admitted this explanation. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- Others understand that the marks of virginity are equivocal; (Bossuet, etc.) or, if we stick to the Vulgate and Septuagint, the difference betwixt a child and a young man is extremely great, and almost incomprehensible. (Calmet) --- Young people who follow their carnal appetite, can no more give an account of their actions than of the course of an eagle, etc. (Worthington) --- His wanderings are manifold. The Hebrew seems to contain a prophecy of Christ's conception.
Proverbs 30:20 Such also is the way of an adulterous woman, who eateth and wipeth her mouth, and saith: I have done no evil.

Proverbs 30:21 By three things the earth is disturbed, and the fourth it cannot bear:

Proverbs 30:22 By a slave when he reigneth: by a fool when he is filled with meat:

Proverbs 30:23 By an odious woman when she is married: and by a bond-woman when she is heir to her mistress.

Mistress, and is married to her master. She will generally prove insolent; like slaves on the throne, Regnabit sanguine multo ad regnum quisquis venit ab exilio. (Suetonius, Tib. 59.) (Calmet)
Proverbs 30:24 There are four very little things of the earth, and they are wiser than the wise:

Proverbs 30:25 The ants, a feeble people, which provide themselves food in the harvest:

Proverbs 30:26 The rabbit, a weak people, which maketh its bed in the rock:

Proverbs 30:27 The locust hath no king, yet they all go out by their bands:

Bands, like an army. When one rises or falls, all do the like. They are so numerous in the East, as to darken the sun and spread destruction, Joel i., and 2:(Calmet)
Proverbs 30:28 The stellio supporteth itself on hands, and dwelleth in kings' houses.

The stellio. A kind of house lizard, marked with spots like stars, from whence it has its name. (Challoner) --- Hebrew semamith. (Haydock) --- It probably provides food against the stormy season, like ants. (Bochart) (Calmet) --- Others understand "the spider," (Kimchi) or "monkey." (Vatable, etc.)
Proverbs 30:29 There are three things, which go well, and the fourth that walketh happily:

Proverbs 30:30 A lion, the strongest of beasts, who hath no fear of any thing he meeteth:

Meeteth. If he retreat, he looks back with disdain, till the woods conceal the turpitude of his flight. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 8:16.)
Proverbs 30:31 A cock girded about the loins: and a ram: and a king, whom none can resist.

Loins. It rules, and is even terrible to lions. (Pliny 10:21.) --- The terms of the original are found nowhere else, and some understand the horse, the bee, and a soldier in arms. (Calmet) --- Whom. Hebrew, "and Alkum with him." (Montanus) --- But we know no animal or king of this name; and it may imply, "in the midst of his court," or "assembly." (Chaldean) Some Latin copies read, Et Rex, nec est qui resistat ei, (Sixtus V.) which is more conformable to the Hebrew, (Calmet) and is here translated, though the Vulgate read, Nec est rex qui, etc. These four emblems (Haydock) denote fortitude, chastity, order, and justice.
Proverbs 30:32 There is that hath appeared a fool after he was lifted up on high: for if he had understood, he would have laid his hand upon his mouth.

Mouth. Fools ought not to govern. (Worthington) --- Many might have been deemed wise, if they had continued in a lower station. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "If thou hast acted foolishly in raising thyself, and if thou hast entertained evil thoughts, put thy hand to thy mouth." (Haydock) --- Chaldean, "put not thy," etc. Give not way to pride, or to insolent language. (Calmet)
Proverbs 30:33 And he that strongly squeezeth the paps to bring out milk, straineth out butter: and he that violently bloweth his nose, bringeth out blood: and he that provoketh wrath, bringeth forth strife.

And. Hebrew, "For he who presseth milk." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter," etc. (Haydock) --- Strife. Moderation is necessary, (Calmet) in all actions. (Worthington)
Proverbs 31:1 The words of king Lamuel. The vision wherewith his mother instructed him.

