1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

Presents commentary in a tabular format for ease of reading.Click to learn more.

Psalms 1:1 Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the chair of pestilence:

Theodoret observes that this psalm has "no title in Hebrew;" and some have attributed it to Esdras, when he collected the psalms into one book. But the Complutensian Septuagint reads, "A psalm for David;" "without a title among the Hebrews." The Fathers attribute it to David, and suppose that he speaks particularly of Joseph of Arimathea, or of Jesus Christ; though the Jews refer this high encomium to Josias. Jeremias (xvii. 7.) has imitated this psalm, which may be considered as a preface to all the rest, and an abridgment of the whole duty of man. (Calmet) --- Blessed. Hebrew also, Manifold are (Haydock) "the blessings" (Pagnin) both for time (Haydock) and eternity. (Worthington) --- Ungodly, who mind no religion, or a false one. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "inconstant." --- Sinners, who are still more obstinate. (Calmet) --- Pestilence. Hebrew, "scoffers," who are the most dangerous sort of people, boldly deriding all religion, and maintaining atheism. There is a beautiful gradation here observed, showing the fatal consequences of evil company. If the virtuous associate with one even of the least contagious, the infection presently catches him, and he is soon introduced among the more dissolute, where he stops with little remorse, till at last he even glories in his shame, and becomes a champion of impiety, 1 Corinthians 15:33. (Haydock) --- These three sorts of wicked people may designate pagans, Jews, and heretics. (St. Clement [of Alexandria?], Strom. ii.; St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- He is on the road to heaven, who has not consented to evil suggestions, nor continued in sin, so as to die impenitent. (Worthington) Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima. (Horace 1:ep. 1.) --- The suggestion, delight, and consent to sin, are here rejected, as well as every offence against God, ourselves, or our neighbours. (Hopper.)
Psalms 1:2 *But his will is in the law of the Lord, and on his law he shall meditate day and night.

Josue 1:8.
Will. He is wholly occupied and delighted in keeping God's commandments. (Worthington) --- This distinguishes the saint from him who only refrains from sin through fear. (Calmet) --- Qui timet invitus observat. (St. Ambrose) --- Yet even servile fear is of some service, as it restrains exterior conduct, and may, in time, give place to filial reverence. (Haydock) --- Meditate, and put in practice. (Menochius) --- Night. The Jews studied the books of the law so earnestly from their childhood, that they could recite them as easily as they could tell their own names; (Josephus, contra Apion 2.; Deuteronomy 6:6.) and is it not a shame that many Christians should be so negligent, that they have never so much as read the gospels! (Calmet) though they be eager enough after idle books. The sacred writings are the records of our inheritance. They shew us our true destination, and deserve to be most seriously considered from the beginning to the end. (Haydock)
Psalms 1:3 *And he shall be like a tree which is planted near the running waters, which shall bring forth its fruit, in due season. And his leaf shall not fall off: and all whatsoever he shall do shall prosper.

Jeremias 17:18.
Tree. Probably the palm-tree, the emblem of a long life, Job 28:18. The tree of life is watered by the river of living waters, proceeding from the throne of God, who is the source of all grace, Apocalypse 22:1., Luke 21:33., and John 4:14. (Calmet) --- Those who make good use of favours received, are continually supplied with fresh graces. (Worthington) --- And. In the office-book a new verse begins here, though not in Hebrew, which the Vulgate follows. They were not marked by the sacred penman. --- Prosper, and be rewarded hereafter, though the just man even among the Jews might be here afflicted. Prosperity was only promised to the nation, as long as it continued faithful. Individuals were in the same condition as Christians. They were to trust in the promises of futurity, though some have very erroneously asserted, that there is no mention of eternal felicity in these holy canticles; (Berthier) Ferrand says, hardly in the Old Testament. (Calmet) --- All this verse might perhaps be better understood of the tree. "And its leaf....and whatever it shall produce," faciet (fructum). (Haydock) --- Some trees are always covered with leaves, like the palm-tree, etc. (Menochius)
Psalms 1:4 Not so the wicked, not so: but like the dust, which the wind driveth from the face of the earth.

Not so. Hebrew, "but are like the chaff which the wind driveth away." (Haydock) --- They are inconstant (St. Jerome) in the good resolutions which they sometimes form. (Haydock) (Job 21:18.) --- The good corn remains, but they are tossed about by every wind, and their memory perishes with all their children and effects. (Calmet) --- They yield to the slightest temptation. (Worthington)
Psalms 1:5 Therefore the wicked shall not rise again in judgment: nor sinners in the council of the just.

Again. So as to gain their cause, (Amama) or to make opposition; as the Hebrew yakumu, "stand up," with defiance, intimates. (Haydock) --- They are already judged, (John 3:18.) and can make no defence; they being separated from the just, like goats. Kimchi (though he is defended by Amama. Haydock) and some other Jews, falsely asserts that the souls of the wicked will be annihilated, and that only the just Israelites will rise again. (Buxtorf, Syn. 1.) --- But this is very different from the belief of the ancient Jews, who clearly assert the truth respecting future rewards and punishments, 2 Machabees 7:9, 14, 23, and 36., and Wisdom 5:1., or Josephus, or 4 Machabees 10. See Job, etc. --- The Fathers have adduced many such proofs from the other parts of Scripture, which they had read with as much attention as modern critics. (Calmet) --- Council, (Menochius) or rather "counsel," as the same word, Boule, is used by the Septuagint as [in] ver. 1., (Calmet) though the Hebrew hadath, here be different, and mean a council, or assembly. (Menochius) --- Septuagint and Vulgate may be understood in the same sense. (Haydock) --- Sinners shall be destitute of all hope at the resurrection, and shall be driven from the society of the blessed. (Worthington) --- They will not even be able to complain, since they had been so often admonished of their impending fate, (Berthier) and would not judge themselves in time. (St. Augustine; 1 Corinthians xi., and Acts 24:15.) Protestants, "They shall not stand," etc. (Haydock)
Psalms 1:6 For the Lord knoweth the way of the just: and the way of the wicked shall perish.

Knoweth, with approbation. There is only one road which leads to heaven: but these men, having sown in the flesh, must reap corruption, Galatians 6:8. (Berthier) --- God will reward or punish (Worthington) all according to their deserts. (Haydock) --- To some he will thunder out, I never knew you; while others shall hear, Come, etc., Matthew 25:34., etc. (Calmet) --- In this world, things seem to be in a sort of confusion, as the wicked prosper. But, at the hour of death, each will receive a final retribution. Temporal advantages have been dealt out to the wicked for the small and transitory acts of virtue, which scarcely any one can have failed to exercise; as on the other hand, the afflictions of this world have served to purify the elect from venial faults. (Haydock)
Psalms 2:0 The vain efforts of persecutors against Christ and his Church.

This psalm has no title, and therefore, St. Jerome, after the Jews, consider it as a part of the former. In Acts 13:33., some copies have, in the first, others in the second psalm; and Origen testifies that he saw a copy where this and the former psalm were joined together; and he says, the psalms were not distinguished by numbers or letters, as they have been since. We find in some Greek and Latin manuscripts, "a psalm of David." It is certain that he composed it, speaking of the Messias, (Acts 4:25., and Hebrews 1:5.) though some passages may be applied to himself. The Rabbins would restrain it to him entirely; and some Christians have been so much off their guard, as to allow (Calmet) that it refers to David in the literal sense, and to Christ only in the spiritual; (Lyranus; Grotius) which would destroy the force of the prophecy. David takes occasion, (Calmet) from the opposition which was made by Saul, (Haydock) the Philistines, etc., (2 Kings 5:7; Josephus, [Jewish Antiquities?] 7:4.) to his own exaltation, to foretell the similar rage with which many would resist the Messias. (Calmet) --- The Philistines, however, had no kings to oppose David, as Kimchi confesses; and we had better refer the whole psalm to Christ. (Berthier)
Psalms 2:1 Why *have the Gentiles raged, and the people devised vain things?

Acts 4:25.
Raged. Hebrew, "come together with tumult," (Symmachus) "loud cries," like a furious army, composed of several nations. (Haydock) --- Why have the Philistines, etc., assembled to obstruct my reign? or (Calmet) "why will the Gentiles be troubled, and the tribes meditate vain things?" (St. Jerome) Pilate, Herod, and the chiefs of the Jews, met to destroy the Messias; though, on other occasions, they were at variance. (Haydock) --- Their attempts were fruitless. Their false witnesses could not agree. (Calmet) --- The priests had, in vain, meditated on the law, since they had not discovered Him who was the end of it. (St. Athanasius; etc.) --- People of Israel, Acts 4:27. (Menochius)
Psalms 2:2 The kings of the earth stood up, and the princes met together, against the Lord, and against his Christ.

Kings. Herod and Pilate, (Worthington) who acted for the Roman emperor. --- Princes, of the priests, (Haydock) Annas and Caiaphas. But all the rage of Gentiles and Jews against Christ was fruitless, (Worthington) and wicked, (Haydock) as the attempt of the surrounding nations to dethrone David was, in contradiction to the divine appointment. He is sometimes styled the Christ, or "anointed of the Lord," Psalm 19:7. But the Chaldean has, "to revolt from the Lord, and fight with his Messias." So that the ancient Jews agreed with us, (Calmet) and it would be "rash to abandon the interpretation given by St. Peter." (St. Jerome)
Psalms 2:3 Let us break their bonds asunder: and let us cast away their yoke from us.

Us. Let us no longer be subject to the old law, which is abrogated, (St. Augustine) or the enemies of David, and of Christ, encourage one another (Calmet) to subvert their authority, before it be too well established. Protestants still seem to be actuated with the same phrensy; fearing nothing more than the restoration of the Catholic religion [in Great Britain]; and incessantly pouring in petitions to [the British] Parliament to withhold the common rights of subjects from people of that [Catholic] persuasion. (Haydock) --- "I fear there are more political than religious objectors to emancipation [of Catholics in Great Britain]." (Nightingale)
Psalms 2:4 He that dwelleth in heaven shall laugh at them: and the Lord shall deride them.

Them, who continue rebellious, Proverbs 1:He speaks thus to shew that we deserve derision. (Haydock) --- Quod nos derisu digna faciamus. (St. Jerome) --- Yet he will convert many, (Worthington) even of those who, like St. Paul, were bent on persecuting the faithful. If they still resist, (Haydock) he will shew the futility of their plans, and triumph over all, as David did over his opponents, and Christ over those who wished to have obstructed his resurrection, and the propagation of his gospel. Thus Jesus has proved his divinity, and confirmed our hopes that he will still protect his Church; as he did when it seemed to be in the greatest danger. (Calmet) --- God can fear no opposition to his decrees. (Menochius) --- He is in Heaven, to whom we ought to address our prayers. The Lord seems to be here applicable to Christ. Chaldean, "the word of God." He has the title of the Creator, Adonai, as the Jews have marked it with a Kamets 134 times, when it is to be taken in that sense. (Berthier)
Psalms 2:5 Then shall he speak to them in his anger, and trouble them in his rage.

Rage. These, and similar expressions, when applied to the immutable Deity, only denote that men have deserved the worst of punishments. (Haydock) --- God had discomfited the enemies of David (2 Kings 5:20, 24.) by his thunder. But he still more confounded the devil, when Christ descended to take away his spoils; and he chastised the Jews by the ruin of their city, (Calmet) as he has or will do all persecutors of his Church. (Haydock) --- He will severely reprehend, and justly punish the obstinate. (Worthington)
Psalms 2:6 But I am appointed king by him over Sion, his holy mountain, preaching his commandment.

I am. Hebrew, "I have anointed....over Sion, my," etc. St. Jerome and others have read in the first person, what the Septuagint translate in the third. The sense is much the same. (Calmet) --- But the Vulgate seems to be better connected, and the same letters may have this sense, if we neglect the points, which were unknown to the Septuagint and of modern invention. These interpreters may also have read a v for i, as these letters are very similar. (Berthier) --- "But I am anointed king by him over Sion, his holy mountain." (Houbigant) --- Theodoret, observing that Christ is king not only over Sion, but also over all, alters the punctuation: On Sion....preaching, etc., which is very plausible, since Isaias 9:3. says, the law shall come forth from Sion, (Berthier) and [Isaias] Psalm 37:32., and salvation from Mount Sion. Hence Christ preached frequently in the temple. It is certain David was not anointed here, but at Hebron; and the temple was not built till the reign of Solomon. See Psalm 109:2.
Psalms 2:7 *The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.

Acts 13:33.; Hebrews 1:5.; Hebrews 5:5.
Thee. Chaldean weakens this text. (Haydock) --- "I love thee as my son, and look upon thee with the same affection, as if I had this day created thee;" which might be applied to David, now settled more firmly on the throne by his late victory. But it literally refers to Christ, either born in time, (ver. 1., St. Augustine; Calmet) or baptized; (St. Justin Martyr) or rather rising again, (Acts 13:33.) and born from all eternity, Hebrews 1:5. This shews him superior to the angels. The prophet had both these events in view. Eternity is always the same. (Berthier; Bossuet; Du Hamel) --- He to whom God may speak thus to-day, at all times, must be God also. (Robertson, Lexic.) (John 5:25.) --- To this Socinians can make no reply, without giving up the Epistle to the Hebrews or allowing that the apostle's arguments were inconclusive. (Berthier) --- The same text may thus have many literal senses. (Du Hamel) --- The eternal birth seems here to be the chief, as from that source the nativity, baptism, priesthood, (Hebrews 5:5.) and miraculous resurrection of Christ, necessarily spring. (Haydock)
Psalms 2:8 Ask of me, and I will give thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for thy possession.

Ask. The Messias must be invested with human nature, and merit all graces for man. When did David ask for such an extensive dominion? (Berthier) --- But Christ's kingdom extends over the world. His Church cannot fail, as St. Augustine proved hence against the Donatists, and his arguments confute Protestants as well. (Worthington) --- Our doctors used to refer this psalm to the Messias, said R. Solomon; but it is better to apply it to David, on account of "Christians." (Du Hamel)
Psalms 2:9 *Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron, and shalt break them in pieces like a potter's vessel.

Apocalypse 2:27.; Apocalypse 19:15.
Rule, as a shepherd, (poimaneis) as it is cited [in] Apocalypse 2:26. But he is speaking of vengeance taken on the rebellious; and we might translate, "Thou shalt break," etc. (Calmet) --- Yet this is not necessary, as a shepherd sometimes beats with severity, to prevent his sheep from straying. (Haydock) --- The Church guides also use coercion, but for the good of the flock. (Calmet) --- God brought the murderers of his Son to an evil end, and destroyed their city. (Haydock) --- He broke the Gentiles, to make them a more noble vessel, Jeremias 18:4. (St. Hilary) --- He will execute judgment at the last day, Apocalypse 19:11. (Calmet) --- When the clay is still soft, the vessel may easily be repaired; so the sinner may be reclaimed, when he has only just fallen. (St. Jerome) --- Even the most obdurate, are as clay in God's hands. (Worthington)
Psalms 2:10 And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth.

And. Here the prophet may address kings, unless the Father or the Messias continue to speak. It is evident these words are not to be understood of David's dominions alone. Fear and joy keep the Christian in proper order, Philippians 2:12., and 3:1. (Berthier) --- "The love of God pushes us forward, and the fear of God makes us take care where we walk." (St. Theresa [of Avila?]) --- The one guards us against despair, the other against presumption. Kings are here instructed to support the Church, for which some have been styled, "Most Christian," "Catholic," or "Defenders of the Faith." The Donatists falsely asserted, that they were ever found enemies to religion, because of Constantine, etc., attempted to repress their errors. But Julian favoured them, to increase dissensions. See St. Augustine, contra Pet. et contra Gaud. 2:26. (Worthington)
Psalms 2:11 Serve ye the Lord with fear: and rejoice unto him with trembling.

Trembling, with reverential awe and humility, (1 Corinthians 2:3.; Amama) as none is sure of salvation. (Bell.[Bellarmine?]) --- More are lost by presumption than by trembling. (Amama)
Psalms 2:12 Embrace discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the just way.

Discipline. Chaldean, "doctrine." St. Jerome, "adore purely." Protestants, "kiss the Son, lest he be angry," etc. (Haydock) --- Houbigant, "adore the son, lest he be angry, and you perish. For he comes forward, and shortly his wrath will be enkindled." This version seems to be judicious: that of the Vulgate is less energetic, but comes to the same end, as those who adore the Messias, must follow his doctrine. (Berthier) --- Lord and just is not in [the] Hebrew. (Haydock) --- The way or projects of sinners will perish; (Psalm 1:6.) they will be hurried before the tribunal, as soon as they are dead; (St. Hilary) and when they least expect it, 1 Thessalonians 5:2. (Calmet) --- Some fall from salvation, and God will bring them to judgment at the end of this short life. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "Kiss purely." Kissing is often used in Scripture to express submission, love, and adoration. (St. Jerome, contra Ruf. i.) (Genesis 41:40.) (Calmet) --- We testify our respect for God, by kissing the Bible, etc. (Haydock) --- But it cannot be shewn that bar means "a son," in Hebrew. (Calmet) --- Amama blames the Vulgate for withdrawing a text in favour of Christ's divinity. We must, however, submit to the law and faith of Christ with confidence and love, if we desire to escape his indignation and enter heaven, Acts 4:12. Mr. Nightingale (Portrait of Cath. 1812. p. 117 and 332) may represent this doctrine as uncharitable and groundless, though he allows it has been maintained by most (p. 473) who have professed to be the true disciples of Christ, whether Catholics or Protestants. The principle is good, though some apply it wrong. If he and Lord Milton, (speech. 1812. to whom we must express our manifest obligations) had contented themselves with saying that they believed our doctrine was "unscriptural," etc., (p. 18) we should not have much wondered; as they could not consistently have said less, and remained out of the Catholic Church. But for any man who has read the Bible, to persuade himself that it is not necessary to profess the one only true religion, wherever it may be, after Christ has so plainly declared, He that believeth not is already judged, and shall be condemned; (John 3:18., and Mark 16:16.) and after the apostle has delivered over to satan those who only asserted that the resurrection was past, (2 Timothy 2:17.) this fills us with astonishment. Not a single text can be produced in favour of the contrary system leading to indifference about religion; which, if true, would shew the preaching of the prophets and apostles as nugatory, and their blood shed in vain. All the "Scriptures" proclaim the necessity of faith and good works. We may observe, that the doctrine of the blessed Trinity seems to be no less objectionable to Mr. N. than the rest of our faith, p. 117, etc. Yet (Haydock) we must not refuse him the praise of liberality. (Catholic Review, etc., Jan. 1813.) (Haydock)
Psalms 2:13 When his wrath shall be kindled in a short time, blessed are all they that trust in him.

Trust for salvation through Christ, (Du Hamel) acting as he has directed, so that their hope may be well founded. (Menochius) --- This psalm is quoted six times in the New Testament, [Acts 4:25., and 13:33., Hebrews 1:5., and 5:5., and Apocalypse 2:27., and 19:15.] which shews the concord of Scripture, and that the prophets saw the promises at a distance, following the law of love, which is as ancient as the world. (Berthier)
Psalms 3:0 The prophet's danger and delivery from his son, Absalom: mystically the passion and resurrection of Christ.

Hebrew and Septuagint have literally, "a psalm of David," (to David) which may mean that it was addressed to him by God, or that he would set it to music himself, (Haydock) or that it was composed by him, or on his occasion. The part.[particle?] L. has various meanings, and it does not incontestably prove that the person before whose name it is placed, must be regarded as the author. (Calmet) --- Yet there is no reason for doubting that this psalm was composed by David. (Haydock) --- The Jews say he wrote it on the ascent of Mount Olivet, 2 Kings 15:17. But he rather waited till he had re-entered his capital, and herein expressed his gratitude, specifying at the same time the sentiments with which he had been impressed in the hour of danger. Ven. Bede explains this and many other psalms of Ezechias, as he perhaps did not read or attend to the title. (Calmet) --- This deserves more attention, as it is the same in all Bibles, though all interpreters do not consider them as canonical, no more than that which is prefixed to the Lamentations. (Berthier) --- They are authentic, being inspired to Esdras or the Septuagint. (Worthington) --- But this is doubtful. (Haydock)
Psalms 3:1 The psalm of David when he fled from the face of his son Absalom. [2 Kings xv.]

Psalms 3:2 Why, O Lord, are they multiplied that afflict me? many are they who rise up against me.

Why. Let me know the enormity of my sins. All Israel follows Absalom, 2 Kings 15:13. So all rose up against Christ. (Worthington) --- The Church was assailed on all sides, (Calmet) and every soul must live in expectation of battle from innumerable enemies. Hebrew also, (Haydock) "How are they multiplied." (Houbigant) --- David is surprised at the sudden change, and adores the depth of God's judgments, which had been denounced unto him, 1 Kings 12:10. (Calmet)
Psalms 3:3 Many say to my soul: There is no salvation for him in his God.

God. His case is desperate. (Worthington) --- He must therefore be a criminal. This is the usual judgment of the world, though very false, as we have seen in the person of Job; for temporal punishments are frequently an effect of the divine clemency. Semei upbraided David on this occasion, as the Jews did Christ, 2 Kings 16:7., and Matthew 27:42. At the end of this verse, Hebrew adds, Selah, (Calmet) sle and Septuagint diapsalma, (Haydock) a word which is not much better understood. Houbigant therefore informs us that he has omitted it entirely, as the Vulgate seems to have done, except [in] Psalm 61:8., where it is rendered, in aeternum, "for ever," (Berthier) as St. Jerome expresses it semper, in his Hebrew version. It would perhaps be as well to leave the original term. (Haydock) --- It occurs seventy-one times in the psalms, and thrice in Habacuc. Some think it is a sign to raise the voice, or to pause, etc., (Berthier) at the end of the lesson, before the psalter was divided. None, except Eusebius, asserts that it was inserted by the original authors, and it seems now to be useless. (Calmet, Dis.)
Psalms 3:4 But thou, O Lord, art my protector, my glory, and the lifter up of my head.

Protector. Hebrew, "shield." --- Glory. God is the hope of his servants, (1 Corinthians 15:31.) and grants their requests. (Calmet) --- He has not abandoned me, when I had fallen into sin. (Haydock) --- He gives me the victory, and confirms my throne. (Worthington)
Psalms 3:5 I have cried to the Lord with my voice: and he hath heard me from his holy hill.

Ephesians 4:26.
Hill. Sion, where the ark had been placed, (Calmet) or from heaven. (Menochius) --- Hebrew adds, "Selah." (Protestants) (Haydock)
Psalms 3:6 I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up, because the Lord hath protected me.

Rest, in sin; (St. Athanasius) or, I have not lost my confidence in God, though dangers threaten on every side. (Calmet) --- Jesus remained undaunted, when his enemies surrounded him; he continued (Theodoret, etc.) free among the dead, and rose again by his own power. (Haydock) --- If he prayed that the chalice might be removed, it was to teach us how to behave. (Calmet) --- He was buried, and rose again, and his disciples believed the Scriptures (John 2:22.) recorded here, and in other places. (Worthington) --- The same word refers to past and future things. (St. Gregory, Mor. 20:1.) (Worthington)
Psalms 3:7 I will not fear thousands of the people surrounding me: arise, O Lord; save me, O my God.

Thousands. Septuagint, "myriads." (Haydock) --- If my enemies were still more numerous, I should not fear. (Calmet) --- I beseech thee to help me. (Worthington)
Psalms 3:8 For thou hast struck all them who are my adversaries without cause: thou hast broken the teeth of sinners.

Without cause. Hebrew, "on the jaw." (Haydock) --- Without redress. (Calmet) --- Septuagint seems to have read leinom, as "some Jews say that the ancient copies were different." (Origen, A.D. 231.) (Kennicott) --- Teeth. Strength and fury.
Psalms 3:9 Salvation is of the Lord: and thy blessing is upon thy people.

Blessing. Abundance of grace is promised to God's servants, who must look up to him for salvation. David gives thanks for the victory, though he grieved at his son's death. (Worthington) --- He shewed proofs of the greatest clemency on this occasion. It is evident, from this psalm being inserted before many which regard Saul, that no chronological order is observed. (Calmet) --- Selah occurs a third time here, as some may have ended the lecture at one, while others ordered it to be continued to another, or even to the 3rd or 5th verse of the next psalm, if that be its real import. (Haydock)
Psalms 4:0 The prophet teacheth us to flee to God in tribulation, with confidence in him.

Psalms 4:1 Unto the end, in verses. A psalm for David.

Unto the end. Or as St. Jerome renders it, victory to him that overcometh; which some understand of the chief musician; to whom they suppose the psalms, which bear that title, were given to be sung. We rather understand the psalms thus inscribed to refer to Christ, who is the end of the law, and the great Conqueror of death and hell; and to the New Testament. --- In verses, in carminibus. In the Hebrew, it is neginoth, supposed by some to be a musical instrument, with which this psalm was to be sung. --- For David, or to David, to David, that is, inspired to David himself, or to be sung by him. (Challoner) --- Lamnetseach, from nitseach, "to push to an end," may signify (Haydock) to the end; and this sense is more noble than (Berthier) "To the precentor, or president." (Calmet) --- Binginoth. (Haydock) --- "Over the female musicians." (Calmet) --- "To the chief of the singers on stringed instruments." (Duguet.) --- The psalms which have this title, relate to future times, and to the Church of Christ; (St. Augustine; Worthington) or were to be sung at the close of the Jewish festivals, etc. (Berthier) --- This is considered as a sequel to the preceding, to thank God for the late victory over Absalom. (Calmet)
Psalms 4:2 When I called upon him, the God of my justice heard me: when I was in distress, thou hast enlarged me. Have mercy on me: and hear my prayer.

The God. Hebrew, "When I call, hear me, O God of my justice:" source and witness of my virtue. If I have offended thee, I have done no wrong to my rebellious son and his adherents. Many copies read Cum invocarem te, exaudisti me. (Calmet) --- Thou. The change of persons intimates that when God is present (St. Augustine) the soul is animated with confidence to speak to him. (Haydock) --- Prayer. Though his request had been granted, he still continues to address God, as we ought to pray without ceasing, 1 Thessalonians 5:17.
Psalms 4:3 O ye sons of men, how long will you be dull of heart? why do you love vanity, and seek after lying?

O. This is a sort of manifesto to the rebels; and an invitation for them to return to their duty, desisting from setting up a false king, or a lie. (Haydock) --- Dull. Hebrew, "my glory to shame." But the reading of the Septuagint seems preferable, (Calmet) as the rhyme in Hebrew is now lost, (Fourmont) and the text has been altered (Houbigant) by an injudicious junction of words, and by using c for b. In ancient manuscripts, the words were all joined together, (Berthier) as may be seen in the specimen of the Alexandrian Septuagint given by Grabe. Protestants, "How long will ye turn my glory into shame?" etc. (Haydock)
Psalms 4:4 Know ye also that the Lord hath made his holy one wonderful: the Lord will hear me when I shall cry unto him.

Wonderful, (mirificavit) according to the Hebrew means also has chosen in a striking manner his appointed ruler, or holy person. (Berthier) --- Holy, often means one set aside, (Luke ii.) or commissioned, though the person be a pagan, Isaias 13:3. Chasid, (Haydock) particularly signifies a "clement" character, such as a king ought to be. (Calmet) --- "The Lord has set aside for himself the pious." (Pagnin) --- I am ready to pardon you, but know that if you continue rebellious, you go against the ordinance of heaven. (Haydock)
Psalms 4:5 *Be ye angry, and sin not: the things you say in your hearts, be sorry for them upon your beds.

Angry. My soldiers, do not resent this offence too much, kill not the boy; (2 Kings 18:5.) or (Haydock) you, my deluded subjects, enter into yourselves. St. Paul (Ephesians 4:26.) cites this as a moral sentence. (Calmet) --- It is more difficult to moderate anger than to deny access to it entirely. (St. Francis de Sales) (Haydock) --- Beds. Repent for the most secret evil thoughts, before you fall asleep. (Worthington)
Psalms 4:6 Offer up the sacrifice of justice, and trust in the Lord: many say, Who sheweth us good things?

Justice. External devotion will not suffice. (St. Chrysostom) --- No sacrifice will please God as long as people take part with rebels. (Calmet) --- Besides external sacrifices, which have always been required, and those of praise and contrition, (Psalm xlix., and l.) we must offer to God the sacrifice of justice, by complying with our duties to him, ourselves, and neighbours, and by hating sin, and also the world, the flesh, and the devil, which prompt us to offend, and thus to give the preference to vanity. For this purpose, we must not trust in ourselves, but in God; and that no one may plead ignorance, the light of reason and grace is given us, plainly indicating that we have a God to serve, and must expect reward or punishment, Hebrews 11:6. (Worthington)
Psalms 4:7 The light of thy countenance, O Lord, is signed upon us: thou hast given gladness in my heart.

The. Houbigant transposes this to ver. 9, which is not necessary. David answers those diffident people, (Berthier) who thought they had received no marks of God's favour, and were in great want of provisions, till some were brought by Berzellai. (Haydock)
Psalms 4:8 By the fruit of their corn, their wine, and oil, they are multiplied.

By. Hebrew and St. Augustine, "From the time of their corn and wine" (Calmet) gathering. I rejoiced "more" than those who live in the greatest affluence, which is nothing but vanity. No mention is made of oil, but the original term, "liquor," includes it. (Berthier) --- St. Jerome found it not in the Hexapla. But it now occurs in the Arabic, Syriac, etc. (Calmet) --- David envies not the present prosperity of the rebels. (Haydock) --- He comforts his followers with the assurance of God's favour, which he had again testified by sending provisions. (Bullenger) --- He may also here express the disappointment of the rebels, who promised themselves great riches, of which Providence would soon deprive them, by restoring the king, whom he had chosen, and hitherto so wonderfully protected. (Haydock) --- God gave temporal advantages to the just in the old law, as a figure of heavenly rewards. (Worthington)
Psalms 4:9 In peace in the self same I will sleep, and I will rest:

Same, (in idipsum) which signifies with one accord, Acts 1:14. Hebrew, "altogether," when we shall be united as one people, which I expect will shortly be the case. Confiding in God, I will repose as in the arms of peace. Absalom was already cut off. But all his adherents were not reclaimed. Yet their number was so small, as to cause no apprehensions. (Haydock) --- Under thy protection, I am secure, (Calmet) no longer kept between fear and hope. (St. Bernard) --- When I lie down, I can enjoy rest, (Berthier) being free from turbulent passions. (Haydock)
Psalms 4:10 For thou, O Lord, singularly hast settled me in hope.

Singularly. Art "alone" (Pagnin) the source of all my happiness; (Haydock) or thou hast taken such care of me, as if thou hadst no other. (Menochius) --- I am at a distance from the contagion of evil company, (St. Chrysostom) which I hate. (Berthier) --- "For thou only art Lord, thou hast made me dwell secure." (St. Jerome)
Psalms 5:0 A prayer to God against the iniquities of men.

Psalms 5:1 Unto the end, for her that obtaineth the inheritance. A psalm for David.

For her that obtaineth the inheritance. That is, for the Church of Christ, (Challoner) and every faithful soul, which gains the victory and heaven. (Worthington) --- Nechiloth, may also, (Haydock) signify musical instruments with holes, or "women dancing," on religious and joyful occasions, as they did when the ark was removed, etc., 2 Kings 6:12., (Calmet) and Psalm 67:26. --- We may (Haydock) as well follow the Vulgate and St. Jerome. Some have supposed that David alludes to Saul, Absalom, etc. But in most of the psalms, the wicked in general are reprobated, and the sentiments of the faithful expressed. This psalm contains an excellent form of morning prayer, as an armour against all our spiritual enemies. (Berthier)
Psalms 5:2 Give ear, O Lord, to my words, understand my cry.

Cry. Hebrew, "meditation." (Menochius) --- The cry of the heart, (St. Chrysostom) and "the groans," which the spirit forms within us, Romans 8:26. God cannot reject such prayers. If he seems inattentive, it is because we ask amiss, James 4:3. (Calmet) --- He attends to the prayers of the Church, and of every faithful soul, (Worthington) and even exhorts sinners to come to him, that they may emerge from the abyss. (Haydock)
Psalms 5:3 Hearken to the voice of my prayer, O my King and my God.

Psalms 5:4 For to thee will I pray: O Lord, in the morning thou shalt hear my voice.

Morning. This hour of prayer is also specified, (Psalms 62:1., and 118:147.) as that of the evening is, Psalms 4:9., and 54:19. We read also of noon being a time for prayer among the Jews, Acts 10:9. Daniel 6:10. diligently observed these holy customs. (Calmet)
Psalms 5:5 In the morning I will stand before thee, and I will see: because thou art not a God that willest iniquity.

Stand. Hebrew implies "in order," as those who neglect prayer must be all in confusion. God enables those who are diligent, to see wonderful things. (Berthier) --- Iniquity. No: he has it in abhorrence; (Calmet) consequently he cannot be the author of it, but hates those who commit evil, though he loves them as his creatures, and wishes their conversion. (Worthington) --- On this subject I will meditate. (Menochius)
Psalms 5:6 Neither shall the wicked dwell near thee: nor shall the unjust abide before thy eyes.

Eyes. God suffers them to remain for a time. (St. Jerome)
Psalms 5:7 Thou hatest all the workers of iniquity: thou wilt destroy all that speak a lie. The bloody and the deceitful man the Lord will abhor.

Workers, (operantur) "who work," (Haydock) and die impenitent. --- Lie. All heretics, who kill their own and neighbours' souls, (St. Jerome) and in general all seducers, (Calmet) who will be treated like those who have committed murder. (Eusebius) (Caesar.)
Psalms 5:8 But as for me in the multitude of thy mercy, I will come into thy house; I will worship towards thy holy temple, in thy fear.

Mercy, not trusting in my own merit, (Haydock) but with the greatest awe. (Calmet) --- The just must trust in mercy, not in man's power. --- Temple, the Church, and in God's presence. (Worthington) --- Some would infer hence that David was not the author of this psalm. But the tabernacle is called by the same names; (1 Kings 1:7, 24, and 3:3.) so that this reason is not sufficient. (Calmet)
Psalms 5:9 Conduct me, O Lord, in thy justice: because of my enemies, direct my way in thy sight.

Enemies. Hebrew, "observers." They are always on the watch to discover any fault. Grant me thy preventing grace. (Berthier) --- Let me not stumble, (Haydock) but cause me to walk cheerfully in thy paths. (Calmet) --- If thou approve, it matters not how much worldlings blame me. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 5:10 For there is no truth in their mouth; their heart is vain.

Their. Hebrew, "his." But it is incorrect. (Houbigant) --- St. Jerome has "their." (Berthier) --- Vain. Hebrew, "wicked or deceitful."
Psalms 5:11 *Their throat is an open sepulchre: they dealt deceitfully with their tongues: judge them, O God. Let them fall from their devices: according to the multitude of their wickedness cast them out: for they have provoked thee, O Lord.

Psalm 13:3.; Psalm 139:4.; Romans 3:13.
Sepulchre, which never says there is enough, Proverbs 30:15. (Calmet) --- Dealt, etc. St. Paul authorizes this version, (Romans 3:13.) though the Hebrew be rendered, "they flatter cunningly;" (Berthier) or "they sharpen their tongue," and polish it like a sword, that it may cut more easily. This may be applied to heretics. (Sts. Athanasius, Chrysostom, and Jerome) (Calmet) --- Judge, or "condemn them." Hebrew may be explained as a prediction. (Berthier) --- The Holy Ghost could not dictate an imprecation or desire of revenge. But David might beg that God would frustrate the designs of his enemies; and, by treating them with some severity, hinder the execution of their wicked schemes, which would bring on their own ruin. (St. Chrysostom; St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- Though the just desire the conversion of all, yet if any die impenitent, they approve of God's judgment, manifested at the end of the world. (Worthington) --- Provoked. Hebrew, "rebelled against." I forgive them for what they have done to me. But I grieve at thy offence; make them return to a sense of their duty. (Calmet) --- He might abhor the enemies of salvation, the world, etc., whom Christ has condemned. (Berthier)
Psalms 5:12 But let all them be glad that hope in thee: they shall rejoice for ever, and thou shalt dwell in them. And all they that love thy name shall glory in thee.

Dwell. Hebrew, "protect," (St. Jerome) "or shade them." (Calmet) --- The just will rejoice under thy protection, (Haydock) and at the conversion of the sinner. (St. Chrysostom)
Psalms 5:13 For thou wilt bless the just. O Lord, thou hast crowned us, as with a shield of thy good will.

Us. Hebrew, "him." (St. Jerome; Aquila) (Calmet) --- But neglecting the points, the Septuagint is as accurate, and more beautiful. (Berthier) --- Shield. Hebrew tsinna, (Haydock) which was probably large enough to cover the body. (Calmet) --- If God be with us, who is against us? (Haydock) --- The just shall receive the sentence of eternal glory. (Worthington)
Psalms 6:0 A prayer of a penitent sinner, under the scourge of God. The first penitential Psalm.

Psalms 6:1 Unto the end, in verses, a psalm for David, for the octave.

For the octave. That is, to be sung on an instrument of eight strings. St. Augustine understands it mystically, of the last resurrection, and the world to come; which is, as it were, the octave, or eighth day, after the seven days of this mortal life; and for this octave, sinners must dispose themselves, like David, by bewailing their sins, whilst they are here upon the earth. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- It may also signify, that this psalm was to be sung by "the eighth" of the 24 bands, 1 Paralipomenon 15:21. David might compose it after sickness, with which he had been punished for his adultery; (Calmet) or under any distress: he expresses the sentiments of a true penitent, (Berthier) with which he was ever after impressed. (Haydock) --- It is applicable to penitents of the new law. (Worthington)
Psalms 6:2 O Lord, rebuke me not in thy indignation, nor chastise me in thy wrath.

Indignation. Literally, "fury." (Haydock) --- Such strong expressions were requisite to make the carnal Jews fear God's judgments, though a being of infinite perfection can have no passion. (St. Chrysostom) --- David does not beg to be free from suffering, (Haydock) but he requests that God would chastise him with moderation, Jeremias 10:24., and 46:28. (Calmet) --- Justice without mercy is reserved for the last day. (St. Gregory) --- Wrath. This regards those who have built wood, etc., on the foundation. They shall be purified by fire. (St. Augustine) Purgatory was then believed in the 4th Century. (Berthier) --- Let me not be condemned either to it, or hell. (St. Gregory, hic.[here] and Psalm xxxvii.)
Psalms 6:3 Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I am weak: heal me, O Lord, for my bones are troubled.

Troubled, with grief. (Worthington) --- I am sinking under my illness: my virtue is lost. (Calmet) --- The whole human race is this sick man, requiring the aid of Jesus Christ. (St. Augustine) --- The ineffable name Jehova, (Haydock) is repeated thrice, to insinuate that salvation must come from the Blessed Trinity. (Berthier, ver. 9) --- Under the allegory of sickness, the ravages of sin appear. (Menochius)
Psalms 6:4 And my soul is troubled exceedingly: but thou, O Lord, how long?

Long? Wilt thou leave me in distress? (Worthington) --- He breaks off abruptly to express his sorrow, See Isaias 6:11; Jeremias 13:26. (Berthier) --- True converts are often tried a long time, that they may conceive how God will treat those who never return to him, (St. Augustine; Eusebius) and that they may beware of a relapse. (Calmet)
Psalms 6:5 Turn to me, O Lord, and deliver my soul: O save me for thy mercy's sake.

Turn. God never abandons us first, Jeremias 2:27. (Berthier) --- We drive him away by sin. (St. Athanasius) --- Sake. I cannot take one step without thee. (Calmet) --- Treat me not as my sins deserve; but mercifully restore me to favour. (Worthington)
Psalms 6:6 For there is no one in death, that is mindful of thee: and who shall confess to thee in hell?

Hell. The hardened sinner will not praise thee, (St. Augustine) much less will the damned, who are confirmed in evil. (Berthier) --- Even those who are in "the grave," though just, cannot sound forth thy praises; and consequently, if I be cut off, the number of thy adorers will be diminished. This motive is often urged, as if God was forgotten in the rest of the world, Psalm 29:10., and Isaias 38:18. (Calmet) --- This life is the time for repentance. After death there is no conversion, but eternal blasphemies in hell. I will strive to prevent this misery, by continuing to do penance, till I am watered with thy grace. (Worthington)
Psalms 6:7 I have laboured in my groanings, every night I will wash my bed: I will water my couch with my tears.

Bed. St. Jerome, "I will make my bed swim" (Haydock) with tears, or sweat. (Berthier) --- Here we behold the effects of true repentance, which will not suffer the sinner to enjoy any repose, (Calmet) when he reflects on the pains of hell, and the perfections of God. (Haydock) --- "O sweet affliction, which extinguishes the fire of hell, and restores man to the friendship of his God." (St. Chrysostom)
Psalms 6:8 My eye is troubled through indignation: I have grown old amongst all my enemies.

Indignation of God (Theodoret) or of my enemies. I am also indignant when I behold my foes exulting in my ruin. (Calmet) --- I have. Hebrew, "It," the eye. (Berthier) --- The eye is naturally injured by excessive grief. Yet David could not think of his sins, without floods of tears. (Haydock)
Psalms 6:9 *Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity: for the Lord hath heard the voice of my weeping.

Matthew 7:23.; Matthew 25:41.; Luke 13:27.
Iniquity, who have fostered my passions, (Berthier) or sought my ruin. I now perceive who were my true friends. (Calmet) --- Lord. He is twice mentioned in the next verse, in honour of the blessed Trinity, as a German commentator remarks, after the ancient interpreters (Berthier) and Fathers. They have constantly had an eye to these grand truths, which are nevertheless proved by clearer passages of Scripture. (Haydock) --- David confides in God, as every true penitent may do, for protection. (Worthington) --- He had also been assured of pardon by Nathan, the prophet. (Haydock)
Psalms 6:10 The Lord hath heard my supplication: the Lord hath received my prayer.

Psalms 6:11 Let all my enemies be ashamed, and be very much troubled: let them be turned back, and be ashamed very speedily.

Troubled. This is a prophecy, (St. Augustine) or a prayer for their speedy and earnest conversion, (St. Jerome; Calmet) or a threat if they persist. (Worthington) --- Speedily. At the last day, the wicked will perceive how short life has been. Tunc sentient peccatores quam non sit longa omnis vita quae transit. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 7:0 David, trusting in the justice of his cause, prayeth for God's help against his enemies.

Psalms 7:1 The psalm of David, which he sung to the Lord, for the words of Chusi, the son of Jemini. [2 Kings xvi.]

Shiggaion (Haydock) is a word which has greatly puzzled interpreters. See Robertson in shoge. Protestants have, "Shiggaion of David." The Rabbins confess that they know not its meaning, and it is of no service for the explanation of the psalm. (Berthier) --- St. Jerome follows the Septuagint, (Haydock) which may suit very well. Others have, "ignorance." (Menochius) --- "Perplexity." (Calmet) --- "Secret." (Vatable) --- "Song of wanderings." (Parkhurst, etc.) --- Chusi is scarcely less difficult to understand. The person who has inserted this historical title, and many others, without much judgment, had probably in view the wars of Absalom, and the curses of Semei. But the psalm seems rather to refer to the persecutions of Saul, (Calmet; 1 Kings 22:8.; Menochius) who was of the tribe of Benjamin. (Haydock) --- Sts. Augustine, Basil, and Chrysostom explain it of Chusi, (Worthington) the Arachite, from a town of Benjamin, (Calmet) who defeated the counsel of Achitophel, (Worthington) as it is supposed that David was given to understand that his friend had betrayed him, and in consequence speaks of him in such harsh terms. But if that had been the case, he would have suppressed what was founded on error; (Calmet) and the supposition is contrary to the idea which we have of inspiration. Yet there is nothing in the psalm which requires the harsh expressions to be applied to Chusi. They may as well refer to Achitophel, who spoke in answer to him.
Psalms 7:2 O Lord, my God, in thee have I put my trust; save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me.

My God. This title is prompted by love and confidence. (Haydock) --- All. David had only few followers, while he was pursued by Saul (Calmet) and Absalom. (Haydock)
Psalms 7:3 Lest at any time he seize upon my soul like a lion, while there is no one to redeem me, nor to save.

Lion. In a spiritual sense this is the devil, 1 Peter 5:8. (St. Augustine) --- "Let him only see the sign of the cross, or the lamp continually burning before the altar, he will flee away. Should we wonder at this? the garments alone of Paul drove him from possessed person." [Acts 19:12.] (St. Chrysostom) --- Will modern sectaries still ridicule these things? --- While. Hebrew, "tearing, and not snatching away." But there is a similar construction, (Lamentations 5:8.) which shews that we ought to follow the Vulgate. (Berthier) --- Absalom, or any other enemy, may be this lion. (Worthington) --- They threatened David with utter ruin, which he could never have escaped, without God's visible protection.
Psalms 7:4 O Lord, my God, if I have done this thing, if there be iniquity in my hands:

Thing, alluding to some calumny, (Haydock) with which he was assailed (Worthington) by Saul, Absalom, and Semei. (Berthier) --- He disclaims all such ambitious or unjust sentiments, though he allows that he is not innocent before God. (Calmet)
Psalms 7:5 If I have rendered to them that repaid me evils, let me deservedly fall empty before my enemies.

That repaid. This seems better than "my peaceable one," as some translate the Hebrew, for it would be but a small commendation not to injure a friend: the pagans do as much. Duport therefore agrees with the Vulgate, and St. Jerome has, "If I have rendered evil to those who did me any, and sent my enemies empty away;" or, as the Hebrew is in the future, "I will let my enemies depart without fighting;" which is equivalent to, I will gain no advantage over them. (Berthier) --- The man who takes revenge, injures himself, and becomes the devil's slave. (St. Augustine) --- David had been so far from giving way to ingratitude, that he would not even hurt his enemy. (Haydock) --- He let Saul escape, when he might easily have slain him. [1 Samuel xxvi.] (Calmet)
Psalms 7:6 Let the enemy pursue my soul, and take it, and tread down my life, on the earth, and bring down my glory to the dust.

Dust. Hebrew adds, "to dwell," (Haydock) as if the ignominy was not to be effaced. This would be very sensible for a king. (Berthier) --- Glory is here synonymous with life, or soul, Genesis 49:6. Let my life and (Calmet) reputation be lost. (Worthington) --- Summum crede nefas animam praeferre pudori. (Juvenal viii.)
Psalms 7:7 Rise up, O Lord, in thy anger: and be thou exalted in the borders of my enemies. And arise, O Lord, my God, in the precept which thou hast commanded:

Borders. Hebrew is rendered, "fury of my enemies." --- My is found in some copies of the Septuagint, though the edition of Comp. and Aldus agree with the Vulgate, and Bos observes, that an ancient interpreter rendered the first word as we do. (Berg.) --- Habar means, "to pass;" and, of course, behabroth (Haydock) may denote, in the borders; (Berg.) though St. Jerome, etc., have, "rise up indignant over mine enemies." Avenge thy own cause, as they would overturn thy decree, which has called me to the throne. (Haydock) --- Commanded. Shew thy power, and protect me, since thou hast ordered me to reign. (Worthington) --- Convince my enemies of the injustice of their proceedings, (Haydock) and cause them to repent. Thy order is what displeased Saul. Protect me as thou hast promised. Chaldean, "Execute the judgment in my favour, which thou hast decreed." Then all will obey. (Calmet) --- O Lord, my God. Hebrew has not Lord, and some translate elai, "to me." But it also means, "my God." (Berthier)
Psalms 7:8 and a congregation of people shall surround thee. And for their sakes return thou on high.

High, on thy tribunal, to decide this dispute. The Fathers apply this to the ascension of Jesus Christ, who will judge the world. (St. Augustine; Theodoret) (Calmet) (2 Corinthians 10:11.) --- The interference of Providence (Haydock) will induce many to come to thy tabernacle, (Menochius) to embrace the true religion, (Worthington) and sectaries will decrease. These will be refuted most effectually, when they see the law well observed. (Berthier)
Psalms 7:9 The Lord judgeth the people. Judge me, O Lord, according to my justice, and according to my innocence in me.

Innocence. Hebrew, "simplicity," which has the same meaning. (Haydock) He speaks of the justice of his cause (Muis) against his particular enemies. (Worthington) --- St. Paul thus commends himself, 2 Timothy 4:7. The justice of the saints is not merely imputed, as the first Protestants foolishly imagined: for how should God reward those whom he saw still in sin, and who were only reputed holy? a notion which their disciples have modified or abandoned, as they have also done what had been taught respecting grace. Justice is an effect of God's grace, and of man's co-operation, 1 Corinthians 15:10. (Berthier) --- David begs that the disposer of kingdoms would convince Saul that he was not a rebel: and the world, that he had not lost God's favour, like his rival. (Haydock)
Psalms 7:10 The wickedness of sinners shall be brought to nought; and thou shalt direct the just: *the searcher of hearts and reins is God. Just

1 Paralipomenon 28:9.; Jeremias 11:20.; Jeremias 17:10.; Jeremias 20:12.
Reins; affections, (Jeremias 12:2.; Calmet) and inmost recesses, which are open to God. (Menochius)
Psalms 7:11 Is my help from the Lord; who saveth the upright of heart.

Just. This epithet refers to God, in Hebrew. Septuagint might easily explain it of help, before the words and verses were divided: (Haydock) yet it is still taken in the former sense, in some Greek and Latin copies. The wicked shall be frustrated in their designs, though they may succeed for a time, (Calmet) consumetur, (Symmachus; Haydock) or rather let their ruin be determined on, 1 Kings 25:17. (Calmet)
Psalms 7:12 God is a just judge, strong and patient: is he angry every day?

Strong. Hebrew el, means also "God threatening every day;" (Haydock) which must be a proof of his patience, as the Septuagint have intimated, since he could destroy at once. Thus numquid, must be rendered "is he not?" (Isaias 27:7.) (Berthier) --- God cannot but be displeased at every sin. He threatens the offender daily by secret remorse, or by his preachers and good books. (Haydock) --- But he often defers punishment (Worthington) till death, when the measure of crimes is full. (St. Augustine) --- This silence or delay is one of the most terrible of his judgments, (Haydock) and a mark of his great indignation. If he were, however, to strike every one as soon as he had committed sin, where should we be? "He would soon be alone," as a pagan observed of "Jupiter, if he were presently to hurl his thunderbolts against every offender." (Calmet) See Val. Max. 1:2. (Ecclesiasticus 5:4.)
Psalms 7:13 Except you will be converted, he will brandish his sword; he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

Except you. Hebrew, "if he be not." Houbigant would read, "God will not be turned aside." (Berthier) --- "For him who does not change, he will sharpen his sword." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- God threatens before he strikes, (Calmet) expecting amendment. (Worthington)
Psalms 7:14 And in it he hath prepared the instruments of death, he hath made ready his arrows for them that burn.

For them that burn. That is, against the persecutors of his saints. (G.[Calmet?]) --- Hebrew also, "he has made his arrows to burn." (Houbigant after Symmachus.) (Haydock) --- The ancients used fiery darts or arrows, Psalm cix., and Ephesians 6:16. Sed magnum stridens contorta phalarica venit, Fulminis acta modo. (Virgil, Aeneid ix.; Herod.[Herodotus?] viii.) --- The death of Saul seems to be foretold. (Calmet)
Psalms 7:15 *Behold he hath been in labour with injustice: he hath conceived sorrow, and brought forth iniquity.

Job 15:35.; Isaias 59:4.
Iniquity. Hebrew, "a lie." All the labour of the wicked ends in smoke. See Micheas 2:1., and Isaias 59:4. (Haydock) --- The psalmist sometimes speaks of many enemies, and sometimes of one, who was the chief. Yet what he says of him must, according to the genius of the Hebrew language, be applied to the rest. (Berthier) --- Saul, (Calmet) Absalom, and Achitophel, each found their ruin, in their unjust attempts. (Haydock) --- They had injustice in view, and were actuated by envy, which destroyed them. (Worthington)
Psalms 7:16 He hath opened a pit and dug it; and he is fallen into the hole he made.

Psalms 7:17 His sorrow shall be turned on his own head: and his iniquity shall come down upon his crown.

Sorrow. The evil which he designed for me (Menochius) will fall on him, like an arrow shot upwards. (Calmet) --- Crown. Protestants, "pate." (Haydock)
Psalms 7:18 I will give glory to the Lord according to his justice: and will sing to the name of the Lord the most high.

Justice. "Truly thou art just, O Lord," cries out St. Augustine, "since thou protectest the just, so as to enlighten them by thyself; and so disposest of sinners, that they are punished, not by thine, but by their own malice."
Psalms 8:0 God is wonderful in his works; especially in mankind, singularly exalted by the incarnation of Christ.

Psalms 8:1 Unto the end, for the presses: a psalm for David.

The presses. In Hebrew Gittith, supposed to be a musical instrument: (Challoner) or, "the musicians from Geth," who were famous, and might follow David, 2 Kings 1:20., and 15:18. The Septuagint must have read a v for 1:(Calmet) Gothuth. Yet St. Jerome and Pagnin agree with them; (Haydock) and that sense seems as plausible as any other. The psalm relates to Christ alone; (Matthew 21:16., 1 Corinthians 15:26., and Hebrews 2:6.) who is represented treading the wine-press, Isaias 63:3., and Apocalypse 19:13. (Berthier) --- The Jews confess that it speaks of the Messias. (Ferrand.) --- We may explain it also of the natural prerogatives of man, (Calmet) though (Haydock) this weakens the force of the prophecy. (Berthier) --- St. Augustine applies the expressions to the good and bad in the Church. (Worthington) --- It might be sung during the feast of tabernacles, after the vintage. (Menochius)
Psalms 8:2 O Lord, our Lord, how admirable is thy name in the whole earth! For thy magnificence is elevated above the heavens.

O Lord, (Jehova) our Lord, (Adonenu). (St. Jerome) Dominator noster, "our Ruler." (Haydock) --- God is Lord of all by creation, and still more of those who believe. (Worthington) --- Adonai is pronounced by the Jews, and sometimes applied to men. But they have lost the pronunciation of the first term, which some read Jehovah, (Calmet) or Jaho, (St. Jerome) Jave, etc. (Haydock) --- Admirable. It expresses all that He is. (Exodus 3:14.; Berthier) Essence itself. (Haydock) --- Earth. This was verified after the incarnation; (St. Chrysostom) for before, the Gentiles knew it not, and the Jews caused it to be blasphemed. (Berthier) --- Now all confess the glory of Jesus Christ, the master-piece of God. (Calmet) --- Heavens; which are nothing in comparison, (Menochius) for he hath created them. (Worthington) (Habacuc 3:3.)
Psalms 8:3 Out of the mouth of infants and of sucklings thou hast perfected praise, because of thy enemies, that thou mayst destroy the enemy and the avenger.

Praise. But why does the prophet take notice of this proof of Christ's being the Messias, while he passes over his curing the sick? etc. St. Chrysostom answers, because the other miracles had been performed in the old law, but God had never before opened the mouths of infants to proclaim "praise the Lord," as they did when they bore witness to Christ entering the temple. Other commentators greatly weaken this proof. (Berthier) --- We read that after the passage of the Red Sea, wisdom opened the mouth of the dumb, and made the tongues of infants eloquent; (Wisdom 10:21.) which may be a figurative expression. The prophets and apostles, whom the world looked upon as fools, were chosen to declare the highest mysteries. All nature so clearly proves the existence of Providence, that, if other things were silent, infants would open their mouths to confound the incredulous. The condition of man from his infancy is, in effect, one of the plainest proofs of the divine wisdom. His imitative powers, the ease with which he takes his mother's milk, etc., are something surprising. Hippocrates even, concludes hence, that the child must have sucked, even in the womb, as the art is soon lost, and not easily recovered. God seems to be particularly pleased with the praises of children, Micheas 2:9., and Joel 2:16. St. Augustine admires how the Scriptures have been proportioned to the capacity of infants. Hebrew, "Thou hast founded strength." (Aquila) (Calmet) --- But St. Jerome retains praise, as our Saviour himself quotes it, Matthew 21:16. (Haydock) --- Avenger. The old Vulgate read defensorem (Haydock) in the same sense. St. Chrysostom explains it of the Jews; and other Fathers understand heretics and the devil. (St. Augustine, etc.) (Calmet) --- Arnobius (contra Gent. i.) seems to think that all have an innate idea of Providence, ingenitum. The poor and simple confessed Christ, whom the proud doctors of the law, and Pharisees, rejected, despising his followers as children or fools. (Haydock)
Psalms 8:4 For I will behold thy heavens, the works of thy fingers: the moon and the stars which thou hast founded.

Fingers, as if they had been formed in play, while the Incarnation is the work of God's right hand. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- Heavens, moon, and stars, denote the Church. No mention is made of the sun, because it is the emblem of Christ, who was the Creator. (Berthier) (Apocalypse 12:1.) --- This text proves that the world was not formed by angels, as some ancient heretics asserted. David, perhaps, wrote this at night; and the sun and stars are not seen together. (Menochius)
Psalms 8:5 What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitest him?

Him. The prophet considers the nature of man at such a distance from the divinity. Being, nevertheless, united with it in Jesus Christ, it is raised far above the angels, Hebrews 2:6. (Berthier) --- When we reflect on the meanness of our nature, on the one hand, and on what God has done for it on the other, we are lost in astonishment. The pagans were aware of the corporal infirmities of man, (Seneca Consol. xi.) but not of his spiritual disorders. Hebrew has here, the son of Adam, or one of the lowest class; and not of ish, which means a person of nobility, vir, Psalm 4:4. (Calmet) --- Yet Christ applies to himself the former appellation, to shew us a pattern of humility. (Haydock) --- St. Augustine inquires, what difference there is between man or the son. The Hebrew v, means, likewise, and; yet or would have been better, Exodus 21:16. --- "Whether he have sold him, or he be in his hand." (Amama)
Psalms 8:6 *Thou hast made him a little less than the angels, thou hast crowned him with glory and honour: 7 and hast set him over the works of thy hands.

Hebrews 2:7.
Angels. Elohim means also "God," as St. Jerome, etc., explain it. Thou hast placed man like a deity upon earth. But St. Paul adopts the sense of the Septuagint. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome doubted whether the epistle to the Hebrews belonged to him or he would have done the same. Some of the Fathers suppose, (Berthier) that the prophet speaks of man before the fall. (Theodoret) --- Yet he has Christ principally in view. (Calmet) --- A little less may be better rendered, "for a little while:" brachu ti, Acts 5:34., and Isaias 10:25.; modico, Hebrews ii. Notwithstanding the prerogatives of Adam, before his fall, what is said by the prophet and St. Paul can be true of none but Christ; who was subject to death only for a short space, and quickly rose from the tomb, Lord of all, 1 Corinthians 15:26. If we do not see it yet, (Hebrews 2:8., and Psalm 69:2.) our faith must not waver. He is crowned, and will one day assert his dominion. (Berthier) (Matthew 28:18., and Ephesians 1:19.) (Calmet) --- In his assumed nature, Christ became less than the angels; but he has raised it above them, and is appointed Lord of angels, men, and creatures of every description. The sea and the winds obey him, Matthew viii. (Worthington)
Psalms 8:8 *Thou hast subjected all things under his feet, all sheep and oxen: moreover, the beasts also of the fields.

Genesis 1:28.; 1 Corinthians 15:26.
All sheep. St. Paul did not judge it necessary to specify these things, as they are included in the word all. (Berthier) These tame cattle designate the believing Jews; beasts, the Gentile converts; birds, the proud; fishes, the voluptuous. (St. Athanasius) --- The birds may also be put for men of genius, who dive into the secrets of theology; and fishes, for anxious worldlings. (Hesychius) --- Sts. Augustine and Jerome understand that people who labour not for their salvation, or who are attached to the earth, men who rise up against God, or never elevate their thoughts to heaven, are emblematically specified by these creatures.
Psalms 8:9 The birds of the air, and the fishes of the sea, that pass through the paths of the sea.

Sea. All things are subjected to man's dominion., Genesis 1:26., and 9:2. (Calmet) --- "The Stoics are in the right, who say that the world was made for us. For all its parts and productions are contrived for man's benefit." (Lact. ira. xiii.)
Psalms 8:10 O Lord, our Lord, how admirable is thy name in the whole world!

Earth. This repetition of the first verse insinuates, that as God was admirable in giving man the power to avoid sin and death; so he is wonderful in raising him again, in such a state that he can sin no more. (Worthington)
Psalms 9:0 The church praiseth God for his protection against her enemies.

Psalms 9:1 Unto the end, for the hidden things of the son. A psalm for David.

Psalms 9:2 I will give praise to thee, O Lord, with my whole heart: I will relate all thy wonders.

Psalms 9:3 I will be glad, and rejoice in thee: I will sing to thy name, O thou most high.

Psalms 9:4 When my enemy shall be turned back: they shall be weakened, and perish before thy face.

Psalms 9:5 For thou hast maintained my judgment and my cause: thou hast sat on the throne, who judgest justice.

Habacuc 2:20.
Psalms 9:6 Thou hast rebuked the Gentiles, and the wicked one hath perished; thou hast blotted out their name for ever and ever.

Psalms 9:7 The swords of the enemy have failed unto the end: and their cities thou hast destroyed. Their memory hath perished with a noise:

Psalms 9:8 But the Lord remaineth for ever. He hath prepared his throne in judgment:

Psalms 9:9 And he shall judge the world in equity, he shall judge the people in justice.

Psalms 9:10 And the Lord is become a refuge for the poor: a helper in due time in tribulation.

Psalms 9:11 And let them trust in thee who know thy name: for thou hast not forsaken them that seek thee, O Lord.

Psalms 9:12 Sing ye to the Lord, who dwelleth in Sion: declare his ways among the Gentiles:

Psalms 9:13 For requiring their blood, he hath remembered them: he hath not forgotten the cry of the poor.

Psalms 9:14 Have mercy on me, O Lord: see my humiliation which I suffer from my enemies.

Psalms 9:15 Thou that liftest me up from the gates of death, that I may declare all thy praises in the gates of the daughter of Sion.

Psalms 9:16 I will rejoice in thy salvation: the Gentiles have stuck fast in the destruction which they prepared. Their foot hath been taken in the very snare which they hid.

Psalms 9:17 The Lord shall be known when he executeth judgments: the sinner hath been caught in the works of his own hands.

Psalms 9:18 The wicked shall be turned into hell, all the nations that forget God.

Psalms 9:19 For the poor man shall not be forgotten to the end: the patience of the poor shall not perish for ever.

Psalms 9:20 Arise, O Lord, let not man be strengthened: let the Gentiles be judged in thy sight.

Psalms 9:21 Appoint, O Lord, a lawgiver over them: that the Gentiles may know themselves to be but men.

Psalms 9:22 Why, O Lord, hast thou retired afar off? why dost thou slight us in our wants, in the time of trouble?

Psalms 9:23 Whilst the wicked man is proud, the poor is set on fire: they are caught in the counsels which they devise.

Psalms 9:24 For the sinner is praised in the desires of his soul: and the unjust man is blessed.

Psalms 9:25 The sinner hath provoked the Lord, according to the multitude of his wrath, he will not seek him:

Psalms 9:26 God is not before his eyes: his ways are filthy at all times. Thy judgments are removed from his sight: he shall rule over all his enemies.

Psalms 9:27 For he hath said in his heart: I shall not be moved from generation to generation, and shall be without evil.

Psalms 9:28 *His mouth is full of cursing, and of bitterness, and of deceit: under his tongue are labour and sorrow.

Psalms 9:29 He sitteth in ambush with the rich, in private places, that he may kill the innocent.

Psalms 9:30 His eyes are upon the poor man: he lieth in wait, in secret, like a lion in his den. He lieth in ambush, that he may catch the poor man: to catch the poor, whilst he draweth him to him.

Psalms 9:31 In his net he will bring him down, he will crouch and fall, when he shall have power over the poor.

Psalms 9:32 For he hath said in his heart: God hath forgotten, he hath turned away his face, not to see to the end.

Psalms 9:33 Arise, O Lord God, let thy hand be exalted: forget not the poor.

Psalms 9:34 Wherefore hath the wicked provoked God? for he hath said in his heart: He will not require it.

Psalms 9:35 Thou seest it, for thou considerest labour and sorrow: that thou mayst deliver them into thy hands. To thee is the poor man left: thou wilt be a helper to the orphan.

Psalms 9:36 Break thou the arm of the sinner and of the malignant: his sin shall be sought, and shall not be found.

Psalms 9:37 The Lord shall reign to eternity, yea, for ever and ever: ye Gentiles shall perish from his land.

Psalms 9:38 The Lord hath heard the desire of the poor: thy ear hath heard the preparation of their heart.

Psalms 9:39 To judge for the fatherless and for the humble, that man may no more presume to magnify himself upon earth.

Psalms 10:0 The just man's confidence in God in the midst of persecutions.

Psalms 10:1 Unto the end. A psalm to David.

Hebrew Lamnatseach ledavid, (Haydock) "to the master of music or, or to David." (Calmet) --- St. Jerome supplies the word psalm. That David, or any other, should give the title of master of music to so great a prince may seem strange; and therefore the Vulgate may perhaps be as accurate. St. Jerome and Pagnin have "to the victor of David." Almost all agree that he composed this psalm (Haydock) when he began to be persecuted by Saul. He expresses his confidence in God; when his friends advised him to flee. (Calmet) --- The Fathers take hence occasion to caution the faithful against the insidious speeches of those who pretend that they can procure greater security than the Church affords, (Haydock) and that they teach a doctrine of greater perfection. (Sts. Augustine, Jerome, etc.) (Calmet)
Psalms 10:2 In the Lord I put my trust: how then do you say to my soul: Get thee away from hence to the mountain, like a sparrow.

How. My friends....say, etc. (Worthington) --- To the. Hebrew now, "to your mountain," as the words are joined which were formerly divided, while a v has been lost, and another placed instead of i, as we may gather from the ancient interpreters. (Chaldean; Syriac; St. Jerome, etc.) --- Most people suppose that David's friends exhort him to withdraw: but he waits for the divine order. Others think (Calmet) that these are the words of his enemies, who wished to fill him with dismay, that he might retire among the Gentiles, and adore their idols, 1 Kings 26:19. (Mariana) --- Sparrow. Hebrew tsipor, any little "bird." (Haydock) (Proverbs 27:8.) (Menochius) --- Heretics falsely style their conventicles the mountain. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 10:3 For, lo, the wicked have bent their bow: they have prepared their arrows in the quiver, to shoot in the dark the upright of heart.

Quiver. Hebrew, "on the string," ready to shoot. (Calmet) --- But yether (Haydock) means "abundance," and may be well understood of the quiver. (Berthier) --- Persecutors use all rigour, though they disguise the real cause of their resentment against the innocent. (Worthington) --- Dark. Septuagint add "moon." (Menochius)
Psalms 10:4 For they have destroyed the things which thou hast made: but what has the just man done?

Made. In choosing me for king, Hebrew, "the foundations are, or shall be destroyed; and what shall the just do? or, what has the just man done?" The foundations, both of religion and of the kingdom, depend on God's ordinances, as the Septuagint well explain. (Berthier) --- Pagnin has, "the nets;" St. Jerome, "the laws." In these days of infidelity and rebellion, the just must experience the greatest perplexity. (Haydock) --- If faith be lost, who shall be just? (Berthier) --- Persecutors, and especially heretics, pull down what others have built. (Worthington)
Psalms 10:5 *The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord's throne is in heaven. His eyes look on the poor man: his eyelids examine the sons of men.

Heaven. This is the source of my confidence. (Calmet) --- The admirable mother of the Machabees suggested this consoling motive, (Berthier) to strengthen her youngest son, 2 Machabees 7:28. Heaven is the temple of the Lord, (Haydock) though the tabernacle may be so styled here. See Psalm 10:8. (Calmet) --- The poor man is not in Hebrew but it is chiefly of him that the psalmist speaks; (Berthier) and the Septuagint and Arabic (Calmet) seem to (Haydock) have read it. Eliphaz remarks, that God does not disregard human affairs, as the wicked supposed, Job 22:12. (Calmet) --- If his eyes seem to be shut, his providence watcheth. (Worthington)
Psalms 10:6 The Lord trieth the just and the wicked: but he that loveth iniquity, hateth his own soul.

Trieth, interrogat, which is rendered by examine, ver. 5. (Haydock) --- God juridically questions all, (Calmet) and makes them give an exact account of themselves, even of every idle word. (Haydock) --- The word also means that he punishes, or chastises. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "the Lord trieth the just, but his soul hateth the wicked, and the lover of iniquity." (St. Jerome, etc.) (Haydock) --- Yet the original may be explained in the sense of the Septuagint which is more beautiful and instructive; as the sinner will hardly believe that he is his own greatest enemy. (Berthier) --- By continuing in sin he brings damnation on his soul. (Worthington)
Psalms 10:7 He shall rain snares upon sinners: fire and brimstone, and storms of winds, shall be the portion of their cup.

Snares. Wonderful expression! The wicked cannot escape. (Haydock) --- Brimstone, as he did upon Sodom, Genesis 19:4., and Jude 7. --- Cup. At feasts, each person (Calmet) had his portion and his own cup. Dreadful indeed is the inheritance of the wicked. See Psalm 15:5. (Berthier) --- If God spare for a time, He must at last punish severely. (Worthington)
Psalms 10:8 For the Lord is just, and hath loved justice: his countenance hath beheld righteousness.

Righteousness. As, on the other hand, (Haydock) the upright shall behold God, (Matthew 5:8.) while the wicked shall be driven into darkness (Calmet) for all eternity. In vain do modern sophists pretend that hell will not last for ever because God is incapable of revenge, or of delighting in the torture of his creatures. They use the word revenge in a wrong sense. (Berthier) --- God is not subject to any passion; but his justice requires that those should be eternally punished, whose will is always impious. (Haydock) --- Can they shew that there will be room for repentance in the other world? (Berthier) or that the wicked would make use of it, if granted, since they would not repent as long as they lived? By the same arguments, they might as well prove that God could not punish at all. (Haydock) (Daniel 3:27.)
Psalms 11:0 The prophet calls for God's help against the wicked.

Psalms 11:1 Unto the end: for the octave, a psalm for David.

Psalms 11:2 Save me, O Lord, for there is now no saint: truths are decayed from among the children of men.

Save. David, persecuted by Saul, (Bossuet) or Absalom; (Grotius) the captives at Babylon; (Calmet) our Saviour suffering, or coming to judge; (St. Augustine) in a word, any just man who sees the corruption of men, may use this language. (Haydock) --- We cannot open the writings of the prophets, or of the Fathers, without meeting with such complaints. Hebrew, "no saint;" chasid, "pious" (Pagnin; Haydock) clement person. (Calmet) --- Truths. Hebrew, "people of veracity." (Calmet) --- Bias said, "All men are bad;" (Clement of Alexandria, strom. 1.) or, as Laertius expresses it, "Most people are wicked." Hence few are chosen. (Haydock) --- Christ is the truth. If we admire his doctrine, let us put it in practice. (Berthier)
Psalms 11:3 They have spoken vain things, every one to his neighbour: with deceitful lips, and with a double heart have they spoken.

Deceitful. Hebrew, "flattering;" and of course not fee from deceit. (Berthier) --- "That man I hate, e'en as the gates of hell, Who thinks one thing, and will another tell." (Homer, Iliad I.) --- None can have (Haydock) confidence in a liar, St. James 1:8. (Calmet)
Psalms 11:4 May the Lord destroy all deceitful lips, and the tongue that speaketh proud things.

Lips. "The saints do not curse, but foretell what will happen." (St. Jerome) --- Hebrew, "the Lord will destroy" the deceitful, (Berthier) who mean to injure men; (Haydock) and the proud, who attack God and religion, which they pretend they can prove (Berthier) to be a mere fiction, by their superior eloquence! (Haydock)
Psalms 11:5 Who have said: We will magnify our tongue: our lips are our own; who is Lord over us?

Own. "We have lips," (Symmachus) or eloquence to gain our cause against these miserable exiles. (Calmet) --- Lord. Hebrew adon, "master." We admit of no superior, neither in heaven nor on earth. (Haydock) --- Such was the haughtiness of Pharao, etc., Exodus 5:2., and 4 Kings 18:19., and Daniel 3:15. (Calmet)
Psalms 11:6 By reason of the misery of the needy, and the groans of the poor, now will I arise, saith the Lord. I will set him in safety: I will deal confidently in his regard.

Arise, and redeem lost man; (Theodoret) or, protect my servants (Calmet) from such insolent oppressors. (Haydock) --- Regard. This may be put in the mouth of the afflicted. (Calmet) --- "I will place my confidence in the Saviour, and will act boldly in him." (Haydock) --- His promises give me full assurance, ver. 7. The Hebrew seems to be incorrect, and very different from what the ancients read. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome has, "I will place their aid in salvation;" (Haydock) which he explains of Jesus Christ. See Isaias 12:2. (Calmet) --- Moderns insert many words. "I will save him, that they may learn to trust in me." (German.) --- "I will set him in safety from him that puffeth at him." (Protestants) Or "would ensnare him." (Marginal note) We may better translate, "I will put in safety, the Lord will act freely herein;" or, "safety which will act freely upon him," the poor. (Berthier) --- "I will raise up a Saviour, who with his breath will destroy the wicked." (Prin. disc.)
Psalms 11:7 *The words of the Lord are pure words: as silver tried by the fire, purged from the earth, refined seven times.

Proverbs 30:5.
Pure words, very different from those of the deceitful, ver. 3. (Calmet) --- Earth, dross, or in the crucible, or "for the ruler of earth:" (Pagnin; Haydock) current money. If we alter the Hebrew a little, it may be, "with care, (bahalil, which is never elsewhere used for a crucible) gold refined seven times;" often, (Proverbs 24:16.) or as much as possible. (Calmet)
Psalms 11:8 Thou, O Lord, wilt preserve us: and keep us from this generation for ever.

This corrupt generation; or, both in this world and in the next. Hebrew, "preserve them;" the just, or thy words. (Calmet) --- "And thou wilt keep him." (Pagnin) --- Protestants marginal note, i.e., "Every one of them." St. Jerome reads, "us." (Haydock)
Psalms 11:9 The wicked walk round about: according to thy highness, thou hast multiplied the children of men.

About. Their life is a circle of relapses; or rather they continually attack the just, (Calmet) but their designs are made subservient to their advancement in virtue, by the power of God. (Tirinus) --- Hebrew, "They (the just) shall go round the wicked, when baseness shall have raised herself up, on account of the children of men." When God shall have restored the Jews to liberty, the Babylonians shall be, in their turn, oppressed by Cyrus and the Persians, whom they now despise: or, when the miserable shall be placed in power, the wicked shall not dare to approach them. (Calmet) --- "The wicked shall walk round about, when the vilest of the sons of men shall be exalted." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- The former have spent their life in vanity, and shall be kept for ever out of the kingdom of heaven; as the error of the Platonists, who assert that all things will come to pass again, the world being compared to a wheel, is manifestly refuted by Scripture, which assures us that God will preserve the just from this generation, (St. Augustine) and the wicked will knock at the door, like the foolish virgins, and will be rejected with, I never knew you, Matthew xxv. (St. Jerome or some other learned author.) (Worthington) --- For some suspect that the commentary which goes under the name of St. Jerome, is not in the state in which it came from his hands. --- (Haydock)
Psalms 12:0 A prayer in tribulation.

Psalms 12:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David. How long, O Lord, wilt thou forget me unto the end? how long dost thou turn away thy face from me?

Psalm 52:1.
Me? These expressions are figurative. God seems displeased: but it is often for our greater good. Some explain this of David, Ezechias, the captives, etc. It may be applied to every afflicted soul, which places her whole trust in God. (Calmet)
Psalms 12:2 How long shall I take counsels in my soul, sorrow in my heart all the day?

Day; frequently. (Worthington) --- Septuagint adds, "and night." (Calmet) --- These cares and perplexities arise from persecutions and from man's weakness. (Worthington)
Psalms 12:3 How long shall my enemy be exalted over me?

Enemy; Saul, etc., or the devil. (St. Augustine) (Calmet)
Psalms 12:4 Consider, and hear me, O Lord, my God. Enlighten my eyes, that I never sleep in death:

Death, by mortal sin, (Worthington) or through excessive sorrow, Jeremias 51:39. Shew me thy favour, (Calmet) and I shall be secure. Sleep is represented as nearly related to death. (Homer, Iliad xiv.) Tum consanguineus lethi sopor. (Virgil, Aeneid vi.) (Haydock)
Psalms 12:5 Lest at any time my enemy say: I have prevailed against him. They that trouble me, will rejoice when I am moved:

Psalms 12:6 But I have trusted in thy mercy. My heart shall rejoice in thy salvation: I will sing to the Lord, who giveth me good things: yea, I will sing to the name of the Lord, the most high.

Mercy. Man must attribute nothing to himself, otherwise he will be moved by pride. (St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- Things; patience and reward. (Worthington) --- The prophet feels a secret confidence arising in his breast, in consequence of God's protection. --- Yea, etc., is not in Hebrew but it is in the Septuagint, Arabic, and the ancient Fathers. Hebrew, "My heart shall be transported in thy salvation; I will praise the Lord, because he has rendered me the like," as I placed my hopes in him: (Calmet) or, "he hath rewarded me." The blessed Mary adopts the language of this verse, [Luke 1:46-55] and the prophet probably had the same salvation, Christ, in view. (Berthier)
Psalms 13:0 The general corruption of men, before our redemption by Christ.

Psalms 13:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David. The fool hath said in his heart: *There is no God. They are corrupt, and are become abominable in their ways: there is none that doth good, no not one.

Fool: the man of the most depraved morals, the atheist and deist. There have always been (Berthier) such pests of society. (Haydock) --- David has refuted them again, Psalm lii. (Berthier) --- Some have imagined that this psalm was composed in consequence of the blasphemies of Rabsaces, (4 Kings 18:32.; Theodoret, etc.) or of the Babylonians. (Calmet) --- The Fathers explain it of Jesus Christ, denied by the Jews, etc. --- Heart. This must be strangely corrupted, before the mouth can utter such impiety. (Haydock) --- No God. Chaldean, "no power of God on earth." Elohim denotes particularly "judges." There have been a few philosophers who have denied the existence of God; and more who have called in question his Providence: though this amounts to the same thing. But the number of those who confess God with the mouth, and deny him by their works, is immense. (Haydock) --- These live as if there were no judge. (Calmet) --- By sin they come at last to think there is none to govern the world. (Worthington) --- Plato (Leg. 10.) acknowledged that three sorts of people offend God; those who deny him; who say that He does not mind human affairs; or those who think that presents may prevail on him to connive at their wickedness. It is doubtful whether the mind can ever be so darkened as to believe that there is no God. (Berthier) --- The heart may wish there were none to punish its impiety. (Haydock) --- Libertinage or pride gives birth to so many infidels. They have begun by reducing conscience to silence. Their arguments only tend to destroy. --- No, not one, is not in Hebrew, Septuagint, etc., except in ver. 3. (Calmet) --- Yet it occurs in the Vatican Septuagint, which is the best. (Berthier) (Calmet) --- "They are become abominable, with earnestness there is none who doth good." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Or they sin designedly and with affectation. (Calmet) --- All are unable to do good without the Redeemer. (Worthington) --- Some explain this of mankind in general, as all are born in sin. David refers also to actual and habitual sinners. (Berthier) --- St. Paul (Romans iii.) proves from this text, and Isaias 59:7, that all stand in need of grace and faith, and cannot be saved either by the law of nature or of Moses. But it does not follow that faith alone will save, or that the most just are still wicked, as Calvin and Beza falsely expound the Scriptures. For the prophets speak of those who were not yet justified, teaching that all mankind were once in sin, and could not be justified but by Christ. At the same time, they assert that, when they are justified, they must serve justice to bear fruit, and obtain happiness, Romans vi. These points are well explained by St. Augustine: (de Sp. et lit. 1:9.) "The just are justified freely by his grace," not by the law or will; though this is not effected without the will, etc. The same holy doctor (c. 27) observes, that the just do not live free from all venial sins, and yet remain in the state of salvation; while the wicked continue in the state of damnation, though they do some good works. (Worthington)
Psalms 13:2 The Lord hath looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there be any that understand and seek God.

God. Those only who seek God, understand their real interests. (Haydock) --- The pagans, and particularly those of Babylon, lived in the greatest dissolution, so as to call loudly for vengeance, ver. 5. (Calmet) --- Both the understanding and the will were gone astray. (Berthier)
Psalms 13:3 They are all gone aside, they are become unprofitable together: there is none that doth good: no not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they acted deceitfully: the poison of asps is under their lips. Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet are swift to shed blood. Destruction and unhappiness in their ways; and the way of peace they have not known: there is no fear of God before their eyes.

Unprofitable. Without faith in Christ, none have meritorious works. (Worthington) --- Not one. Such was the condition of the world before Christ, as all were born in sin. "No one," says St. Augustine, "can do good, except he shew the method." All were immersed in ruin, "except the holy Virgin, concerning whom, for the honour of the Lord, I would have no question at all, in treating of sins." (St. Augustine, de Nat. et Grat. contra Pelag. 37:44.) (Calmet) --- The Council of Trent approves of this reserve, when speaking of original sin. Our Saviour is the source of this privilege, and much more out of the question. He could not be guilty of any sort of transgression. He was in all things like to us, excepting sin. (Haydock) --- Their, etc. What follows to shall not, (ver. 4.) occurs in St. Paul; (Romans 3:11, 12, 13.) whence St. Jerome supposes that it has been inserted here, though the apostle took the quotations from different parts of scripture. (Praef. in xvi. Isaias.) He informs us, that all the Greek commentators marked it as not found in Hebrew or the Septuagint, "except in the Vulgate or koine, which varied in different parts of the world." There seems to be no reason why it should have been omitted designedly, whereas some might insert it, through the false notion that St. Paul had taken it from this psalm. (Calmet) --- The Hebrew is not therefore mutilated, but the Vulgate redundant. (Amama) --- Yet this is not absolutely clear. We find the quotation in the Roman Septuagint which is the most correct; (Berthier) though some prefer the Alexandrian manuscripts. (Haydock) --- It is also in the Arabic and Ethiopic versions; so that it might have been in St. Paul's copy. Our Saviour read a passage from Isaias, which is not extant, Luke 4:19. (Berthier) --- St. Justin Martyr, St. Augustine, etc., agree with the Vulgate; and Lindan mentions a Hebrew copy which had these verses, though the learned have reason to think that this Hebrew was of a modern date. (Calmet) --- Protestants, 1577, inserted these three verses, (Worthington) which they now omit. --- Sepulchre. They are never satisfied with destruction, (Haydock) and with vexing others. (Worthington) --- We bear in ourselves the seed of corruption, which can be prevented from growing up only by the grace of Jesus Christ. (Berthier) --- Perdition is from thyself, O Israel. (Haydock)
Psalms 13:4 Shall not all they know that work iniquity, who devour my people as they eat bread?

Know my just providence, though they would fain keep it out of sight, (ver. 1.) that they may indulge their passions. (Haydock) --- My people. These we may conclude, were just; (Berthier) at least in comparison with their cruel oppressors, (Haydock) who made it their daily practice to injure them, (St. Augustine) as they could do it with facility, Numbers 19:9., Proverbs 30:14., and Micheas 3:2. (Calmet) --- The prophet, in God's name, complains of their eagerness to hurt the good. (Worthington)
Psalms 13:5 They have not called upon the Lord: there have they trembled for fear, where there was no fear.

Where. This expression refers to there, which is in Hebrew, though this last part of the verse is wanting. (Capel.) --- It is in Psalm 52:6, and this renders the former omission (ver. 3.) more credible. (Berthier) --- When Cyrus approached to besiege Babylon, Nabonides, the king, met him, and gave him battle; but losing the victory, he, in a panic, retreated to Borsippe, and abandoned the defence of his capital. (Beros. apud Jos. con. Ap. 1.[Josephus, contra Apion i.?]) The citizens were in the utmost consternation, Isaias xiii., and xxi., etc. (Calmet) --- But the wicked tremble at the prospect of temporal losses, (Menochius) and at shadows, while they boldly affront the Deity. Unbelievers find difficulties in the Catholic doctrines, which are frequently attributed to their own mistakes. (Haydock) --- The pagans would not believe in God, but trembled before idols; which cannot hurt the faithful. (Worthington)
Psalms 13:6 For the Lord is in the just generation: you have confounded the counsel of the poor man; but the Lord is his hope.

Man, who wished sincerely to practise his religion, like Daniel, etc. Such you have persecuted, and hence God has filled you with alarms, and will punish you. (Calmet) --- Some persevere in justice, amid the general contagion and insults of men. (Worthington)
Psalms 13:7 Who shall give out of Sion the salvation of Israel? when the Lord shall have turned away the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad.

Sion; which God has chosen for his sanctuary. (Haydock) --- Salvation, or the Saviour, whom Jacob expected, Genesis xlix. (Berthier) --- This Redeemer would fill all, both Jews and Gentiles, with joy, who should embrace his faith. (St. Augustine, etc.) --- The prophet seems to foretell the restoration of the ten tribes to the kingdom of Judea, as it took place after the captivity. (Calmet, Diss.) --- But he sighed for, and designated more particularly, (Haydock) the Saviour of the world; who would redeem man from the tyranny of the devil, to the great joy of those who strive to supplant every vice, and to contemplate God, (Worthington) as some interpret the names of Jacob and Israel. (Haydock) --- The Gentiles will then be ingrafted into the stock of Abraham, (Menochius) into the true olive-tree, Romans xi. (Haydock)
Psalms 14:0 What kind of men shall dwell in the heavenly Sion.

Psalms 14:1 A psalm for David. Lord, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? or who shall rest in thy holy hill?

David. The word psalm being appropriated to some, while others are styled hymns, etc., does not hinder the latter from being also psalms or spiritual songs, to be set to music: so the insertion of David, "the beloved's name," in some of these divine canticles, is no proof that the rest were not written by him. (Worthington) --- The author describes the perfection of priests, etc., contrasts the sanctity of those who shall inhabit Jerusalem with that of the wicked mentioned in the last psalm. Some copies have To the end in the title, while others omit it, with the Hebrew, St. Chrysostom, etc. --- Hill. The Jews comforted themselves with the hopes of seeing Jerusalem rebuilt, Psalm 131:1. The prophets describe those who should return from captivity, as holy people, (Isaias 26:3., and Sophonias 3:13.; Calmet) a figure of the Church. (Haydock) --- Heaven is also styled a tabernacle and mountain, (Apocalypse 15:5., and Hebrews 12:22.; Berthier) and is here chiefly (Haydock) meant. See ver. 5. (Worthington)
Psalms 14:2 He that walketh without blemish, and worketh justice:

Justice. These two things characterize the true Israelite. (Calmet) --- We must avoid sin, and do good, in thought, word and deed, ver. 3. (Worthington)
Psalms 14:3 He that speaketh truth in his heart, who hath not used deceit in his tongue: Nor hath done evil to his neighbour: nor taken up a reproach against his neighbours.

Heart, as he thinks. (Haydock) --- Those who sincerely love truth, will not deceive others. (Calmet) --- We must be attached to all revealed truths, and avoid all the disorders of the tongue. --- Up, which would otherwise have fallen to the ground, etc. (Berthier) --- Reproach. Rashly giving credit to injurious reports, (Calmet; St. Augustine; Exodus 23:1.) or speaking with insult, (Theodoret) even in giving correction, (St. Hilary) or listening to detraction. (Worthington)
Psalms 14:4 In his sight the malignant is brought to nothing: but he glorifieth them that fear the Lord. He that sweareth to his neighbour, and deceiveth not;

Nothing. He despises all wickedness, though done by kings, whose power he considers as the means of destruction, 1 Kings 15:26., and Luke 23:9. The wicked dares not appear before an upright judge, like David, Psalm 100:2. Hebrew may be "the wicked is despised." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Those who follow the Jews, have "he thinks meanly of himself," which is very good; but the sense of the Vulgate seems more pointed, (Calmet) though the other contains a noble maxim of the gospel. (Berthier) --- Protestants, "in whose eyes a vile person is contemned." The sinner is the only person who is truly vile, in the opinion of the just, who forms not his opinion on outward appearances. (Haydock) --- Lord. Glory is the reward of good works. (Worthington) --- Neighbour. This sense is conformable to the Hebrew without points, (Geneb.) and more beautiful than that of the Rabbins, "against his own interest," (Junius) "to do evil," (Ainsworth) "friendship," (Symmachus) or "to afflict himself." (St. Jerome) --- We find such vows strongly enforced, Number 30:3., and Deuteronomy 23:21. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not." (Haydock) --- It were to be wished that oaths were not necessary. (Calmet) --- But when they are, the Lord must be the arbiter of truth, and not idols; as by swearing, we testify that we believe God is the sovereign truth, and thus honour his name. See Leviticus 19:12., and Matthew 5:33. (Haydock)
Psalms 14:5 he that hath not put out his money to usury, nor taken bribes against the innocent: He that doth these things, shall not be moved for ever.

Usury. This was always blameable, though Moses tolerated it with respect to the Jews lending to the Chanaanites, Deuteronomy 23:19., and Luke 6:35. The Roman law condemned the guilty to pay double as much as the thief, who was to restore twice the value of what he had stolen. (Cato 1.) --- Under the semblance of kindness it does a real injury; (St. Hilary) etiam his invisa quibus succurrere videtur. (Columel. praef.) (Calmet) --- Bribes, (munera) "presents." Even these are dangerous, as they tend to prepossess the judge. (Haydock) --- Both usury and doing wrong for bribes exclude from heaven. (Worthington) --- A judge must shake such things from his hands, (Isaias 33:15.) as he cannot take them to give either a just or a wrong sentence. His duty requires him to give the former; so that the innocent would thus be purchasing what was his own. (Calmet) --- The same maxims must be applied to all in authority, (Haydock) to witnesses, etc. (Calmet) --- Those who have not failed in any of these respects, must be possessed of faith, and all other necessary virtues, before they can enter heaven. For when the scripture attributes salvation to any one virtue in particular, it does not mean to exclude the rest. --- For ever. All terrestrial things are mutable; and of course, the psalmist speaks of heaven. If so great perfection was required, to appear in the tabernacle, how much more must be expected of the candidate for heaven! (Worthington) --- The good Christian who has not yielded to temptation, may there enjoy undisturbed repose. Isaias (xxiii. 15.) uses similar expressions, when describing the state of Jerusalem, after the defeat of Sennacherib. (Calmet)
Psalms 15:0 Christ's future victory and triumph over the world and death.