Lamuel. This name signifies, God with him; and is supposed to be one of the names of Solomon. (Challoner) --- Grotius would explain it of Ezechias. But why should we abandon the tradition of both Jews and Christians? --- Mother; Bethsabee, who it seems was inspired, unless she received these maxims from Nathan. Solomon always speaks of her with the utmost respect, as a prudent mother may have the greatest influence over the tender minds of her children, Proverbs 1:8., and 23:25.
Proverbs 31:2 What, O my beloved, what, O the beloved of my womb, what, O the beloved of my vows?

Vows. She seems unable to express her concern for him when he first mounted the throne, and shewed her the greatest reverence, 3 Kings 2:19.
Proverbs 31:3 Give not thy substance to women, and thy riches to destroy kings.

Women. This would destroy thy health, and tend to impoverish the kingdom. --- Kings, by injustice and ambition. (Calmet)
Proverbs 31:4 Give not to kings, O Lamuel, give not wine to kings: because there is no secret where drunkenness reigneth:

Give. Septuagint, "Do all with counsel. By advice drink wine. Lords are inclined to anger; let them not drink wine." (Haydock) --- Solomon took this advice, Ecclesiastes 2:3.
Proverbs 31:5 And lest they drink and forget judgments, and pervert the cause of the children of the poor.

Poor. Solon condemned to death, at Athens, the prince who should get drunk; and the Areopagites excluded from their assembly a judge who had dined in a tavern. (Laert. 1.; Athen. 13:2.)
Proverbs 31:6 Give strong drink to them that are sad: and wine to them that are grieved in mind:

Drink. Hebrew shecar, particularly palm-wine. --- Are sad. Hebrew, "perish," being sentenced to die; (Mark 15:23., and Amos 2:8.) or, who grieve and mourn for one deceased. On such occasions no food was prepared in the house, but the friends supplied what was necessary, and went to eat and drink with the afflicted, Ecclesiastes 7:3.
Proverbs 31:7 Let them drink, and forget their want, and remember their sorrow no more.

More. Not that intoxication is permitted even to them.
Proverbs 31:8 Open thy mouth for the dumb, and for the causes of all the children that pass.

Pass through life, or the country. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "Open thy mouth and judge righteously. Render justice to the poor and weak." (Haydock) --- Doctrine is best received by those who are more ready to hear than to speak. (Worthington)
Proverbs 31:9 Open thy mouth, decree that which is just, and do justice to the needy and poor.

Proverbs 31:10 Who shall find a valiant woman? far, and from the uttermost coasts is the price of her.

Who. The following verses are in alphabetical order. They contain a grand eulogy of Bethsabee, who repented, or of a perfect matron. (Calmet) --- Such are rare, though they may be found. (Worthington) --- Valiant; industrious. --- Price. Formerly people bought their wives. (Calmet) --- Is. Hebrew, "is far above rubies (Protestants; Haydock) or pearls," Lamentations 4:7.
Proverbs 31:11 The heart of her husband trusteth in her, and he shall have no need of spoils.

Spoils, taken in war. His wife will supply all necessaries, ver. 21.
Proverbs 31:12 She will render him good, and not evil all the days of her life.

Proverbs 31:13 She hath sought wool and flax, and hath wrought by the counsel of her hands.

Hands, with skill and industry, (Calmet) or "willingness." (Hebrew) (Menochius) --- Ladies of the highest quality formerly employed themselves in this manner, like Penelope. Alexander, Augustus, and Charlemagne wore garments, which their sisters or wives had wrought. (Curt. 5.) (Suetonius 64.) (Eginhard.)
Proverbs 31:14 She is like the merchant's ship, she bringeth her bread from afar.

Bread; all that is used for meat and drink. Septuagint, "riches." Grabe, "livelihood:" Bion. (Haydock)
Proverbs 31:15 And she hath risen in the night, and given a prey to her household, and victuals to her maidens.