Psalms 15:1 The inscription of a title to David himself. Preserve me, O Lord, for I have put my trust in thee.

The inscription of a title. That is, a pillar or monument, stelographia: which is as much as to say, that this psalm is most worthy to be engraved on an everlasting monument. (Challoner) --- Mictam. Protestants, "Michtam." Marginal note, or "golden psalm of David," or most excellent. St. Jerome, etc., have divided the word into two: "of the humble and upright David." (Haydock) --- It may signify "inscribed." (Calmet) --- But there seems to be no reason for abandoning the Septuagint, who were well acquainted with the original. The psalm is in the form of a prayer, which David pronounces in the person of Christ, to whom the apostles apply several verses; and, as the rest seem to be of the same nature, we must understand all of the Messias, praying, in his sacred humanity, (Berthier) that his body may remain incorrupt. It may refer to Ezechias, to the captives, or rather to David, persecuted by Saul, and provoked to serve false gods, 1 Kings 26:19. But then many expressions must be explained figuratively, (Calmet) and this would tend to weaken the prediction, (Berthier) which all the Fathers have understood of Christ suffering. (Calmet) --- The thing most worthy to be noted, (stilographia) by the prophet David, is our Saviour's crucifixion; (Worthington) the memory of which must be perpetuated. Job (xix. 24.) wished that what he said about the resurrection, might thus be engraven on flint. (Haydock) --- Preserve. David acknowledges his infirmity, and that all good comes from God. (Calmet) --- Jesus was heard praying with tears, etc., Hebrews 5:7. In his humanity, He might use these expressions, (Haydock) as He was the head of a new people, whom he wished to sanctify and instruct. (Berthier) --- He often prayed, as the gospel informs us. (Worthington)
Psalms 15:2 I have said to the Lord, thou art my God, for thou hast no need of my goods.

I have. Hebrew, "Thou, my soul, hast said." But St. Jerome agrees with us. --- Goods. Hebrew, "my good is not above thee." I can desire nothing greater. (Berthier) --- Aquila and Vatable seem to have the same idea as the Septuagint. We reap all the profit from our piety. (Calmet) --- The redemption was entirely for man's benefit, (Worthington) though it gave the greatest glory to God. (Haydock) --- Since God, therefore, wants nothing, I will shew my kindness (Bellarmine) to the poor. (Haydock)
Psalms 15:3 To the saints, who are in his land, he hath made wonderful all my desires in them.

Saints. Hebrew, "the magnificent" priests, God himself, (Exodus 15:11.; Calmet) and ceremonies of religion, (Haydock) for which David had a wonderful affection. (Calmet) --- But Christ has displayed the greatest love towards all his converts, and they had need of it. (Berthier) --- God here speaks, shewing that Christ should make known his wonderful charity to the apostles and other saints.
Psalms 15:4 Their infirmities were multiplied: afterwards they made haste. I will not gather together their meetings for blood-offerings: nor will I be mindful of their names by my lips.

Haste. Men who are convinced of their own infirmities, hasten to find a remedy. (Worthington) --- No sooner had fallen man been redeemed, that he strove to advance in the ways of perfection. (Berthier) --- The sins, to which the saints sometimes yield, tend to make them more cautious (Calmet) and grateful to their deliverer, like St. Peter. Persecutions likewise cause them to cling closer to God, and fill them with interior joy, Acts 5:41. (Haydock) --- If we explain it of the wicked, chastisement often makes them repent, Psalm 77:34. (Calmet) --- "Their idols have been multiplied after their followers, I will not join in their libations of blood." (St. Jerome) --- David was continually exposed to such temptations, among the idolaters; but out of contempt, he would not even pronounce the name of the idols. (Calmet) --- Blood, or bloody. (Du Hamel) --- The pagan (Worthington) and Mosaic sacrifices shall cease. Christ will unite us (Berthier) by a more excellent oblation of his own body and blood. (Haydock) --- Christians shall be distinguished by a fresh appellation, being styled children of light and of God, in opposition to the sons of men, (St. Augustine, etc.; Calmet) and pagans.
Psalms 15:5 The Lord is the portion of my inheritance and of my cup: it is thou that wilt restore my inheritance to me.

Cup. Eternal happiness consists in seeing (Worthington) and enjoying God, (Haydock) and is promised to the patient. Though Christ was truly king of Israel and exercised jurisdiction, (John xii., and 18:37., and Matthew xxi., etc.; Worthington) yet it was not of a temporal nature; (Haydock) and his chief inheritance was the Lord, who would reward his merits. He has taught all clergymen to make this happy choice; as they declare when they become such. Man may call God his inheritance, as he was made for him; and though he may have fallen, if he rise again, his title will be restored, and he may obtain felicity, whether he live in the world or retire from it. (Worthington) --- David alludes to the custom of allotting each his portion of wine and meat, which was greater in proportion to the person's dignity. He rejects with disdain all worldly and sensual joys. (Calmet) --- God in not "a part," but the whole portion of a good man. --- It is, etc. St. Jerome, "Thou are the possessor of my lot." I trust in thee for all. (Haydock) (1 Peter 1:4., and 2 Timothy 1:12.) In the ancient sacrifices a part was reserved for the offerer. But Jesus keeps nothing back.
Psalms 15:6 The lines are fallen unto me in goodly places: for my inheritance is goodly to me.

Lines, with which land was measured. (Berthier) --- Christ expresses his satisfaction with his church, which is gathered from all nations, to manifest the choicest virtues, Titus 2:14. (Euthymius, St. Jerome, etc.) (Calmet) --- This was his inheritance, not measured out with lines, (Josue x.) but reaching to the very ends of the earth, Psalm 2:(Haydock)
Psalms 15:7 I will bless the Lord, who hath given me understanding: moreover, my reins also have corrected me even till night.

Understanding. Hebrew, "counsel." In the night of tribulation God directs the reins, or affections of the soul. Christ might speak thus concerning his human nature. (Berthier) (Luke 2:40., and Hebrews 5:7.) David also gives thanks to God for enabling him to make so happy a choice, and to avoid being seduced. (Calmet) --- He derives instructions from pain. (Worthington)
Psalms 15:8 *I set the Lord always in my sight: for he is at my right hand, that I be not moved.

Acts 2:25.
That I. Hebrew, "I shall not," etc. The sense is the same, but St. Peter agrees with us and the Septuagint, Acts 2:25, etc. It is not of faith that the seven preceding verse regard Jesus Christ as the following do; but as the same person speaks, we may rationally infer that all should be explained of him. Though he always enjoyed the beatific vision, his soul had the affections of other men, and always tended to keep in God's presence. So the angels who see God, desire more and more to contemplate him, 1 Peter 1:12. How earnestly ought we to strive always to keep in the divine presence! (Berthier) then we should constantly advance in virtue, and fear no dangers. The patriarchs thus walked with God, and arrived at such perfection. (Haydock) --- The Father was always at the right hand of his Son, to support and glorify him; and the Son, having continually performed what was pleasing to God, (John 8:29.) was placed at his right hand at his ascension, though his divinity had never been separated from him. (Calmet) --- He had always God in view, and has left us a pattern how to behave. (Worthington)
Psalms 15:9 Therefore my heart hath been glad, and my tongue hath rejoiced: moreover, my flesh also shall rest in hope.

Tongue. Hebrew, "glory." Yet Protestants translate, "tongue," (Acts ii.) as St. Peter follows the Septuagint (Haydock) and he surely understood the force of the Hebrew; so that his testimony in their favour is very strong. Commentators observe that the tongue manifests the joy of the heart, (Berthier) and the same word is used for the soul, Psalm 7:6. (Calmet) --- Yet very different words signify the tongue and glory; and we follow the text, adopted by the apostle. Joy naturally flows from the presence of the best of friends. (Berthier) --- Our Saviour sometimes suspended this joy, that he might suffer the more for us. (Calmet)
Psalms 15:10 *Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; nor wilt thou give thy holy one to see corruption.

Acts 2:31.; Acts 13:35.
Soul in hell. Beza, (in his 1st edition, which he corrected afterwards) would translate "my corpse (cadaver, or carcass) in the grave;" for which he as been justly blamed. For, though the corpse is sometimes called soul, as it has been animated by it, (Haydock) and the soul and blood are often used synonymously, yet we shall find no instance of the body of any one still living being styled a soul. When speaking, therefore, of a person's future death, the soul means either life or the spiritual substance, Genesis 37:22., and Psalm 49:16. Hence the explanation of the Fathers, who understand this of Christ's descent into hell, to free the saints who were detained in limbo, is more probable. (Berthier) --- The instances which are adduced to maintain the opposite sentiment, which Calmet, etc., assert is more literal, either prove nothing, or they relate to people deceased, whose bodies were not to be touched. See Genesis 9:5., Leviticus 17:11., and 21:11., Numbers 6:6., and 19:13., and Aggeus 2:14. Christ speaks of his body in the following part of the verse, (Haydock) calling it Holy, because it was never separated from the divine nature. (Berthier) --- The erroneous interpretations or corruptions of Beza and Calvin on this head, opposing themselves to the consent of all the ancient Fathers, who believed this passage related to the descent into limbo, are noted, Genesis xxvii., Acts ii., and 1 Peter 3:The Protestant editions vary. Some retain the word hell, others the grave; remarking that "this is chiefly meant of Christ, by whose resurrection all his members have immortality." And (Acts ii.) they paraphrase, "Thou shalt not leave me in the grave;" wresting that which regards the body, rising from the grave, to the soul, which was never there. (Worthington) --- The last edition of [King] James I agrees however with us, in both places. "Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thy holy one to see corruption." It is observable that in the Hebrew editions, (except Stephen's and some few others) we find the word chasidic in the text, though the last i be properly omitted in the margin; as the word would otherwise signify "saints:" and thus make the apostles false witnesses, Acts 13:35, etc. (Haydock) --- "But who shall lay any such thing to their charge? Other men may be deficient in their knowledge, and in their honesty; but inspired apostles could neither be deceived nor deceive. All the ancient versions, the Masorets," who order the word to be read in the singular, though printed plural in the text, and many of the best manuscripts vouch for their veracity. Moreover it is not true that God will not suffer his saints to see corruption; and, if this were the meaning of the words, they would not predict the resurrection of any particular person: yet "these words, the apostles observe to the Jews, are a prophecy of some particular person, whose soul was not long to continue in the place of departed spirits, and whose body was not to be corrupted, both being soon to be reunited. Now David, say they, did not speak this of himself, etc. Have the apostles imposed a prophecy upon the Jewish people, and upon the world?" (Kennicott, Dis. i.) --- This learned author was greatly encouraged to go on with his ten years' labour, in examining Hebrew manuscripts over the world, by finding many of them so favourable to the Christian religion, though it had been confidently asserted that all the manuscripts were perfectly uniform. We may rejoice to see that he also approves of the Catholic explanation of this passage, and does not refer the whole to the burial of Christ. In effect, the Apostles' Creed clearly distinguishes this article from that of the descent into hell. --- One. Montfaucon ventures to follow Keri, "thy merciful one." (Haydock) --- Corruption. "Neither wilt thou permit that sanctified body, by which other people are to be sanctified, to become corrupt." (St. Augustine) --- Christ rose again before the holy women had embalmed his body, (Luke 26:53., and Mark 16:1.) that no one might attribute the incorruption to that cause. His appearance was so glorious, as to dispel every doubt from the minds of those who would attend to reason. His descent into hell was not in consequence of any weakness, or that he might suffer, (Calmet) as Calvin blasphemously asserts, (Haydock; Tirinus) but he descended in triumph, to liberate the souls of the holy Fathers, (Calmet) or to announce to them the glad tidings of peace, the fruits of which they should shortly enjoy at his ascension, when he would open the gates of heaven to all the faithful. (Haydock)
Psalms 15:11 Thou hast made known to me the ways of life, thou shalt fill me with joy with thy countenance: at thy right hand are delights even to the end.

Of life. The observance of the commandments, (St. Jerome) or the method of obtaining happiness by patience and humility. (St. Augustine) --- Thou hast opened a new track to me (Haydock) in the resurrection, unknown to mortals. (Euthymius; Bellarmine) --- For though some had been already raised to life, Christ is still called the first-fruits of those who sleep, or of the dead; because none had raised themselves to life, as he did. (Haydock) (John 10:18.) --- Yet he attributes all the glory to the Father, either because he is the origin of the Deity, or because Jesus considered himself as man, and was in all things obedient to his Father. (Berthier) --- His sacred humanity was now glorified, and beheld the face of God in a more perfect manner than any mere creature can do, tasting inexplicable delights for ever. (Calmet) --- We must die and rise again, (Worthington) before we shall perfectly comprehend the ways of life. Then we shall form a true judgment of all terrestrial things. (Haydock)
Psalms 16:0 A just man's prayer in tribulation, against the malice of his enemies.

Psalms 16:1 The prayer of David. Hear, O Lord, my justice: attend to my supplication. Give ear unto my prayer, which proceedeth not from deceitful lips.

Prayer. This psalm contains the model of a fervent prayer, (Haydock) which may be used by any person under affliction. (Worthington) --- The Rabbins say David expresses too much confidence in his own integrity, and therefore was soon after permitted to fall; while others assert that he spoke thus after the murder of Urias, to avert God's wrath from his army before Rabbath. But this supposition is improbable, (Calmet) as well as the other. (Haydock) --- The Fathers think that this psalm was composed during the persecution of Saul, and that it contains the sentiments of Jesus Christ and of his Church, under the persecution of infidels. There are some very difficult passages in it. (Calmet) --- My justice. Hebrew, "attend to justice," (Haydock) which amounts to the same thing; as no one would make this petition, unless he supposed that he was in the right. "Hear the justice of my cause." (Principes) (Berthier) --- "Hear the just man." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Lips. I do not attempt to deceive thee, like the hypocrite; or rather I have not acted with deceit, or endeavoured to excite rebellion, as I have been accused. (Calmet) --- In my just cause, hear my unfeigned petition. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:2 Let my judgment come forth from thy countenance: let thy eyes behold the things that are equitable.

Countenance. Pronounce sentence, (Esther 1:19.; Calmet) if I have done wrong. I do not refuse punishment, Psalm 7:5. (Haydock) --- The Greek and Latin copies vary. Some read correctly with the Hebrew, "Let thy eyes behold what is wrong." Yet St. Jerome (ep. ad Sun.) has "right," with the Syriac, etc. Others more commonly read, "Let mine eyes behold justice." (Calmet) --- Montanus, however, substitutes rectitudines for iniquitates, as Pagnin had rendered mesharim, and Protestants, "the things that are equal." (Haydock) --- "Holy preachers are the eyes of Christ....let them see what is just....and fulfil the justice which they preach." (St. Jerome) --- God sees all things, and will pass a just sentence. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:3 Thou hast proved my heart, and visited it by night, thou hast tried me by fire: and iniquity hath not been found in me.

Hebrews 2:13.
Fire. I have experienced all sorts of misery. (Calmet) --- Iniquity. Hebrew, "Thou hast not found; I have thought." But the same word without points, zamothi, (Haydock) has the sense given by the Septuagint and they knew nothing of these points. (Berthier) --- We may also translate, "Thou hast not found in me any criminal thoughts. My mouth has not transgressed thy orders." If some thoughts of taking revenge by killing Saul, presented themselves involuntarily, David repressed them; (Calmet) and when he was alone with him at night in a cave, he would not suffer him to be hurt, 1 Kings 26:7. (Theodoret) --- He asserts that he had gone through tribulations without offending. Those who are innocent or penitent, may pray with this confidence; as the Church may, which has always some saints, on which account she is styled holy. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:4 That my mouth may not speak the works of men: for the sake of the words of thy lips, I have kept hard ways.

Men. Houbigant, "My mouth shall not pass to the pretexts of Adam." I will not seek for excuses in sin. (Haydock) --- "My mouth utters not vows to the vain works of men." (Prin. disc.) --- But these versions are singular. (Berthier) --- Hard. Hebrew, "way of the robber." Purits, or prits, (St. Jerome; Haydock) means also "fracture." (Berthier) --- David was ordered by God to retire into the wilderness, and to caves, where he was obliged to live like robbers, (Calmet) and was even branded (Calmet) with the title of a fugitive slave by Nabal, 1 Kings 25:10. (Haydock) --- Yet the actions of David were very different from theirs. (Berthier) --- He did not speak about the works of men, in power to condemn Saul, or any other, being averse to all detraction, and prescribing to himself the strictest laws, (Calmet) which God had ever promulgated. Protestants, "I have purposed that my mouth shall not transgress. (4) Concerning the works of men, by the word of thy lips, I have kept me from the paths of the destroyer." The division of the verses is arbitrary. (Haydock) --- David kept the narrow path of virtue. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:5 Perfect thou my goings in thy paths: that my footsteps be not moved.

Perfect. Hebrew, "support" me in these hard ways, where I am in continual danger of falling. (Calmet) --- A Deo est incipere, a Deo est finire. (St. Jerome) --- God's grace enables us to begin and to perfect every good work. (Haydock) --- None can walk right of themselves. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:6 I have cried to thee, for thou, O God, hast heard me: O incline thy ear unto me, and hear my words.

Heard me, of former occasions. This encourages me to pray with more confidence (Berthier) and fervour. Bona vota quoties effectum percipiunt, multiplicantur. (St. Gregory, Mor. 35:3.) --- Hebrew also, "thou wilt hear me favourably." (St. Jerome) (Haydock)
Psalms 16:7 Shew forth thy wonderful mercies; thou who savest them that trust in thee.

Mercies. We become accustomed to the ordinary effects of grace, which are always admirable; and we are astonished only at miraculous conversions and occurrences. (Origen) --- Some such manifestation of the divine power seemed now requisite, to deliver David from such a powerful rival as Saul. (Calmet) --- Syriac, "Lord, make thy holy one appear as a prodigy, as the Saviour of those who hope in thee." (St. Jerome) --- "O thou Saviour of those who hope." (Haydock)
Psalms 16:8 From them that resist thy right hand keep me, as the apple of thy eye. Protect me under the shadow of thy wings.

Eye. God has shewn particular attention to protect the apple of the eye. He watches still more over his servants, (Zacharias 2:8.) for whom all things procure good, Romans 8:28. Saul had declared himself against David, because he had been chosen to succeed him, and thus he opposed the designs of God. (Calmet) --- The prophet prays that he may never give way to such impiety. (Worthington) --- Wings, as a hen does her chickens. (Haydock) --- Defend me from the furious countenance of my enemies. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:9 From the face of the wicked who have afflicted me. My enemies have surrounded my soul:

Psalms 16:10 they have shut up their fat: their mouth hath spoken proudly.

Their fat. That is, their bowels of compassion: for they have none for me. (Challoner) --- They have become fat, and have given way to greater insolence, as we see too often verified, Deuteronomy 32:15., Job 15:26., and Psalm 72:7. (Chaldean) (Calmet) --- Proudly. Libertines are often prompted by vanity to speak as they do against God and man. (Haydock) --- If Collins, Tindal, etc., had been cast upon some desert island, they would probably never have written such irreligious works as there would have been none to applaud them. (Berthier)
Psalms 16:11 They have cast me forth, and now they have surrounded me: they have set their eyes bowing down to the earth.

Earth, to testify their wrath. So Virgil describes Juno. Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat. (Aeneid 1.) --- Hebrew, ashurenu, is rendered "by our step," (Montanus) or contemplation. But the Septuagint have explained it as a verb, as well as St. Jerome, (Berthier) who reads, "marching against me; now they have surrounded me," (Haydock) like wild bulls. (Calmet) --- Symmachus, "blessing me, they have presently cast down their eyes, they have prepared snares, to throw me down upon the ground." They have sought my ruin both by craft and by open force. Even those who were once my friends and admirers, are now turned against me. (Haydock) --- He alludes particularly to the courtiers of Saul. (Calmet) --- They intend utterly to destroy me, even to the ground. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "by our step they have now surrounded us," (Montanus) conformably to Keri; though the text, followed by Pagnin, has, "In our path, they have surrounded me."
Psalms 16:12 They have taken me, as a lion prepared for the prey; and as a young lion dwelling in secret places.

They have taken me, is not expressed in Hebrew. (Haydock)
Psalms 16:13 Arise, O Lord, disappoint him and supplant him; deliver my soul from the wicked one; thy sword

Disappoint. Hebrew, "meet him," as an enemy, Leviticus 26:23. --- Thy sword. The wicked are employed by God to chastise the just, and will then be thrown into the fire, Isaias 10:5., and Jeremias 50:23. (Calmet) --- They little think that t hey are subservient to the designs of Providence, as they attribute their success to their own might. Whether we beg that God would take his sword from the wicked, or that we may be freed from their malice, is much the same. (Berthier) --- Hebrew may express the latter sentiment, "Deliver my soul from the wicked, thy sword, (14) the men of thy hand, worldings, whose portion is temporal, in this life," etc. (Haydock) --- Many other versions may be given: (Calmet) by they all tend to shew the fleeting pleasures of God's enemies, who are thus rewarded for their transient virtues, and reserved for eternal torments. (Haydock) --- Man is not sufficient to resist that power, which they exercise by God's permission. Hence David begs that it may be taken away. (Worthington)
Psalms 16:14 from the enemies of thy hand. O Lord, divide them from the few of the earth in their life: their belly is filled from thy hidden stores. They are full of children: and they have left to their little ones the rest of their substance.

Divide them from the few, etc. That is, cut them off from the earth, and the few trifling things thereof; which they are so proud of, or, divide them from the few; that is, from thy elect, who are but few; that they may no longer have it in their power to oppress them. It is not meant by way of a curse or imprecation; but, as many other similar passages in the psalms, by way of a prediction, or prophecy of what should come upon them, in punishment of their wickedness. --- Thy hidden stores: thy secret treasures, out of which thou furnishest those earthly goods, which with a bountiful hand thou hast distributed both to the good and the bad. (Challoner) --- Of children. Hebrew, "their children are satiated." (Houbigant) (Berthier) --- Some copies read ueion, (Roman Septuagint) instead of uion. "They have been filled with hogs' flesh." The mistake was easy in Greek. (Calmet) St. Jerome agrees with the Vulgate. (Haydock) --- A numerous family was the great desire of the Jews. David is willing to forego every temporal advantage, and only prays that he may live in his own country, and attend the divine worship in the tabernacle. This was the glory of Israel, ver. 15., and 1 Kings 4:21. (Calmet) --- He predicts the final separation of the wicked from the elect, which sometimes begins in this life. Their worldly joys are hidden or disapproved by God. (Worthington) --- They feed on the poor servants of our Lord, (Haydock) whose life is hidden. (Menochius)
Psalms 16:15 But as for me, I will appear before thy sight in justice: I shall be satisfied when thy glory shall appear.

Appear. St. Jerome, "I shall be filled, when I shall awake in thy likeness," (Haydock) at the resurrection: (Philippians 3:21., and 1 Corinthians 13:12.) or "when thy likeness, the Messias, shall rise again:" or (as the same expression is used by the Septuagint, as [in] Numbers 12:8.) David begs for actual inspiration, "thou wilt comfort my with the prophetic spirit." (Calmet) --- Perhaps he might also desire to see the tabernacle again, or even now prepare to erect a temple unto the Lord; (2 Kings 7:2.; Haydock) or he begs for the gifts of grace and glory, which will restore the image of God, effaced by sin, 1 John 3:2. (Berthier) --- Then the just being approved, will taste that joy which alone can satiate the heart of man, when he shall behold God. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:0 David's thanks to God for his delivery from all his enemies.

Psalms 17:1 Unto the end, for David, the servant of the Lord, who spoke to the Lord the words of this canticle, in the day that the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul: and he said: [2 Kings xxii.]

This title is almost wholly taken from the book of Kings, except Unto the end for; instead of which we read, And David spoke, etc., (2 Kings 22.) (Haydock) which are the words of the inspired writer; so that Ferrand is very rash in rejecting both these titles. David wrote this psalm after he had subdued the Moabites, etc. (Calmet) --- He was inspired to write it (Worthington) twice, with some variations, (Berthier) 74 in number, (Aberbanel) or many more, if we believe Kennicott, who lays them to the charge of transcribers, perhaps, (Haydock) with greater reason. (Calmet) --- We cannot doubt but this psalm regards David. But there are some passages which refer to Jesus Christ and his Church more directly; and in general, David must here be considered as only (Berthier) the figure of the Messias, and of the just in his Church. (Worthington) --- James Paine has endeavoured to prove, with great ingenuity, that the whole must be explained of Jesus Christ, and that the name of Saul stands for "the grave;" as the points which are of modern date, only need to be changed. Thus the sufferings of our Saviour, and the punishment of the Jews in the last siege of Jerusalem are described; and thus it is clear that St. Paul (Romans 15:9.) has cited this psalm in it proper sense. (Berthier) --- See ver. 10, 41. --- Sts. Jerome and Augustine explain it of the victories of David, of the Messias, and of his Church. (Calmet) --- Saul may be particularly mentioned, because he was the most powerful. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:2 I will love thee, O Lord, my strength:

I will love thee, as a mother does her son. He that loves has fulfilled the law. This word is omitted [in] 2 Kings. 22:2. (Calmet) --- Strength. Ibid. --- Rock. (Haydock) --- The Septuagint have inserted some alterations in the Psalms, giving the sense of the Hebrew. (Worthington) --- Others attribute the variations to David, or to the mistake of transcribers. (Haydock)
Psalms 17:3 The Lord is my firmament, my refuge, and my deliverer. *My God is my helper, and in him will I put my trust. My protector, and the horn of my salvation, and my support.

Firmament. Hebrew, "rock and my citadel, and my deliverer. My God, (or strong one) my rock." St. Jerome, "my strong one." The two words which are rendered "my rock," are salhi and metsudathi. (Haydock) --- David frequently retired to such places for safety. The idea was beautiful and striking. Such a multiplicity of titles shews the gratitude (Calmet) and affection which David felt. (Calmet) --- Here are nine, and we may add the three metaphorical Hebrew terms, "rock, citadel, and buckler." Can we refuse to love One from whom we have received so many favours? --- And in, etc. These words are most probably cited by St. Paul, (Hebrews 2:13.) though they occur also in Isaias 8:18. --- Protector. Hebrew, "buckler." (Berthier) --- Horn. This title is given to Jesus Christ, Luke 1:69. It is an allusion to beasts which attack their opponents with their horns (Theodoret; Deuteronomy 33:17.) being an emblem of strength (Worthington) and glory. (Calmet) --- And my, etc. (2 Kings) he lifteth me up and is my refuge; my Saviour, thou wilt deliver me from iniquity. Hebrew, "violence."
Psalms 17:4 Praising, I will call upon the Lord: and I shall be saved from my enemies.

Praising. Hebrew, "praised;" and (2 Kings) the Lord, who is worthy to be praised. (Haydock) --- Chaldean agrees here with the Septuagint and Vulgate, which seems more natural. (Calmet) --- The sense is the same. (Berthier)
Psalms 17:5 The sorrows of death surrounded me: and the torrents of iniquity troubled me.

Sorrows...iniquity. Hebrew, "cables....Belial." By these figurative expressions, David declares to what dangers he had been exposed. They seem to be more applicable to our Saviour's agony. (Berthier) --- The wicked were constantly laying snares for both. We have the same idea enforced in the next verse. (Haydock) --- The words are put into the mouth of fallen man, in the mass for Septuagesima[the third Sunday before Lent]. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:6 The sorrows of hell encompassed me: and the snares of death prevented me.

Psalms 17:7 In my affliction I called upon the Lord, and I cried to my God: And he heard my voice from his holy temple: and my cry before him came into his ears.

Called. All these words are in the future, 2 Kings and Hebrews. (Haydock) --- But as they relate to an event that was past, they seem to be as well expressed here as they are in Duport's Greek Psalms. (Berthier) --- Both are true; as David had prayed, and would continue to pray, for God's protection; otherwise he would have deserved to lose it. We must always pray, and never faint. (Haydock) --- Temple, "from my heart;" (St. Augustine) from the tabernacle at Gabaon, (Lyranus) or from heaven. (Chaldean) (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- Earnest prayer is the best remedy against temptations and affliction. God will not fail to hear those who are sincere, as he did the prophet. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:8 The earth shook and trembled: the foundations of the mountains were troubled and were moved, because he was angry with them.

With them is not in Hebrew. Lo, illi refers to God. Furor fuit ei. (Montanus) --- "He was wroth." (Protestants) Yet he displayed his power on the mountains, as if he had been displeased with them, or with the enemies (ver. 4.) whom he would thus strike with awe. (Haydock) --- These expressions are not to be taken in a gross literal sense. (Calmet) --- God shewed himself as earnest in the protection of David, (Haydock) as if he had been in a rage; (Calmet) or as if the elements had all conspired to defend him. (Theodoret) --- This most pompous description (Calmet) alludes to the wonders wrought at Sinai, and the terrors which would happen at the death and resurrection of Christ, and at his last coming. Some moderns think that the overthrow of the Babylonians, and other enemies of God's people, are also denoted. The sinner, touched by divine grace, implores mercy, and feels the remorse of conscience, the ropes or sorrows of hell, and a dread of God's just judgments hanging over him. (Berthier) --- These cause the most haughty and obstinate to tremble. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:9 There went up a smoke in his wrath: and a fire flamed from his face: coals were kindled by it.

By it. This relates to the clouds, thunder, and lightning. (Muis) --- God's wrath is compared with smoke, fire, a dark night, or mist. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:10 He bowed the heavens, and came down, and darkness was under his feet.

Feet. A violent storm of rain. Hence the Pagans borrowed: Jupiter et laeto descendit plurimus imbri. (Virgil, Ec. 7.) --- The prophets Isaias (29:6.) and Nahum (1:3.) speak in the same lofty strains; (Calmet) and shall any one despise the language of Scripture? Nothing can exceed its sublimity. Hebrew is rather more expressive, (ver. 9.) "a fire devoured;" (ver. 11.) "on a cherub, and flew; he flew most swiftly;" like an eagle. (Berthier) --- Hebrew vida. (Haydock)
Psalms 17:11 And he ascended upon the cherubim, and he flew; he flew upon the wings of the winds.

Winds. God mounts his chariot, as it were, (Ezechiel 1:4., etc.) to come speedily to David's assistance. Aeschylus, and other pagan authors, seem to have imitated this description. (Eusebius, praep. evan. 13:13.) --- The Fathers explain the former verse of Christ's incarnation, or of his second coming; and this of his ascension. (St. Athanasius, etc.) --- They may also (Haydock) intimate that God is ready to pardon as well as to punish. (Worthington) --- Plato (Phaedro) represents the Deity on "a winged chariot, directing and taking care of all things." (Haydock)
Psalms 17:12 And he made darkness his covert, his pavilion round about him: dark waters in the clouds of the air.

Pavilion. Job 22:14., and 26:9. The Jews had this idea of God's throne, of which we behold only the less brilliant side, as the Egyptians did that of the cloud, Exodus 14:19. The poets represent Jupiter surrounded with clouds and darkness. (Hesiod, op. 125 and 255.; Homer, Iliad O.) --- Air. The parallel passage, (2 Kings) seems more accurate. Dropping waters out of the clouds of the heavens. Hebrew, "waters bound up in darksome clouds." (Calmet) --- God is incomprehensible in himself, and his counsels are inscrutable. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:13 At the brightness that was before him the clouds passed, hail and coals of fire.

Clouds. 2 Kings, The coals (Hebrew, "flames") of fire were kindled. Two words, habaw haberu, his clouds removed, (Haydock) omitted in this passage, are here supplied, as the former word is found in Syriac and Arabic. But then hail and coals of fire seem improper for "they kindled into coals of fire;" and in the next verse they are redundant; being therefore omitted in 2 Kings 22., in the best editions of the Septuagint and in the old Italic of Blanchini. Capel supposes they have been inserted from the preceding verse, which is rendered more probable by the Hebrew manuscript 5. (Kennicott, Dis. 1.) --- They have been inserted in some editions of Septuagint from the Hebrew of Theodotion, (Calmet) or Symmachus. (Montfalcon) --- This unusual third hemistic occurs in a smaller type in Brettinger's (Kennicott) and Grabe's Septuagint, but they indicate thereby that it was not in the Alexandrian manuscript, as it is not in that of the Vatican. If it were in its proper place, we should read at least grandinem, etc. This magnificent description of a thunder-storm (Haydock) may allude to that which routed the Philistines, 2 Kings 5:24., and Isaias 28:21. (Calmet) --- The lightning seemed to dispel the gloom. (Theodoret; Flaminius) --- Though man is overpowered with God's majesty, yet he is instructed how to act by those whom God has commissioned to teach. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:14 And the Lord thundered from heaven, and the Highest gave his voice: hail and coals of fire.

Psalms 17:15 And he sent forth his arrows, and he scattered them: he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them.

Arrows. Thunderbolts. Tela reponuntur manibus fabricata Cyclopum. (Metam. Hesiod Theog. 708.)
Psalms 17:16 Then the fountains of waters appeared, and the foundations of the world were discovered:

Discovered. The earthquakes were so great, that such dreadful effects might have been expected. These phenomena sometimes make the sea retire, and new islands appear. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 1:84., and 31:5., etc.) --- The Jews supposed that the sea was the common source of all fountains, and that the earth was founded on it, Psalm 23:2., and Ecclesiastes 1:7. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:17 He sent from on high, and took me: and received me out of many waters.

Sent his angel, etc. --- Waters, which often represent multitudes, (Apocalypse 17:15.; Calmet) and afflictions. (Worthington) --- David seemed in danger of perishing. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:18 He delivered me from my strongest enemies, and from them that hated me: for they were too strong for me.

For me. He may allude to the giant Jesbibenob, or to Saul, who surrounded him on all sides; (1 Kings 23:26., and 2 Kings 21:15.; Calmet) and, in general, to all his temporal or spiritual adversaries. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:19 They prevented me in the day of my affliction: and the Lord became my protector.

Affliction, when my friends joined Absalom. (Theodoret) --- In the rest of this psalm, the prophet chiefly uses words in the obvious sense, yet mystically speaks of Christ, and of the faithful. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:20 And he brought me forth into a large place: he saved me, because he was well pleased with me.

Place, where I was not hemmed in by my enemies. (Haydock) --- Saved me, by repentance, out of his infinite mercy, (Eusebius; St. Athanasius) without any deserts. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:21 And the Lord will reward me according to my justice; and will repay me according to the cleanness of my hands:

Will reward. St. Jerome, "hath rewarded," (Calmet) yet the edition of 1533 reads retribuet. (Haydock) --- Justice, with respect to my enemies, whom I have not injured; (Calmet) or my sincere desire to serve God. (Theodoret)
Psalms 17:22 Because I have kept the ways of the Lord; and have not done wickedly against my God.

Psalms 17:23 For all his judgments are in my sight: and his justices I have not put away from me.

Judgments. Commands, or treatment both of the just and of the wicked.
Psalms 17:24 And I shall be spotless with him: and shall keep myself from my iniquity.

Him, by his grace. (Worthington) --- Iniquity, and be careful not to relapse. Others explain it in the past time. I have not shed the blood of my enemy when I could have done it, 1 Kings 24:6, 14. (Calmet) --- Fui immaculatus. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) It seems most probable that David composed this before his fall, as Aberbanel, one of the most learned of the Jews, asserts. If he be only a figure of Jesus Christ, we may easily conceive how the latter might speak thus of his innocence, and declare his abhorrence of all sin, though he was made a sin-offering, having undertaken to expiate the iniquities of mankind. (Berthier)
Psalms 17:25 And the Lord will reward me according to my justice: and according to the cleanness of my hands before his eyes.

And. He repeateth, (ver. 21.) that God will render to every one as he deserves. (Worthington) --- Matthew xvi. That all sins are equal is the error of the Stoics. (Haydock)
Psalms 17:26 With the holy thou wilt be holy; and with the innocent man thou wilt be innocent:

Psalms 17:27 And with the elect thou wilt be elect: and with the perverse thou wilt be perverted.

Perverted. No version can properly express this idea. God turns away from those who abandon him, treating every one according to his works. If we do not advance in piety, it is a sign that God perceives something amiss in us. (Berthier) --- He cannot but abhor duplicity, and resist the wicked, Leviticus 26:23, 40., and Proverbs 3:34. He will make the craft of men turn against themselves, as he evinced in the case of Laban, Joseph's brethren, Pharao, and Saul. Sinners complain of him without reason, Ezechiel 18:25. (Calmet) --- Some improperly use this text to shew, that people will adopt the manners of those with whom they associate, (Haydock) though it means that God will treat the good liberally, and the wicked with severity, Leviticus 26:23, 24. (Amama)
Psalms 17:28 For thou wilt save the humble people; but wilt bring down the eyes of the proud.

Proud, as thou hast already done. (Calmet) --- Insignem attenuat Deus, Obscura promens. (Horat.[Horace?])
Psalms 17:29 For thou lightest my lamp, O Lord: O my God, enlighten my darkness.

Lamp, giving me hopes of redress, and of the Messias. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:30 For by thee I shall be delivered from temptation; and through my God I shall go over a wall.

Temptation. David was almost continually assailed by enemies. (Calmet) --- Septuagint peieatesion, signifies "a place of pirates;" denoting what crafty foes he had to encounter, (Berthier) or "a place or time to learn the military exercise," a warfare, Job 7:1. But gedud, (Haydock) means "a troop," designed to make incursions, as those under Jephte and David. Hebrew, "In thee I will run armed;" (St. Jerome) or, "at the head of my troops." (Calmet) --- "I will break, (Pagnin) or, run through an army." (Montanus) --- No fortification can hold out. (Haydock) --- He alludes particularly to the wall of the Jebusites, which Joab first mounted, though extremely high, 2 Kings 5:6. (Calmet) --- With God's help, every difficulty may be surmounted. (Worthington) --- Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation, as our Saviour admonishes. [Matthew 26:41.]
Psalms 17:31 As for my God, his way is undefiled: the words of the Lord are fire-tried: he is the protector of all that trust in him.

As for, might be omitted. (Haydock) --- The conduct of God towards men is irreproachable. He will treat all according to their deserts, and will fulfil his promises of protecting the just. (Eusebius) --- Hebrew, "He is the strong God....his words are pure as gold....He is the shield," etc. (Berthier)
Psalms 17:32 For who is God but the Lord? or who is God but our God?

Our God. Will any one then hinder Him from doing as He has said? (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "Who is the rock but our God?" (Berthier) --- God is often styled a rock, tsur. Yet St. Jerome and Pagnin render it "strong," or "the strong one." (Haydock) --- There is only one Lord and Saviour of all. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:33 God, who hath girt me with strength; and made my way blameless.

Blameless. Whatever good is in me, comes from his grace, ver. 21, 24. (Haydock) --- God has prevented me from killing Saul and Nabal; He has rescued me from the abyss into which I had fallen. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:34 *Who hath made my feet like the feet of harts: and who setteth me upon high places.

2 Kings 22:34.
Harts. Protestants, "hinds." (Haydock) --- The Hebrews generally prefer to specify the female. Harts are remarkably swift, and this quality was greatly esteemed in a warrior. Asael is praised for it; (2 Kings 2:18.) and Homer styles his hero "the swift-footed Achilles." (Calmet) --- As harts trample serpents under their feet, says Theodoret, so I treat my enemies. --- High. Hebrew, "my high places," where I have so often baffled the efforts of my persecutors. (Haydock)
Psalms 17:35 *Who teacheth my hands to war: and thou hast made my arms like a brazen bow.

2 Kings 22:35.
And thou. Chaldean gives the same sense. "He strengthens," etc. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "and a brazen bow is broken by my arms." (Montanus) --- Protestants, "a bow of steel." Perhaps not knowing that the ancients had the art of making brass answer the same purposes. See Proclus, Hesiod, etc. (Haydock) --- They made all sorts of weapons of it. Job (xx. 24.) seems even to insinuate that it was harder than iron. Our brass is too brittle. To break a bow, often means to obtain a victory, 1 Kings 2:4., and Jeremias 49:5. (Calmet) --- David gained many over a lion or a bear, over Goliath, etc. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:36 And thou hast given me the protection of thy salvation: and thy right hand hath held me up: And thy discipline hath corrected me unto the end: and thy discipline, the same shall teach me.

Of thy. The latter word is omitted in some copies of the Septuagint, while others change it into "my." But the Hebrew is agreeable to the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- End. Thou hast preserved me by salutary correction. (St. Augustine) (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "thy goodness shall multiply me" with children. Symmachus, conformably to 2 Kings xxii., has, "my obedience shall lift me up." (Calmet) --- The Hebrew may, however, admit the sense of the Vulgate. --- And thy, etc., is a paraphrase of the former sentiment, or it is borrowed from Theodotion. (Berthier) --- Grabe marks from unto the end, etc., as omitted in Hebrew. (Haydock) --- Luther and the Dutch translate, "When thou humblest me, then thou exaltest me," to shew the salutary effects of suffering. But there is nothing of the kind in the original. (Amama)
Psalms 17:37 Thou hast enlarged my steps under me; and my feet are not weakened.

Weakened, or tired. (Chaldean) (Haydock) --- I am now free from danger. All my enterprizes have succeeded, 2 Kings 8:6., and 1 Paralipomenon 18:13. See Proverbs 4:12. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:38 I will pursue after my enemies, and overtake them: and I will not turn again till they are consumed.

I will. Bellarmine would supply "I said I will;" and thus all is connected. But these future victories relate more to Jesus Christ. (Berthier) --- David also continued making fresh conquests, (Haydock) and so entirely subdued his enemies all around, that they were not able to make head, even against his successor.
Psalms 17:39 I will break them, and they shall not be able to stand: they shall fall under my feet.

Psalms 17:40 And thou hast girded me with strength unto battle; and hast subdued under me them that rose up against me.

Against. me. No prince was ever more courageous than David, as the single combat with Goliath evinces. We know not that he ever lost a battle. He refers all the glory to God. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:41 And thou hast made my enemies turn their back upon me, and hast destroyed them that hated me.

Upon me. An expression often used to denote a fight, Josue 3:12., etc. (Calmet) --- God strengthens his servants, and weakens their enemies. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:42 They cried, but there was none to save them, to the Lord: but he heard them not.

Lord. This must be understood of Absalom, who offered sacrifices, (2 Kings 15:12.; Berthier) or of Saul, who, receiving no answer, consulted a witch. The Philistines also brought their gods with them, so that they were taken and burnt; (2 Kings 5:21.) and the other pagans, finding no aid in their idols, might in time of danger, invoke the Lord. (Calmet) --- This is "the testimony of a soul naturally Christian," as Tertullian (Apol. xvii.) speaks, to have recourse to the great and only God, in the utmost distress. (Haydock) --- Deus ut subveniat oratur; ipsa veritas, cogente natura....erumpit. (Lac. Inst. 2:1.)
Psalms 17:43 And I shall beat them as small as the dust before the wind; I shall bring them to nought, like the dirt in the streets.

Streets. Thus he treated the Ammonites, etc., 2 Kings 8:2., and 12:31. (Calmet) --- Jesus Christ will rule over his enemies with a rod of iron. (Berthier)
Psalms 17:44 Thou wilt deliver me from the contradictions of the people; thou wilt make me head of the Gentiles.

Gentiles. Here he begins to predict the glory of the Messias, though what he says may be applied to himself. David's own people began to revolt, under Absalom and Seba; after he had subdued the most powerful nations around, 2 Kings 20:1. The chosen people rejected Christ, (Calmet) while the nations were converted. The reprobation of the former was prefigured by those rebels. (Worthington)
Psalms 17:45 A people which I knew not, hath served me: at the hearing of the ear they have obeyed me.

Psalms 17:46 The children that are strangers have lied to me, strange children have faded away, and have halted from their paths.

Faded, (inveterati sunt) "are grown old." (Haydock) --- The Jews had been long the objects of God's favours: yet they fall away. Thus we often see priests outdone in piety by simple laics. (Berthier) --- David continues in the comparison of a tree which bears no fruit; (Calmet) thus lying, as it were, and frustrating the just expectations of the owner. Subjects do the like, when they revolt; (Isaias 30:9.) and thus deserve the title of strange. Protestants, "the strangers shall fade away, and be afraid out of their close places;" (St. Jerome) "shall flow away, and be contracted in their straits;" while I shall be at large, ver. 37. The last verb gachregu, (Haydock) occurs no where else. It may signify "shall be withered," or burnt, from charar. (Calmet)
Psalms 17:47 The Lord liveth, and blessed be my God, and let the God of my salvation be exalted.

Liveth. This is my consolation, though it must fill the obstinate sinner with dismay. (Haydock) --- In a sort of transport, David wishes all happiness to his great benefactor. He may also speak of Christ's resurrection. (Calmet) --- My God. Hebrew, "rock:" a title frequently applied to God, in acknowledgment of his stability and protection. (Berthier)
Psalms 17:48 O God, who avengest me, and subduest the people under me, my deliverer from my enraged enemies.

Avengest, or "grantest me revenges," (Haydock) and the victory; inflicting a just punishment on the wicked. David was too well informed to delight in sentiments of revenge, 3 Kings 3:11. Jesus Christ takes vengeance on his enemies, but this is done without passion. The love of justice is his only motive. David approves of this conduct. (Calmet) --- Enraged enemies. Vulgate iracundis. (Haydock) --- Septuagint have thus explained aph, "wrath;" others join it with the following verse, "But (Calmet) or yea," (Haydock) etiam. The former version is, however, very accurate. (Berthier)
Psalms 17:49 *And thou wilt lift me up above them that rise up against me: from the unjust man thou wilt deliver me.

2 Kings 22:49.
Psalms 17:50 *Therefore will I give glory to thee, O Lord, among the nations, and I will sing a psalm to thy name.

2 Kings 22:50.; Romans 15:9.
Nations. St. Paul (Romans 15:9.) adduces this to prove the vocation of the Gentiles. (Calmet) --- We cannot doubt but the great things announced in this psalm pertain to Christ. (Berthier) --- We see the completion of this prophecy, as there is no Christian nation which does not use the psalms of David to praise God. (Theodoret, etc.) --- This practice is very common (Pref.; Worthington) in all places where either Jews or Christians are found.
Psalms 17:51 Giving great deliverance to his king, and shewing mercy to David, his anointed: and to his seed for ever.

Great. This in intimated by the plural salutes, "salvations;" as David had experienced innumerable favours. (Haydock) --- He speaks of himself in the third person, to lead our minds to the Messias, in whom this was more gloriously accomplished. The greater honour of this chief family of Israel, consisted in giving birth to so great a personage, in whom all are blessed. (Calmet) (Isaias 11:1., and Ezechiel 34:23.) --- For ever. The true Church will never perish; (Haydock) God still protecting it, as he did David, ver. 48. (Worthington)
Psalms 18:0 The works of God shew forth his glory; his law is to be esteemed and loved.

Psalms 18:1 Unto the end. A psalm for David.

David. It is not known when this was composed. David praises the works and law of God. Some passages are applied to Jesus Christ and his apostles, Romans 10:18. (Calmet) --- When any text of a psalm is thus quoted, many judiciously conclude that the whole must be understood in the same sense, as the harmony will thus be greater. It seems there are two literal senses here, one regarding the law, whether natural or Mosaic; the other pertaining to the apostles and the law of the gospel; (Berthier) the "beloved" David of the latter days. (Worthington)
Psalms 18:2 The heavens shew forth the glory of God, and the firmament declareth the work of his hands.

Firmament. Hebrew, "expansion," or region of the stars, far above our atmosphere. (Berthier) --- These two sentences express the same idea, unless the former may denote what we behold, and the firmament be explained of the higher heavens, (Haydock) where we imagine the throne of God to be placed. Some have taken these expressions in a gross sense, and asserted that the heavens are animated, Job 38:7. But we must allow that they are figurative expressions, which seem to give a soul to plants, stars, etc. (Calmet) --- The beautiful works of God extort our admiration. (Haydock) --- The silence of heaven speaks louder than any trumpet. (St. Chrysostom) --- "Who can behold the heavens, and yet be so foolish as not to acknowledge that a God exists? said Cicero, (Haydock) a learned pagan; (Arusp. and Nat. Deo. 2.; Calmet) though they cannot determine of what nature the Deity may be. (Leg. i.; Menochius) --- Hands. Chaldean, "Those who look up at the heavens, publish the glory of the Lord; and those who raise their eyes towards the air, announce his works." (Calmet) --- The silent works declare God's Majesty to those who consider them, and his preachers make the same known to their hearers by word of mouth. (Worthington) --- St. Paul reproaches the philosophers of paganism for not understanding the language of the creation, Romans 1:20., and Job 12:7. (Haydock) --- The Church, which is so often styled the kingdom of heaven, makes God known, not only as a Creator, but also as a Redeemer. The figure is here most beautifully preserved. Heaven denotes the Church, as the stars represent apostolic men, who cease not to perform their duties day or night, in happier days as well as under persecution. Jesus Christ is the true sun of justice, enlightening every man that cometh into the world, (St. John i.) --- The Fathers have made these remarks. (Berthier) --- What a consolation must it be for Catholics to think that the true doctrine will never cease, no more than the succession of day and night! We have received our creed, our orders and mission, from the apostles. The chain of succession has never been broken. Unhappy those who make a religion of their own to damn souls! who run, though God send them not! (Haydock)
Psalms 18:3 Day to day uttereth speech, and night to night sheweth knowledge.

Utterth, with great force and abundance, eructat. --- Knowledge of God. (Berthier) --- Our knowledge is always on the increase. (Abenezra) --- The vicissitudes of day and night prove the wisdom of their author. (Eusebius) --- They seem to sing in succession the praises of God. (Bellarmine) --- This evinces the power of God, as the perpetual propagation of the gospel does that of Jesus Christ, whose Church will last till the end. (Worthington) --- All the chief reformers acknowledged that there was no salvation out of the one true Church, and that the Church of Rome is such. (Nightingale, p. 263.) (Haydock)
Psalms 18:4 There are no speeches nor languages, where their voices are not heard.

There. Symmachus joins this with the preceding. "Will announce knowledge. Not by words or speeches, the sounds of which are not heard," so as to be understood. (Haydock) --- "They are not languages or words, the signification of which is unknown;" or Hebrew, "never has their voice been heard." Beli, "not," may also signify absque, "without;" and thus we may render, "no speeches, (or country) where their voice has not been heard." (Berthier) --- The sight of the heavens is sufficient to convince any one of the existence of God. (Haydock) --- No nation, however barbarous, can plead ignorance. The Fathers have explained this of the gift of tongues, by means of which the apostles spoke languages which they had not studied, Acts 2:4. (St. Augustine, etc.) --- Some of every nation have heard, (Worthington) or will embrace, (Haydock) the Christian religion. (Worthington)
Psalms 18:5 *Their sound hath gone forth into all the earth: and their words unto the ends of the world.

Romans 10:18.
Sound. So, St. Paul reads this text, though the Hebrew have, "line." Yet there is no reason why we should suppose that the Septuagint read differently, or that the Jews have corrupted their copies, as they could derive no advantage from so doing (Berthier) here, unless it were to discredit the apostle; as infidels assert the truth of the Old Testament, to vilify the new. Kum (Haydock) may signify a "line," (Berthier) or "writing." (Abenezra) --- The greatest exactitude has been observed in forming the world, as if all had been measured by an architect. But the sense of the Vulgate is preferable, and is adopted by Symmachus, St. Jerome, and the Syriac. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "their line." Marginal note, "their rule or direction." Kolam, "their voice," occurs in the preceding verse. The l might easily be lost, (Haydock) or omitted by a poetical licence. (Genebrard.) (Menochius) --- Their, refers to the heavens representing the apostles, as St. Paul explains this text, to prove that all were inexcusable who would not believe the gospel. (Berthier)
Psalms 18:6 He hath set his tabernacle in the sun: *and he as a bridegroom coming out of his bride-chamber, Hath rejoiced as a giant to run the way:

Luke 24:46.
Sun. Here God seems to reside, (Ferrand) and the magnificence of his works shines forth, insomuch that almost all nations have offered divine honours to the sun, and even the Manichees adored it, imagining that it was the very body of Jesus Christ. (St. Augustine, contra Faust. 14:12., and 20:6.) --- Hebrew, "For the sun he has place a tent in them," the heavens, (St. Jerome; Haydock) or the ends of the world. The Jews supposed that the heavens rested, like a tent, upon the earth. (Calmet, Diss.) --- The Hebrew preposition l, may have (Haydock) different meanings, ad solem posuit, etc. "He placed a tent in them, at or for the sun." The idea of the Vulgate is more noble, but we would not exclude the other, which is very good, (Berthier) and obviates the gross mistake of the Manichees. (Amama) --- The Vulgate may admit the fig. hypallage, (M. Geneb.) as good authors say dare classibus austros, and thus it may signify "he placed the sun in his tent." (Haydock) --- This vast body stands in need of no vehicle, or tent, but itself. (Diodorus) --- It was placed in the firmament at first, (Genesis 1:16.) and still performs its revolutions exactly. (Haydock) --- Giant. Moderns would render "a strong man;" and Bythner remarks that the bulk of a giant would render him less fit for running, as if the stoutest wrestlers were not often the most active. (Berthier) --- The sun is represented as a hero at some of the ancient games. St. Augustine and St. Jerome explain all this of Jesus Christ, who diffuses the light and warmth of his grace throughout the world. (Calmet) --- He always resides with the Church, and is never divorced from her. (Worthington)
Psalms 18:7 His going out is from the end of heaven, And his circuit even to the end thereof: and there is no one that can hide himself from his heat.

Circuit. So the Hebrew word is rendered "revolution." Septuagint and Vulgate, "meeting" occursus, may insinuate that the sun is found in the centre, while the earth moves daily and yearly round it, according to the Copernican system. But we must be more attentive to the life and motions of Jesus Christ, in whom the Deity resided corporally. (Berthier)
Psalms 18:8 The law of the Lord is unspotted, converting souls: the testimony of the Lord is faithful, giving wisdom to little ones.

The law. As the sun gives light to the world, so the law serves to direct mankind, and is another most powerful motive for us to praise God. This raises our hearts and minds still more perfectly to him, recalling us from our wanderings, and confirming our knowledge. Light is necessary for the body, and the law for the soul. The prophet admires eight characteristics of this divine law, which he designates by different names; as in the 118th psalm, some things relate only to the evangelical law, which converts souls, (Berthier) and lasts for ever, ver. 10. (Haydock) --- The law of nature and of Moses are nevertheless also commended, (Theodoret) inasmuch as the morality is always the same; and some faith in Christ, to come, or already past, is requisite under every dispensation. Hence he is called the Lamb slain from the beginning. [Apocalypse 13:8.] Implicit faith would suffice for the less informed, before our Saviour's coming; but now, under the light of the gospel, we must express our belief in his incarnation, as well as in the blessed Trinity. More is required of those to whom more has been given. [Luke 12:48.] (Haydock) --- Unspotted. Hebrew and Septuagint, "irreprehensible." (Calmet) --- Who indeed could pretend to find any fault with it, since it comes from God? (Haydock) --- The laws of men are imperfect, and liable to change. Those of Draco were too sanguinary, and gave place to Solon's, which were deemed too mild, etc. How happy would all be if they would embrace the law of the gospel! (Berthier) --- Converting. Hebrew, "tranquillizing souls," (Menochius) by keeping the passions under. (Haydock) --- Testimony, declaring the will of God to men. --- Little ones. The simple, and the wicked; as both are so called. (Calmet) --- Pethi, "easily persuaded." (Menochius) --- It directs the former, and keeps the latter in awe by punishment. (Calmet) --- All, in general, must confess their ignorance, and want of the divine law, to reap any benefit from it. (Haydock) --- This is the first lesson which it imparts. (Berthier) --- The law is most pure in itself, whether we understand that given to Moses, or the gospel. But the latter makes the observers unspotted, by the grace which the Holy Ghost communicates to them, though all who barely read and know the law, have no share in this happiness. God is the author of salvation, sweetly inviting all by the perfections of his law, which confers light and gladness, to co-operate with grace, that they may obtain the promised reward, ver. 12., and 2 Timothy 4:6. (Worthington) --- The like grace was offered from the beginning, so that none will ever be punished who has not deserved it, having had the means to perform his duty. (Haydock)
Psalms 18:9 The justices of the Lord are right, rejoicing hearts: the commandment of the Lord is lightsome, enlightening the eyes.

Justices. The law displays what is just, and renders those who observe it agreeable to God, (St. Gregory of Nazianzus) filling their hearts with joy, by the testimony of a good conscience, and the prospect of felicity. (Calmet) (Proverbs 6:23.)
Psalms 18:10 The fear of the Lord is holy, enduring for ever and ever: the judgments of the Lord are true, justified in themselves.

Fear; or "the law accompanied with fear;" of which he is speaking. This fear is filial and pure, such as a child must have of displeasing his father. (Berthier) --- Yet even servile fear, which restrains us from committing sin, lest we incur punishment, is a gift of God, and prepares the way for charity. (Council of Trent, Session 14:4.) But we must not stop here, like Achab and Antiochus. If we understand by fear, the moral law, it will subsist as long as there shall be men. --- Themselves. Septuagint, epi to oto, "by that very thing," that they are the judgments of the Lord, (Haydock) who cannot do wrong, Daniel 2:27. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "truth itself, is justified altogether." (Haydock) --- Infidels acknowledge that the morality of the Gospel is excellent, but they reject the dogmatical part. Would He, who has prescribed such noble rules of conduct, lead our understanding astray, by requiring us to believe what is false? (Berthier)
Psalms 18:11 More to be desired than gold and many precious stones: and sweeter than honey and the honeycomb.

Stones. So St. Jerome renders the Hebrew. Protestants, "than gold; yea, than much fine gold." Paz (Haydock) denotes the finest gold of Uphan, or of the Phison; which is probably the river Phasis, Genesis 2:11. (Calmet) --- Yet many explain this word of the topaz or chrysolite, which is of a golden colour. The Vulgate expresses topaz, (Psalm 118:127.) where the Septuagint have, "a precious stone." --- Honeycomb, as the English and German versions have it, though the Hebrew signify, "the dropping of the honeycombs;" which is the most excellent honey. (Berthier) --- This interpretation is inserted in the Protestant margin, and answers to St. Jerome's favum redundantem. Nothing can be more delicious, or more magnificent. (Haydock)
Psalms 18:12 For thy servant keepeth them, and in keeping them there is a great reward.

For. I speak from experience. (Calmet) --- If I had no other inducement, I would observe this law for the consolation, (Haydock) and repeated advantages which I have derived from it. (Theodoret) --- Those who keep the same [law], and content not themselves with reading or hearing only, may feel the same impressions. --- Reward: on which account the prophet declares that he observed the justifications; (Psalm 118:112.) though that passage is corrupted in the Protestant version. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "wherefore thy servant shall teach them;" (St. Jerome) or rather, "is instructed by them, and convinced that in keeping them there are frequent falls. Who," etc., 13. (Calmet) --- Hekeb may indeed signify "a fall," or tripping up the heels. But it is more commonly rendered "a reward," (as Protestants, Mont., etc., here agree) or end, as 1 Peter 1:9. has it. (Haydock) --- The instruction, which the observer of the laws obtains, arises from that observance, inasmuch as "he is attentive to them." Septuagint, phulassei auta. This must therefore be understood, and is well expressed by Custodit. Taste, and see that the Lord is sweet, Psalm 33:9. (Berthier)
Psalms 18:13 Who can understand sins? from my secret ones cleanse me, O Lord: 14 and from those of others spare thy servant.

Sins. Who can always decide when a sin is only venial? (Haydock) --- Though I may have avoided the grosser transgressions, how can I be assured that my heart is innocent? (Calmet) --- This assurance is reserved for Methodists, who seem to look upon it as essential, before a person can obtain salvation. But where does God specify this condition? We know that (Haydock) we are to work out our salvation in fear and trembling; and that St. Paul, though conscious to himself of nothing, said: yet in this I am not justified, etc., 1 Corinthians 4:4., and 9:27., and Philippians 2:12. Hebrew speaks of "ignorances," which might not however be wholly blameless. (Berthier) --- Ones, or enemies: "....and from the proud preserve." (Symmachus; Chaldean) But he alludes to the distinction of sins of ignorance and of pride, (Leviticus 4:2., and Numbers 15:30.; Calmet) or malice. (Haydock) --- David had not fallen into many sins of the latter description, though his adultery and murder were such. But the former are daily sins, into which even the just fall frequently. (Calmet) --- None can be assured of their state, (Ecclesiastes ix.) but are kept between hope and fear. (Worthington)
Psalms 18:14 If they shall have no dominion over me, then shall I be without spot: and I shall be cleansed from the greatest sin.

Those, etc. Or "from strangers," alienis, whose company we cannot avoid with too much caution. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "the proud." It is conjectured (Berthier) that the Septuagint read r for d, in mizzedim. (Haydock) (Amama) --- But this is not necessary, as they might include the proud, and all the wicked, under the name of "strangers," which term is particularly applicable to idolaters, (Isaias 13:11.) and all scandalous sinners, who are strangers to the law; and from whose society and dominion we may all beg to be delivered. (Berthier) --- Spare. Hebrew, "free," (St. Jerome) or "withhold." Nature is so prone to evil, that the prophet prays earnestly for grace to resist, or to be kept out of danger. (Haydock) --- All sins cannot be avoided, but preserve me from wilfully committing any enormous crime. (Rivet) --- Deliver me from the devil's power. (Theodoret) --- Those who are in authority have much to dread, lest they be answerable for the sins of others, which they ought to have prevented; as all must fear giving scandal, etc., and so being accessory to another's crime. [1 Timothy 5:22.] (Haydock) --- Delicta aliena affigunt me. (St. Augustine) --- Yet sins of frailty, and of malice, are here meant; (Bellarmine) which last ought to be strange, or very uncommon. --- Over me. Septuagint, mou. (Haydock) --- St. Augustine reads dominata, which agrees better with delicta. If my secret sins, or those of others, do not oppress me, I shall pray with confidence, and be heard. (Calmet) --- Yet dominata refers to alienis, strangers, or proud people, (Berthier) who are continually alluring to evil, both by word and example. How great must be the influence of such over their subjects, when even their equals take the infection so frequently! Vulgate might be rendered, "If my own had not ruled;" in which sense Pius IV used this explanation on his death bed, knowing that his kindred had abused their power. (Du Thou, B. vi. A.D. 1549.) (Haydock) --- Sin, pride; the source of all evil. (St. Jerome) --- "Let men at last blush to be proud, for whose sake God was humbled." (St. Augustine) --- If mortal sin be absent, the soul is just, and will be, one day, free from stain. (Worthington)
Psalms 18:15 And the words of my mouth shall be such as may please: and the meditation of my heart always in thy sight. O Lord, my helper and my Redeemer.

Always. Hebrew, "to thy regards," such as thou mayst approve. (Haydock) --- He joins mental with vocal prayer, speaking like an evangelist. (Berthier) --- Helper. Hebrew, "rock." (Calmet) --- St. Jerome and Protestants, "strength." (Haydock) --- Grace is requisite to persevere, as well as to be converted. (Worthington)
Psalms 19:0 A prayer for the king.

Psalms 19:1 Unto the end. A psalm for David.

Matthew 27:46.; Mark 15:34.
David. This psalm was to be sung when he or his successors went to battle. In a higher sense, it may allude to the victories of Christ, and of his Church. (Berthier) --- Christian must offer up this prayer for their governors. (Worthington) --- It was probably composed when the Ammonites and Syrians made such great preparations for war, ver. 8., and 2 Kings 10:6, 18. (Calmet)
Psalms 19:2 May the Lord hear thee in the day of tribulation: may the name of the God of Jacob protect thee.

Hear thee, the Ruler; or Jesus Christ praying for his people. (Worthington) --- Tribulation. War is always such. The victors themselves suffer, and many souls perish. (Calmet) --- Name. The Messias, as the Jews often explain the expression, (Hooke, Prin.) or God himself, as others have it. Nomen ejus ipse. (Calmet) --- The blessed Trinity is all one God. The name of the Lord is a strong tower, etc., Proverbs 18:10. It was made known to Moses, to give him confidence, Exodus 3:13. (Haydock) --- Great was the honour conferred on the patriarchs, that God should be styled the God of Abraham, etc.! But ours is not less, since we are authorized to call Him Our Father. [Matthew 6:9.] (Berthier)
Psalms 19:3 May he send thee help from the sanctuary: and defend thee out of Sion.

Sion, where God was supposed to reside, in the tabernacle; though he was also in heaven, ver. 7. (Calmet)
Psalms 19:4 May he be mindful of all thy sacrifices: and may thy whole burnt-offering be made fat.

Sacrifices. Hebrew mincha, a sacrifice of flour, or unbloody; a figure of the Mass. (Worthington) --- Minchothec, "thy presents" (Mont.; Haydock) of fruits, etc. --- Fat. Hebrew also, "ashes," by miraculous fire, (Berthier) to testify God's acceptance; as at the sacrifices of Abel, (Haydock) Elias, etc., Leviticus 9:24., and 3 Kings 18:31., and 1 Paralipomenon 21:26. God forbade lean victims to be offered, as they might shew a want of respect; (Malachias 1:8.) though he always regarded the heart (Calmet) and faith of the offerer more than the victim, Hebrews 11:4. (Haydock) --- Sacrifices were offered before every important enterprize, 1 Kings 13:12. (Calmet) --- Fat here intimates what would be acceptable. (Worthington) (Daniel 3:40.) (Menochius)
Psalms 19:5 May he give thee according to thy own heart; and confirm all thy counsels.

Counsels. We must suppose that those of a pious prince are right. (Calmet) --- This condition is always understood. (Haydock)
Psalms 19:6 We will rejoice in thy salvation; and in the name of our God we shall be exalted.

Salvation. Jesus Christ, who gives us the victory over all our spiritual enemies, (Calmet) or in thy prosperity; (Worthington) which we shall attribute to God. The first words may also be addressed to Him. We shall rejoice if thou grant us the victory, and we will return thanks. Hebrew, "we shall praise, or be praised, for thy salvation; and in thy name we shall lift up the standard." (Calmet) --- But there is no proof that nodgol, (Haydock) which occurs no where else, has this signification. It is probable that the Septuagint read nogdol; and Houbigant adopts their version. St. Jerome has, "we shall dance." All the versions denote joy. (Berthier)
Psalms 19:7 The Lord fulfil all thy petitions: now have I known that the Lord hath saved his anointed. He will hear him from his holy heaven: the salvation of his right hand is in powers.

Hath saved. The prophets speak of future events as past. (Berthier) --- The people were convinced of God's protection, (Calmet) and anticipated what they would say at their triumphant return. --- Anointed (Christus) the king, (Calmet) priest, (Worthington) or our Saviour, at his resurrection, (St. Athanasius) after he had subdued his enemies. (Worthington) --- Powers. That is, in strength. His right hand is strong and mighty to save them that trust in him. (Challoner) --- The plural is often used to denote something most excellent, (Haydock) great strength, or heavenly forces. (Worthington)
Psalms 19:8 Some trust in chariots, and some in horses: but we will call upon the name of the Lord, our God.

Call upon. Septuagint Roman, Syriac, etc., read, "we shall be exalted," megalunthesometha, (Calmet) as [in] ver. 6. Some call upon or trust in chariots, etc. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "remember," which often implies to confide, (Calmet) and such we call upon as we hope will be able and willing (Haydock) to protect us. (Berthier) --- Let our enemies assemble all their forces and auxiliaries, we shall not fear as long as God is for us. (Calmet) --- The Jewish kings were forbidden to multiply horses, that they might not be tempted to confide in them. (Haydock)
Psalms 19:9 They are bound, and have fallen; but we are risen, and are set upright. O Lord, save the king: and hear us in the day that we shall call upon thee.

Bound. Their chariot wheels are entangled, Exodus 14:25. (Calmet) --- Those who trust in the power of man, fall into captivity. (Worthington) --- Their feet are ensnared. (Berthier) --- The king. Hebrew, "Let the king hear us when we call." Protestants, (Haydock) "our king shall hear," etc. Syriac, "Word of the Lord, redeem us; Potent king, hear," etc. But the Septuagint is preferable, and the best critics often deviate from the Jews; (Muis; Calmet) though here the sense is very good, and adopted by St. Jerome. God is styled king in Hebrew. (Haydock) --- This title is commonly given to the Messias. (Berthier) --- The Chaldean seems to have had the second person of the blessed Trinity in view, as many of the Jews were acquainted with this mystery, particularly after the propagation of the gospel, when the paraphrase on the psalms was probably composed. (Haydock) --- When the head is safe, the body is also preserved. (Worthington) --- We must pray for our superiors, that we also may lead a quiet life, 1 Timothy 2:2. Their welfare is for the public good. (Haydock)
Psalms 20:0 Praise to God for Christ's exaltation after his passion.

Psalms 20:1 Unto the end. A psalm for David.

David, after his victory over the Ammonites; (Du Pin; Calmet) though many passages relate only to the Messias, as the Chaldean and even some of the modern Jews confess, (Kimchi; Muis) with the holy Fathers, who explain all of Him. (Calmet) --- Those who overcome the devil, are here concerned. (Worthington)
Psalms 20:2 In thy strength, O Lord, the king shall joy; and in thy salvation he shall rejoice exceedingly.

King. Chaldean adds, "the Messias shall reign; and how shall he rejoice when thou shalt have delivered him!" The people had promised to return thanks in the former psalm. (Haydock) --- Christ our king as man, having by his divine power overcome his enemies, rejoiceth. (Worthington)
Psalms 20:3 Thou hast given him his heart's desire: and hast not withholden from him the will of his lips.

Will. Hebrew aresheth, "the proof or request," (Haydock) which manifests the will. The term occurs no where else. (Berthier) --- Our Saviour's greatest desire was the glory of his Father, (Haydock) in man's redemption. (Worthington)
Psalms 20:4 For thou hast prevented him with blessings of sweetness: thou hast set on his head a crown of precious stones.

Sweetness. Hebrew, "of goodness," the effects of thy mercy. (Haydock) --- Thou hast made David a king according to thy own heart, and granted him victory, and many favours, even before he had asked for them. The humanity of Jesus Christ was still more glorified, (Calmet) by a gratuitous predestination. (St. Augustine, Praedest. 30., Persev. 24., etc.) --- Stones. Hebrew, "fine gold or the topaz," Psalm 18:11. (Berthier) --- David took the crown of Melchom, weighing a talent, 2 Kings 12:30. (Calmet) --- God gave him the victory on every occasion, Ecclesiasticus 47:7. (Haydock) --- He crowned Jesus Christ, the martyrs, and all those who have been ready to suffer for him. (Worthington)
Psalms 20:5 He asked life of thee: and thou hast given him length of days for ever and ever.

And ever. David was much favoured, and reigned a long time, as well as his posterity, 2 Kings 7:12, 29. But this was literally verified only in the Messias, (Calmet) who was his son; (Haydock) and founded his Church on a rock, to endure unto the end. (Calmet) --- What do we ask for on earth? All will be lost if we have not life; and this we cannot obtain for ever, without rising again. Therefore Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life, John 11:25. --- We must live in him by faith, (Berthier) and suffer before we can expect a crown.
Psalms 20:6 His glory is great in thy salvation: glory and great beauty shalt thou lay upon him.

Psalms 20:7 For thou shalt give him to be a blessing for ever and ever: thou shalt make him joyful in gladness with thy countenance.

To be, (in benedictionem.) Thou shalt inebriate him with a torrent of thy blessings. (Haydock) --- Blessing shall take hold of him, if we may so speak, (Berthier) and embrace him for ever. (Haydock) --- All the saints receive glory. But Christ alone can impart it to others, as all are blessed in him, Genesis xxi., and John 1:(Worthington) --- When people wish any happiness to their friends, they need only desire that they may be like David. See Genesis 18:18., and 48:20., and Galatians 3:16. (Calmet)
Psalms 20:8 For the king hopeth in the Lord: and through the mercy of the most High he shall not be moved.

Psalms 20:9 Let thy hand be found by all thy enemies: let thy right hand find out all them that hate thee.

Thy hand. O king, Messias, or God. No earthly monarch can always punish his enemies. But none can escape the hand of the Almighty. He will bring all to judgment. (Berthier) --- The just approve of God's decree in punishing. This is all a prediction. (Worthington) --- Let thine enemies find thy power, so as to return to good. (St. Jerome) --- To find, often means to attack, (Judges 1:5., and 3 Kings 13:24.) or to accomplish with ease, Deuteronomy 33:1.
Psalms 20:10 Thou shalt make them as an oven of fire, in the time of thy anger: the Lord shall trouble them in his wrath, and fire shall devour them.

Anger. Literally, "face;" (vultus.; Haydock) which sometimes intimates favour, ver. 7. This passage may allude to the vengeance (Calmet) which David exercised upon the Ammonites, whom he burnt in kilns, (2 Kings 12:31.; Geier.; Vat.) or to the destruction of Sodom, Genesis 19:28., and Lamentations 4:6. (Calmet) --- It is a terrible thing to fall into the hands of an angry God, who will punish his enemies in a fire; to which St. Paul (Hebrews 10:27.) attributes rage, (Haydock) or emulation, as it will seem to strive to surpass all others. O that we may meditate on this fire! that the love of God may consume all our defects! --- Trouble. Hebrew, "swallow up;" which is more energetic.
Psalms 20:11 Their fruit shalt thou destroy from the earth: and their seed from among the children of men.

Fruit of the womb, or all their possessions. The family of Herod was presently extirpated. (Berthier) --- The works of the wicked must burn. (St. Augustine) --- The severity shewn to the Ammonites was perhaps without example, ver. 10. (Calmet) --- But this will be more fully verified in the judgment of the wicked, whose schemes against Christ and his Church will fail. (Worthington)
Psalms 20:12 For they have intended evils against thee: they have devised counsels which they have not been able to establish.

Intended. Hebrew, "turned aside," like a torrent. The Ammonites had violated the law of nations, and had attempted to raise up very powerful enemies to invade David. (Calmet) --- Establish. Hebrew leaves the sentence imperfect, to shew the utter weakness or impotence of God's enemies. (Berthier)
Psalms 20:13 For thou shalt make them turn their back: in thy remnants thou shalt prepare their face.

In thy remnants thou shalt prepare their face: or thou shalt set thy remnants against their faces. That is, thou shalt make them see what punishment remain for them hereafter from thy justice. Instead of remnants, St. Jerome renders it funes, that is cords or strings: viz., of the bow of divine justice, from which God directs his arrows against the faces of his enemies. (Challoner) "Thou wilt strengthen thy cords against their faces;" (St. Jerome) or "thou wilt prepare thy arrows on thy bow-strings," etc. But as bemetharic (Haydock) may also have the sense of the Vulgate, in thy remnants, we need not abandon this version; as it implies that after God shall have put his enemies to flight, he will turn their faces to receive "the last" of his arrows or blows; (Berthier) or He will meet them everywhere. (Haydock) --- There seems to be some transposition in Hebrew and the Vulgate, as if we should read in reliquis eorum praeparabis vultum tuum. "Thou wilt execute thy vengeance upon their children;" (Calmet) or, as this transposition is unnecessary, "thou shalt make them look at thy children;" (Haydock) the elect, to increase their rage. (Bellarmine; Jansenius) --- To behold the glory of the just, which might so easily have been their own, will greatly mortify the reprobate at the last day. (Haydock)
Psalms 20:14 Be thou exalted, O Lord, in thy own strength: we will sing and praise thy power.

Exalted. God can receive no increase; but he manifests what he has. (Theodoret) --- Power. Literally, "powers." (Haydock) --- While the wicked perish, the just sing God's praises. (Worthington) --- We must beg that the kingdom of righteousness may spread over the world, (Haydock) and never cease to acknowledge the divine favours. (Berthier)
Psalms 21:0 Christ's passion: and the conversion of the Gentiles.

Psalms 21:1 Unto the end, for the morning protection, a psalm for David.

Protection, susceptione. Hebrew ayeleth, hathuchar, or "for a speedy interposition," or succour. See ver. 2, 20, and 25. --- St. Jerome, "the morning stag." (Haydock) --- Many of the titles are almost inexplicable, and this is one of the most puzzling; (Calmet) but is of no service for understanding the psalm, which certainly speaks of Jesus Christ, as the apostles have quoted several texts, and Theodorus of Mopsuesta was condemned for asserting that it was only accommodated to him. (Conc. V. col. 4.) (Berthier) --- Grotius comes too near this system, by explaining it of Christ only in a figurative sense. We ought to do quite the reverse, if we allow that some verses regard David, as a figure of the Messias; (Calmet) or rather, as the same person speaks throughout, we must understand the whole of Him. (Berthier, t. ii.) --- The Jews were formerly of the same opinion, (Lyranus) but seeing the use which was made of this psalm by Christians, they have explained it of David, or of the miseries of the nation. Septuagint seem to intimate that this psalm was sung at the morning service, (Calmet) or referred to the coming, or resurrection of our Saviour, (St. Augustine; Worthington; Psalm 3:6.; Menochius) after the long night of infidelity. (Didymus) --- He is represented as the hart, or beautiful hind, whom the Jews hunted unto death, ver. 17. Some band of musicians might be styled, after "the morning hind," as another seems to be after "the mute dove;" (Psalm lv.) and the wine presses, or "band of Geth;" (Psalm viii., etc.) though we cannot pretend to give a reason for these titles. Many, who are unwilling to confess their ignorance, say that these terms allude to some musical instrument, or favourite song, etc. (Calmet) --- It would be as well to speak plainly that these things are hidden from us. (Haydock)
Psalms 21:2 O *God, my God, look upon me: why hast thou forsaken me? Far from my salvation are the words of my sins.

O God. Our Saviour repeated these words as they are in Hebrew, though the vulgar tongue was Syriac, (Calmet) or Greek mixed with the Abamean. (Paulus) --- Eli (or Eloi, St. Mark) lamma sabacthani. So he pronounced what the Jews would now read, Eli....lama (or lamach.; Tirinus) hazabtani; (Calmet) and in our method, ali....lome ázbocthoni. But it must be admitted (Haydock) that the true pronunciation is irretrievably lost. The Masorets vary from the ancient versions, (Masclef.; Capel; Houbigant; Mr. C. Butler, Hor. Bib. 4 edit. p. 69.) and from one another; so that after being at the immense labour of learning their rules, we shall be no more secure of attaining the truth. (Haydock) --- It were, therefore, greatly to be wished that the learned would agree about some characters to express uniformly the Hebrew in modern languages, as it would greatly facilitate the knowledge of the sacred writings. (Kennicott, Diss. 1:p. 243.) --- We have only attempted to use such as might inform the reader what letters were in the original; and yet we are sorry to find that z, or the long a and e are often printed without the mark above; which shews the inconvenience of so many points, introduced by the Masorets. (Haydock) --- Look upon me, are words admitted by Christ, "because (says Eusebius) they are not in Hebrew." But this reason is not conclusive, as he might have left them out, though they were in the original. The Septuagint may have rendered one ali, in this sense, "to me," as they have not added my to the first mention of God: or, they may have anticipated from ver. 20 (Berthier) this explication. Christ speaks with reference to his sacred humanity, as his divinity suspended its beatific influence, that he might drink the bitter chalice. (Theodoret; St. Jerome) --- He also speaks the language of his afflicted members, who think they are abandoned. (St. Augustine) Calmet) --- Sins. That is, the sins of the world, which I have taken upon myself, cry out against me, and are the cause of all my sufferings. (Challoner) --- An ancient psalm of St. Germ. reads "lips," instead of sins. Hebrew, "roaring." (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- "Prayer," Sixtine Edition. "Why art thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring?" (Protestants) (Haydock) --- The Septuagint seem to have read shagathi, whereas the Hebrew places the g after the a, or they have substituted the cause for the effect; as sin was certainly the cause of Christ's affliction, and of his Father's not granting present relief. Indeed our Saviour did not ask for it, but only expressed the sentiments of suffering nature, which he corrected by the most perfect submission, to teach us how to behave. (Berthier) --- God is the God of all creatures, but more particularly of Christ, by personal union. (Worthington) --- The latter tenderly expostulates, (Haydock) that he is not comforted like other saints, (Matthew 27:46.) since he had undertaken to die for the sins of the world, and reputed them as his own. (Worthington) --- Delicta nostra sua delicta fecit, ut justitiam suam nostram justitiam faceret. (St. Augustine) --- He speaks in the name of his members. (St. Thomas Aquinas, 3. p. q. 15. a 1.) --- Christ could commit no sin: (1 Peter 2:21., and 2 Corinthians 5:21.) but as long as he had taken our iniquities upon himself, to expiate with his own blood, he could not be at ease till he had perfected the work. David was convinced that his own sins were punished by the rebellion of Absalom, as Nathan had declared, 2 Kings 12:10. (Calmet)
Psalms 21:3 O my God, I shall cry by day, and thou wilt not hear: and by night, and it shall not be reputed as folly in me.

Folly. My cry proceeds not from impotent rage, Luke 4:28. (Eusebius, Agel.) (Menochius) --- I know that thou wilt grant my request. (Calmet) --- I shall not cry in vain. (Theodoret) --- It is not for my own folly that I suffer. (Geneb.) --- "Many cry and are not heard, yet it is for their advantage, and not out of folly." (St. Augustine) --- Christ prayed on the cross, as he had done in the garden, to have the bitter chalice removed. But this was not blameable, as it was done with entire submission. (Worthington) --- The cry of the lips, or of human nature, which would be free from suffering, was not heard: (Haydock) because the cry of the heart, which desired that the justice of God should be satisfied, was much louder; and this petition was granted by Him who denied nothing to his Son, John 11:41. (Calmet) --- This should be our model. Submission and perseverance will always be crowned. Hebrew has now d instead of r, in the word dumiya, "silence," which is also good; "there is no silence for me." In the night (Berthier) of death, (Haydock) God granted the petition. (Berthier) --- Aquila gives this idea, non tacebis, as St. Jerome observes: "thou wilt do what I desire." Hebrew may also mean: I have no rest, or I cry incessantly. (Calmet) --- The prayer of Christ for relief, was conditional. He absolutely desired God's will to be accomplished, and thus he was heard, ver. 25., and Hebrews 5:7. He was our pattern. (St. Augustine, ep. 120.) (Worthington)
Psalms 21:4 But thou dwellest in the holy place, the praise of Israel.

In the, etc. Hebrew, "the Holy one inhabitest the praises of Israel," or "Thou holy, sancte, inhabitant, the praise," (St. Jerome) or, as the plural intimates, the source and object of all "the praises of Israel," (Haydock) and of the Church. (Worthington) --- This may be connected with the preceding, or following verse. Thou art in the midst of us, so that thou canst not be ignorant of my situation, like the idols; or thou hast shewn great favours to our ancestors, ver. 5. Theodoret and St. Jerome seem to take these words to be addressed by the Father or by the prophet to Jesus Christ, who inhabited a body so free from sin. (Calmet)
Psalms 21:5 In thee have our fathers hoped; they have hoped, and thou hast delivered them.

Psalms 21:6 They cried to thee, and they were saved: they trusted in thee, and were not confounded.

Confounded. He interests his Father, by calling to mind the ancient patriarchs, (Ecclesiasticus 2:11.; Berthier) who obtained their requests. (Worthington)
Psalms 21:7 But I am a worm, and no man: the reproach of men, and the outcast of the people.

No man. Hebrew ish, "a great man," vir, (Mont.[Montanus?]) so far from being treated as a nobleman, I am not even respected as one of the meanest of men, (adam.) (Haydock) --- "Why not a man?" says St. Augustine, "because he is God. Why a worm? because a mortal, born of the flesh, without generation." The ancient naturalists supposed that worms were not generated; and though this be now deemed inaccurate, the Fathers applied this notion to confirm the doctrine of our Saviour's being born of a virgin, which had been clearly revealed. (Calmet) --- People. God afforded Christ no exterior (Haydock) or common consolation, while the wicked persecutors treated him as a worm. (Worthington) --- The rights of humanity are respected in the greatest criminals. But the enemies of our Lord added insult to torments, Isaias 52:14. (Berthier) --- It would be difficult to apply this to David. For even in the depth of his misery, when reviled by Semei, and dishonoured by Absalom, he was attended by the priests, and by a powerful army. (Calmet)
Psalms 21:8 *All they that saw me have laughed me to scorn: they have spoken with the lips, and wagged the head.

Matthew 27:39.; Mark 15:29.
All. This often denotes only the greatest number. (St. Jerome) --- For surely the blessed Virgin, and some others, must be excepted. (Haydock) --- But almost all joined in persecuting Christ, (Worthington) while his disciples left him. (Calmet) --- These two verses are quoted by the three first evangelists. --- Spoken. Hebrew, "opened or distorted." (Berthier) --- "They shoot out the lip." (Protestants) --- These signs and expressions (Haydock) mark the greatest contempt, ver. 14., and Job 16:4., etc.
Psalms 21:9 *He hoped in the Lord, let him deliver him: let him save him, seeing he delighteth in him.

Matthew 27:43.
He hoped. Hebrew, "roll, or he (Calmet) rolled himself on the Lord." (Protestants marginal note) --- But the text is conformable to ours. "He trusted on," etc. St. Matthew 27:43., He trusted in God, let him deliver him now if he will have him. Ci, which is here rendered quoniam, "since," (Haydock may also mean "if," as it is in the Protestants marginal note. Thus both texts agree. Many passages are thus quoted, without adding, as it is written. (Berthier) --- God permitted that these blasphemers should use the very language of the prophet, that the completion of what he said might be more conspicuous. Chaldean, "I have sung praises to the Lord, and he has withdrawn me from danger." This explanation is not contemptible. (Calmet) --- But it is foreign to the context, and to all the other versions, as well as to the evangelists. (Haydock) --- The collating of this psalm with the history of Christ, must convince every sincere person that he who was thus ignominiously treated, was the object of God's complacency, and that the Christian religion is true. (Berthier)
Psalms 21:10 For thou art he that hast drawn me out of the womb: my hope from the breasts of my mother.

Womb. David might say this as a figure of Christ, in consequence of the many favours which he had received. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- But none could use these expressions with propriety, but Jesus Christ, who had no man for his father, and who had the perfect use of reason, so that he could call God his God from the very first. All others are born children of wrath, except the blessed Virgin, whose privilege was still the fruit of redemption. (Berthier) --- She conceived and bore her son, remaining a pure virgin. (Eusebius; St. Athanasius; etc.) --- The synagogue rejected the Messias, but God received him, and made him head of the Church. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 21:11 I was cast upon thee from the womb: From my mother's womb thou art my God,

Cast. This custom is noticed, (Genesis 30:3.) and frequently in Homer. Thou art my only Father, (Calmet) as I am born miraculously, and have been hitherto protected. I now suffer death, but thou wilt raise me to life again, Psalm 15:9. (Worthington)
Psalms 21:12 depart not from me. For tribulation is very near: for there is none to help me.

Help. This Christ might say a little before he expired, foreseeing the distress of his Church, (Calmet) or he might use these words in his agony; (St. Jerome) as this agrees with the sequel. (Calmet) --- Almost all have abandoned me; and those who would, are not able to protect me. (Worthington)
Psalms 21:13 Many calves have surrounded me: fat bulls have besieged me.

Psalms 21:14 They have opened their mouths against me, as a lion ravening and roaring.

Psalms 21:15 I am poured out like water; and all my bones are scattered. My heart is become like wax melting in the midst of my bowels.

Psalms 21:16 My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue hath cleaved to my jaws: and thou hast brought me down into the dust of death.

Psalms 21:17 For many dogs have encompassed me; the council of the malignant hath besieged me. They have dug my hands and feet:

Psalms 21:18 They have numbered all my bones. And they have looked and stared upon me.

Psalms 21:19 *They parted my garments amongst them; and upon my vesture they cast lots.

Matthew 27:35.; John 19:23-24.
Psalms 21:20 But thou, O Lord, remove not thy help to a distance from me; look towards my defence.

Psalms 21:21 Deliver, O God, my soul from the sword: my only one from the hand of the dog.

Psalms 21:22 Save me from the lion's mouth; and my lowness from the horns of the unicorns.

Psalms 21:23 *I will declare thy name to my brethren: in the midst of the church will I praise thee.

Hebrews 2:12.
Psalms 21:24 Ye that fear the Lord, praise him: all ye, the seed of Jacob, glorify him.

Psalms 21:25 Let all the seed of Israel fear him: because he hath not slighted nor despised the supplication of the poor man. Neither hath he turned away his face from me: and when I cried to him he heard me.

Psalms 21:26 With thee is my praise in a great church: I will pay my vows in the sight of them that fear him.

Psalms 21:27 The poor shall eat and shall be filled; and they shall praise the Lord that seek him: their hearts shall live for ever and ever.

Psalms 21:28 All the ends of the earth shall remember, and shall be converted to the Lord. And all the kindreds of the Gentiles shall adore in his sight.

Psalms 21:29 For the kingdom is the Lord's; and he shall have dominion over the nations.

Psalms 21:30 All the fat ones of the earth have eaten and have adored: all they that go down to the earth shall fall before him.

Psalms 21:31 And to him my soul shall live: and my seed shall serve him.

Psalms 21:32 There shall be declared to the Lord a generation to come: and the heavens shall shew forth his justice to a people that shall be born, which the Lord hath made.

Psalms 22:0 God's spiritual benefits to faithful souls.

Psalms 22:1 A psalm for David. The *Lord ruleth me: and I shall want nothing.

Isaias 40:11.; Jeremias 23:5.; Ezechiel 34:11.; Ezechiel 34:23.; 1 Peter 2:25.; 1 Peter 5:3.
David. This psalm most beautifully describes the consolation which the just find in God's protection. (Haydock) --- It may be applied to the Israelites in the desert, (Chaldean) to David persecuted by Saul, or rather (Calmet) settled quietly upon the throne, (Muis) or to the Jews returned from Babylon. (St. Athanasius) (Calmet) --- The Fathers explain it mystically of Jesus Christ, the Shepherd of our souls. (Didymus, St. Augustine, etc.) The allegories of a shepherd and of a person giving a feast to his guests, are well supported. (Calmet) --- Ruleth, in Hebrew. Is my shepherd; viz., to feed, guide, and govern me. (Challoner) --- Septuagint poimainei, pascit, as St. Augustine and St. Jerome read. St. Gregory Thaumaturgus understands this of the angel guardian. (Paneg. in Orig.) --- Jesus Christ conducts us into the pastures of his Church, and feeds us (Worthington) with his own body, etc. (Calmet) --- The saints never complain of want. (Berthier)
Psalms 22:2 He hath set me in a place of pasture. He hath brought me up, on the water of refreshment:

Place. Mont.[Montanus?], in the huts of grass, (or of young trees, germinis) he will make me lie down." See Canticle of Canticles 1:6., and Ezechiel 34:15. (Haydock) --- Shepherds were accustomed to conduct their flocks to shady places, during the heat of the day. --- Refreshment. Hebrew, "still waters," like the pond of Siloe, (Isaias 8:6.) in opposition to the great streams of the Euphrates, etc. The fathers understand it of baptism; (St. Chrysostom, etc.) or of the truths of salvation. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- Baptism is the first justification. (Worthington)
Psalms 22:3 he hath converted my soul. He hath led me on the paths of justice, for his own name's sake.