Night, or early in the morning, as soon as the night was over; de nocte. Hebrew, "while it is yet night." (Haydock) --- Extreme vigilance is required of those who direct others. "The master must be first up, and last in bed." (Cato v.)
Proverbs 31:16 She hath considered a field, and bought it: with the fruit of her hands she hath planted a vineyard.

Considered. This conduct is suggested by prudence. (Calmet) --- Cato (Rust. 2.) says, "Do not go only once round the field," etc.
Proverbs 31:17 She hath girded her loins with strength, and hath strengthened her arm.

Arm; working, and making others obey.
Proverbs 31:18 She hath tasted and seen that her traffic is good: her lamp shall not be put out in the night.

Night, during a great part of which she will work.
Proverbs 31:19 She hath put out her hand to strong things, and her fingers have taken hold of the spindle.

Strong things, "becoming" (Septuagint) her station. (Calmet) --- Spindle. She purposes and begins well, trusting in God for perfection and a reward. (Worthington)
Proverbs 31:20 She hath opened her hand to the needy, and stretched out her hands to the poor.

Proverbs 31:21 She shall not fear for her house in the cold of snow: for all her domestics are clothed with double garments.

Domestics. Hebrew, "house is clothed in purple," which may be understood of the domestics, though it seems more probably to refer to her husband and children.
Proverbs 31:22 She hath made for herself clothing of tapestry: fine linen, and purple, is her covering.

Tapestry, for the beds and floor. --- Linen, or cotton; byssus, Exodus 25:4.
Proverbs 31:23 Her husband is honourable in the gates, when he sitteth among the senators of the land.

Gates. Chaldean, "provinces." The rich were chosen for judges. (Calmet)
Proverbs 31:24 She made fine linen, and sold it, and delivered a girdle to the Chanaanite.

The Chanaanite, the merchant; for Chanaanite, in Hebrew, signifies a merchant. (Challoner) --- The Phoenicians travelled into all countries. Traffic was not then deemed a discredit, even to kings. --- Girdles were worn both by men and women, and were very costly, insomuch that (Calmet) the kings of Persia assigned cities to furnish their wives with them. (Athen. 1:in Antylla.) --- They who practise and teach the law may be said to buy and sell. (Worthington)
Proverbs 31:25 Strength and beauty are her clothing, and she shall laugh in the latter day.

Clothing: it is very beautiful, or wisdom and virtue surround her. --- Day. She fears not death, (Calmet) or future distress of hunger, etc. (Jansenius)
Proverbs 31:26 She hath opened her mouth to wisdom, and the law of clemency is on her tongue.

Tongue. She is ever bent on doing good. (Haydock) --- Very different from many of her sex, who are taken up with vanity and complaints. (Calmet)
Proverbs 31:27 She hath looked well on the paths of her house, and hath not eaten her bread idle.

Idle, out of a sense of duty, and not through avarice.
Proverbs 31:28 Her children rose up, and called her blessed: her husband, and he praised her.

Her. They were best able to judge of her merit.
Proverbs 31:29 Many daughters have gathered together riches: thou hast surpassed them all.

Proverbs 31:30 Favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain: the woman that feareth the Lord, she shall be praised.

Lord. Hitherto natural qualifications appear: but to these the Christian matron must add sincere piety: and thus Solomon completes the character of his mother, (Calmet) who had given him such excellent instructions, or of any accomplished woman. Outward beauty soon (Haydock) decays; but the fear of God is more deserving of praise. (Worthington)
Proverbs 31:31 Give her of the fruit of her hands: and let her works praise her in the gates.

Gates, before all the judges (Haydock) and people. (Menochius) --- Good works shall be rewarded at God's tribunal, (Worthington) when the vain worldly beauty shall be covered with confusion. (Haydock) --- This idea of a perfect woman is best verified in the Catholic Church, (St. Augustine; Ven. Bede) though the blessed Virgin [Mary], etc., may also be designated. (Worthington) --- The use of the alphabet herein denotes, that we must begin with a moral good life, if we would penetrate the greater mysteries of the Scriptures. (St. Jerome, Lam.[Lamentations?])