Converted. Protestants, "restoreth my soul" (Haydock) to her former tranquility, or bringeth me back from my wanderings. (Berthier) --- Justice. Those who have received baptism, must observe the law of Christ, (Worthington) as all indeed are bound to do. (Haydock) --- Sake. Not on account of man's deserving (Calmet) by the force of nature. God must begin and carry on the work of our conversion, by his grace; with which we must co-operate. (Haydock) --- The captives had been in the greatest distress among idolaters. They rejoice at the sight of the promised land, where they will fear no dangers. (Calmet)
Psalms 22:4 For though I should walk in the midst of the shadow of death, I will fear no evils, for thou art with me. Thy rod and thy staff, they have comforted me.

Walk. In the greatest temptations, we may resist by God's grace. (Worthington) --- Midst. Hebrew, "in the valley." The greatest darkness, and the most horrible precipices, give no alarm to those who are under God's protection. --- Comforted me, as they have kept all enemies at a distance. The shepherd's staff or crook is designed for that purpose; and though it may be used to bring back the wandering sheep by beating them, yet it is not under that idea an object of consolation, but rather of terror. (Calmet) --- The effects of timely correction are, however, comfortable; and it is a great mercy of God to chastise the sinner, lest he should run astray to his eternal ruin. (Haydock) --- Some distinguish the rod from the staff, and say that the former is to punish, and the latter to support. (St. Jerome; Muis) --- We are generally too backward in having recourse to God in our distresses, though he invites us so pressingly, Isaias 41:10, etc.
Psalms 22:5 Thou hast prepared a table before me, against them that afflict me. Thou hast anointed my head with oil; and my chalice which inebriateth me, how goodly is it!

Thou. Here the allegory of a shepherd seems less discernible, though it may allude to the provisions for winter; (Berthier) or rather it ceases, as feasts are made for men; (Menochius) and the second allegory of a guest here commences. (Haydock) --- The enemy had reduced me to the greatest misery. (Calmet) --- But God has admitted me to his table. (Menochius) --- This may be explained of the sacred mysteries received in the Church, (St. Ambrose) or of the Scriptures, which nourish our souls. (St. Jerome) --- No mention is made of the ancient sacrifices; and as this psalm must be understood in the spiritual sense, the prophet speaks of the blessed Eucharist, which imparts the unction of grace, etc. The enemy strives to make us keep at a distance from it. (Berthier) --- Christ has himself prepared this table (St. Cyprian, ep. 63.; Euthymius) against all spiritual adversaries. --- Oil. Christians are also strengthened by the sacraments of confirmation, penance, holy orders, matrimony, and extreme unction. (Worthington) --- Three of these are administered with oil. (Haydock) --- It was customary to anoint the head of guests with perfumes, (Matthew 26:7., and Luke 7:46.) both among the Jews and Gentiles. But the Fathers explain this text of chrism, used in confirmation. (St. Athanasius; Theodoret) (Calmet) --- Chalice. The blessed sacrament and sacrifice of Christ's body and blood. (Worthington) --- Inebriateth. Hebrew, "overflowing;" being constantly replenished (Canticle of Canticles 7:2.; Homer, Iliad iv.) with wine; as people are not inebriated with water. This term, however, only means to take as much as is requisite, Genesis 43:34. "Thy chalice inebriating me," occurs in most copies of the Septuagint, in Sixtus V., etc. But the more correct edition of the Septuagint and all the Greek interpreters, (St. Jerome, ep. ad Sun.) agree with the Hebrew and Vulgate. --- How, etc., is added by way of explanation; or rather, the Septuagint have taken two words from the following verse, ac tob, verumtamen bonum. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "surely goodness and mercy," etc. (Haydock) --- Theodotion and Symmachus were not acquainted with this division, which seems less accurate, though the sense be much the same. (Berthier)
Psalms 22:6 And thy mercy will follow me all the days of my life. And that I may dwell in the house of the Lord, unto length of days.

Follow me, like provisions from the king's table, 2 Kings 11:8. (Calmet) --- "The grace of God prevents the unwilling to make him willing; and it follows the person who is in good dispositions, that they may not be in vain." (St. Augustine, Ench. 32.) --- Praevenit per fidem, subsequitur in custodiendo mandata Dei. (St. Jerome) Continual and final perseverance is a special grace of God. (Worthington) --- And that. Hebrew, "and I shall." The Vulgate expresses the effect of worthy participation of God's table, which leads to a happy eternity. (Berthier) --- This is particularly applicable to priests, both of the old and of the new law. (Calmet) --- Only those who remain in the house of God, in his church on earth, can expect felicity. (Haydock) --- Days, in eternal life. (Worthington) --- David always desired to be near the ark, (Psalm xxvi., and lxxxiii.; Menochius) as the figure of heaven. (Haydock)
Psalms 23:0 Who they are that shall ascend to heaven: Christ's triumphant ascension thither.

Psalms 23:1 On the first day of the week, a psalm for David. The *earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof; the world, and all they that dwell therein.

Psalm 49:12.; 1 Corinthians 10:26.
Week. This title was found only in the common edition of the Septuagint. (Theodoret) --- The Jews say the psalm was used on Sunday; (Berthier) and the Fathers explain it of the resurrection and ascension of our Lord, whom it regards in the more sublime sense, though it may also be literally explained of the temple, or translation of the ark, 2 Kings 6:12. (Calmet) --- David appointed when the psalms were to be sung, Ecclesiasticus 47:12. This speaks of the creation. (Menochius) --- St. Paul applies the first verse to Jesus Christ, whom he styles the Lord, (1 Corinthians 10:26.) and Creator, of whom David speaks. It is wonderful that so few have noticed this excellent proof of Christ's divinity. The authors of Principles Discussed, according to their general system of two literal senses, explain this psalm of the re-establishment of the Jews after the captivity, and of the propagation of the Christian Church; and it is not clear that two senses ought not to be admitted. But we must, at least, admit that the prophet speaks literally of Jesus Christ (Berthier) as well as of the ark, etc. --- Therein. Though God be the Creator of all, he seems to have made a particular choice of Sion. Before the coming of Christ, all, except a few Jews (Calmet) and enlightened Gentiles, like Job, (Haydock) were buried in sin and ignorance. But now his kingdom is propagated widely; and in every place the Father is adored in spirit and in truth. (St. Augustine, etc.) --- All power is given to Jesus Christ, who rose again on the first day of the week. Not only the earth, but all that is in it, belongs to the great Creator. (Worthington)
Psalms 23:2 For he hath founded it upon the seas; and hath prepared it upon the rivers.

Founded, or created it (Berthier) upon (Hebrew hal. "above, in, near, to, with," etc.; Amama) the seas, like a floating island, Proverbs 8:29., Jonas 2:7., Job 38:11. This was the language of the ancients: Ipsa natat tellus Pelagi lustrata corona. (Manil. Astr. 4.) The earth was at first covered with water, Genesis 1:9., and Psalm 103:6. (Calmet) --- Seas and caverns have received part of it, which was poured out again at the deluge. Several have rejected the antipodes, falsely supposing that there is water all under the earth, which the Scripture does not assert. (Amama) (Haydock)
Psalms 23:3 Who shall ascend into the mountain of the Lord: or who shall stand in his holy place?

Place. The punishment of the Bethsamites, and of Oza, had filled all with alarm, so that David durst not introduce the ark into his palace, 1 Kings 6:19. (Calmet) --- Though Christ created and redeemed all, yet only the just shall inherit felicity. (Worthington)
Psalms 23:4 The innocent in hands, and clean of heart, who hath not taken his soul in vain, nor sworn deceitfully to his neighbour.

Heart, whose faith and intentions are pure, as well as their actions. --- Vain, by neglecting good works, (St. Jerome) or seeking after trifles; (St. Augustine) or rather, according to the Hebrew, "who hath not sworn in vain by his soul," 2 Corinthians 1:23., and 1 Kings 1:26. To take the name of God in vain, means to swear falsely. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity;" to swell with pride, (Haydock) or to swear by idols. (Pr. in disc.) --- To his, etc. This is not in Hebrew but must be understood, (Calmet) as a person can only intend to deceive men. So Duport, who follows the Hebrew so exactly in his Greek psalms in verse, (Berthier) reads, "Nor sworn an oath, that men he might deceive." (Haydock) --- These two verses contain an abridgment of the gospel, and shew that something better than Mount Sion is understood, Hebrews 12:22. When we approach to the tabernacle, and to the sacred mysteries, we ought to put these terrible questions to ourselves. (Berthier) --- We must carefully employ ourselves in good works, (Worthington) by which alone we can make our calling and election sure, 1 Peter 1:10. (Haydock)
Psalms 23:5 He shall receive a blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God, his Saviour.

Blessing. David seems to have given the eulogium of Obededom, whose example taught him that the ark was only terrible to the wicked; and that it was a source of blessings to the just, 2 Kings 6:11. --- Mercy. Hebrew, "justice." But these terms are used synonymously, and denote that God gives a just reward; "when he crowns our merits, he crowns his own gifts." (St. Augustine; Theodoret) (Calmet) --- Mercy goes before; good works must follow, to obtain eternal glory. (Worthington)
Psalms 23:6 This is the generation of them that seek him, of them that seek the face of the God of Jacob.

The face. Hebrew, "Thy face, O Jacob, always." (St. Jerome) --- Protestants (marginal note, God of) Jacob. Selah. (Haydock) --- Thus they intimate that the Hebrew is imperfect. All the preceding virtues belong to Jesus Christ, who obtained mercy for us. The generation of Adam multiplied, (Genesis 5:1.) and soon forgot the Lord: but it shall not be so with the disciples of Christ, who must delight in fervent prayer, and in the constant practice of good works; and not merely serve him in certain fits of devotion. (Berthier) See Proverbs 29:26. (Menochius)
Psalms 23:7 Lift up your gates, O ye princes, and be ye lifted up, O eternal gates: and the King of Glory shall enter in.

Princes; or, "lift up your chief or highest gates:" portas principes. Hebrew, "gates, lift up your heads." Here the gates themselves are addressed, while the Septuagint and Vulgate turn the discourse to the porters or princes. (Berthier) --- The tops of the gates must be raised, to let the triumphal car pass through, Isaias 6:4., and Amos 8:3., and 9:1. The Church has constantly understood this passage of Christ's ascension. The saints in his train address the angels, who appear to be filled with astonishment. (Theodoret; Eusebius) (Calmet) --- The gates of heaven are more properly styled eternal, than those of the temple, which were not yet erected; or of Jerusalem, which should be (Berthier) soon demolished. (Haydock) --- This apostrophe to the gates is very striking, commanding them to allow more room for the crowd to pass in the train of the conqueror, who was usually seated on a lofty chariot. (Calmet) --- The prophet contemplating the ascension of Christ, inviteth the angels to receive him; and by the figure, prosopopeia, speaketh also to the gates by which he is to enter. (Worthington) --- Homer (Iliad 8.) represents the Hours as door-keepers of heaven removing a thick cloud, which obstructs the entrance. (Haydock) --- These gates are supposed to open, by being lifted upwards. The Greeks style them cataracts, Genesis 7:11. (Tournemine)
Psalms 23:8 Who is this King of Glory? the Lord, who is strong and mighty: the Lord mighty in battle.

Who. This is the question of the Levites, when the ark approached, or of the angels in heaven, who hold a dialogue with the attendants of Christ. These return a satisfactory answer only at the second demand, having first given four titles to their great king. (Berthier) --- Some of the Fathers suppose that the angels in heaven were not acquainted with the incarnation. (St. Justin Martyr, dial.; Theodoret; St. Jerome in Isaias lxiii.) But the latter here asserts that the good and bad angels hold a dialogue, or that the former address the spirits in limbo, announcing to them their speedy deliverance in consequence of Christ's victory over the devil. The dialogue is rather (Calmet) between the angels in heaven, and the spirits of the just, (St. Athanasius) or other angels, who accompanied Christ in his ascension. (Calmet) --- The angels express their admiration of the glory with which Christ, (Worthington) in our human nature, (Haydock) was environed; and the prophet replies, that he had overcome all his opponents, and again orders the gates to open. (Worthington) --- The angels were not ignorant, but gave occasion to a further display of the conqueror's dignity, and expressed their surprise that men should enter heaven. (Menochius)
Psalms 23:9 Lift up your gates, O ye princes, and be ye lifted up, O eternal gates: and the King of Glory shall enter in.

Psalms 23:10 Who is this King of Glory? the Lord of hosts, he is the King of Glory.

Hosts of all heavenly powers, (Worthington) and the arbiter of war. (Haydock) --- Both Jews and foreigners were convinced that God granted victory to his people, if they had not forfeited his favour by their crimes, as in the case of Achan, and of the sons of Heli, Josue vii., and 1 Kings iv., and Judith 5:24. The title of Lord of hosts, was very applicable to Christ after his victory. (Calmet) --- Glory. St. Jerome adds, "for ever;" thus frequently sela seems to form a part of the sentence though it be neglected by the Vulgate, etc. (Haydock)
Psalms 24:0 A prayer for grace, mercy, and protection against our enemies.

Psalms 24:1 Unto the end. A psalm for David. To thee, O Lord, have I lifted up my soul.

David. This word alone occurs in Hebrew. Septuagint and St. Jerome add also Psalm. (Haydock) --- St. Augustine and Theod.[Theodotion or Theodoret?] agree with the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- These variations prove that we cannot depend much on the titles; and the learned do not look upon them as the word of God. The psalm may have been composed, when David was persecuted by his son, (Berthier) or by Saul. It may also allude to the captives. This is the first of the seven alphabetical psalms. The 33d, 35th, 110th, 111th, 118th, and 144th, are of the same description, being written in this manner (Calmet) on account of their importance, (Kimchi) or to help the memory, (Berthier) or for copies, to teach young people to write. (Grotius) --- Each verse forms a distinct sentence, not much connected with the rest. We perceive some derangement in the present Hebrew copies of this psalm, as the letters are not in proper order, though it might easily be restored by altering the divisions, etc. The Jews have been less attentive to preserve these divine canticles (Calmet) than their Thalmudical songs. (Pellican in Psalm 85:9.) --- The Septuagint and St. Jerome seem to have had better copies. Christ, the Church, (Calmet) or any pious soul, may address this fervent prayer to God under affliction. --- Lifted up in the true spirit of prayer, (Berthier) with fervour and confidence, Deuteronomy 24:15., and Lamentations 3:41. (Calmet) --- Attention is requisite to obtain a petition, (Worthington) as well as fervour, etc. (Haydock)
Psalms 24:2 In thee, O my God, I put my trust; let me not be ashamed.

In thee. Hebrew bec. Thus the second verse will properly begin with b, (Capel; Houbigant) though the Jews place my God first, as it is in the Vulgate, Deus meus, in te, etc. (Haydock) Ashamed. Septuagint Compl. adds, "for ever."
Psalms 24:3 Neither let my enemies laugh at me: for none of them that wait on thee shall be confounded.

Laugh. Saying scornfully where is their God? (Calmet) --- Wait. This is often urged (Isaias 42:23.) as comprising all the science of a spiritual life. We must neither despair nor omit the means of salvation. (Berthier) --- Those who hope for the accomplishment of God's promises, will not be disappointed. (Calmet)
Psalms 24:4 Let all them be confounded that act unjust things without cause. Shew, O Lord, thy ways to me, and teach me thy paths.

All, is not expressed in Hebrew or some copies of the Septuagint. (Berthier) --- Cause. No one can have reason to do so. But those who injure their harmless brethren, are more reprehensible, (Haydock) and the psalmist foretells that they will be put to shame. (St. Jerome) --- This manner of praying frequently occurs in the psalms, to signify the event, and the approbation of the just. (Worthington) --- Shew. The forth verse ought to begin here with d, as in Hebrew. (Haydock) --- Paths. The mysterious ways of Providence, (Eusebius) or the law which is unknown to many, (St. Athanasius) and practised by still fewer. (Calmet)
Psalms 24:5 Direct me in thy truth, and teach me; for thou art God, my Saviour; and on thee have I waited all the day long.

And teach. If the verse were to commence thus, (Calmet) v would not be out of its place. (Haydock) --- Without God's direction, we cannot walk in the narrow path. (Berthier) --- Long. We must never cease to desire the knowledge of true doctrine. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:6 Remember, O Lord, thy bowels of compassion; and thy mercies that are from the beginning of the world.

World. God's truth or fidelity in performing his promises, and his tender mercies towards his people, are the motives most frequently urged. (Calmet)
Psalms 24:7 The sins of my youth and my ignorances do not remember. According to thy mercy remember thou me: for thy goodness' sake, O Lord.

Ignorances. Hebrew, "defects," as youth is more apt to omit duties than to act very wickedly. Yet it is difficult to decide how grievous such sins may be. (Berthier) --- Passion and ignorance then concur to lead the inexperienced astray. (Haydock) --- From the first use of reason, many are careless, and neglect to learn their duty. (Worthington) --- Ignorance is sometimes a sin, though it may be more pardonable, 1 Timothy 1:(Menochius)
Psalms 24:8 The Lord is sweet and righteous: therefore he will give a law to sinners in the way.

Righteous. Though he is always ready to receive the penitent, he will punish the obstinate with severity. (Calmet; Worthington) --- Yet he points out the means of obtaining his favour. (St. Augustine) --- A law. Hebrew, "will instruct." (Calmet)
Psalms 24:9 He will guide the mild in judgment: he will teach the meek his ways.

Mild. Only rebels are made the victims of justice. (Haydock)
Psalms 24:10 All the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth, to them that seek after his covenant and his testimonies.

Seek. Hebrew, "keeps." But no one seeks after the law, who does not strive to keep it. (Berthier) --- Jesus Christ shewed mercy at his first coming, and he will display truth at his second, judging all with equity. (St. Augustine) --- Testimonies. When God gave the law to manifest his will, he attested heaven and earth, that all might observe it carefully. (Calmet) --- The law is God's covenant, and the testimony of his will. He mercifully preventeth us with his grace, and will reward with truth and justice. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:11 For thy name's sake, O Lord, thou wilt pardon my sin: for it is great.

Great. "Original sin is common to all, and will not be washed away, except God be pleased to destroy it in baptism." (St. Jerome) --- David had committed adultery; and all must acknowledge their manifold guilt. (Calmet) --- Though the guilt had been remitted, the punishment due to David's crime was to be endured in this life, and he ought daily to pray for pardon. (Berthier) --- The aversion from God in sin is great, and standeth in need of his gracious remission. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:12 Who is the man that feareth the Lord? He hath appointed him a law in the way he hath chosen.

He hath. This may be understood either of God, or of man, who has chosen a state of life. (Berthier) --- Provided he be guided by the fear of the Lord, (Calmet) all things will turn to his advantage. (Haydock)
Psalms 24:13 His soul shall dwell in good things: and his seed shall inherit the land.

Dwell. Hebrew intimates, "all night" at rest; yet so that he must only enjoy temporal goods like a traveller. (Berthier) --- We ought to look up to heaven as to our true country, (Calmet) of which Palestine was only a figure, Psalm lxviii. (Menochius) --- The land, is not expressed in Hebrew, "his seed shall receive (good) for an inheritance." (Haydock) --- Five blessings are here promised to those who fear the God: instruction, a supply of necessities, a progeny to imitate his virtues, protection, and heaven. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:14 The Lord is a firmament to them that fear him: and his covenant shall be made manifest to them.

Firmament, or strong support. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "the secret of the Lord is for them," etc. He conceals nothing from his friends. (Calmet) --- Both these senses are good, (Berthier) and the Hebrew words are nearly allied. (Robertson) --- All who fear God, ought to interest themselves, and pray that he would enlighten the ignorant, and convert sinners. (Berthier) --- The uncertain and hidden things of thy wisdom thou hast made manifest to me, Psalm 50:8. (Menochius)
Psalms 24:15 My eyes are ever towards the Lord: for he shall pluck my feet out of the snare.

Lord. Our prayers are not heard, because they are not like this: fervant, incessant, and humble. We have all to fear from our passions, which are the most dangerous snares. (Berthier)
Psalms 24:16 Look thou upon me, and have mercy on me; for I am alone and poor.

Alone. Desolate, (Psalm 21:21.) without any assistant. (Haydock) --- Such is man destitute of God's grace. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:17 The troubles of my heart are multiplied: deliver me from my necessities.

Multiplied. Hebrew, "enlarged." So in the gradual for the second Sunday of Lent, we read dilatatae. (Berthier) --- Afflictions must be endured. (Worthington; Sen.[Seneca?] ep. 12.)
Psalms 24:18 See my abjection and my labour: and forgive me all my sins.

See. The word kum, "arise," may be wanting, as the verse should begin with k, (Calmet) unless it be lost. Manuscript 2, repeats the former verse, perhaps to fill up the space. (Kennicott) --- Forgive. Hebrew or "bear." (Berthier; St. Jerome; Menochius) --- If the cause be removed, the affliction will have an end. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:19 Consider my enemies, for they are multiplied, *and have hated me with an unjust hatred.

John 15:25.
Unjust. Hebrew also, "cruel," (Haydock) or "violent." But St. Jerome agrees with the Septuagint. Our spiritual enemies are the most dangerous and unrelenting, and we are too often off our guard. (Berthier) --- The wicked, through hatred of God, (Haydock) seek to draw others into sin. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:20 Keep thou my soul, and deliver me: I shall not be ashamed, for I have hoped in thee.

Soul. David was most concerned for it; (Berthier) and those who sincerely place their confidence in God, will never be confounded. (Worthington)
Psalms 24:21 The innocent and the upright have adhered to me: because I have waited on thee.

Adhered. Hebrew, "innocence, etc., have kept me." (Calmet) --- Those faithful subjects, who have accompanied me in my flight, stand guard to protect me. Requite them, O Lord, and grant peace to all my people. (Haydock) --- My example encourages them to follow thy law, and they will be staggered, if thou grant not my request. (Menochius)
Psalms 24:22 Deliver Israel, O God, from all his tribulations.

Deliver. Hebrew pede, "redeem." All the 22 (Haydock) letters of the alphabet are complete without this supplication for all Israel, or for the Church. (Worthington) --- It might form a part of the last verse, or belong to the next psalm; unless it be a conclusion like that of Psalm xxxiii., (Calmet) out of the alphabetical order. (Houbigant) --- Israel. St. Augustine and some ancient psalters read, "Me, O God of Israel, from all my tribulations." (Calmet)
Psalms 25:0 David's prayer to God in his distress, to be delivered, that he may come to worship him in his tabernacle.

Psalms 25:1 Unto the end. A psalm for David. Judge me, O Lord, for I have walked in my innocence: and I have put my trust in the Lord, and shall not be weakened.

David. Hebrew and the most correct copies of the Septuagint, etc., have only "Of David." (Haydock) --- The Complutensian and Aldine editions add indeed A psalm. But these form no rule, as the Vatican Septuagint is allowed to be the best. (Berthier) --- The others may, however, be consulted, as in some instances they may be preferable. (Haydock) --- This psalm might be composed to counteract the calumnies propagated against David, while he lived among the Philistines; (Theodoret; Flaminius) or it may contain the sentiments of the captives, as well as the two following canticles. (Calmet) --- The Church, (St. Augustine, etc.) or any afflicted soul, may thus appeal to the justice of God, (Berthier) and particularly the sacred ministers, when they are going to appear before him. --- Innocence. Only those whose conscience reproaches them with nothing, can hold this language. God is a just and unerring judge. (Calmet) --- Weakened. Hebrew also "slide," (Protestants) or "stagger." (Symmachus) I am confident that my enemies will have no advantage over me. (Calmet)
Psalms 25:2 Prove me, O Lord, and try me; burn my reins and my heart.

Burn, like gold in the furnace. (Berthier) --- Purify all my affections and thoughts with the fire of divine love. (St. Augustine; St. Jerome) --- Make my dispositions known to the world. I have done no one any harm. (Calmet) --- I take thee for the arbiter of my cause with respect to Saul, whom I have not injured. Still, as I may not be innocent, do thou try me, as thou thinkest proper. (Worthington)
Psalms 25:3 For thy mercy is before my eyes: and I am well pleased with thy truth.

Truth. Before such a judge, I fear no calumny. I have always endeavoured to imitate these divine perfections. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "I have walked constantly in thy truth," which could not be without loving it. (Berthier)
Psalms 25:4 I have not sat with the council of vanity: neither will I go in with the doers of unjust things.

Council. Hebrew, "men." --- Doers. Hebrew, "men of darkness;" which means the wicked, (Berthier) who love darkness. Protestants, "dissemblers." (Haydock) --- The sacred minister ought to avoid evil company. (Calmet) --- David had often people of this description, like Joab and Abner, in his train; but he did not approve of their conduct. Some would restrain his words to idolaters: but this would make his declaration of little importance to Christians, as many would say the same, though they dare not say that they flee from wicked society. We must also banish all such thoughts as would destroy us. (Berthier) --- David was inspired to speak the sentiments of his soul, and praise his own sincerity more than ordinary men may do. He instructs us to have no society with the conventicles of any false religion. (Worthington)
Psalms 25:5 I have hated the assembly of the malignant; and with the wicked I will not sit.

Psalms 25:6 I will wash my hands among the innocent: and will compass thy altar, O Lord.

Luke 23:46.
Innocent. Hebrew, "in innocence," avoiding every thing which may defile and render me unfit to approach thy holy altar. Many things (Calmet) of themselves innocent, (Haydock) excluded the priests of the old law from officiating, and if they had partaken of any idolatrous sacrifices, they lost their dignity for ever, Ezechiel 44:12. How much greater ought to be the sanctity of Christian priests! The Jews carefully abstained from eating what the law forbade, Daniel 1:8., and Tobias 1:12. David would not sit down to a feast with the proud, Psalm 100:5. It was customary to wash before meat (Matthew 15:2., and Mark 7:3.) and prayer. Aristeas informs us that the Septuagint washed their hands every morning, before they began to translate the Bible, to shew what purity of soul was requisite. Pilate used the like ceremony, when he would have no hand in the condemnation of our Saviour; (Matthew 27:24.; Calmet) and thus people declared their innocence, Deuteronomy 21:6. (Menochius) --- People entering the house of God, and priests at the altar, adopt the same symbols of interior purity, and ought to be penetrated with the like sentiments. (Haydock) --- David opposes the society of the good to that of the wicked, knowing that the former is a great inducement to virtue, and he declares that he will wash or converse with such. (Berthier) --- These words are recited by the priest, to put him in mind of the purity required, Leviticus 16:4. (Worthington)
Psalms 25:7 That I may hear the voice of thy praise: and tell of all thy wondrous works.

Hear. Hebrew with points, "publish." (Berthier) --- St. Jerome agrees with the Septuagint. --- Thy praise. The former word is not expressed in the Vulgate or Hebrew, (Haydock) but it is understood; and occurs in some editions of the Septuagint, as well as in the Syriac. (Houbigant, etc.) --- Worldlings come to the assemblies of the faithful, but often without piety or advantage. Priests themselves but too frequently dishonour the altar, which they serve. (Berthier) --- If they were careful to perform their sacred duties well, (Haydock) and had a sincere love for the spouse of Christ, many profanations would be avoided; (Calmet) as God suffers no greater injury from any, than from bad ministers. (St. Gregory, etc.) (Haydock) --- They ought to be recollected, and join mental with vocal prayer in their sacred offices. (Worthington)
Psalms 25:8 I have loved, O Lord, the beauty of thy house; and the place where thy glory dwelleth.

Beauty. The ark, 1 Kings 4:22. Symmachus, "the palace." (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "the dwelling." The psalmist desires to imitate those fervent Levites, who chose always to attend the tabernacle, Deuteronomy 18:6. (Calmet) --- Mehon, when applied to the "dwelling" of God, may be properly rendered a temple, heaven, etc., Deuteronomy 26:15. (Berthier) --- No one who reflects on the blessings dispensed in God's house, can fail to be struck with admiration. (Worthington)
Psalms 25:9 Take not away my soul, O God, with the wicked: nor my life with bloody men:

Take; literally, "destroy," (Haydock) or suffer me not to be contaminated or lost. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "gather." Protestants, or "take not away." (Marginal note; and St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Hebrew may be more expressive, and agrees with the parable, where God orders the cockle to be gathered into bundles, to be burnt. [Matthew 13:30.?] (Berthier) --- Treat me not like the wicked and murderers, who are cut off before their time. (Calmet) --- David alludes to a future state, as he knew that the wicked were not always punished here. (Berthier) --- O God is not in Hebrew, Septuagint, or St. Augustine. (Calmet) --- But it is understood. (Haydock)
Psalms 25:10 In whose hands are iniquities: their right hand is filled with gifts.

Gifts, to bribe; or rather, which the judges have received. (Berthier) Shochad is always used in a bad sense for "a bribe." (Calmet) --- Est munus a lingua....a manu....et ab obsequio. (St. Jerome) --- The wicked use their worldly goods to corrupt others. (Worthington) --- Jugurtha leaving Rome, said, "O venal city." (Sallust)
Psalms 25:11 But as for me, I have walked in my innocence: redeem me, and have mercy on me.

Innocence. He opposes the integrity of his proceedings to that of the wicked. (Calmet) --- Yet still calls for mercy. (Haydock) --- Every one should strive to be innocent, and to avoid the company of worldlings. (Worthington)
Psalms 25:12 My foot hath stood in the direct way: in the churches I will bless thee, O Lord.

Direct, (directo.) Protestants, "in an even place," (Haydock) in the court where the Levites sung. (Vatable) --- I have followed the paths of justice, and hope soon to be able to praise thee in thy temple. (Calmet) --- These seven last verses are daily recited at Mass. But do we reflect what innocence and fervour are required of the sacred ministers? I cannot assert that my paths have never strayed from the right way. Pardon my transgressions, and enable me henceforth to live so that I may be worthy to sound forth thy praise, and to appear in thy sanctuary. (Berthier) --- Thee. Hebrew, "the Lord." (Haydock) --- The psalms of David are now used in every Christian Church. (Euthymius; Menochius)
Psalms 26:0 David's faith and hope in God.

Psalms 26:1 The psalm of David before he was anointed. The Lord is my light and my salvation, whom shall I fear? The Lord is the protector of my life; of whom shall I be afraid?

Anointed. Hebrew has only, David. The rest of the title occurs only in some copies of the Septuagint, (Eusebius; Calmet) and is not of divine authority. Yet if any attention be paid to it, we must suppose that David composed this psalm before his second anointing, as he speaks of great dangers. But this is all uncertain. (Berthier) --- For dangers threatened David even after he had been declared king. (Haydock) --- Before Samuel anointed him, he was not endued with the spirit of prophecy. See 1 Kings 16:13., and 2 Kings 2:4., and 5:3. (Calmet) --- Some suppose that he alludes to the entertainment given him by Abimelech[Achimelech?] , (ver. 5 and 12.; Theodoret) or to that night when, fearless of danger, he took away Saul's cup; (Ferrand) while Abenezra and De Muis rather believe, that he composed this psalm when his people dissuaded him from going out to battle, 2 Kings 21:17. It expresses the sentiments of the Levites in captivity, (Calmet) and most beautifully consoles the just in distress. David did not write this for himself alone, but for all future generations. Hence it is not necessary to discover the particular circumstance of his life, to which this and many other psalms allude; nor is there any difficulty in explaining away the various imprecations, as they are not directed against any individual, but relate to all the enemies of the soul; while they foretell what the wicked shall suffer. (Berthier) --- Afraid. "Find one more powerful, and then fear." (St. Augustine) --- God both giveth light and strength, so that no enemy can hurt his servants, Luke 21:15. (Worthington)
Psalms 26:2 Whilst the wicked draw near against me, to eat my flesh. My enemies that trouble me, have themselves been weakened, and have fallen.

Flesh. This expression marks the fury of his enemies. See Job 19:22., and 31:31. (Calmet) --- That. Hebrew and Septuagint, "and my foes." This may denote domestic, and the former word public, enemies. (Haydock) --- Weakened. Hebrew also, "have stumbled." Those who came to take Jesus Christ, verified this prediction, John 18:6. (Calmet)
Psalms 26:3 If armies in camp should stand together against me, my heart shall not fear. If a battle should rise up against me, in this will I be confident.

This; God's protection (Haydock) and light, (Menochius) or in the very heat of battle: praelium. Septuagint express the Hebrew feminine pronoun, as they do with the Vulgate, ver. 4, unam. There is no neuter in Hebrew, which commonly uses the feminine, instead. (Calmet) --- It may be deemed too scrupulous an exactitude, to express this in a version. The word petition may be understood. (Berthier) (Menochius) --- The one petition of David comprised every blessing; as he had his mind bent on heaven. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 26:4 One thing I have asked of the Lord, this will I seek after; that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life. That I may see the delight of the Lord, and may visit his temple.

House; the tabernacle, (Haydock) or temple, (Calmet) unless he may rather allude to God's presence and union, or his enjoyment in heaven. (Berthier) --- He had already expressed a similar wish, Psalm 25:8. (Calmet) --- "When we love what God approves, he will surely grant our request." (St. Augustine) --- David esteemed it as a special benefit to be in the Catholic Church, which is the only true house of God. (Worthington) --- Delight; beauty and sweetness, as the Hebrew implies. Many of the ancients read, "the will," voluntatem, with Sixtus V, etc. But the edition of Clement VIII agrees with the Hebrew and Oriental versions. (Calmet) --- To comply with God's will, is the only means of arriving at his beatific vision. (Haydock) --- David was more grieved at being kept at a distance from the tabernacle, than from his own family. He envied the happiness of those who could attend the divine worship. (Menochius)
Psalms 26:5 For he hath hidden me in his tabernacle: in the day of evils, he hath protected me in the secret place of his tabernacle.

Tabernacle; in the Catholic Church, so that the enemy can either not find, or at least cannot hurt, my soul. (Worthington) --- I hope one day to enjoy rest in the temple. (Calmet) --- The verbs are in the future, in Hebrew both here and in the following verse. But they may be as well explained in the sense of the Vulgate. Those who find themselves in danger, must still have recourse to God's presence, (Berthier) where, as (Haydock) in the asylum of the tabernacle, (Menochius) or of the temple, they will be protected. (Calmet) --- God rewards those with glory in death, who have suffered for his name. (Worthington)
Psalms 26:6 He hath exalted me upon a rock: and now he hath lifted up my head above my enemies. I have gone round, and have offered up in his tabernacle a sacrifice of jubilation: I will sing, and recite a psalm to the Lord.

Round. Hebrew, "my enemies around." But the Septuagint understand it of David, (Berthier) or of the priest, who poured the blood of the victims on different sides of the altar. (Haydock) --- Jubilation: singing and music, which are styled the fruit, or calves of the lips, Isaias 57:19., and Osee 14:3. (Calmet) --- David diligently recounted God's benefits, with all his heart and voice. (Worthington) --- He offered sacrifices by ministry of the priests, on the altar of holocausts, which was not in, but before, the tabernacle. (Menochius)
Psalms 26:7 Hear, O Lord, my voice, with which I have cried to thee: have mercy on me and hear me.

To thee, is understood in Hebrew and the Roman Septuagint. (Haydock)
Psalms 26:8 My heart hath said to thee: My face hath sought thee: thy face, O Lord, will I still seek.

Face hath. Hebrew pointed, "faces seek ye." But Septuagint, St. Jerome, Chaldean, etc., take no notice of these points; and even Protestants' marginal note has, "My heart said unto thee, Let my face seek thy face;" (Berthier) though in the text they derange the words, and add, "When thou saidst, Seek ye my face, my heart said," etc. (Haydock) --- Seek. "I have sought for no reward besides thee." (St. Augustine) --- I have earnestly desired to see thee face to face, 1 Corinthians 13:12. (Worthington)
Psalms 26:9 Turn not away thy face from me; decline not in thy wrath from thy servant. Be thou my helper, forsake me not; do not thou despise me, O God, my Saviour.

Decline not. Hebrew, "put not away." (Protestants) But the Vulgate seems preferable. --- Forsake. Septuagint (Complutensian and Aldine) me aposkorakises, "send me not to the crows," an expression borrowed from profane authors, who said, "to the crows," when they held a person in sovereign contempt. (Theodoret; Berthier) --- Grabe substitutes this word, though the Alexandrian and Vatican manuscripts agree with us. (Haydock) --- There seems to be a gradation in the condition of the reprobate here observed. God hides his countenance, withdraws, abandons, and despises them; and they only perceive their misery, when it is too late. (Berthier) --- David implores aid in this life, and deprecates the divine anger, looking upon himself as an orphan, whom God takes under his special protection. (Worthingtonn)
Psalms 26:10 For my father and my mother have left me: but the Lord hath taken me up.

For. Hebrew, "Though." David's parents fled to him, 1 Kings 22:1. Yet they had made small account of him, till Samuel called him forth, 1 Kings 16:10. The father-in-law and mother-in-law may be also designated. When a saint is deprived of every human advantage, he may still say with St. Augustine, "They have taken from me what God gave, but they have not taken God from me, who gave those things." (Berthier) --- Though I am like an orphan, I hope for all good from God, my father, Isaias 63:16. (Calmet)
Psalms 26:11 Set me, O Lord, a law in thy way, and guide me in the right path, because of my enemies.

Enemies, who strive to pervert me. Keep me in the right path, which thou hast already made known to me. (Worthington)
Psalms 26:12 Deliver me not over to the will of them that trouble me: for unjust witnesses have risen up against me; and iniquity hath lied to itself.

Will. Literally, "souls." (Haydock) --- Some ancient copies have, "the hands." --- Unjust. Hebrew, "false." (Haydock) --- To itself, ought not to be urged no more than eat sibi, vade tibi, Genesis 12:1., and Canticle of Canticles 1:7. (Calmet) --- It is a Hebrew idiom. (Haydock) --- Many find fault with the Septuagint and Vulgate in this place, but without reason; and they do not agree in their versions. Symmachus and St. Jerome come near to us. Puach means to breathe, or entangle; and our version intimates, that "iniquity has entangled itself:" vipheach chamas, "and open lying." (St. Jerome) (Berthier) --- The accusers of Susanna, and of our Saviour, could not agree in their testimony. The Chaldeans continually calumniated the captives, Isaias 52:4., and Jeremias 50:33. (Calmet) --- Worldlings still do the same, (Matthew v.) delighting in lies, which will prove their own ruin. (Worthington)
Psalms 26:13 I believe to see the good things of the Lord in the land of the living.

1:Hebrew, "But I believe that I shall see." (St. Jerome) --- "I had fainted, unless," etc. (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Living, or of promise, as this country is often designated, (Muis; Tirinus; Du Pin; Calmet) or rather in heaven, (Berthier; Menochius) where death shall be no more. (Haydock) --- The Fathers explain it in this more elevated sense. (Calmet) --- The just are comforted by God, and by the hope of heavenly rewards. (Worthington) --- The land of the living may be opposed to the grave, where none can worship God. (Haydock)
Psalms 26:14 Expect the Lord, do manfully, and let thy heart take courage, and wait thou for the Lord.

And let. Hebrew, "and he will strengthen my heart, and wait" (instead of and, Protestants put, without reason, "Wait, I say) on the Lord." We must do our utmost: yet all our strength must come from God. (Haydock) --- The prophet encourageth his own soul to exercise patience, fortitude, and longanimity (Psalm xxx.; Worthington) unto the end. (Worthington)
Psalms 27:0 David's prayer that his enemies may not prevail over him.

Psalms 27:1 A psalm for David himself. Unto thee will I cry, O Lord: O my God, be not thou silent to me; lest if thou be silent to me, I become like them that go down into the pit.

Himself. The Hebrew and Septuagint (Roman and Alexandrian) have simply "of David." --- Ledavid. (Haydock) --- The psalm appears to be a sequel of the preceding, and we may adopt the rule of the Jews, who refer the psalms which have no title, to the same author and events as those which go before. It may relate to the captives, (Calmet) or to David under persecution, though the Fathers explain it of Christ suffering, etc., and rising again. --- My God. Hebrew, "rock." This term is so often applied to God, that it might be added to his other ten titles. (Berthier) --- Lest....to me, is not in the Roman psalter. (Euthymius, etc.) --- Pit, grave; though it also denote "a prison." (Calmet) --- St. Jerome has "be not deaf to me," etc. (Menochius)
Psalms 27:2 Hear, O Lord, the voice of my supplication, when I pray to thee; when I lift up my hands to thy holy temple.

Pray. Hebrew, "cry....to the recess of thy sanctuary, (Haydock) or to thy oracle." Septuagint place the whole for a part. The tabernacle was often styled temple, 1 Kings 1:9. To lift up the hands was customary in prayer, (1 Timothy 2:8., and Lamentations 3:41.; Berthier) to testify whence our aid must come. (Haydock) --- The Jews turned towards the holy place in prayer, (3 Kings 8:48., and Ezechiel 8:16.) even after the temple was destroyed. (Calmet)
Psalms 27:3 Draw me not away together with the wicked; and with the workers of iniquity destroy me not: Who speak peace with their neighbour, but evils are in their hearts.

Draw. Sextus V reads tradas, "deliver," etc. But the present trahas, is more conformable to the original. (Calmet) --- Septuagint add, destroy me not, as the Hebrew might also signify. Suffer me not to follow bad example. They often paraphrase, to render the text clearer. A similar petition occurs, Psalm 25:9. --- Hearts. Such double dealers are abominable, and quite opposite to the candour of a Christian, John 1:47., and 1 Peter 2:22. (Berthier) --- The psalmist prays that God would comfort and support him, as he knew that God tempteth no man, James 1:(Worthington)
Psalms 27:4 Give them according to their works, and according to the wickedness of their inventions. According to the works of their hands give thou to them: render to them their reward.

Reward. He speaks prophetically, (ver. 5.) or of spiritual enemies. (Berthier) --- "If they do not understand by kindness, make them understand by torments." (St. Jerome) --- He alludes to the calamities of the Babylonians, who had made such havoc, (Calmet) as well as to that of all who persecuted or rebelled against David. (Haydock) --- His zeal prompts him to approve of their chastisement. (Worthington)
Psalms 27:5 Because they have not understood the works of the Lord, and the operations of his hands; thou shalt destroy them, and shalt not build them up.

The works, (in opera.) The preposition seems redundant, though (Haydock) it was probably in both places, to insinuate that attention is requisite. The Jews perished, because they would not know the things that were for their peace, Luke 19:42. Their city in ruins, is an emblem of the sinner's utter destruction. --- Thou shalt. Hebrew, "he will." (Berthier) --- The Chaldeans gave supreme honour to idols, neglecting the true God. Their punishment was at hand. (Kimchi) (Calmet) ---Ignorance will prove no excuse, when people might be informed. God will save none, without their co-operation. (Worthington)
Psalms 27:6 Blessed be the Lord, for he hath heard the voice of my supplication.

Blessed. This energetic epithet is generally applied to the Lord, and as it is also given to Christ, he must be true God, Romans 9:5., etc.
Psalms 27:7 The Lord is my helper and my protector: in him hath my heart confided, and I have been helped. And my flesh hath flourished again, and with my will I will give praise to him.

Protector. Hebrew, "buckler," to defend me from external enemies, as his grace enables me to do good. --- Flesh. Hebrew, "heart." But joy would manifest itself over the whole body: (Proverbs 17:22.; Berthier) and the Syriac agrees with the Septuagint, "My flesh shall bud forth, and I shall sing his praises in glory." (Calmet) --- Will. Hebrew, "canticle," which was dictated by the will. It is suspected that the Septuagint read differently. Only the saints taste true joys, so that they alone might be styled sensual. But this worldlings cannot understand, 1 Corinthians 2:14. (Berthier) --- The Fathers explain this text of Christ's, or of our resurrection, (St. Jerome, etc.) which was prefigured by the return from captivity. (Calmet) --- Interior comfort causes the body to be refreshed; and the psalmist gladly (Worthington) expresses his gratitude. (Haydock)
Psalms 27:8 The Lord is the strength of his people, and the protector of the salvation of his anointed.

People; (hoz lamu) instead of which the Hebrew has lamo, "their strength;" though the people of God had not been mentioned. St. Jerome translates, "the Lord is my strength." Houbigant shews that the Vulgate is most accurate. (Berthier) --- Protestants' marginal note, "his strength." --- Salvation. Literally, "salvations," as he had many times protected David, as well as (Haydock) the priests and prophets, and all the chosen people, 1 Peter 2:9. (Calmet) --- God causeth the good endeavours of the king for his subjects to prosper. (Worthington)
Psalms 27:9 Save, O Lord, thy people, and bless thy inheritance: and rule them and exalt them for ever.

Exalt, or carry on thy shoulders, like the good shepherd, Luke 15:5. Restore thy people to prosperity. This was the wish of the carnal Jews. The Christian must raise his thoughts higher. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome and Protestants, "feed....and lift them up for ever." Here the progress of justification appears. (Haydock) --- God redeems and conducts us to eternal bliss. (Berthier) --- As in Psalm xix., etc., the subjects pray for their superiors, so here the ruler offers up his petitions for those committed to his charge. (Worthington)
Psalms 28:0 An invitiation to glorify God, with a commemoration of his mighty works.

Psalms 28:1 A psalm for David, at the finishing of the tabernacle.

Finishing. Septuagint, exodiou or exodou, may also signify "the going out;" (Haydock) as if the sacred ministers exhorted their successors to perform their duty in the ensuing week, or on the last day of the feast of tabernacles, Leviticus 23:36. (Calmet) --- Hebrew has only "A canticle of David," (Haydock) and the rest was not in the Hexapla in the time of Theodoret, so that many pay no attention to it. The author seems to have supposed that the psalm was composed when David had finished the tabernacle, on Sion. (Calmet) (2 Kings vi., and 1 Paralipomenon xvi.) --- But the psalmist had in view things of far greater importance, the propagation of Christianity among many great potentates. (Worthington) --- The Fathers explain it in this sense, though it may literally allude (Calmet) to the storm procured by the prayer of Elias, 3 Kings 18:1, 41. (Haydock) --- It might be composed in a thunder-storm, and used on similar occasions, (Muis) when a person had to go from home. (Haydock) --- The seven voices may allude to the seven sacraments, or trumpets, Apocalypse 10:3. (Berthier) --- God. Septuagint seemed to have read Aleim, or they have taken elim in the same sense, as it signifies "the mighty" as well as "rams." On account of this ambiguity, a double translation is given either by the Septuagint, or rather by some later writer, who may have inserted the explanation, O ye children of God, bring ye to the Lord; (Haydock) which has crept from the margin into the text. (Amama) --- It is marked as superfluous by Grabe, (Haydock) not being found in the best Greek copies; or at least have an obel, (Eusebius) to insinuate that it was not in Hebrew, in which state it appears in the Gal. Psalter, published in St. Jerome's works. (Calmet) --- It is not contrary to the original, though more explicit, (Berthier) as the address is made to all the faithful, (Menochius) or to the priests and nobility. (Haydock) --- The apostles are styled rams, because they beat down error with the two Testaments; whence bishops' mitres have two horns. (Lombard; Amama) --- "Give praise to the Lord, ye troops of angels; render to the Lord glory and strength." (Chaldean) (Calmet) --- Be grateful for the favours which are here recounted. (Worthington) --- Most people now translate, "sons of the mighty." Yet St. Jerome and Houbigant have, "offspring of rams;" filios arietum. Bring lambs to the Lord, as the original may certainly mean; though many who are attached to the Hebrew allow also sons of God. (Berthier) --- Montfaucon says that Origen marked with a lemniscus, what he judged "a better reading," and thus obelized the first of these versions, and added the second with an asterisk. This liberty has been attended both with good and bad consequences. (Kennicott)
Psalms 28:2 Bring to the Lord glory and honour; bring to the Lord glory to his name: adore ye the Lord in his holy court.

Honour. Hebrew, "strength," which we must acknowledge. (Haydock) --- The first design of sacrifice is to adore God in spirit. (Worthington) --- Holy court. Hebrew, "in the holy beauty," 1 Paralipomenon 16:29. Even the priests were obliged to remain in the court, where they adored God, as sitting upon the Cherubim, in the most holy place (Calmet) in the Catholic Church. (Worthington) --- External worship must be observed. (Berthier)
Psalms 28:3 The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; the God of majesty hath thundered, The Lord is upon many waters.

Voice. Separating the waters from the earth at the beginning, as the six other voices may denote the other works of the creation; or all these voices may signify the various effects of thunder, or may allude to the terrors preceding the last judgment, (Apocalypse 10:3.) or attending the establishment and liberation of the Jewish and Christian Churches. The first voice was heard when Jesus was baptized, (Matthew 3:17.) as the rest may intimate the instruction and efficacy of the other sacraments. It is evident that something posterior to the reign of David is prefigured; (Berthier) and the Fathers have generally understood the psalm of the propagation of the gospel by the apostles, two of whom are styled sons of thunder, Mark 3:17. (Calmet) --- The psalmist speaks of greater things than attended the translation of the ark. He represents our Saviour preaching with great power and majesty, (Matthew 7:29.) and subjecting the most powerful monarchs to his dominion. (Worthington) --- Thunder is often styled the voice of God, and is occasioned by the collision of the clouds, (Haydock) which Moses calls the waters above. (St. Basil) (Calmet)
Psalms 28:4 The voice of the Lord is in power; the voice of the Lord in magnificence.

Power and magnificence. The sacraments of confirmation, and the blessed Eucharist, or the wonderful propagation of the Church, amid violent persecutions. (Berthier)
Psalms 28:5 The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars: yea, the Lord shall break the cedars of Libanus.

Libanus. Which were the most famous. (Haydock) --- Storms often tear up trees by the roots. (Calmet) --- The effects of the gospel and of penance, may be described, or the terrors of the last day, when Jesus Christ will destroy the proud. (Berthier)
Psalms 28:6 And shall reduce them to pieces, as a calf of Libanus, and as the beloved son of unicorns.

Shall reduce them to pieces, etc. In Hebrew, shall make them to skip like a calf. The psalmist here describes the effects of thunder, (which he calls the voice of the Lord) which sometimes breaks down the tallest and strongest trees; and makes their broken branches skip, etc. All this is to be understood mystically, of the powerful voice of God's word in his Church; which has broke the pride of the great ones of this world, and brought many of them meekly and joyfully to submit their necks to the sweet yoke of Christ. (Challoner) --- Calf, or "branch," as the Greek word also implies. But Hebrew seems more naturally to signify "a calf; Libanus and Sirion, (or Sarion.; Deuteronomy 3:9.) as the son of the unicorn." These two mountains are represented jolting together. (Calmet) --- The violence of an earthquake has sometimes produced such effects. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 2:83.) See Psalm 113:4., Judges 5:5., and Habacuc 3:10. (Calmet) --- And as. The construction et dilectus, seems rather to make this another nominative, "the Lord shall, etc., and the beloved, (Haydock) the Messias, like the son of the unicorn," shall perform the like wonders. It seems probable that the Septuagint have read Jeshurun for Shirion, (Berthier) or vissron, instead of ussriun; as i would only be a little transposed. (Haydock) --- Jeshurun is a title of Israel, (Deuteronomy 32:15., and 33:5, 26.) who was a figure of the Messias, the beloved of God. (Berthier) --- "And he will scatter them as a calf would do; Libanus and Sarion, are in motion, like the son of the rhinoceros." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) The most powerful submit to Christ, who works these wonders. (Worthington)
Psalms 28:7 The voice of the Lord divideth the flame of fire: 8 The voice of the Lord shaketh the desert: and the Lord shall shake the desert of Cades.

Fire. Lightning, which deals destruction around. (Calmet) --- The Holy Ghost appeared in the form of parted tongues of fire, to enable the apostles to convert the desert of the Gentile world, and the Jews, represented by the desert of Cades, (Worthington) which was near their country, (Haydock) on the frontiers of Idumea, Numbers 13:27. (Calmet) --- Holy orders were instituted by Christ, to confer grace to the sacred ministers, according to their different stations or exigencies; (Berthier) or extreme unction, which prepares the soul for her separation from the body, may be here meant, if we follow the usual disposition of the sacraments; as the following sentence may allude to holy orders, which shakes or causes the desert to fructify, (Haydock) unless these words be rather applicable to matrimony. (Berthier) --- Shaketh and shakes. St. Jerome has parturire faciens, "making the desert bring forth." Chaldean, "frightens the serpents." All nature is alarmed at the sound of thunder. (Haydock) --- The deserts then appear most terrible. (Calmet)
Psalms 28:9 The voice of the Lord prepareth the stags: and he will discover the thick woods: and in his temple all shall speak his glory.

Prepareth. Hebrew, "delivereth," as a midwife (St. Jerome, 5 Edition, Aquila) "maketh the hinds to calve;" (Protestants; Haydock) or "to leap, (from eul; Berthier) or frighteneth." Hinds are supposed to bring forth with great difficulty. But the reverse seems to be the case. (St. Chrysostom in Job 39:3.) (Calmet) --- They are very swift, and trample serpents under their feet, nature having given them this power. (St. Jerome) (Pliny, [Natural History?] 7:32.) The text may be understood of the last sacrament, which prepares us for our passage; (Berthier) or of matrimony, by means of which the world is peopled with rational beings, whose duty it is to glorify God in his temple. (Haydock) --- This is also the effect of grace, and of the preaching of the gospel, (Berthier) which inspires people with a desire of running on in the way of perfection. Christ explains to them hidden mysteries in his Church, to which he bring multitudes, like the waters, ruling over them, and enabling them to overcome all temptations, till he crown his elect with eternal peace. (Worthington) --- Glory. Running thither through fear, or to thank God for rain after a drought.
Psalms 28:10 The Lord maketh the flood to dwell: and the Lord shall sit king for ever.

Dwell. Chaldean explains this of the deluge, which continued a long while upon the earth, to punish mankind. Hebrew may also signify, "the Lord sitteth upon the flood," or clouds, as the Lord of nature. --- Strength, or abundant rain, (Josue 38:6.) with all other blessings; (Calmet) making his people as terrible to their enemies as the storm which has been described. (Menochius)
Psalms 29:0 David praiseth God for his deliverance, and his merciful dealings with him.

Psalms 29:1 A psalm of a canticle, at the dedication of David's house.

Dedication, when David sung after he had (Haydock) built a magnificent palace, 2 Kings 5. (Worthington) --- David's, ledavid, or "to David," which some rather join with Psalm, (Muis) and explain the house of the tabernacle or temple; though it seems more probably to relate to the altar, which David erected, after the pestilence (Calmet) had destroyed 70,000, 2 Kings 24:25. There seems to be nothing respecting a dedication in the psalm; whence we may conjecture that the title is not very authentic. The Greeks (Berthier) prefixed "unto the end," in the Roman Septuagint, but not Grabe's, etc. (Haydock) --- The Rabbins inform us that this psalm was used when people brought their first fruits to the temple, and that it will be sung at the dedication of the temple, which the expect the Messias will erect. (Selden, Syn. 3:13.) --- The Fathers explain it of Christ's resurrection. (Calmet) --- It may be put in the mouth of a just man leaving this world. (Berthier) --- the title of Psalm, most properly belongs to those which were played upon instruments; as a canticle refers to vocal music. When the instrument preceded, it was called A psalm of a canticle; as a canticle of a psalm intimated that man gave out the psalm, and instruments followed. (Worthington) --- These distinctions are given by St. Chrysostom, etc. (Menochius)
Psalms 29:2 I will extol thee, O Lord, for thou hast upheld me: and hast not made my enemies to rejoice over me.

Extol. Or publish thy great goodness and power, (Haydock) in the same sense as we say Hallowed be thy name. (Berthier) --- Though God can receive no increase of glory, we must shew our gratitude. (Worthington) --- Me. Thou hast not suffered my people to be wholly destroyed, nor myself to perish in consequence of my vain curiosity. (Calmet) --- David sings this psalm in thanksgiving for his many deliverances. (Worthington)
Psalms 29:3 O Lord, my God, I have cried to thee, and thou hast healed me.

Healed me. I expected to die every moment, and I had made choice of the scourge of pestilence, that I might not be more screened than my subjects, 2 Kings 24:13. (Calmet)
Psalms 29:4 Thou hast brought forth, O Lord, my soul from hell: thou hast saved me from them that go down into the pit.

Hell. Preserving me from great dangers of sinning, (Worthington) or from death. --- Saved. Hebrew, "granted me life." This may all be explained of Christ's resurrection. (Calmet)
Psalms 29:5 Sing to the Lord, O ye his saints: and give praise to the memory of his holiness.

Saints. Hebrew, "who have obtained mercy." Priests and faithful people come to return thanks, because God has turned away the scourge. (Calmet) --- Memory, or name, Exodus 3:15. (Calmet) --- It is from God, and not from ourselves, that holiness comes. (Worthington)
Psalms 29:6 For wrath is in his indignation; and life in his good will. In the evening, weeping shall have place, and in the morning, gladness.

Wrath, which is a short fury. (Menochius) (Isaias 54:7.) --- Hebrew, "momentary is his indignation;" or rather, "from his indignation comes destruction," roga, as the Septuagint constantly (Haydock) agree, Job 20:5., and Isaias 28:12., etc. (Calmet) --- "The miseries which are inflicted, are in consequence of his indignation." (Prin. dis. Berthier)--- We are not miserable unless we have deserved it. (St. Augustine) --- Even in chastising, God considers our welfare. (Worthington) --- He takes no pleasure in our torments, but delights to crown us with life and happiness. (Haydock) --- Eternal joys are the fruits of the short sorrows of this world, (Berthier) which is represented as one night or evening. (Haydock) --- A few moments ago Jerusalem expected nothing but destruction. Thus the apostles grieved till Christ rose again; (Calmet) and the life of the just is a constant vicissitude of sorrow and of comfort. (Worthington)
Psalms 29:7 And in my abundance I said: I shall never be moved.

Moved. David thought himself invincible; and, out of vanity, ordered his subjects to be numbered. God shewed his displeasure only for three days, and all was in confusion, ver. 8. (Calmet) --- Though we may imagine that we are firmly established, we must acknowledge that all our strength is derived from God, who sometimes leaves us to experience our own weakness. (Worthington)
Psalms 29:8 O Lord, in thy favour, thou gavest strength to my beauty. Thou turnedst away thy face from me, and I became troubled.

Beauty. So Septuagint and Syriac have read ledre, (Calmet) instead of leharri, "my mountain," Sion, which David had taken from the Jebusites. The sense is much the same, though the reading of the Septuagint seem more natural. Symmachus has followed another copy. (Berthier) --- "Thou hast given strength to my first father." (Calmet) --- The present Hebrew is rejected by Houbigant, (Berthier) though it be conformable to Aquila, St. Jerome, etc. How necessary is it for us to be convinced, that all we have is the gift of God! (Haydock) --- In prosperity man is too apt to give way to presumption. (Berthier) --- David had yielded to this temptation, not being sufficiently aware how jealous God is of his rights. (Calmet) --- He confesses this mistake. Hebrew, "I was terrifies." (Menochius)
Psalms 29:9 To thee, O Lord, will I cry; and I will make supplication to my God.

Will 1:We must not cease to pray, (Worthington) as we are always beset with enemies. (Haydock) --- This text may be explained, "I prayed," that I might suffer instead of my people, 4 Kings 24:17. (Calmet) --- But here the prophet seems rather to beg that he may not die, in order that he may publish God's praises. (Haydock)
Psalms 29:10 What profit is there in my blood, whilst I go down to corruption? Shall dust confess to thee, or declare thy truth?

Profit. The wicked on his death bed, cannot pray thus, as the justice of God is interested to punish his crimes, and to prevent their continuance. After death there is no merit; so that we ought to make good use of our time. (Berthier) --- Corruption. The Fathers explain this of Jesus Christ. What good will my death procure, if I do not rise again? (Origen; St. Jerome) --- Truth. See Psalm 87:11., and Baruch 2:17. (Calmet) --- The dead cannot make their voice heard in this world, though they may praise God in the other. (Menochius)
Psalms 29:11 The Lord hath heard, and hath had mercy on me: the Lord became my helper.

The Lord. Hebrew points determine, "Lord, hear," etc. But the Greek interpreters agree with the Vulgate, which seems better. (Berthier) --- St. Jerome, however, makes this a prayer. "Hear," etc. (Haydock)
Psalms 29:12 Thou hast turned for me my mourning into joy: thou hast cut my sackcloth, and hast compassed me with gladness:

Joy. When thou orderest the angel, 2 Kings 24:16. (Calmet) --- Sackcloth, of human nature, which was cut, and the price of our redemption came forth. (St. Augustine; St. Jerome) --- Thou hast changed my mourning weeds for robes of joy. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 29:13 To the end that my glory may sing to thee, and I may not regret: O Lord, my God, I will give praise to thee for ever.

Regret. Or be filled with grief, compungar. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "that glory may sing thee, (or thy praise) and may not be silent." (St. Jerome; Symmachus) (Haydock) --- Glory often signifies the tongue. (Du Hamel) --- My is added, to shew that this was David's glory, (Haydock) who considered God in all events. (Berthier) --- Protestants supply the word my. (Haydock) --- Chaldean, "that the great ones of the world may praise thee incessantly." --- Ever. In this my happy change. (Worthington) --- Those who suppose that David sung this, when he purified his house from the abominations of Absalom, explain his illness (ver. 2.) to mean the anxiety caused by that revolt, 2 Kings 16:21. (Bossuet) (Calmet) --- He gives thanks for the favour which God had shown him on that, or on any other occasion. (Haydock) --- He might consider this purifying as a sort of dedication, as it was customary to dedicate even private houses, Deuteronomy 20:5. (Calmet)
Psalms 30:0 A prayer of a just man under affliction.

Psalms 30:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David in an ecstacy.

Ecstacy. This word is not in Hebrew nor in some of the best Greek copies. (Theodoret) --- It seems to be taken from ver. 23., (Calmet) and intimates that the just may recite this psalm in the latter times, (Worthington) when they shall be in the greatest perplexity. (Haydock) --- David composed it when he was obliged to flee from court, (1 Kings 19:1., and 27:1.; Calmet) or in the desert of Moan, seeing himself in the most imminent danger; (1 Kings 23:25.; Kimchi; Du Pin) though some refer this psalm to the conspiracy of Absalom, (Theodoret; Menochius) or to the unpremeditated fall of David, (Eusebius) or to the captives. (St. Chrysostom) --- Our Saviour repeated part of ver. 6., upon the cross; and he may perhaps be the object of the whole psalm. The Church prescribes only the six first verses to be recited at Complin. (Berthier)
Psalms 30:2 In thee, O Lord, have I hoped, let me never be confounded: deliver me in thy justice.

Justice. Symmachus, "mercy." Thou art the judge between us. (Calmet) --- How grievous soever I may be afflicted, yet I trust in thee. (Worthington) --- "I fear that confusion which lasts for ever." (St. Augustine) (Du Hamel)
Psalms 30:3 Bow down thy ear to me: make haste to deliver me. Be thou unto me a God, a protector, and a house of refuge, to save me.

A God. Hebrew, "a rock of strength." Septuagint, "a God who holdeth his shield over me," uperaspisten. (Haydock) --- Refuge. Hebrew, "fortress." (Calmet)
Psalms 30:4 For thou art my strength and my refuge; and for thy name's sake thou wilt lead me, and nourish me.

Nourish. Hebrew, guide. (Haydock) --- Symmachus, "take care of me." (Calmet)
Psalms 30:5 Thou wilt bring me out of this snare, which they have hidden for me: for thou art my protector.

Snare. The order to appear at court, after Saul had manifested his ill-will, could be considered in no other light. (Calmet)
Psalms 30:6 *Into thy hands I commend my spirit: thou hast redeemed me, O Lord, the God of truth.

Spirit. Hebrew, ruach. Our Saviour determines the signification of this word, and shews that the saints of the Old Testament believed that the soul survived after its separation from the body, which some commentators have unguardedly said could not be clearly proved. This text may be applicable both to David and to Jesus Christ in a literal sense, as nothing contradictory would ensue, no more than from the prediction, out of Egypt I have called my son, being verified both in the Israelites and in the Messias; as both may truly be styled sons of God, though in a different sense. It is not so with that other prophecy, Behold a virgin, etc., which some say related both to the wife of the prophet and to the blessed Virgin: which cannot be, as they would not both have children, and still remain virgins. When two literal senses are admitted, they must not be contradictory. The verb is here in the future, both in Hebrew, Septuagint, and in the common Greek of the New Testament; (Luke 23:46.) though some manuscripts of the latter have the present tense, which is adopted by Protestants, etc. (Berthier) --- David commits his cause to God, being convinced that his promises would not be in vain. St. Stephen said in like manner, Lord receive my spirit; (Acts 7:58.) and "the saints use this prayer when they leave the body," (St. Jerome; Calmet) as well as on any other important occasion, particularly when they receive the holy sacrament. (Worthington) --- Redeemed, by freeing me from many dangers. The resurrection of Christ might be called a redemption; for which he had paid the price. (Berthier)
Psalms 30:7 Thou hast hated them that regard vanities to no purpose. But I have hoped in the Lord:

Vanities. Idols, (Calmet) superstitious practices, (Hammond) and lies. It may refer to Saul, who performed his promises so ill, and neglected the laws which he had made against witches. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "I have hated them that regard lying vanities." (Haydock) --- The ancient interpreters, with St. Jerome, seem not to have seen the i, which changes the second into the first person, though here it would be less agreeable to the context. This i would appear unnecessary, if the present Hebrew were correct. (Berthier) (Houbigant)
Psalms 30:8 I will be glad and rejoice in thy mercy. For thou hast regarded my humility; thou hast saved my soul out of distresses.

Humility. Hebrew, "affliction, thou hast known the tribulations of my soul." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Thou hast often rescued me from my enemies; and canst thou behold my present distress without pity? (Calmet) --- when God knows his friend to be in misery, he does not fail to relieve him. (Berthier)
Psalms 30:9 And thou hast not shut me up in the hands of the enemy: thou hast set my feet in a spacious place.

Place. The psalms were commonly composed after the danger was over. David had escaped the lance and the servants of Saul. (Calmet)
Psalms 30:10 Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I am afflicted: my eye is troubled with wrath, my soul, and my belly:

Belly, or entrails. (Menochius) (Lamentations 1:20., and Ecclesiasticus 51:29.) (Haydock) --- David was filled with indignation at the conduct of his enemies. (Calmet) --- Both soul and body felt the effects of his great sorrow, (Haydock) which pervaded every part. (Worthington)
Psalms 30:11 For my life is wasted with grief: and my years in sighs. My strength is weakened through poverty: and my bones are disturbed.

Poverty. Septuagint have read áni instead of haoni, "my iniquity," which seems less accurate, as David had not offended Saul. Symmachus has "malice," (Calmet) or "ill-treatment," kakosin. (Haydock) --- We may form some judgment of David's distress, from his being obliged to eat the consecrated bread at Nobe. (Calmet) --- Yet without making any change in the Hebrew, we may explain it in the sense of the Vulgate, as áve signifies to be "bent down." (Berthier) --- "Chastisements waste my strength." (Pr. disc.) --- Jesus was a man of sorrows. (Berthier)
Psalms 30:12 I am become a reproach among all my enemies, and very much to my neighbours, and a fear to my acquaintance. They that saw me without, fled from me.

Among. Literally, "above;" super. (Haydock) --- Houbigant would exchange l for m, in Hebrew "to all," etc., which seems more agreeable to the sequel, and does not contradict the Vulgate. (Berthier) --- David complains that none of his enemies were treated so severely as himself, (Haydock) though they were very wicked. (Menochius) --- They all looked upon him with disdain, and even his friends fled from him. This is the picture of the world. A man fallen into distress is an object of general contempt. (Calmet) --- Yet we ought rather to remember that such a one is sacred: sacra res est miser: and that he ought to excite our compassion. (Haydock) --- Fear. People are afraid to have it known that they were ever acquainted with me, (Calmet) lest they should be involved in my misery. (Haydock) --- My friends dare not converse with me. (Worthington) Si malè res cedit, superest tibi nullus amicus: Omnia fortunae sunt inimica malae. (Lucian Anthol.) If fortune frown, no friend dares shew his face, All flee the wretched, and abhor their place.
Psalms 30:13 I am forgotten as one dead from the heart. I am become as a vessel that is destroyed.

Heart, past recovery. Protestants, "dead man out of mind." (Haydock) --- Vessel means, "any thing." (Calmet) --- A broken pot is thrown away. (Menochius)
Psalms 30:14 For I have heard the blame of many that dwell round about. While they assembled together against me, they consulted to take away my life.

About. They blame me to my face. Hebrew, "fear on every side." (Haydock) --- But magor signifies also "dwelling," as well as "fear;" and this dread arose only from the multitude of enemies. (Berthier) --- Life. I was proscribed by Saul, (1 Kings 19:1.; Haydock) and they were only solicitous how to destroy me. (Calmet) --- They assembled to talk about my pretended (Haydock) faults, and to contrive my ruin, Jeremias 20:10. (Menochius)
Psalms 30:15 But I have put my trust in thee, O Lord: I said: Thou art my God.

Psalms 30:16 My lots are in thy hands. Deliver me out of the hands of my enemies; and from them that persecute me.

Lots. Roman Septuagint kleroi, as the same word, hittothai is rendered [in] Judges 21:22. Others explain "times," with the Roman Psalter, etc., in the same sense, to denote (Berthier) that all the vicissitudes of life, both prosperity and adversity, are at God's disposal. (Theodoret) --- If he protects me, all my enemies will rage in vain. (Calmet)
Psalms 30:17 Make thy face to shine upon thy servant; save me in thy mercy.

Shine propitiously, so as to free me from this storm. (Calmet) --- Make me acquainted with the right path, and deliver me. (Worthington)
Psalms 30:18 Let me not be confounded, O Lord, for I have called upon thee. Let the wicked be ashamed, and be brought down to hell.

Brought. Protestants, "be silent in the grave," (Haydock) or "in hell." This is a prediction. When I shall ascend the throne, they will be covered with shame. (Calmet) --- Let them enter into themselves before they die. (Haydock) --- Houbigant thinks that the Hebrew had formerly, "let them be silent, and descend into the grave;" which seems judicious. David inveighs against his spiritual enemies, and against manifest impiety. (Berthier)
Psalms 30:19 Let deceitful lips be made dumb; Which speak iniquity against the just, with pride and abuse.

Iniquity. Hebrew, "harsh things;" calumnies. (Calmet) --- Abuse. Septuagint exoudenosei, as if they "made nothing" of the just. (Haydock) --- They seem to acknowledge no superior, and abuse their power. (Worthington)
Psalms 30:20 O how great is the multitude of thy sweetness, O Lord, which thou hast hidden for them that fear thee! Which thou hast wrought for them that hope in thee, in the sight of the sons of men.

Men. Thou comfortest thy servants internally, and often manifestest thy protection. (Haydock) --- This thou wilt do when it is expedient, though the reward of the just in this life is generally hidden. They are, nevertheless, in great esteem with thee. (Worthington)
Psalms 30:21 Thou shalt hide them in the secret of thy face, from the disturbance of men. Thou shalt protect them in thy tabernacle, from the contradiction of tongues.

Face. The malice of the wicked has its limits; while God defends his servants, admitting them as it were into his own presence and tabernacle, where none dare assault them. The Eastern princes did not allow any, but their great favourites to come into their presence. (Calmet) (Esther 5. and 15.) (Haydock) --- Disturbance. Chaldean, "troops of the strong." Hebrew, "from the pride or vexations." God will protect his friends, both from an open attack and from malicious speeches. --- Thy is not expressed in Hebrew. (Berthier) --- "From the harshness of the great ones thou wilt protect them in the shade, from the contradiction of tongues." (St. Jerome) --- How shall we avoid the danger of being seduced by contradictory teachers, unless we have recourse to the Catholic Church? Tu curre ad Eccles. Cath. et protegeris; etc. (St. Augustine) (Haydock) --- Those who are united to God by contemplation and love, cannot be disturbed by men. (Bellarmine; Menochius)
Psalms 30:22 Blessed be the Lord, for he hath shewn his wonderful mercy to me in a fortified city.

In a. Symmachus, "as in a city shut up" with fortifications. (Calmet) --- As seems to be understood, though some explain this of Ceila, (Berthier) or of Siceleg, which had been given to David for a retreat. He here apologizes for having recourse to an infidel. (Calmet)
Psalms 30:23 But I said in the excess of my mind: I am cast away from before thy eyes. Therefore thou hast heard the voice of my prayer, when I cried to thee.

Excess. Septuagint, "in my ecstacy." Hebrew, "haste." Protestants, "consternation." (Symmachus) (Haydock) --- In sudden danger I exclaimed that all was lost; but God presently relieved me. Thus He prepared David for his exalted station; having taught him by affliction, to have pity on others. (Calmet) --- He experienced for a moment a sort of diffidence, before he had time to reflect. But he presently turned towards God. A Protestant commentator, who, in general, is very guarded in his expressions, and who applies all this psalm to the Messias, here falls into a horrible mistake, which he seems to have borrowed from Calvin: "The Messias," he says, "was to experience once, what the damned will feel for ever. For the punishment of the damned properly consists in the consternation and grief which they will feel, to see themselves separated for ever from the sight of God." He refutes himself, by saying that Jesus Christ shewed us how to pray, when we are abandoned in like manner. Does any one experience here the torment of the damned? or could Jesus ever be the object of God's hatred? It would have sufficed to say that he was destitute of all exterior succour, and internally felt those torments which the gospel mentions. (Berthier) --- Eyes. This he spoke in great agony of mind, which he would afterwards have recalled, like holy Job, (Job 3.; Job 42.) (Worthington)
Psalms 30:24 O love the Lord, all ye his saints: for the Lord will require truth, and will repay them abundantly that act proudly.

Saints. Hebrew, "merciful ones;" Assideans, priests, etc. --- Truth. Hebrew, "will preserve the true;" (Calmet) or, "will observe the faithful." (Berthier) --- Abundantly. Septuagint, "that act with great pride," as St. Augustine reads, and as Hebrew and Vulgate may be rendered. (Haydock) --- The prophet exhorts all to persevere unto the end. (Worthington)
Psalms 30:25 Do ye manfully, and let your heart be strengthened, all ye that hope in the Lord.

Psalms 31:0 The second penitential psalm.

Psalms 31:1 To David himself, understanding.

Romans 4:7.
Understanding; (Protestants mascil.; Haydock) shewing how he was brought to acknowledge his fault, and by penance to obtain pardon, (Worthington) justly giving the glory to God's grace. (St. Augustine) --- Alexandrian Septuagint, ["A psalm] to David," of understanding; which is taken from some other copy. (Haydock) --- Some suppose this word has been inserted from ver 8. (Abenezra) --- But there are several other psalms which have this title, (Haydock) intimating either that they contain great mysteries, (Eusebius) or that they are easy to understand. (Agellius) --- This is wholly of a moral nature. The Jews style it the heart of David, because it displays his sentiments of contrition. (Calmet) --- He composed it most probably after Nathan had engaged him to confess his fault. [2 Kings xii.] (Bellarmine) --- It might be used on the solemn feast of expiation. (Grotius, Numbers 29:7.) --- The Fathers explain it of the grace which we receive in baptism and in penance. (St. Augustine; St. Gregory, etc.) (Calmet) --- Are they. Hebrew, "The blessings of him whose iniquity." (Pagnin) --- But the sense is the same, and St. Paul follows the Septuagint, which gives their version the highest authority, Romans 4:7. --- Sins; or, "who is screened from the punishment of sin." (Prin. disc.) Sin has often this signification; and the psalmist would otherwise seem to say less than he had already expressed. (Berthier) --- Covered, by charity, (1 Peter iv.) as a physician covers a wound, to remove it entirely; and we must cover our former transgressions, by doing good works. (St. Gregory) --- Then our sins will not appear at the day of judgment, (St. Jerome) nor be punished, as they are wholly destroyed. The Pelagians calumniated Catholics, as if they taught that sins were only shaven, as it were, the roots still remaining; which St. Augustine (contra 2 ep. Pelag. 1:13.) says, "None affirmeth but an infidel." Thus the doctrine of Calvin is condemned; who abuses these texts to prove that sins are only covered, and still remain even in the most just; which is contrary to innumerable passages of Scripture, (Isaias vi., John i., 1 Corinthians vi., etc.) and injurious to the perfections of God, and to the redemption of Christ, as well as to the saints in heaven, who are thus represented as still infected with all their sins. (Worthington) --- This doctrine is now almost abandoned by Protestants, as it is contrary both to sound philosophy and divinity: for sin is nothing physical, but a want of moral rectitude. (Berthier) --- God cannot fail to punish sin, wherever it really subsists. His spirit is surely free from guile. He cannot suppose that we are just by imputation of Christ's justice, unless we be really so. (Haydock) --- By means of the sacraments the sinner becomes just, and God sees nothing in him deserving of punishment. (Calmet) --- "If any one wishes his sins to be covered, let him manifest them to God, by the voice of confession." (St. Gregory) --- But, replies a Lutheran commentator, "God does not forget sin." What is this to the purpose, as long as the sin does not subsist in the offender? He allows that "the pardon of sin is inseparable from sanctification." Renew a right spirit within my bowels, Psalm 50:12. (Berthier) --- The man who has felt real compunction, will be able to form a true notion of the happiness of a reconciliation. (Calmet) --- Covering may allude to the custom of writing on wax, which might easily be effaced. Our sins are recorded in the book of God's justice. (Menochius)
Psalms 31:2 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin, and in whose spirit there is no guile.

Spirit. Symmachus has "heart," or "mouth." (Calmet) --- The latter is also in some copies of the Septuagint. (Eusebius) --- The Roman and Alexandrian Septuagint have it, though Grabe substitutes spirit, (Haydock) which is recognised by St. Jerome (ad. Sun.), Hebrew, etc. Nothing is so contrary to true repentance as hypocrisy. (St. Augustine, etc.) (Calmet) --- If we do not co-operate with God's grace, our sins will never be effaced, though, before remission, our works can only dispose us to receive pardon. "God (and meritorious) works follow." (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 31:3 Because I was silent, my bones grew old; whilst I cried out all the day long.

Because I was silent, etc. That is, whilst I kept silence, by concealing, or refusing to confess my sins, thy hand was heavy upon me, etc. (Challoner) --- The cry was then only an effect of vanity, like that of the Pharisee, full of his own merits; (St. Augustine; St. Jerome; Calmet) or David was silent till Nathan made him know his fault, which he afterwards ceased not to deplore. (Theodoret) --- It is supposed that he had continued impenitent for above a year. But he might fell remorse during that time, ver. 5. (Berthier) --- Cried. Hebrew, "roared," like a lion. (Calmet) --- Because I acknowledged not my grievous sins, I was much afflicted. I prayed, but to little purpose. (Worthington) --- Wishing to conceal the cause of my grief, (Calmet) I pined away, (Haydock; Lamentations 3:4.) and suffered greatly, because I did not confess. (Menochius)
Psalms 31:4 For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me: I am turned in my anguish, whilst the thorn is fastened.

I am turned, etc. That is, I turn and roll about in my bed, to sek for ease in my pain, whilst the thorn of thy justice pierces my flesh, and sticks fast in me. Or, I am turned; that is, I am converted to thee, my God, by being brought to a better understanding by thy chastisements. In the Hebrew it is, my moisture is turned into the droughts of summer. (Challoner) (Protestants) (Haydock) --- But the Septuagint may have taken l for a preposition before shaddi, as the Greek interpreters say nothing of this moisture, which is the interpretation of modern Jews; and St. Jerome has (Berthier) "I was turned or occupied, in my misery;" versatus sum in miseria mea. There is no peace for the wicked. (Haydock) --- God has not punished David exteriorly till after the admonition of Nathan, when so many evils poured upon him. But the king must have experienced cruel agonies of mind, till he was prevailed on by this wise physician to confess his fault, (Calmet) and thus let out the imposthume, which would not allow him to enjoy any repose. --- Fastened. St. Jerome, "while the summer (or heat; aestas) was burning incessantly," sela. Hebrew becharbone kayits means also in gladios spina. "The thorn has been turned into swords for my affliction;" (Berthier) or I have been as grievously tormented, as if a thorn or sword had pierced me. (Haydock) --- Thy divine Providence chastises me, and my conscience tells me that I have deserved all my sufferings. (Worthington) --- Many of the ancients read, while the thorn is broken, confringitur, Ps. Rom.[Roman Psalter?]; St. Gregory; Calmet) which causes the extraction to be more difficult. (Haydock) --- This thorn may denote sin, which like a weed, had infected David's soul. (Theodoret) (Calmet)
Psalms 31:5 I have acknowledged my sin to thee, and my injustice I have not concealed. *I said, I will confess against myself my injustice to the Lord; and thou hast forgiven the wickedness of my sin.

Isaias 65:24.
Sin. Or as some psalters read, "of my heart," with the Septuagint, Cassiod., etc. (Calmet) --- "I know that thou wilt readily forgive the sins which are fully laid open before thee." (St. Jerome) --- David no sooner perceived that he was the unjust man (Haydock) whom Nathan had described, than he exclaimed, "I have sinned;" and at the same moment God forgave him, 2 Kings 12:7. (Calmet) --- If this psalm relate to his repentance, it seems he had already had recourse to God; but this is doubtful, as he appears to have entered into himself only after the prophet's reproach. Nothing can more effectually give peace to the soul than an humble confession, which costs human pride a great deal, when it must be made to our brethren. (Berthier) --- The Jews were sometimes obliged to confess to God's minister, Leviticus 4:5., and Numbers 5:7. (Menochius)
Psalms 31:6 For this shall every one that is holy pray to thee in a seasonable time. And yet in a flood of many waters, they shall not come nigh unto him.

Holy. Even the angels rejoice at the sinner's conversion, Luke 15:7. The saints take part in the welfare of their fellow creatures, and praise God for his mercies shewn unto them. (Calmet) --- Time. During this life, (Isaias 55:6., Ecclesiastes 9:10.; Chaldean; Muis) or when they shall be treated in like manner. (Piscator) --- As I now repent, so must those who are afflicted, pray that they may obtain pardon; then they will not be oppressed, though their miseries may appear very great, like a deluge. (Worthington) --- Yet. Hebrew rak, "surely." (Berthier) --- "Therefore shall every merciful one pray unto Thee, finding time; that when many waters shall inundate, they may not approach unto him." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- A deluge denotes great calamities, Isaias 43:2. Even the terrors of the last day will not disturb the just, (Calmet) nor will they inspire the wicked with true repentance. (Haydock)
Psalms 31:7 Thou art my refuge from the trouble which hath encompassed me: my joy, deliver me from them that surround me.

Refuge. Hebrew, "hiding," (Psalm 30:21.; Haydock) or asylum. (Calmet) --- Which. Hebrew, "thou shalt surround me with songs of deliverance. Sela." Or "my praise saving, thou wilt environ me always." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Perhaps th may now occupy the place of m, as the Greeks all agree; and the sense is at least the same. (Berthier)
Psalms 31:8 I will give thee understanding, and I will instruct thee in this way, in which thou shalt go: I will fix my eyes upon thee.

Fix. Hebrew, "consult with my eyes concerning thee." The Vulgate, better. (Calmet) --- Protestants marginal note, "my eye shall be upon thee." (Haydock) --- God thus engages to watch over, and direct his servant, (Genesis 44:21., and Jeremias 24:6.; Calmet) giving him instruction, by means of chastisements. (Worthington)
Psalms 31:9 Do not become like the horse and the mule, which have no understanding. With bit and bridle bind fast their jaws who come not near unto thee.

Do not. This may be spoken by God, or by the psalmist; as an admonition to hear the counsel of those divinely commissioned. (Calmet) --- Who come. Protestants, "lest they come near," (Haydock) and threaten to bite or to run over thee. (Calmet) --- But the Hebrew may have the sense of the Vulgate, qui non accedunt. (St. Jerome) --- It may be a prayer, that God would offer a sort of violence to restrain the sallies of the sinner, (Haydock) and to convert him; (Worthington) or God threatens the obstinate with rigour of his justice. Many delude themselves, thinking that he will always treat them with lenity, and be ready to receive them. (Berthier) (Isaias 37:29.) But the prophet admonishes them not to follow their senses alone, nor to imitate brute beasts, as he had done with regard to Bathsabee and Urias. (Menochius) --- The bit (camus) was a sort of muzzle, "to hinder horses from biting." (Xenophon)
Psalms 31:10 Many are the scourges of the sinner, but mercy shall encompass him that hopeth in the Lord.

Many. Sinners deserve much punishment. But if they will repent they may find mercy. (Worthington) --- This may be also the declaration of God, though the prophet seem to speak in the next verse. (Berthier) --- God humbles the pride of haughty monarchs, like Sennacherib and Nabuchodonosor, treating them like beasts. (Calmet)
Psalms 31:11 Be glad in the Lord, and rejoice, ye just, and glory, all ye right of heart.

Glory, which is lawful when God is the object, 1 Corinthians 1:31. My glory I will not give to another, Isaias 42:8. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "praise him." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Joy is the end of true penance, to which the prophet invites all. (Worthington)
Psalms 32:0 An exhortation to praise God, and to trust in him.

Psalms 32:1 A psalm for David. Rejoice in the Lord, O ye just: praise becometh the upright.

David. There is no title in Hebrew; and the Greek copies vary. This psalm may be considered as a continuation of the former, with the last verse of which it may be well connected. (Calmet) --- Some suppose that David composed it after he had been rescued from the giant Jesbibenob, ver. 16., and 1 Paralipomenon 20:4. (Ferrand.) --- It is not certain that he is the author; but as other psalms without a title are ascribed to him, we have no reason to deny that he wrote this. (Berthier) --- Many explain it as a thanksgiving of Ezechias. (Theodoret, etc.) --- But we need not refer it to any particular event. (Calmet) --- Upright. But it is not seemly in the mouth of a sinner, Ecclesiasticus 15:9., (Worthington) and Psalm 69:16. (Calmet)
Psalms 32:2 Give praise to the Lord on the harp; sing to him with the psaltery, the instrument of ten strings.

Psaltery. Hebrew nebel, (Haydock) which does not resemble the modern psaltery. (Calmet) --- We must carefully observe mortification, and the decalogue. (Worthington)
Psalms 32:3 Sing to him a new canticle, sing well unto him with a loud noise.

New. Interesting, like the canticle of the lamb, or of redemption, Apocalypse. [Apocalypse v.?] Public worship and music are very useful, when performed with attention. (Berthier) --- The prophet invites all to praise God for the blessings granted by Christ in the new law. (Worthington) --- Noise, proceeding from the heart, the cry of which alone penetrates heaven. (Haydock)
Psalms 32:4 For the word of the Lord is right, and all his works are done with faithfulness.

Faithfulness. He always fulfils his promises, and his laws are just; (Worthington) therefore he deserves our praise. (Calmet) (Psalm 144:13.)
Psalms 32:5 He loveth mercy and judgment; the earth is full of the mercy of the Lord.

Judgment. God joins these virtues together, (Worthington) as we ought to do. (Haydock) (Luke 6:36., and Matthew 5:48.) --- He punishes the wicked, and rewards the good. But his mercy displays itself on the earth, as there is no misery in heaven. (St. Augustine) --- Its effects appear more since the coming of our Saviour. (Calmet)
Psalms 32:6 By the word of the Lord the heavens were established; and all the power of them, by the spirit of his mouth:

Mouth, by his command. (Euthymius) (Genesis 1:6.) --- The Fathers here find the blessed Trinity expressed; (Calmet; Menochius) and the Council of Trent admonishes us to follow their unanimous interpretation, which is here adopted by Baumbgarte, a Protestant, 1719. St. John 1:1. informs us that all was made by the Word, from whom the Father and the Holy Spirit cannot be separated. (Berthier) --- Seneca (consol. 8.) seems to have had some idea of this mystery. Quisquis formator universi fuit, sive ille Deus est potens omnium; sive incorporalis Ratio, ingentium operum artifex; sive divinus Spiritus, per omnia maxima et minima aequali intentione diffusus. The power of them may designate the stars and angels, which the Hebrew styles "the army" of heaven, Isaias 24:21., and Matthew 26:53. (Calmet) --- The word of God is omnipotent, (Worthington) "the Creator....both of visible and invisible things." (Nicene Creed) (Haydock) --- Calvin rejects this proof of the Trinity as weak, (Amama) as he did not like the word Trinity, nor perhaps the mystery itself. (Haydock)
Psalms 32:7 Gathering together the waters of the sea, as in a vessel; laying up the depths in storehouses.

As in. This is agreeable to St. Augustine, and some ancient psalters; though the Septuagint have "like a bottle" made of leather, osei askon. Moderns would translate, "like a heap." But Symmachus and St. Jerome agree with us, (see Psalm 77:13.; Calmet) as well as the Chaldean and Houbigant. God has made the bed of the sea capable of containing such quantities of water, some of which evaporate and descend again from the clouds, to make the earth fruitful. Yet many take no notice of this admirable economy. (Berthier) --- Theodoret and St. Athanasius understand the clouds to be meant by this vessel; but the former sentiment seems better. These waters, as well as hail, etc., are instruments of God's vengeance, Deuteronomy 32:34. The depths have the same import. God calls them forth at pleasure, (Amos 5:8., and Genesis 7:11.) and confines them within bounds, Job 38:11.
Psalms 32:8 Let all the earth fear the Lord, and let all the inhabitants of the world be in awe of him.

Psalms 32:9 *For he spoke, and they were made: he commanded, and they were created.

Genesis 1:8.; Judith 16:17.
Created. Hebrew, "on foot," to express God's absolute dominion. (Calmet) --- This passage shews that bra means properly created out of nothing, Genesis 1:Matter did not exist before God spoke. (Berthier)
Psalms 32:10 The Lord bringeth to naught the counsels of nations; and he rejecteth the devices of people, and casteth away the counsels of princes.

And....princes. This seems to be lost in Hebrew, as all the Greeks have recognised it. (Berthier) --- God prepares the causes and means when he forms his decrees, which are wholly independent. He is not forced to wait for a favourable opportunity. (Calmet) --- He confounded the tongues at Babel, and his absolute decrees are always executed. (Worthington)
Psalms 32:11 But the counsel of the Lord standeth for ever: the thoughts of his heart to all generations.

Psalms 32:12 Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord; the people whom he hath chosen for his inheritance.

Inheritance, in opposition to the Gentiles, 1 Peter 2:9. (Berthier) --- God made choice particularly of the Jews, as he does now of Christians. (Worthington)
Psalms 32:13 The Lord hath looked from heaven: he hath beheld all the sons of men.

Psalms 32:14 From his habitation which he hath prepared, he hath looked upon all that dwell on the earth.

Prepared. St. Jerome, "from his most established throne;" whence he beholds all the conduct of men, (Calmet) though he fill all places, and work in all. (Berthier) --- His power and wisdom (ver. 15.) are infinite. (Worthington)
Psalms 32:15 He who hath made the hearts of every one of them: who understandeth all their works.

Every one, sigillatim. Hebrew yachad, means also "together;" whence the Origenists inferred (Haydock) that all souls were made at first with Adam. (St. Jerome) --- Thus they explained how they came to be all infected. (Berthier) --- But God rather creates them when he infuses them into the body. (Denis the Carthusian) (Haydock) --- St. Augustine could never decide this important question. This text only proves that God is equally Creator of all; (Ecclesiasticus 18:1.; Calmet) and He alone made the hearts and souls of all men, as katamonas implies, Psalm 4:10., and Geneb. (Amama)
Psalms 32:16 The king is not saved by a great army: nor shall the giant be saved by his own great strength.

Giant. Or Hebrew, "strong man." Monarchs and the stoutest men have been overthrown by Providence, like Pharao and Sennacherib, and the giant Og. (Calmet) --- History proves that great armies have not always gained the victory, Psalm 65:13., and 146:10. (Berthier)
Psalms 32:17 Vain is the horse for safety: neither shall he be saved by the abundance of his strength.

Safety. Either of himself or his master. (Worthington) (Proverbs 21:31.) --- This can only be attributed to God's protection, ver. 18.
Psalms 32:18 Behold the eyes of the Lord are on them that fear him: and on them that hope in his mercy.

Psalms 32:19 To deliver their souls from death: and feed them in famine.

Psalms 32:20 Our soul waiteth for the Lord: for he is our helper and protector.

Waiteth. Hebrew, "longeth." (Haydock) --- Protector. Hebrew, "shield." Infidels deride the confidence of the just, as an effect of pride, supposing it to be beneath the dignity of God to take notice of so small a creature, while he governs so many worlds. But if there be other worlds besides this, God is sufficient for all; (Berthier) and he will not neglect the work which his hands have deigned to form. (Haydock)
Psalms 32:21 For in him our heart shall rejoice: and in his holy name we have trusted.

Psalms 32:22 Let thy mercy, O Lord, be upon us, as we have hoped in thee.

Thee. All-perfect Being, shew thy protection to all who trust in thee. (Worthington) --- He who wishes to receive much, ought to increase his hopes. (Calmet) --- "Who is so full of hope as boldly to say, by my hope measure thy mercy?" (Theodoret)
Psalms 33:0 An exhortation to the praise and service of God.

Psalms 33:1 For David, when he changed his countenance before Achimelech, who dismissed him, and he went his way. [1 Kings xxi.]

Achimelech. So Clement VIII corrects what Sixtus V had printed Abimelech, conformably to the Hebrew, etc. Some editors have since preferred the latter word, (Calmet) which is retained in Berthier and Calmet, though we should think such changes improper, unless they were made by proper authority. (Haydock) --- Many of the ancients suppose that Achimelech (who is also styled Abimelech, the high priest at Nobe) is here meant, from whom David concealed his real design. [1 Kings xxi.] (Eusebius; St. Athanasius; St. Jerome, etc.) --- Others rather think that the psalm was composed after David had escaped the great danger at the court of Achis, by counterfeiting madness, 1 Kings 21:13. (St. Augustine; Muis, etc.) --- Achis alone is styled king among the Satraps. Those who ruled over the Philistines, generally bore the title of Abimelech, as the Egyptian monarchs had that of Pharao. (Berthier) (Genesis 21:22.) (Calmet) (Worthington) --- This psalm is alphabetical. The last verse beginning with p, is supernumerary, and may belong to the next psalm. See Psalm xxiv. (Calmet) --- There seems also to be something wanting in ver. 6., (Houbigant) unless e and v have each only one hemistic. (Haydock) --- From the change of names, and of David's countenance, St. Augustine gathers the vocation of the Gentiles, the real presence, etc. (Worthington) See 1 Kings xxi. (Haydock)
Psalms 33:2 I will bless the Lord at all times, his praise shall be always in my mouth.

Mouth. The just praise God in adversity, as well as in prosperity. (Worthington) --- David had lately been delivered in a wonderful manner. (Calmet)
Psalms 33:3 In the Lord shall my soul be praised; let the meek hear and rejoice.

Praised. Hebrew, "glory," Psalm 31:11. (Haydock) --- Others, seeing my treatment, will give praise to thee, the Author of all good, (Calmet) and I shall be praised while I serve thee. (Worthington)
Psalms 33:4 O magnify the Lord with me: and let us extol his name together.

Together, (in idipsum). "If you love God, draw all to the love of God." (St. Augustine) --- The multitude will not diminish his attention to you. (Calmet)
Psalms 33:5 I sought the Lord, and he heard me: and he delivered me from all my troubles.

Troubles. Hebrew, "fears or straits;" angustiis. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- The Vulgate adopts the Alexandrian Septuagint, thlipseon: the Vatican copy has, paroikion, "habitations," at Nobe, Geth, etc. Seek the Lord, while he may be found, Isaias 55:6. Those who entertain doubts about religion, who are in sin, or tend to perfection, must all strive to find the Lord. The matter is of the utmost importance. (Berthier)
Psalms 33:6 Come ye to him and be enlightened: and your faces shall not be confounded.

Come, "by faith and good works." (St. Jerome) --- Enlightened. Hebrew also, "flow together." (St. Jerome) --- You need not be afraid of impoverishing him. (Calmet) --- The points would require, (Berthier) "They looked....and were lightened, (Protestants) or flowed unto him." (Marginal note) (Haydock) --- But the Septuagint, etc., knew nothing of them, and Houbigant agrees with our version. (Berthier) --- And. Here v comes in its proper place, though for only half of the verse. (Haydock)
Psalms 33:7 This poor man cried, and the Lord heard him: and saved him out of all his troubles.

This. I myself, whom you beheld in the midst of afflictions. (Haydock) --- Poverty is a great inducement for God to shew mercy. (Berthier) --- The poorest may approach without fear. (Worthington)
Psalms 33:8 The angel of the Lord shall encamp round about them that fear him: and shall deliver them.

Encamp. Literally, "send." (Haydock) --- This is explained of Jesus Christ, by St. Augustine and St. Jerome. (Calmet) --- Hebrew and Septuagint (parembalei) intimate that the angel himself shall encamp round God's servants, so that no evil shall come near them. (Haydock) --- This has often been verified, Genesis xxxii.. 1., and 48:16., and 4 Kings 6:16, etc. (Calmet) --- One angel is here represented as equal to a great army. A Protestant commentator observes, that David attributed his escape to the protection of an angel, and was very thankful for it. We see, therefore, what advantages we may derive from the blessed spirits? What then should hinder us from addressing our prayers to them? (Berthier)
Psalms 33:9 O taste, and see that the Lord is sweet: blessed is the man that hopeth in him.

Taste, in the blessed Eucharist, (St. Athanasius; St. Augustine; Theodoret) or by experience. (Calmet) (1 Peter 2:3.)
Psalms 33:10 Fear the Lord, all ye his saints: for there is no want to them that fear him.

Want. In the old law, God was more particularly engaged to defend his servants from distress. Though, as they were sometimes under oppression, they knew that they were to look for more substantial blessings from heaven. Hence they would not have exchanged their condition for that of the richest worldling. Such ought to be still more our sentiments, since we have beheld Christ dying naked on the cross, and his martyrs rejoicing under the most excruciating torments. (Calmet)
Psalms 33:11 *The rich have wanted, and have suffered hunger: but they that seek the Lord, shall not be deprived of any good.

Luke 1:53.
Rich of this world, (1 Timothy 6:17.; Menochius) are often poor in spiritual gifts. (Worthington) --- Those who are poor in both respects, are truly miserable, (Haydock) since they cannot satisfy their craving appetite. But the prophet admires those who are poor in spirit, whether they have many possessions or not. (Berthier) --- The fear of the Lord is his treasure, Isaias 33:6. The saint is content under every dispensation of Providence. (Haydock) --- Lazarus was truly rich even here; and in heaven he is covered with glory, Luke 16:20. (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "the lions have wanted." (St. Jerome) --- This may have been the case: yet those who fear God shall be filled; or, the rich may be designated by the name of lion's whelps, on account of their power and avidity. (Calmet) --- The same term, cephirim, is often applied to men in power, Ezechiel 19:2., and Job 4:10. (Berthier) --- Good. If the saints be sometimes deprived of provisions, they know that it is better for them; as God directs all for their good. (Haydock)
Psalms 33:12 Come, children, hearken to me: I will teach you the fear of the Lord.

Children; docile and free from pride and hypocrisy.
Psalms 33:13 *Who is the man that desireth life: who loveth to see good days?

1 Peter 3:10.
Good days. St. Peter (1 Peter 3:10.) adopts this sense, though the Hebrew is rendered, "and desireth days, that he may see good." The apostle shews that heaven is here principally meant, though a virtuous life is the best to procure even present happiness. (Berthier) --- Many of David's followers probably confined their views to the latter. (Calmet) --- Every one desireth to be happy, but only the virtuous are really so. (Worthington)
Psalms 33:14 Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.

Guile. He very properly begins with regulating the tongue, as this member may prove very dangerous, Proverbs 18:21., and James 3:5. By detraction, it wounds three people; and it causes no less evil by flattery. (Calmet)
Psalms 33:15 Turn away from evil, and do good: seek after peace, and pursue it.

Good. It will not suffice to refrain from criminal actions, Psalm 36:27. --- Peace, both private and public, Jeremias 29:7. (Calmet) --- A person may, notwithstanding, have much to suffer. But St. Peter [1 Peter iii.] prevents this objection, by proclaiming those happy who suffer for justice sake, ver. 14. (Berthier) --- Good works are necessary as well as faith. (Worthington) Nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud Si te alio pravum detorseris. (Horace, 2:sat. 2.)
Psalms 33:16 The eyes of the Lord are *upon the just: and his ears unto their prayers.

Ecclesiasticus 15:20.; Hebrews 4:13.
Eyes. St. Basil understands the angels. God protects his servants, (Haydock) while he treats the wicked with severity. (Calmet)
Psalms 33:17 But the countenance of the Lord is against them that do evil things: to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth.

To cut, etc. St. Peter leaves this out; perhaps because temporal punishments would not be so often inflicted upon the wicked under the new law; as God tries his faithful, and teaches them to wait till judgment, when all will be treated according to their deserts. (Berthier) --- He sees all men's actions, and will reward them accordingly. (Worthington)
Psalms 33:18 The just cried, and the Lord heard them: and delivered them out of all their troubles.

Just. This word is omitted in Hebrew but it is supplied by all the versions; which shews that the original is not quite perfect. (Berthier) --- If this were left out, the passage would refer to the wicked, ver. 16. Yet St. Jerome found the Hebrew in this state. (Haydock) --- Troubles. Many experienced the divine protection in a wonderful manner, and though others fell victims to persecution, (Hebrews 11:36.) yet they were perfectly resigned to God's will, (Berthier) and thus obtained their wishes, receiving a better reward in eternity. (Calmet)
Psalms 33:19 The Lord is nigh unto them that are of a contrite heart: and he will save the humble of spirit.

Them. Hebrew, "broken-hearted;" to the humble and distressed. (Haydock) --- God is very near to such. (Calmet) (Psalm 50:19., and 90:15.) See St. Polycarp, Epistle to the Philippians ii.
Psalms 33:20 Many are the afflictions of the just: but out of them all will the Lord deliver them.

Many. David was too well informed to promise that the just would experience no affliction? but it will not last for ever. (Calmet) (Hebrews 12:6.) --- If God seem to forsake them for a time, he gives them interior strength, and will at last crown his own gifts. (Worthington)
Psalms 33:21 The Lord keepeth all their bones, not one of them shall be broken.

Broken. Their virtue which is denoted by the bones, (Menochius) shall not sink under torments. So Christ encouraged his disciples, by assuring them that a hair of their head should not perish, Matthew 10:30. (St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- The elements of our bodies cannot be divided or destroyed by human force, so as to prevent their resurrection. The identical bodies shall rise again, though they may have been subject to many changes, reduced to ashes, or consumed by wild beasts. This mystery has often offended incredulous philosophers. Jesus Christ is the just, by excellence; and this prediction was fulfilled in his person, as St. John (xix. 36.) does not confine himself to the type of the paschal lamb. (Berthier)
Psalms 33:22 The death of the wicked is very evil: and they that hate the just shall be guilty.

Evil, or "bad." (Chaldean) Hebrew also, "malice shall slay the wicked." They can attribute their misfortunes only to their own misconduct. (Berthier) --- Guilty, and shall be treated as criminals; a fate which the just shall never experience, ver. 23. The death of Saul seems to be foretold. (Calmet) --- The wicked are forced to quit the world and their bodies which they have idolized, and are hurled into everlasting fire. (St. Bernard) --- In punishment of former transgressions, they are suffered to fall into more sins; while those who place their confidence in God's grace, will be preserved. (Worthington) --- "Death is not indeed the last, but those torments destined for the profligate in hell, occupy the last place." (Plato, Leg. ix.)
Psalms 33:23 The Lord will redeem the souls of his servants: and none of them that trust in him shall offend.

Redeem. This verse greatly resembles that which is placed, in like manner, out of the alphabetical order, at the end of Psalm xxiv. Hebrew in both, "Redeem, O Lord," etc. (Haydock)
Psalms 34:0 David, in the person of Christ, prayeth against his persecutors: prophetically foreshewing the punishments that shall fall upon them.

Psalms 34:1 For David himself. Judge thou, O Lord, them that wrong me: overthrow them that fight against me.

David. Some of the Greek copies add, "psalm," and "unto the end." It was composed during the persecutions of Saul, etc., and is applied by the Fathers to Jesus Christ, who quotes ver. 19, (John 15:25.; Calmet) and it seems to be in the same state with several others, which speak of his sufferings. (Berthier) --- The expressions are very animated, and though vengeance was not so strictly forbidden under the old law, (Matthew 5:44.) yet we may explain them as predictions. (Theodoret) --- David always evinces the greatest moderation, (Psalm 7:5.) and treated even Saul with the utmost respect. What he says, therefore, was dictated by a sincere desire of their conversion, and that they might prevent eternal torments; as well as to set the conduct of God in a proper light, and to encourage the virtuous. (Asterius) (Calmet) --- His name implies one "beloved," etc., inasmuch as he is a figure of Christ, the conqueror of death and hell. (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- Judge. Hebrew, "plead." I do not wish them to be condemned unheard. (Calmet) --- A vindictive person does not thus commit his cause to God. Jesus Christ was all mildness. But in the spiritual warfare, we may well address these words to God, (Berthier) who is often represented as a mighty warrior, Exodus 15:3. (Calmet)
Psalms 34:2 Take hold of arms and shield: and rise up to help me.

Arms. Hebrew magen, "buckler," of a smaller size (1 Kings 17:6, 7.) than the shield, (tsinna) which was used to cover the whole body. St. Jerome renders the latter word by hastam, "the spear." (Calmet) --- But this text speaks of defensive weapons.
Psalms 34:3 Bring out the sword, and shut up the way against them that persecute me: say to my soul: I am thy salvation.

The way. This may be implied by the word conclude, which Houbigant rejects, observing that St. Jerome has praeoccupa, (Berthier) as it is in the Par. ed. 1533. (Haydock) --- But I fiind praecipita. (Berthier) --- "Prevent" the designs, stop the passage, or "hurl my persecutors headlong." (Haydock) --- Take offensive weapons. He foretells the ruin of those who persecuted the Church. (Worthington) --- Salvation, though my enemies deny it, Psalm 3:2.
Psalms 34:4 *Let them be confounded and ashamed, that seek after my soul. Let them be turned back and be confounded, that devise evil against me.

Psalm 39:15.
Let them. So most people render the Hebrew, though it may be understood in the future, (Berthier) as Montanus translates. (Haydock) --- Me. The wicked shall be confounded in the end, when the just shall triumph. (Worthington)
Psalms 34:5 Let them become as dust before the wind: and let the angel of the Lord straiten them.

Dust. Hebrew mots, small "chaff," Psalm 1:4. (Vatable) --- Angel. The evil spirits are employed to punish the wicked, as the good [angels] protect the just, Psalm 33:8. Some Fathers have supposed that every man was attended by a good and a bad angel. (Hermes ii.; Origen xxxv. in Luke; St. Gregory of Nyssa, vit. Mos.; Cassian 8:17., and 13:12.) --- But the Church admits the power of the wicked spirits only against those who take part with them, or "as far as God allows them" (St. Jerome) to tempt. The devil is like a dog chained down, which can bite none but those who come within its reach. (St. Augustine) --- Both good and bad angels are ministers of God's justice. (Haydock)
Psalms 34:6 Let their way become dark and slippery; and let the angel of the Lord pursue them.

Slippery. The systems of infidels, who deny a future existence are of this nature. If they were even true, the just would have lost nothing by pursuing a virtuous course. (Berthier)
Psalms 34:7 For without cause they have hidden their net for me unto destruction: without cause they have upbraided my soul.

Their. Literally, "the destruction of their net." (Haydock) --- Some would translate shachath, "the pit of," etc. But the Septuagint is preferable; and chapheru means they have "covered with shame," as well as dug for my soul. (Berthier) --- Pit ought to be removed to the latter part of the verse. Saul laid many falsehoods to the charge of David, (Calmet) and insidiously sought his ruin. (Haydock)
Psalms 34:8 Let the snare which he knoweth not come upon him: and let the net which he hath hidden catch him: and into that very snare let him fall.

Fall. He foretells the destruction of Saul, and his own glory. (Calmet)
Psalms 34:9 But my soul shall rejoice in the Lord; and shall be delighted in his salvation.

Salvation. In the midst of troubles he is not devoid of hope, and after his deliverance he looks for eternal happiness. (Worthington)
Psalms 34:10 All my bones shall say: Lord, who is like to thee? Who deliverest the poor from the hand of them that are stronger than he; the needy and the poor from them that strip him.

Lord. Some Latin copies repeated this, while others in the original passed over the word entirely. (St. Jerome ad. Sun.) --- "Be thou my life whom I always seek." (St. Augustine) --- Poor, in general, or David, who was supplied by Abimelech with food, 1 Kings 21:3. (Calmet)
Psalms 34:11 Unjust witnesses, rising up, have asked me things I knew not.

Not. Accusing me of disloyalty, etc. (Flaminius) --- We must not imagine that David was cited to the bar. This is admirably explained of Jesus Christ at the tribunal of Pilate, (Calmet) and of the high priests. (Haydock) (Matthew xxvi.) --- God knows not what cannot be; (Worthington) and therefore Christ could not acknowledge what was falsely laid to his charge. (Haydock) --- The martyrs, etc., have often been exposed to the shafts of calumny. (Berthier)
Psalms 34:12 They repaid me evil for good: to the depriving me of my soul.

Depriving, sterilitatem. (Haydock) --- Hebrew denotes the condition of one who has lost a husband or father. --- I had exposed my life for the welfare of the state, and of those who now seek my ruin. (Calmet) --- Yet David was not slain. This was verified in our Saviour. (Worthington) --- Septuagint have ateknian, "loss of children;" as Christ was abandoned by his disciples. (Menochius)
Psalms 34:13 But as for me, when they were troublesome to me, I was clothed with hair-cloth. I humbled my soul with fasting; and my prayer shall be turned into my bosom.

To me. Hebrew also signify, "when they were sick," which manifests a more heroic charity; though yet it is more natural to suppose that David would assume these robes of penance when he was under affliction, as St. Jerome intimates, cum infirmarer ab eis. (Berthier) --- Our Saviour's life was a continual penance, though he stood in no need of it for himself. (Worthington) --- David was aware that the best method of avoiding the attacks of his enemies, was to make God his friend, by sentiments of humility, and by penance. (St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- Bosom. I shall reap the advantage from my prayer, if it be of no service to my enemies. (Genebrard) (Luke 10:6.) (Menochius) --- May what I wish for my enemies fall to my own lot. I have prayed for them in secret and with the utmost fervour. (Calmet) --- I have repeatedly urged my request, (Houbigant) or I am confident my prayer will be of some service, at least to myself. (Berthier)
Psalms 34:14 As a neighbour and as an own brother, so did I please; as one mourning and sorrowful, so was I humbled.

Please, complacebam, "treat lovingly." (Haydock) --- Vulgate follows the regimen of the Septuagint euerestoun, which may govern an accusative case. Hebrew is plainer, "I walked," (Berthier) or "behaved myself as though he had been my friend or brother." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- So. Septuagint seem to have explained am, "truly," instead of mother; as the points would determine the Hebrew, "like one who bewails his mother;" (Berthier) or, "like a mother mourning, I bowed down in grief." (St. Jerome) --- An ancient Greek interpreter has, "like one mourning for a brother born of the same mother." I felt the affliction of my enemies and sympathized with them, endeavouring to alleviate their distress as much as possible. (Calmet) --- Such was the conduct of David, the figure of the Messias; so that the expressions which seem too strong, must not be taken for imprecations. (Berthier) --- Christ was the good Samaritan who relieved the wounded man, Luke 10. (Worthington) --- St. Paul admonishes us to weep with those who weep, Romans 12:15. (Menochius)
Psalms 34:15 But they rejoiced against me, and came together: scourges were gathered together upon me, and I knew not.

Against me. Hebrew, "in my distress," (Houbigant) or "infirmity." (St. Jerome) --- Thus was my kind attention repaid. (Haydock) --- My enemies became only the more insolent, and stood beside me, to shew their contempt. (Calmet) --- Scourges. Hebrew also, "vile men," (Berthier) necim, people stricken, gathered themselves upon me, and I knew not." (Mont.) (Haydock) --- The Roman psalters have "and they were ignorant," ignoraverunt. (Calmet) --- David could not think that he had given any offence: much less had our Saviour. (Haydock) --- He knew no just cause why the Jews persecuted him, as they were actuated by malice. (Worthington) --- David knew not personally those who afflicted him. (Menochius)
Psalms 34:16 They were separated, and repented not: they tempted me, they scoffed at me with scorn: they gnashed upon me with their teeth.

Separated, and could not agree in their testimonies. This may be one meaning of charak, as it has several. (Berthier) -- "They did tear me, and ceased not, (16) with hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed," etc. (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Many of their attempts have been frustrated by thy Providence, yet they do not enter into themselves. (Theodoret)
Psalms 34:17 Lord, when wilt thou look upon me? rescue thou soul from their malice: my only one from the lions.

One. Septuagint, "daughter." Aquila, "solitary," monachen. Protestants, "darling," or my soul which is so desolate, Psalm 21:21. (Haydock) --- So Christ said, Why hast thou abandoned me? (Matthew xxvii.) not affording me such consolation as other saints enjoy in their agony. (Worthington)
Psalms 34:18 I will give thanks to thee in a great church: I will praise thee in a strong people.

Strong, gravi. Hebrew hatsum, numerous, (1 Machabees 1:1.; Menochius) and "weighty," (Haydock) which is the consequence of great numbers, (Berthier) and of virtue. St. Augustine understands the Church, which is not carried away like chaff before the wind. Amama dislikes this. (Haydock) --- The resurrection is foretold, (ver. 17.) and here the Catholic Church is signified. (Worthington)
Psalms 34:19 Let not them that are my enemies wrongfully rejoice over me: *who have hated me without cause, and wink with the eyes.

John 15:25.
Wrongfully. Hebrew, "liars," (St. Jerome; Haydock) alluding to Saul, etc. (Calmet) Christ explains this of himself, John xv. (Worthington) --- Who. Some supply a negation. (Berthier) --- "Neither let them wink with the eye who." (Protestants) This sign might indicate friendship, or evil machinations, Proverbs 6:13., and 10:10. (Calmet) --- "They pretended by their looks what they did not entertain in their hearts." (St. Augustine) (Menochius)
Psalms 34:20 For they spoke indeed peaceably to me: and speaking in the anger of the earth they devised guile.

Spoke. Hebrew adds lo, "not." But it may be better explained as an interrogation. "Have they not spoken?" etc., as the enemies used deceit. (Houbigant) (Berthier) --- Earth. This word is omitted in the Roman Septuagint, St. Augustine, etc. But Theodoret reads it, and it is in all the other Greek interpreters, and in the Arabic and Syriac. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "they devise deceitful matters against them that are quiet (righe, divided, etc.) in the land." (Protestants) or "in the plunder of the earth they devise deceit." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- They appear friendly, but when alone they talk to the earth, like people in deep study and full of passion. (Calmet) --- This terrestrial anger is the source of much evil. (Berthier) --- The Jews and Herodians said, Master, etc., designing to inveigle our Saviour, Matthew xxii. The priests and Pharisees also accused him boldly, and instigated the people to demand his crucifixion. (Worthington) --- They were split into parties, and invaded those who were the reverse of passionate. (Menochius)
Psalms 34:21 And they opened their mouth wide against me; they said: Well done, well done, our eyes have seen it.

Done, euge. Hebrew heach. (Haydock) --- This term occurs ten times in Scripture, and here denotes the joy felt in the destruction of an enemy. Thus the Jews insulted over Christ expiring on the cross. (Berthier) --- Seen. No farther reserve is necessary: he is fallen, or we have accused him of nothing but what we have seen. (Calmet)
Psalms 34:22 Thou hast seen, O Lord, be not thou silent: O Lord, depart not from me.

Silent. I have chosen thee for my judge and protector. (Calmet) --- Pronounce sentence if they be in the right; and if not, rescue me from their fury. (Haydock)
Psalms 34:23 Arise, and be attentive to my judgment: to my cause, my God and my Lord.

Attentive. Hebrew, "watch over." He implores present assistance. (Berthier)
Psalms 34:24 Judge me, O Lord, my God, according to thy justice, and let them not rejoice over me.

Thy. Many copies read "my," with St. Augustine, Euthymius, etc. But thy agrees with the Roman (Calmet) and Alexandrian Septuagint and Hebrew. (Haydock)
Psalms 34:25 Let them not say in their hearts: It is well, it is well, to our mind: neither let them say: We have swallowed him up.

It is well, occurs only once in Hebrew, which may be imperfect, as many versions supply the second. (Berthier) --- Mind, as we could have desired. Protestants, "Oh, (marginal note adds ah) so would we have it." (Haydock) --- Things go on well according to our mind. (Menochius)
Psalms 34:26 Let them blush, and be ashamed together, who rejoice at my evils. Let them be clothed with confusion and shame, who speak great things against me.

Great. St. Augustine reads, "malicious." (Calmet) --- At the day of judgment the wicked will be condemned. (Worthington) --- If this judgment were not to take place, religion would be a fable: as impiety is not always punished in this world. (Berthier)
Psalms 34:27 Let them rejoice and be glad, who are well pleased with my justice, and let them say always; The Lord be magnified, who delight in the peace of his servant.

Them. The blessed in eternal glory. (Worthington) --- Justice. Or wish that sentence may be pronounced in my favour. (Calmet) --- Delight. Hebrew, "who delights." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- But the Greek interpreters read as we do. (Berthier)
Psalms 34:28 Any my tongue shall meditate thy justice, thy praise all the day long.

Meditate. Hebrew word is used to signify speaking with reflection. (Calmet)
Psalms 35:0 The malice of sinners, and the goodness of God.

Psalms 35:1 Unto the end, for the servant of God, David himself.

Himself. Psalm is understood. It is expressed in St. Ambrose and St. Jerome, (Calmet) and in the Alexandrian Septuagint. (Haydock) --- Eusebius improperly assigns the cause of the omission to the piece being of a moral nature. Many suppose it refers to Saul, who had promised that he would give ear no more to the detractors of David, when the latter restored to him his spear and cup, 1 Kings xxvi. (Theodoret, etc.) --- But it seems rather to express the sentiments of the captives at Babylon, like the Psalms x., xi., xiii., and lii. (Calmet) --- David gloried in the title of servant of the Lord, though he bore the sceptre, Psalm xvii., (Berthier) and Psalm 115:16. (Menochius) --- He applies this instruction to himself, and to all in the lowest stations. (Worthington)
Psalms 35:2 The unjust hath said within himself, that he would sin: there is no fear of God before his eyes.

Himself. Hebrew libbi, "in my heart." But this is visibly incorrect, and we should substitute lobu, as St. Jerome, Chaldean, Syriac, etc., have done. (Calmet) --- Yet Symmachus translates, "concerning the disorder of the impious within, my heart has said, there," etc. Hebrew may also signify, "the transgression of the wicked saith within my heart." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- I am inwardly convinced how great the malice of the wicked may be. It touches me to the very heart. Both senses are good. The wicked are bent on evil, and this fills the virtuous with grief. (Berthier) --- Eyes. They sin publicly, (Psalm 13:1.; Calmet) and on purpose, preferring vice before virtue, (Worthington) and constantly bent on doing evil, so that they become odious to all. (Menochius)
Psalms 35:3 *For in his sight he hath done deceitfully, that his iniquity may be found unto hatred.

Psalm 13:3.
Unto hatred. That is, hateful to God (Challoner) and man; (Haydock) or that he may be able to hurt, as Hebrew also may insinuate. (Berthier) --- Septuagint, "to find and hate his iniquity." But he acts not with sincerity. He wishes to defend his evil ways. (St. Augustine, etc.) --- He still flatters himself with impunity, Psalm 9:25., or 10:11. To find, often means to punish, Genesis 44:16., etc. (Calmet) --- God frequently abandons those who sin through malice. (Worthington)
Psalms 35:4 The words of his mouth are iniquity and guile: he would not understand that he might do well.

Well, to those in distress, Psalm 40:2. Though wise enough in worldly concerns, he seemed quite ignorant when any virtuous actions were proposed. (Calmet) --- Sometimes ignorance is excusable when a person does his best to obtain knowledge. But when he is negligent, the ignorance is gross, and sinful in proportion to the importance of the thing. If one desire to be ignorant to prevent remorse, this only increases the guilt, and God often leaves such destitute of the ordinary graces which he gives to others; so that they fall into a reprobate sense, and into more horrible sins. (Worthington)
Psalms 35:5 He hath devised iniquity on his bed, he hath set himself on every way that is not good: but evil he hath not hated.

Set himself, "persevering" in wickedness. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 35:6 O Lord, thy mercy is in heaven, and thy truth reacheth even to the clouds.

Clouds. The mercy of God is great, and his fidelity indisputable. Some think these were concealed till the coming of the Messias; (Psalm 84:11.; St. Bernard) and many of the Fathers accuse Aristotle of confining Providence to the regions above the moon, by perverting this text. (St. Clement of Alexandria, strom. 5., etc.) --- But Gesner has produced 30 passages from that author which prove both a general and particular Providence. (Calmet) --- God does not leave the most wilful sinner without some good motions, and sufficient grace, that they may repent if they do not harden their own hearts. He has promised such helps, and is most faithful and desirous to receive again the penitent sinner. (Worthington)
Psalms 35:7 Thy justice is as the mountains of God, thy judgments are a great deep. Men and beasts thou wilt preserve, O Lord:

Of God. A title which is often given to things of superior excellence. So divina condimenta of Plautus, (Pseudol.) denote ragouts or sauces of the best quality; (Haydock) and sacra fames of Virgil, means great hunger. See Jonas 3:3., Canticle of Canticles 8:6. --- Deep. After praising the mercy of God, the psalmist expresses his admiration of his inscrutable justice, Romans 11:33. (Calmet) --- Preserve, salvabis. The latter are designed only for man's benefit, and will end with time. (Haydock) --- But man is destined for eternal happiness, ver. 9. (Calmet) --- God wishes the salvation of both the learned and of the stupid, (St. Jerome; Worthington) of the Jew and Gentile, (Arnob.; 1 Timothy 4:10.) of good and bad. He makes his sun to shine on both, Matthew 5:45. (Eusebius) (Piscator) (Calmet)
Psalms 35:8 O how hast thou multiplied thy mercy, O God! But the children of men shall put their trust under the covert of thy wings.

O how. So the Hebrew and Septuagint read; quemadmodum may also (Berthier) signify "as." God has given such proofs of his great mercies to all. (Haydock) --- Of men. People must lay aside their stupidity and resemblance with brutes, to obtain the eternal joys which are prepared for men. (Worthington)
Psalms 35:9 They shall be inebriated with the plenty of thy house; and thou shalt make them drink of the torrent of thy pleasure.

House. In the temple, (Calmet) or in the Church of God. (St. Ambrose) --- The pleasures enjoyed by this communion of saints, (Haydock) is but a foretaste of what may be expected in heaven. (Calmet)
Psalms 35:10 For with thee is the fountain of life; and in thy light we shall see light.

With thee, Lord, is the fountain of life, Jesus Christ. --- See light, or the Holy Ghost. (St. Ambrose) (Theodoret) --- We shall see thee, Father of light, in thy Son. (Origen, Prin. 1:1.) (Calmet) --- The saints behold in the light of God all that they can desire to know; and of course they will not be unacquainted with our wants and petitions, though they have not the asses' ears of Calvin. (Haydock) --- Light and life denote all happiness. (Calmet) --- The psalmist might have a sublime idea of these pleasures. (Berthier) --- But none will presently understand their excellence till they are put in possession of them. (Haydock)
Psalms 35:11 Extend thy mercy to them that know thee, and thy justice to them that are right in heart.

Mercy and justice, are here of the same import. (Bellarmine) (Muis) --- Deliver us from captivity, and extend thy mercies to all thy people. (Calmet) --- Heart. Many who have sufficient learning, are destitute of this better quality. The right of heart are always more knowing than those who are only learned in speculation, and puffed up with pride. (Berthier)
Psalms 35:12 Let not the foot of pride come to me, and let not the hand of the sinner move me.

Sinner. Hebrew and Septuagint, "sinners," who are always striving to supplant the just by pride and evil example. (Berthier) --- Let me not listen to their wicked advice. (St. Augustine) --- Let not the enemy invade our country any more. (Calmet) --- The just may pray that no bad example or pride may place an obstacle to his salvation. (Worthington)
Psalms 35:13 There the workers of iniquity are fallen, they are cast out, and could not stand.

There. The devil fell by pride, and man by his persuasion. Neither could escape punishment. (Worthington) --- There, in heaven, (St. Jerome) and in paradise, pride proved fatal; (Calmet) while it will be punished in hell. (St. Ambrose) --- Pride and injustice will entail destruction upon our persecutors. Babylon shall shortly fall a prey to Cyrus. (Calmet) --- Stand. Hebrew kum, "rise again." The proud are seldom converted, (Berthier) and the rebel angels had no redress. (Menochius)
Psalms 36:0 An exhortation to despise this world; and the short prosperity of the wicked; and to trust in providence.

Psalms 36:1 A psalm for David himself. Be not emulous of evil doers; nor envy them that work iniquity.

Himself. Hebrew has simply, "for David," (Calmet) as well as the Greek of the Vatican. "It is a mistake in Bellanger to say in general that the Greek adds "a psalm," since this is true only with respect to the edition of Aldus and Complutensian, says Berthier. But he is not quite accurate, as Erasmus inserts "a psalm" in his edition of St. Jerome's Septuagint; and the Alexandrian copy, which is equally famous with that of the Vatican, has [unto the end, a psalm] for David. Grabe has indeed marked all but the last word as a peculiarity, or not to be found in Origen's copy. But he has published his edition with such accuracy, that we may distinguish what his manuscript contained from other interpolations. It were to be wished that the same attention had been paid to the Vatican copy. But hitherto all the editors have taken the liberty to make alterations without specifying where; so that we can have no security that we ever quote the real manuscript of the Vatican. The learned prefect, Zacagni, gives abundant proof of this in his letter to Grabe, which has been published by Kennicott, Diss. 2. Yet any of these editions may be quoted as the Greek or Septuagint, as we have yet no copy perfectly authentic: and the learned are not even agreed which standard ought to be followed. If that which presents the greatest number of Origen's corrections be preferable, the Alexandrians manuscript must bear away the psalm . If the reverse, the glory must be given to its rival in the Vatican, which approaches the nearest to the koine, or to the edition of St. Lucian. See Kennicott. These remarks may be of service, as Berthier often seems inclined to place the Vatican edition on the same level with the Latin Vulgate. (Haydock) --- This psalm is alphabetical. The Syriac, Septuagint, etc., read, (ver. 28) the unjust, etc., avilim; a word which seems now to be deficient in the Hebrew, which has no verse beginning with a. (Calmet) --- Some other derangement has taken place. (Houbigant) --- The verses might be so divided as to begin every second verse with a fresh letter, and so to retain 42 verses. See ver. 7., and 20. The matter is of no great importance. The prophet has comprised several duties in alphabetical order, to help the memory, (Berthier) and to excite attention. (Worthington) --- He may predict the death of Saul, (Rabbins) or hint at the rebellion of Absalom in his old age; (ver. 25.; Ferrand) or rather he may comfort the captives at Babylon, promising them liberty, and denouncing the fall of their oppressors, above ten times. He admonishes them not to be scandalized at the distress of the just, and the prosperity of the wicked. (Calmet) --- Emulous. Hebrew, "Fret not thyself." (Protestants) "Mingle not with;" (Berthier; Pagnin) "contend not." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Envy. Their splendour is deceitful. (Calmet) --- Be not, therefore, seduced (Haydock) to imitate the wicked (Menochius) nor offended, that they should prosper here. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:2 For they shall shortly wither away as grass, and as the green herbs shall quickly fall.

Wither. Hebrew, "be cut down." (Calmet) --- Fall. Hebrew, "wither." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- This admirably describes the transient glory of sinners, Isaias 40:6., and James 1:10. (Calmet) --- All life is short. (Worthington) (1 Peter 1:24.) (Menochius)
Psalms 36:3 Trust in the Lord, and do good, and dwell in the land, and thou shalt be fed with its riches.

Riches. Septuagint and Houbigant read emune, "abundance." Hebrew begins with a. The sense is much the same. (Berthier) --- "Thou shalt feed on faith," (St. Jerome) or "incessantly." (Symmachus) --- The Jews entertained the greatest desire of the promised land. (Calmet) --- It may here denote our soul, (Origen) the Church, (St. Augustine) the Scriptures, (St. Athanasius) or heaven. (St. Jerome, etc.) (Calmet) --- Trust in God and be content. He will give thee what is requisite. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:4 Delight in the Lord, and he will give thee the requests of thy heart.

Heart. Provided they be rational. (St. Augustine) --- He will enable thee to repose in peace, and to taste innocent pleasures in the Lord. (Calmet)
Psalms 36:5 Commit thy way to the Lord, and trust in him, and he will do it.

Commit. Literally, "lay open." Hebrew, "roll." (Haydock) --- This expresses the most unbounded confidence, Psalm 54:23., and Proverbs 16:3. --- Do it. Whatever may be proper. He will display thy justice, (ver. 6.) and free thee from anxiety, (Calmet) taking care of thee, 1 Peter 5:7. (Menochius)
Psalms 36:6 And he will bring forth thy justice as the light, and thy judgment as the noon-day.

Day. This will appear at the last judgment. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 36:7 Be subject to the Lord, and pray to him. Envy not the man who prospereth in his way; the man who doth unjust things.

Be. Hebrew dom, begins only this verse with d. The other letters occupy two verses, (Berthier) the second of which may commence with any of the letters. (Haydock) --- "Be silent to the Lord; wait upon Him." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- If he should suffer thee to be afflicted, envy not those who are in a more prosperous condition, nor give way to indignation, ver. 8. (Calmet) --- None can be truly subjected to God, who do not comply with his laws and pray. (Origen) (St. Augustine) --- We must wait patiently for his aid, Lamentations 3:26., and Isaias 30:15. "Allow the gods to judge what's best for us." (Juvenal, Sat. 13.) (Haydock)
Psalms 36:8 Cease from anger, and leave rage; have no emulation to do evil.

Evil. Repining (Menochius) at the ways of Providence, etc. (Calmet) (ver. 1.) --- Reflect on God's will. (Haydock) --- Laboras; sed in via Dei. (St. Augustine) --- Hebrew, "be not angry nevertheless (ac, a word which Houbigant deems useless) to do evil;" (Montanus) or "against the wicked," (Prin. dis.) as lehareah may be perhaps signified; though it is more usually taken for a verb, as the points decide. (Berthier)
Psalms 36:9 For evil doers shall be cut off: but they that wait upon the Lord, shall inherit the land.

Land of the living. (Worthington) --- David knew that many truly pious people would never obtain riches in the land of Chanaan, even though they might have remained there, if the nation had been faithful. He therefore comforts them with the prospect of a better land. If this were not the meaning, the Church would put these canticles in the mouth of her children to little purpose. (Berthier)
Psalms 36:10 For yet a little while and the wicked shall not be: and thou shalt seek his place, and shalt not find it.

While. Till the day of judgment. (Origen; St. Ambrose) --- And shalt. Hebrew, "and it shall not be." (Protestants) "it, or he shall not subsist." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- The state of the wicked is not therefore so enviable. The captives witnessed the fall of the great Colossus, the empire of the Babylonians. (Calmet)
Psalms 36:11 *But the meek shall inherit the land, and shall delight in abundance of peace.

Matthew 5:4.
Meek. Hebrew hanavim, also means "the afflicted." (Berthier) --- Captives, ye shall be reinstated in your dear country. Our Saviour alludes to this text, (Matthew 5:4.) and the Fathers beautifully explain it of heaven. (Eusebius; St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- What is now become of those who have heretofore filled the world with tumult and bloodshed to obtain dominion! They are confined to the land where everlasting horror and no order dwells. They would wish they had never existed, as our Saviour mentions; while those who passed through life unknown, or despised, but always seeking God, are now arrived at the summit of all their wishes. (Haydock) --- O holy religion! thou explainest all these things. The just have ceased to exist: but their better part has inherited the land of the living. Yet a little while, and all will be in order, and in its proper place; though that of the wicked deserves not the name. (Berthier)
Psalms 36:12 The sinner shall watch the just man: and shall gnash upon him with his teeth.

Watch. Hebrew, "plot against." (Haydock) --- Teeth. In rage to destroy him, (Calmet) whose virtue is a continual censure of his impiety. (Haydock)
Psalms 36:13 But the Lord shall laugh at him: for he foreseeth that his day shall come.

Laugh. This expression is often used to denote the triumph of divine justice, whose day will set all right: that day (2 Timothy 4:8.) which ought to be constantly before our eyes. (Berthier) --- God cannot indeed mock at any one. (Calmet) --- But the wicked "deserve scorn and vengeance." (Haydock) --- Digni sunt ut irrideantur in vindicta . (St. Jerome) --- The day of their judgment or condemnation is at hand, (Ezechiel 21:25., and 1 Kings 26:10.; Haydock) when they will be sought for in vain (ver. 10.; Calmet) by their foolish admirers. They will seek to hide themselves from the indignation of the Lamb.
Psalms 36:14 The wicked have drawn out the sword: they have bent their bow; To cast down the poor and needy, to kill the upright of heart.

Heart. Hebrew, "of way." Protestants, "such as be of upright conversation." Only those whose heart is pure, will observe the right path. (Haydock)
Psalms 36:15 Let their sword enter into their own hearts, and let their bow be broken.

Broken. In the form of imprecation, he foretells the event. (Worthington) --- Hebrew is in the future, to imply as much. (Berthier)
Psalms 36:16 Better is a little to the just, than the great riches of the wicked.

Wicked. Hebrew, "of many wicked," or "of the impious great ones." (Haydock) --- What the just man hath, is preferable to the immense riches of sinners, acquired by injustice. In this sense Hesiod and Psittacus said, "half is more than all." The wicked are never satisfied, Ecclesiastes 4:6., and Proverbs 13:25. Riches are a dangerous temptation, (Calmet) and the sentence is generally true, "every rich person is either unjust or the heir of one who has been such," (Haydock) aut haeres injusti. (St. Jerome) --- It is difficult for the rich to enter heaven; and the unjust are certainly excluded. Yet if we confined our views to this world, it is evident that the rich may better procure the sweets of life. (Berthier)
Psalms 36:17 For the arms of the wicked shall be broken in pieces; but the Lord strengtheneth the just.

Arms of the body, brachia. All that they have admired perishes in death, (Calmet) while the just then possess true riches.
Psalms 36:18 The Lord knoweth the days of undefiled; and their inheritance shall be for ever.

Days, or "ways," according to some copies of Septuagint. (St. Augustine, etc.) God approves the conduct of the just. He takes notice of the time of their sufferings, and comforts them during life, (Calmet) yea, for ever.
Psalms 36:19 They shall not be confounded in the evil time; and in the days of famine they shall be filled:

Psalms 36:20 because the wicked shall perish. And the enemies of the Lord, presently after they shall be honoured and exalted, shall come to nothing, and vanish like smoke.

Because. Only this verse begins with c, as the seventh does with d. (Haydock) --- Smoke. All their riches shall vanish, and their works be disregarded by God. But they will not be annihilated, as they would desire; otherwise the justice of God would not be executed on them. (Berthier) --- There is a continual antithesis between the good and bad. The latter shall shortly lose all their splendour. "I fear, lest offending the gods, I may receive glory among men," said the poet Ibicus, (Calmet) conformably to our Saviour's declaration concerning the vain-glorious, they have received their reward, Matthew 6:6. Hebrew, "shall be as the fat of lambs, consumed and reduced to smoke." (Haydock) --- St. Jerome seems to have read differently, "boasting like unicorns, they shall be consumed, as smoke, they shall be consumed." Syriac and Chaldean intimate that they shall be like victims, "fattened" for slaughter, and burnt. (Calmet)
Psalms 36:21 The sinner shall borrow, and not pay again: but the just sheweth mercy and shall give.

Give. Having both the will and the power to be liberal. (Haydock) --- "He shall lend without expecting any advantage, while the wicked falls into such misery as not to be able to pay his debts. This is not always the order of Providence. (Calmet) --- But the just is often enabled by economy to relieve his brethren, at the same time that the libertine wastes his estate, (Berthier) or at least unjustly defers to pay his debts. (Menochius)
Psalms 36:22 For such as bless him shall inherit the land: but such as curse him shall perish.

Bless him. The just, (ver. 21.; Prin. disc.) or rather the Lord, ver. 20. (Berthier) --- "Are blessed of him," etc. (St. Jerome) (Chaldean) (Haydock)
Psalms 36:23 With the Lord shall the steps of a man be directed, and he shall like well his way.

With. Or by the decrees of the Lord. The Hebrew and Septuagint have, "By," para. (Berthier) --- God gives grace to do all good, (Proverbs 16:9.; Calmet) and likes the way which He points out. The just also find the greatest consolation in virtue. (Haydock)
Psalms 36:24 When he shall fall, he shall not be bruised, for the Lord putteth his hand under him.

Him. To break the fall. Hebrew, "the Lord upholdeth him with his hand." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- The just man is like a courageous wrestler, who may slip, but yields not. (Origen; Eusebius) --- His fall is not mortal, (Calmet) though he may be guilty of venial sin, Proverbs xxiv. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:25 I have been young, and now am old; and I have not seen the just forsaken, nor his seed seeking bread.

Seeking, in vain. (Haydock) --- Roman and Gothic Ps.[Psalters?] read, "wanting." This does not condemn the mendicant orders. (Menochius) --- Nothing was more unusual under the old law than the extreme distress of the just: yet Job and Lazarus were reduced to it. They were not, however, discontent. (Calmet) --- They found the bread of life in conformity to God's will, John 4:34. (Haydock) --- Their souls were enriched with grace, which was never wanting, as the Fathers explain this passage. (Berthier) (Amos 8:11.) --- It is certain that there were poor among the Jews; (Deuteronomy 15:11.) and who would assert that they were all wicked, or the children of such? Yet the prophet had not witnessed (Calmet) any person renowned for virtue reduced to this condition, (Haydock) though he does not deny but it might be possible. (Calmet) --- The proposition may be restrained to those who have been very charitable, and who are not often thereby reduced to want, Daniel 4:24. (Genebrard) (Menochius) --- But the word just is more comprehensive; and St. Paul gives several instances of persecuted saints (Hebrew xi.) which is confirmed by the parable, or rather by the history, of Lazarus. (Berthier) --- At any rate, the Church is never deprived of the word of God. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 36:26 He sheweth mercy, and lendeth all the day long; and his seed shall be in blessing.

Lendeth. "To receive interest," daneizei, from God, Proverbs 19:17. (St. Augustine, etc.) (Calmet) --- He maketh know the divine word. (Origen)
Psalms 36:27 Decline from evil, and do good; and dwell for ever and ever.

Dwell in the land of the living, rather than in that of promise, from which many just people were banished during the captivity. (Berthier) --- He who complies with these two conditions, will inherit heaven. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:28 For the Lord loveth judgment, and will not forsake his saints: they shall be preserved for ever. The unjust shall be punished, and the seed of the wicked shall perish.

Saints. Hebrew, "merciful ones." He will free them from captivity. (Calmet) --- Punished. This sentence seems to be improperly omitted in Hebrew, which otherwise neglects the letter a, as the Chaldean, Syriac, and St. Jerome do as well as a few copies of the Septuagint. The Roman edition with the Arabic and Ethiopic, reads amomoi ekdikethesontai, "the innocent shall be avenged," (Calmet) or "punished;" which is inaccurately put for anomoi ekdiochthesontai, the wicked shall be punished, or "expelled;" (Berthier) though Grabe prefers the former verb. (Haydock) --- St. Cyril acknowledges both readings. (Calmet)
Psalms 36:29 But the just shall inherit the land, and shall dwell therein for evermore.

Psalms 36:30 *The mouth of the just shall meditate wisdom; and his tongue shall speak judgment.

Proverbs 31:26.
Psalms 36:31 *The law of his God is in his heart, and his steps shall not be supplanted.

Isaias 51:7.
Supplanted. The devil shall have no advantage over the just, (Calmet) who aim constantly at perfection. (Origen)
Psalms 36:32 The wicked watcheth the just man, and seeketh to put him to death.

Death, mortificare. Some read perdere, or occidere. The wicked are constantly laying snares for destruction, (Calmet) and to draw others into mortal sin. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:33 But the Lord will not leave him in his hands; nor condemn him when he shall be judged.

Judged, "by him." Illi seems to be superfluous; (Berthier) or it implies that God will revise the sentence of wicked judges. (Haydock) --- The just have nothing to fear. God will pass an equitable sentence, and the condemnation of men shall do no harm. (Origen) --- The mistakes of human tribunals prove the necessity of a general judgment.
Psalms 36:34 Expect the Lord and keep his way: and he will exalt thee to inherit the land: when the sinners shall perish thou shalt see.

See the truth of these maxims. (Calmet) --- While the wicked enjoy power they often conceal their injustice, which appears as soon as the veil is removed by death, when people cease to fear them. (Haydock)
Psalms 36:35 I have seen the wicked highly exalted, and lifted up like the cedars of Libanus.

Cedars, etc. Septuagint have read differently from the present Hebrew and present a more beautiful sense. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "and spreading himself like a green bay-tree, (marginal note: or "a green tree that groweth in his own soil,") yet he passed away, and lo," etc. (Haydock) --- Ezrach, denotes an evergreen, (Rabbins) "a laurel covered with verdure." (Calmet) --- Houbigant has "a cedar," ezrach.
Psalms 36:36 And I passed by, and lo! he was not: and I sought him, and his place was not found.

I passed. This is better than the Hebrew, "it has passed," transivit, as a tree changes not its place, and all the ancient interpreters agree with us. (Berthier) --- His place, is not expressed in Hebrew. But it implies that every vestige of the proud is soon lost. This might serve to curb the violence of those who disturb mankind! (Haydock) --- The wicked may here refer to Nabuchodonosor, the devil, Judas, etc. (Calmet) --- We may behold the riches of sinners with our bodily eyes: but if we consider them with the eyes of faith, they presently vanish. (St. Ambrose; St. Augustine)
Psalms 36:37 Keep innocence, and behold justice; for there are remnants for the peaceable man.

Remnants, or rewards. (Worthington) --- Hebrew acharith, "the reward," (Pagnin) "the last end of man is peace," (Montanus; Haydock) or "the posterity (ver. 38.) of such a man shall be happy." (Calmet) --- "There are future things for the peaceful." (Symmachus) --- The expectations of the just are not confined to this world. They have something laid up for heaven, whereas the wicked have nothing. (Haydock) --- These lose all by death; and the thought makes them take refuge in the foolish hope of being annihilated. (Berthier)
Psalms 36:38 But the unjust shall be destroyed together: the remnants of the wicked shall perish.

Together. At the last day, (Haydock) or all without exception shall perish; the wicked, with their posterity and riches. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:39 But the salvation of the just is from the Lord, and he is their protector in the time of trouble.

Salvation. This is an effect of God's grace. (Worthington)
Psalms 36:40 And the Lord will help them, and deliver them: and he will rescue them from the wicked; and save them, because they have hoped in him.

Psalms 37:0 A prayer of a penitent for the remission of his sins. The third penitential psalm.

Psalms 37:1 A psalm for David, for a remembrance of the sabbath.

For a remembrance, viz., of our miseries and sins; and to be sung on the sabbath-day. (Challoner) --- This sabbath might also allude to the indolent rest which occasioned the fall of David, 2 Kings 11:1. (Haydock) --- Hebrew mentions not the sabbath; and it is not known (Calmet) why the Septuagint made this addition. The prophet may have Christ suffering for our sins in view, (Berthier) though he probably composed this psalm, when he was afflicted with an illness after this fall. (Rab. Muis, etc.) (Calmet) --- It contains an excellent model for penitents, (Calmet) to enable them to regain peace of conscience, (St. Gregory) and paradise, from which they are banished by sin. (St. Augustine) --- This remembrance (Worthington) is most essential. (Haydock)
Psalms 37:2 *Rebuke me not, O Lord, in thy indignation; nor chastise me in thy wrath.

Psalm 6:2.
Wrath. God is incapable of passion: but man deserves to be treated with the utmost rigour; and this David deprecates, begging that God would act rather like a physician in his regard. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- The same petition occurs in psalm vi.; and this ought to caution people not to make imprecations, since God's judgments are so terrible. (Berthier) --- St. Augustine and St. Gregory explain this text of the fire of hell, and of purgatory, 1 Corinthians 3:15. (Haydock) --- Though some be saved by the latter, "yet is that fire more grievous than whatever man can suffer in this life." (St. Augustine) --- "I esteem that transitory fire more intolerable than all present tribulation." (St. Gregory) (Worthington) --- We may therefore pray, "Here burn," etc., with the same St. Augustine who assures us, (Gen. con. Man. 2:20.) that "he who cultivates not the field of his soul, will, after this life, experience either the fire of purgatory or eternal punishment." (Haydock)
Psalms 37:3 For thy arrows are fastened in me: and thy hand hath been strong upon me.

Arrows. Afflictions, (Worthington) or the word of God, which convert the sinner. (St. Augustine) --- The admonition of Nathan had made the deepest impression on David. [2 Kings xii.] He was also visited by sickness, like Job 6:4., and 19:21.
Psalms 37:4 There is no health in my flesh, because of thy wrath: there is no peace for my bones, because of my sins.

Sins. These occasion my great affliction, when I reflect on thy justice. (Worthington) --- I chastise myself. (Eusebius) --- St. Augustine explains all this of original sin. (Calmet) --- Jesus bore the weight of all our sins, which are above our comprehension, ver. 5. (Berthier)
Psalms 37:5 For my iniquities are gone over my head: and as a heavy burden are become heavy upon me.

Me. They press upon me like a deluge or huge weight. (Calmet) --- The sin of David had many aggravations. (Berthier) --- His punishment was also great. (Calmet) --- His spirit was almost overwhelmed, as the sins which are not bewailed, bring on other transgressions. (Worthington) --- It is not so much sin as the neglect of penance, which destroys men. (Berthier) --- This folly is here acknowledged by David. (Haydock)
Psalms 37:6 My sores are putrified and corrupted, because of my foolishness.

Foolishness, or sin. Shame has made me conceal the state of my soul; and hence evil has increased. (St. Jerome, etc.) (Calmet) --- The poisoned wound has infected other parts which were sound: (Worthington) chaburoth denotes sores, or "wounds still fresh or mortifying," (Haydock) rather than scars. (Menochius) --- All sin is properly styled foolishness, as no prudent man should commit any. (Origen)
Psalms 37:7 I am become miserable, and am bowed down even to the end: I walk sorrowful all the day long.

End. Hebrew, "exceedingly," while a person feels his state is not desperate. (Berthier) --- Sorrowful. Hebrew, "in black," which may refer either to the mourning attire, (Calmet) or to the "countenance." (Symmachus) --- Grief will allow me to take no rest. (Origen) --- I dare not look up to heaven, (Calmet) nor can I walk straight, to perform any good work (Worthington) of myself. (Haydock)
Psalms 37:8 For my loins are filled with illusions: and there is no health in my flesh.

Loins. Psoai, as the Alexandrian and Complutensian Septuagint read, though the Vatican has psuche, soul, (Haydock) with the Arabic, etc. --- Illusions. Hebrew nikle, "burning." (Pagnin) "shameful ulcer." (Houbigant) "Ignominy." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- David acknowledges that the irregular motions of concupiscence were an effect of his transgression. The Jews and Greeks place these sensations in the loins, 3 Kings 8:10. Plato triplicem finxit animam, cujus principatum in capite, iram in pectore, cupiditatem subter praecordia locavit. (Cicero, Tusc. 1.) (Calmet) --- Flesh. Concupiscence striving in me.
Psalms 37:9 I am afflicted and humbled exceedingly: I roared with the groaning of my heart.

Heart. I give vent to my inward grief by loud lamentations.
Psalms 37:10 Lord, all my desire is before thee, and my groaning is not hidden from thee.

Desire, to be restored to thy favour. (Worthington) --- Thou alone canst heal me. (Calmet)
Psalms 37:11 My heart is troubled, my strength hath left me, and the light of my eyes itself is not with me.

Troubled. Hebrew, "beats," palpitat. (Houbigant) --- Itself. Hebrew, "even they are," etc. (Haydock) --- I was no longer endued with the spirit of prophecy, (St. Basil) till my conversion, (St. Augustine) nor an object of favour. (Haydock) --- I was abandoned to myself, (Calmet) quitting thy light. (St. Ambrose) --- My eyes have been hurt by weeping (Haydock) and maladies, (Calmet) while my heart is become so corrupt, that I do not relish or discern spiritual things. (Haydock) --- The beauty of virtue, and the enormity of vice, do not strike me. (Menochius)
Psalms 37:12 My friends and my neighbours have drawn near, and stood against me. And they that were near me stood afar off:

Have. Hebrew, "over-against my wound (Haydock) or leprosy." (Calmet) Protestants, "stand aloof from my sore." (Haydock) --- But the original means rather "near to." Septuagint may have read u for i, in nighi. (Berthier) --- But Symmachus and St. Jerome translate, "stood against my leprosy, (Haydock) and my neighbour stood at a distance;" as if they had been afraid of the contagion. Job (xix. 13, 19.) makes the same complaints. (Calmet) --- These manners of worldlings may be seen in every age, and ought not to fill us with surprise. (Berthier) (John 15:18.) --- David was abandoned by Achitophel, and by most of the tribe of Juda, (Theodoret) as our Saviour was by his disciples. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 37:13 and they that sought my soul used violence. And they that sought evils to me spoke vain things, and studied deceits all the day long.

Violence. Hebrew, "laid snares." This treatment might be expected from enemies, since friends proved so treacherous. (Haydock) --- They would willingly have slain David. The will is often put for the deed. (Calmet) --- Things. Endeavouring to engage me again in sin, being displeased because I have quitted their evil company; (Worthington) or they raise their fortune, by causing dissensions in the state. This might be well applied to the Pharisees, who persecuted Christ.
Psalms 37:14 But I, as a deaf man, heard not: and as a dumb man not opening his mouth.

Mouth. I utterly renounce all sin. (Worthington) --- David would make no reply to Semei, (Theodoret) nor our Saviour to Pilate. (Calmet) --- Silence is often the best defence. (Haydock) --- Eagerness to justify one's self, causes trouble and disedification. (Berthier) --- The prophet joins the deaf and dumb; as those who have naturally the former defect, are also affected with the latter. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 10:69.) (Haydock)
Psalms 37:15 And I became as a man that heareth not: and that hath no reproofs in his mouth.

Psalms 37:16 For in thee, O Lord, have I hoped: thou wilt hear me, O Lord my God.

Hoped. This was the reason of his silence. (Berthier) --- He knew that God was in a manner engaged to defend those (Calmet) who rely (Worthington) wholly on Him; and he declared such to be his disposition. (Haydock) --- Hear me. The same term thahane means, "wilt answer" (Mont.) as a judge and advocate. (Haydock) --- God will one day manifest the justice of his elect. (Berthier)
Psalms 37:17 For I said: Lest at any time my enemies rejoice over me: and whilst my feet are moved, they speak great things against me.

For. On this account I turn to thee, and entreat thee not to suffer my enemies to gain the victory. (Worthington) --- My humble and earnest prayer is another motive of confidence. --- My enemies is not expressed in Hebrew. (Calmet) --- I decline saying any thing in my own defence, lest I should offend God. (Menochius)
Psalms 37:18 For I am ready for scourges: and my sorrow is continually before me.

Scourges. Protestants, to "halt," letselah. (Haydock) --- St. Jerome ad plagas. Chaldean, "for calamity." (Berthier) See Psalm 34:15. I speak not through impatience, as I know that my sins deserve still more. (Calmet) --- I resign myself to thee. (Worthington) --- This was admirably verified in Jesus Christ, the victim for our sins. (Calmet) --- Before me. I cannot forget my transgression. (Haydock)
Psalms 37:19 For I will declare my iniquity: and I will think for my sin.

Sin. Though Thou knowest all things, I will confess that I may be saved; and will meditate on what I have deserved. (Worthington) --- He goes to the source of his malady. (Calmet) --- "Be not secure after confession of thy sin, as being always ready to confess and to offend. Declare thy iniquities in such a manner as to take care on account of thy sin." (St. Augustine) --- Confession without repentance is only a mockery. (Haydock)
Psalms 37:20 But my enemies live, and are stronger than I: and they that hate me wrongfully, are multiplied.

Stronger. Hebrew, "strong, and they," etc. (Haydock) --- Art thou deaf to my cries? (Calmet)
Psalms 37:21 They that render evil for good, have detracted me, because I followed goodness.

Detracted me, by insinuating that my repentance is hypocrisy. Another mode of detracting is by making known secret faults, (Worthington) as calumny imputes false ones. (Haydock) --- Goodness. Septuagint, "justice." Many Greek and Latin copies add: "They have rejected me, the beloved, (Theodoret; Arabic) as one dead, as an abomination." --- Forsake, ver. 22. (St. Ambrose) (Calmet)
Psalms 37:22 Forsake me not, O Lord, my God: do not thou depart from me.

Psalms 37:23 Attend unto my help, O Lord, the God of my salvation.

Attend. Hebrew, "hasten;" which is the sense of prosches, "attend." (Septuagint) (Haydock)
Psalms 38:0 A just man's peace and patience in his sufferings; considering the vanity of the world, and the providence of God.

Psalms 38:1 Unto the end, for Idithun himself, a canticle of David.

Idithun was one of the four chief masters of music, called Ethan, 1 Paralipomenon 6:44., and Idithun, 1 Paralipomenon 16:41. Some think that he was the author of this psalm; but it was rather given to him by David to sing. (Calmet) --- The title shews that the psalms were designed for the public service of the Church, and not for David alone. (Berthier) --- This refers to the Christian Church, though some explain it of the Jews in captivity, (Worthington) with R. Salomon, while others think that it was composed during some of David's persecutions. It is connected with the preceding, and with the two next psalms. (Calmet)
Psalms 38:2 I said: I will take heed to my ways: that I sin not with my tongue. I have set a guard to my mouth, when the sinner stood against me.

Tongue. The matter is very delicate and important, James 3:2., Proverbs 18:21., Isaias 32:17., and Ecclesiasticus 22:33., and 28:28. --- Me, and was treating me with injustice and calumny. (Haydock) --- Chilo, the sage, said: "I know how to bear ill treatment," (Laert. 1.) and this is a proof of "the greatest wisdom and virtue." (Haydock) --- Outos kratistos. (Menander) (Calmet) --- Weak men seek revenge; but the wise resolve to govern their tongues, and do not stand up in their own just defence, though they be, therefore, more persecuted. (Worthington)
Psalms 38:3 I was dumb, and was humbled, and kept silence from good things: and my sorrow was renewed.

Renewed. I was conscious of no offence against my enemies, (Haydock) but I reflected that I had forfeited my virtue, (Eusebius) and therefore gave vent to my grief. (Haydock) --- Being afraid of saying any thing amiss, I refrained from saying what was good. But I perceived that this was wrong. (St. Augustine) --- I deprived myself of all pleasure. (Calmet) --- The seven first verses detail the arguments used by philosophers to comfort man, which all prove of little service. We must have recourse to God, ver. 8. (Berthier)
Psalms 38:4 My heart grew hot within me: and in my meditation a fire shall flame out.

Out. This alludes to his sorrow for his sins, (Origen) or to the fire of charity, which is enkindled by meditation on the last end, etc., (ver. 5.) or rather it means, that while he repressed his tongue, he could not but feel an inward zeal and indignation, (Calmet) in consequence of grief suppressed. (Worthington) --- See Jeremias 20:9. (Menochius)
Psalms 38:5 I spoke with my tongue: O Lord, make me know my end, And what is the number of my days: that I may know what is wanting to me.

End, as I desire to die, like Elias, 3 Kings xix. (Worthington) --- The just have frequently expressed such sentiments, to move God to pity, (Job 7:1., and Psalm 101:4.) though they wished to live, that they might praise God on earth, (Calmet) if it were his will. (Haydock) --- This text may indicate the impatience (Berthier) of the mere philosopher, (Haydock) or David desires to know to what a decree of perfection he must arrive. (Origen; St. Ambrose)
Psalms 38:6 Behold thou hast made my days measurable: and my substance is as nothing before thee. And indeed all things are vanity: every man living.

Measurable. Hebrew, "of a hand's breadth." (Haydock) --- Symmachus, "a spithame, or twelve fingers' breadth," perhaps in allusion to the Greek proverb, a "spithame of life;" which denotes one very short. (Drusius) --- The Greek copies vary: some read, (Calmet) with the Vatican palaias, "ancient;" and others of the palestra with the Alexandrian palaistas, or "contentious." I am obliged always to wrestle with my adversaries. (Grotius) --- My days are short, and spent in conflicts. (Haydock) --- St. Chrysostom, St. Ambrose, etc., mention both. The former word is adopted by the Arabic, Ethiopic, etc.; but the Hebrew has tephachoth, "of a palm," or four fingers' breadth; (Calmet) and St. Jerome breves, "short." (Haydock) --- Substance. St. Jerome, "life." Hebrew, "age." --- Living. Hebrew, "standing," how well soever he may seem to be established. Protestants, "at his best estate, is altogether vanity. Selah." (Haydock) --- The wisest of men confirms this at large, Ecclesiastes 1:1. (Calmet) (James 4:14.) --- "What is this long while which has an end?" (Cicero, pro. Marcel.) (Menochius)
Psalms 38:7 Surely man passeth as an image: yea, and he is disquieted in vain. He storeth up: and he knoweth not for whom he shall gather these things.

Image, "of God." (St. Gregory, etc.) Hebrew, "in a shadow or darkness," where the fall of a leaf affrights him. Life is so short and miserable, why should we strive to heap up riches? (Calmet) --- For whom. Hebrew, "who shall gather," etc. (Haydock) --- The term is used respecting harvest rather than money. (Calmet) --- Hebrew has disquieted in the plural, and the rest of the words in the singular; but St. Jerome agrees with us, conturbatur....et ignorat cui dimittat ea. (Haydock) --- The prophet still utters complaints. One step farther is necessary to ensure peace. (Berthier) --- He acknowledges that his life is but a shadow, and that we ought not to grieve for temporal losses. (Worthington)
Psalms 38:8 And now what is my hope? is it not the Lord? and my substance is with thee.

Substance. Septuagint hypostasis. Hebrew, "hope." (Haydock) --- I can depend only on thee. (Calmet)
Psalms 38:9 Deliver thou me from all my iniquities; thou hast made me a reproach to the fool.

Thou hast. Hebrew lo, "do not;" ne, or nonne; or "hast thou not made?" etc., as the following verse intimates. (Berthier) --- Thou hast suffered me to be reproached by the foolish, who prosper in this world. (Worthington) --- The fool may denote the devil, (St. Jerome; Origen) and all the lovers of iniquity. (Flaminius) (Calmet)
Psalms 38:10 I was dumb, and I opened not my mouth, because thou hast done it.

It. St. Augustine reads "me," conformably to some copies of the Septuagint, Arabic, etc. (Calmet) --- He is at a loss to explain the reason of the prophet, and suggests that this perhaps ought to be referred to the following sentence, "Because thou hast made me, remove," etc. (Haydock) --- Such is the inconvenience of having incorrect copies. (Amama) --- The Alexandrian and Vatican Septuagint both have me, (Haydock) which his omitted in Complut. (Calmet) --- David knew that he was scourged by divine Providence. (Worthington)
Psalms 38:11 Remove thy scourges from me. The strength of thy hand hath made me faint in rebukes:

In (thy) rebukes, belongs to the next verse in Hebrew and Septuagint, referring to man in general, unless the prophet mean himself. (Berthier)
Psalms 38:12 Thou hast corrected man for iniquity. And thou hast made his soul to waste away like a spider: surely in vain is any man disquieted.

Spider. St. Jerome, "moth." Symmachus, "thou dissolvest like corruption his desirable thing;" (Haydock) which means the soul, (Berthier) or "beauty." (Protestants) Remorse of conscience and God's judgments make a man pine away. --- Disquieted is obelized in the Septuagint. (St. Jerome, ad Sun.) (Calmet) --- It is not found in the Alexandrian and Comp. edition (Haydock) and seems to be taken from ver. 7. It does not alter the sense. (Berthier) --- "Man is vanity always." (St. Jerome) --- As a spider which has consumed its moisture, so he decays. (Worthington)
Psalms 38:13 Hear my prayer, O Lord, and my supplication; give ear to my tears. Be not silent; for I am a stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were.

Were. 1 Paralipomenon 29:15. I can expect aid from no other but thee. (Calmet) --- Heaven is our home. (Worthington) --- "Life is a travelling from home." (Plato in Axiocho.)
Psalms 38:14 O forgive me, that I may be refreshed, before I go hence, and be no more.

More. In a state to do good. (Worthington) --- Grant me relief, Ecclesiastes 9:10., and Job 7:8. (Calmet)
Psalms 39:0 Christ's coming, and redeeming mankind.

Psalms 39:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David himself.

Psalm. Protestants intimate that this was not in the Hebrew; but we find mizmor, "canticle," which is equivalent. (Haydock) --- David speaks of his own restoration to health as a figure of Jesus Christ, who is principally intended, Hebrews 10:7. The end of the psalm is nearly the same with the 69th. (Calmet) --- Some arbitrarily (Berthier) explain the words with relation to the revolt of Absalom. (Bossuet) --- Others think it may refer to the captives, (Ven. Bede) to Daniel, or Jeremias, rescued from prison. See Theodoret, who explains it of men waiting for the general resurrection. It may express the sentiments of the Church, when the persecutions ceased. (Euthymius) --- Christ sometimes speaks in his own name, and sometimes in that of his members. (St. Ambrose; St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- It is certain that David had Christ in view; and if he alludes to himself, it is only as the figure of him. (Berthier)
Psalms 39:2 With expectation I have waited for the Lord, and he was attentive to me.

Expectation, or patience. (Haydock) --- God has, at last, granted my request.
Psalms 39:3 And he heard my prayers, and brought me out of the pit of misery and the mire of dregs. And he set my feet upon a rock, and directed my steps.

Misery. Hebrew, "confusion," (Berthier) or "noise," (St. Jerome; Haydock) from the greatest danger. (Theodoret) --- Dregs. Mud, Jeremias 38:6. St. Augustine, etc., explain this of the Christian saved by faith from the sink of his sins. (Calmet)
Psalms 39:4 And he put a new canticle into my mouth, a song to our God. Many shall see, and shall fear: and they shall hope in the Lord.

New. Excellent. (Haydock) --- I was before uttering complaints, now I give thanks with joy, for my health and conversion. (Calmet) --- Song. Hebrew, "Praise." The penitent changes his language, which is no longer understood by worldlings. (Berthier) --- Many. St. Augustine reads, the just, who take part in the welfare of their brethren, (Psalm 31:11.) while the wicked are filled with alarm, at the ways of God; who humbles or exalts people as he pleases. (Calmet)
Psalms 39:5 Blessed is the man whose trust is in the name of the Lord: and who hath not had regard to vanities, and lying follies.

Vanities. Hebrew, "the proud, nor such as turn aside to lies." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- All the world is vanity, (Psalm 38:6., etc.; Calmet) though idolatry may be here meant. (St. Cyril)
Psalms 39:6 Thou hast multiplied thy wonderful works, O Lord, my God: and in thy thoughts there is not one like to thee. I have declared and I have spoken: they are multiplied above number.

Thoughts, or designs, "over us," as Hebrew adds. No one can fathom the counsels of the Lord. It is folly, therefore, to attack his mysteries. (Haydock) --- Like. Protestants, "and thy thoughts which are to usward, they cannot be reckoned up in order unto thee." Literally, non ordinare apud te. (Montanus) (Haydock) --- But haroc means also aequiparare, which corresponds with the Vulgate. (Berthier) --- Syriac, "none is comparable to thee." (Calmet) --- Number. Christ and his apostles preached, so that many followed their doctrine. (Worthington) --- David also had many witnesses of his gratitude. They crowded round him. Some would improperly make multiplicati sunt, agree with mirabilia, dialogismois, which is in the masculine. (Berthier) --- "I find no order before thee; if I would declare and number, they are more (wonders) than can be counted." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- I am at a loss how to express myself, and must be content with the interior sentiments of gratitude. See Psalm 70:15. (Calmet)
Psalms 39:7 *Sacrifice and oblation thou didst not desire; but thou hast pierced ears for me. Burnt-offering and sin-offering thou didst not require:

Hebrews 10:5.
Sacrifice and oblation. Neither bloody nor unbloody sacrifices of the law will do. (Menochius) --- Pierced ears. Septuagint and St. Paul read, a body thou hast fitted to me, Hebrews 10:5. (Haydock) --- Nobilius mentions, that he found the reading of the Vulgate in one Greek manuscript in Eusebius, etc. --- The Arabic has both. "Thou hast prepared a body for me, and opened my ears." (Calmet) --- Both are, in effect, of divine authority. The version adopted by St. Paul, cannot be rejected, no more than the Hebrew confirmed by the Vulgate. James Pierce asserts, that the Hebrew is incorrect, oznaim being put for az zip, "then a body," as the letters are not unlike. The dissertation is ingenious: the author is, however, suspected of Socinianism. We know not the reason why the Vulgate here abandons the Septuagint. The sense is much the same; the prophet noticing the entire obedience of the Messias, (Berthier) and the apostle comprising his whole person. (Menochius) --- His body was miraculous, (Haydock) and the incarnation the work of God. (Calmet) --- Nothing could come up to his submission. "Thou has dug ears for me," (St. Jerome; Haydock) alluding to the custom of making slaves for ever, (Exodus 21:5.) or "thou hast fitted, (Calmet) opened, (Protestants) my ears," enabling me to hear, and to obey. (Haydock) --- The sacrifice of Christ was never interrupted, from the first moment of his incarnation. (Calmet) --- He was always doing the will of his Father. (Haydock) --- This sacrifice is the most essential. God rejected all such as were destitute of this condition, or were not offered by people determined to observe the whole law, 1 Kings 15:22., Isaias 1:11., and Jeremias 7:22. (Porphyrius, Abs. ii.) (Calmet) --- No sacrifice of the Old Testament was sufficient to satisfy God's justice for sin. Christ, by the ear of obedience, performed the redemption of man by his death, as was determined from eternity. See Hebrews 10. (Worthington) --- And is omitted in the Latin version of St. Paul, holocautomata pro peccato, inadvertently, or rather to intimate, that he was speaking of the holocaust of expiation, Hebrews 10:6, 8., and 13:11., and Leviticus 16:27. (Berthier) --- St. Augustine also admits only one species of sacrifice, "holocausts likewise for sin." But others distinguish them from the victims designed to expiate the sins of individuals, (Leviticus v., etc.) of which the prophet also speaks. (Calmet)
Psalms 39:8 Then said I, Behold I come. In the head of the book it is written of me,

Head, or beginning, (Genesis 1., John 1., and 8:25.; St. Jerome, etc.) or at the commencement of this book of Psalms, (St. Augustine) or rather in the whole Bible. (Calmet) --- Kephalis denotes a volume, (Suidas) or stick, on which books were formerly rolled, being written on parchment. The Jews still observe the same custom in their synagogues. (Calmet) (Luke 4:17, 20.) --- Hebrew, "In the volume of the book," means, in the book, (Amama) or the Bible, which is the book by excellence, where the incarnation and death of Christ, for man's redemption, are clearly specified. (Haydock) --- This is the sum of the Scriptures. (Worthington) --- They bear witness to Christ, John 5:39., and Luke 24:27. (Haydock) --- The apostle uses the word capitulum, for the sum, Hebrews viii. Whatever sense be chosen, we should meditate on this head, or volume. But Christ signed, as it were, this solemn engagement, from all eternity. If we adopt the passage to David, we may translate, "I come, having on me the volume of thy Scriptures." See 4 Kings 11:12. (Calmet)
Psalms 39:9 That I should do thy will: O my God, I have desired it, and thy law in the midst of my heart.

Heart. So the Vatican Septuagint reads; while other editions have koilias, "belly." (St. Jerome, ad Sum.) --- Hebrew, "bowels." (Haydock) --- The sense is the same. (Berthier) --- I love the law so much, that I would hide it in my bowels, (Calmet) or in the most secret place. (Theodoret)
Psalms 39:10 I have declared thy justice in a great church; lo, I will not restrain my lips: O Lord, thou knowest it.

Thy, is not expressed in Hebrew or Greek, but understood. (Berthier) --- Church, in the tabernacle, (Theodoret) or rather in the Catholic Church; the propagation of which, (Haydock) and the preaching of the gospel throughout the world are foretold. (Worthington) --- The justice, or mercies of our Saviour, are every where proclaimed. (St. Jerome) (Calmet)
Psalms 39:11 I have not hid thy justice within my heart: I have declared thy truth, and thy salvation. I have not concealed thy mercy and thy truth from a great council.

Thy. Some copies of the Septuagint have, my justice, as well as the Ethiopic version. (Eusebius; St. Augustine, etc.) (Calmet) --- But the Vulgate is more correct. (Berthier) --- Council. Christ conceals not his mercy and truth from the greatest and wisest congregations. He spoke boldly before Annas and Caiphas, as St. Paul did at Athens, etc. (Worthington) --- David testifies his gratitude, and invites all to praise God with him. (Calmet) --- But we must particularly learn from our Saviour, a horror of sin; the knowledge of his mysteries; confidence in his mercy; and a conviction, that we can never be saved but by his grace. He has announced these things, and then he finishes his career, by suffering for us, and pours forth his supplications to God. (Berthier)
Psalms 39:12 Withhold not thou, O Lord, thy tender mercies from me; thy mercy and thy truth have always upheld me.

Withhold not. The prophet now speaks in the name of Christ's mystical body, the Church, praying to be made a partaker of mercy, and to be delivered from evils, (Worthington) or Christ speaks as the victim for our sins. (Haydock) --- Uphold me. This might be also rendered as a prayer, "May thy," etc., with the Hebrew and some copies of the Septuagint. (Berthier)
Psalms 39:13 For evils without number have surrounded me; my iniquities have overtaken me, and I was not able to see. They are multiplied above the hairs of my head: and my heart hath forsaken me.

My iniquities. That is, the sins of all mankind, which I have taken upon me. (Challoner) (Calmet) --- The sins even of those who believe, are so numerous, that they cannot be seen in particular. We may faint at the sight of so many sins committed by Christians. (Worthington) --- Forsaken me in the agony. (Calmet) --- Christ had all the sins of mankind laid upon him. (Berthier) --- He did not suffer to release those who were already damned; though they had received sufficient graces, in consequence of the merits of his future death. (Haydock) --- Christ knew the number and enormity of sin. (Menochius) --- But he would not disclose his knowledge. (Haydock) (Mark 6:5.) (Menochius)
Psalms 39:14 Be pleased, O Lord, to deliver me: *look down, O Lord, to help me.

Psalm 69:2.
Be pleased. The rest is nearly transcribed, Psalm lxix. (Calmet) --- The Church prays for her weak members. (Worthington)
Psalms 39:15 *Let them be confounded and ashamed together, that seek after my soul to take it away. Let them be turned backward, and be ashamed, that desire evils to me.

Psalm 34:4.
Backward, as those who came to seize Christ were twice, John 18:6. --- He prays for their conversion. (S.) --- Shame might have proved very salutary to them. (Theodoret) --- The reprobate will be confounded. (Worthington)
Psalms 39:16 Let them immediately bear their confusion, that say to me: 'Tis well, 'tis well.

'Tis well. The Hebrew here is an interjection of insult and derision, like the Vah, Matthew 27:40. (Challoner) --- As St. Jerome here expresses it, Vah, Vah. See Mark 15:29. (Menochius) --- The Jews have now become objects of contempt, (Calmet) a just punishment (Haydock) of scoffers, who wish evil to the good.
Psalms 39:17 Let all that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee: and let such as love thy salvation say always: The Lord be magnified.

Magnified. Thus may those speak, who sincerely love God. (Worthington)
Psalms 39:18 But I am a beggar and poor; the Lord is careful for me. Thou art my helper and my protector: O my God, be not slack.

Beggar. King David might assume this title, as well as all mankind. (St. Augustine) --- The same may be applied to Christ, according to his human nature, as the end of this psalm, and the following, belong to him, more than to David. (Calmet) --- He speaks in the name of penitents, whose sins he had undertaken to wash away. (Worthington) --- Careful. Hebrew, "will think of me." (Haydock) --- Slack. The faithful prayed for the coming of our Saviour, as they still entreat him to hasten the reward of the good. (Worthington)
Psalms 40:0 The happiness of him that shall believe in Christ; notwithstanding the humility and poverty in which he shall come: the malice of his enemies, especially of the traitor Judas.

Psalms 40:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David himself.

Himself; implying, that David composed this psalm, though the word is not expressed in Hebrew or Greek. (Berthier; T. iii.) --- The same articles, however, occur, which have been thus rendered before. (Haydock) --- Some explain this psalm of the sickness of Ezechias, (Ven. Bede) or of that of David, a little before the revolt of Absalom. (Rab. Muis; Bossuet) --- This may be described as a figure of our Saviour's sufferings. (Calmet) --- For it would be rash not to acknowledge, that He is here the principal object in view, (Theodoret) since he has applied (ver. 10.) to the traitor's conduct, (Calmet) and all the rest may properly allude to the same events. The psalmist speaks of the Messias in the six first verses, and introduces him, in the remainder, uttering his own sentiments, (Berthier) respecting his passion and resurrection. (Worthington) (Isaias 53:4.) (Menochius)
Psalms 40:2 Blessed is he that understandeth concerning the needy and the poor: the Lord will deliver him in the evil day.

\f + \fr 40:2-3\ft Understandeth. Believing with eagerness, (Haydock) or reflecting seriously on Jesus Christ, (Berthier) who was pleased to be poor for our sakes. (Haydock) --- And the poor, is not in the ancient Septuagint, (Eusebius) nor Hebrew, etc. But it only expresses the same idea as the word needy, (Berthier) being added to show the extreme misery to which our Saviour was reduced. (Haydock) --- The Fathers explain the passage in this sense, though some would suppose, that David speaks of his own conduct, (Calmet) or of those who adhered to him in his distress, while most followed Absalom. (Flaminius) --- Day of death or judgment. Happy the man, who makes the life of Christ his constant meditation, (Berthier) and endeavours to imitate his example, and divine charity! (Haydock) --- The Church recites this psalm for the sick. Those who assist them may hope for similar treatment. But such as are not scandalized at Christ, on account of his poverty and afflictions, may be pronounced blessed, (Luke 7:23.) as He will deliver them from distress, if they place their confidence in Him. (Worthington) --- The sick are relieved, when they think on Christ's sufferings. (Menochius) --- Preserve. Hebrew, "will preserve....and thou wilt not deliver him unto the will of his enemies." (Protestants) --- But St. Jerome has, "and he will not," etc. (Haydock) --- Sixtus V reads, "into the hands of his enemy," after St. Augustine, etc. Others add, "he will purify his soul from, or on the earth." (Calmet) --- Our Lord will give to such servants more grace in this life, and glory in the next, nor will he suffer them to yield to temptation. (Worthington) --- He will defend them and heal them, when sick. (Calmet)
Psalms 40:3 The Lord preserve him and give him life, and make him blessed upon the earth: and deliver him not up to the will of his enemies.

Psalms 40:4 The Lord help him on his bed of sorrow: thou hast turned all his couch in his sickness.

His bed. Literally, "on the bed of his sorrow." His, seems to have been formerly in Hebrew, (Houbigant) though it be now omitted, (Berthier) as it was in the time of Symmachus, "the bed of misery," (St. Jerome) of infirmity. --- Thou hast. Hebrew, "thou wilt make." Protestants, "turn," (marginal note; Haydock) "change, or take away." In the east, the bed was removed entirely, (John 5:8.) and this expression may denote, (Calmet) that the sick man should be cured, and no longer be confined to his bed, (St. Chrysostom) or that God would take him by the hand, to support him, and turn his bed, like a tender mother, to make it more comfortable. (Genebrard) (Calmet) --- When the just are sick unto death, Christ will give them greater consolation. (Worthington) --- He will withdraw their affections from all terrestrial things, and remove whatever has been dangerous to them. (St. Gregory, Mor. 23:15.) The ineffable name has been thrice repeated in these verses, to insinuate, that all good is wrought by the blessed Trinity. (Berthier)
Psalms 40:5 I said: O Lord, be thou merciful to me: heal my soul, for I have sinned against thee.

Thee. Christ prays for his members, acknowledging their sins, (Worthington) which he had undertaken to expiate. The Fathers explain this of his prayer in the garden. (Calmet) --- Have we ever reflected on sin, which reduced the Lord of all, to such poverty and distress? (Berthier)
Psalms 40:6 My enemies have spoken evils against me: when shall he die and his name perish?

Perish? When shall we have a change, and see Absalom on the throne? When shall we get rid of this man, who reproves our conduct? So were the Jews animated to destroy Christ. (Theodoret) --- The rest of the psalm more visibly relates to him. (Calmet) --- His enemies were greatly disappointed. (Haydock) --- For after they had put him to death, he rose again, and his name and kingdom became more glorious. (Worthington)
Psalms 40:7 And if he came in to see me, he spoke vain things; his heart gathered together iniquity to itself. He went out and spoke to the same purpose.

If he, any one among my enemies. (Haydock) --- The Scriptures often pass from the plural to the singular, (Berthier) to comprise every one distinctly. (Haydock) --- Yet St. Augustine, etc., read "they came," etc., omitting if, as some of the Septuagint editions do likewise: though inaccurately, according to St. Jerome and Sun. (Calmet) --- It occurs in the Roman copy, and Grabe inserts it in a smaller type. The sense is not altered. (Haydock) --- The conspirators affected to shew David some marks of civility, to obtain their ends. The Jews often strove to entangle Jesus, by their questions, (Matthew 19:3., and 22:17, 24., and John 8:3.) while Judas continued in his company, to gratify his own avarice, and to betray him. (Calmet) --- Such were their vain projects. (Haydock) --- Those who came maliciously to hear Christ, blamed him as an enemy to the law, or as one who cast out devils by Beelzebub. (Worthington)
Psalms 40:8 All my enemies whispered together against me: they devised evils to me.

To me, seems useless, though it be added conformably to the Hebrew, (Berthier) or rather it intimates, that the enemies made no secret of their plots. (Haydock)
Psalms 40:9 They determined against me an unjust word: shall he that sleepeth rise again no more?

Word of affecting the regal power, etc. (St. Ambrose) --- No more? Jesus Christ speaks. They have unjustly condemned me: But can I not rise again? or the words may be put in the mouth of his enemies. Shall we have any thing to fear from the dead? If we were to confine him only, he might perhaps escape. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "an evil disease, say they, cleaveth fast unto him: and now that he lieth, he shall rise up no more." (Protestants) --- "The word of the devil they poured out against themselves; he who hath slept, shall rise no more." (St. Jerome) --- Yet lo may be explained, an non, "shall not he," etc. Septuagint have seen this insulting interrogation of the Jews who ridiculed what Christ had said of his future resurrection. (Berthier) --- They determined to put him to death; but they could not prevent his glorious (Worthington) appearance again on the third day. (Haydock) --- Those who explain this of David, say, that the sleep denotes a mortal illness, or a grievous fault, for which it was expected, that the king would die. (Kimchi; Munster, etc.)
Psalms 40:10 For even the man of my peace, in whom I trusted, who eat my bread, hath greatly supplanted me.

Bread. This characterizes the traitor, who had recieved the holy Communion, and had been intrusted with the purse by our Saviour, yet betrayed him with the sign of peace. (Calmet) --- To violate the laws of hospitality was greatly resented by the very pagans. (Plutarch, Symp. 7:4.) --- Supplanted me, or kicked like a wild colt, as Plato complained that Aristotle had done, when he set up another school. (Haydock) Emas apelaktise. (Laertius, Elian 4:9.) --- David might allude to Absalom, though the Holy Ghost speaks of Judas. (Calmet) --- Our Saviour himself says, (Worthington) that the Scriptures may be fulfilled, he that eateth bread with me, shall lift up his heel against me: Qui manducat mecum panem levabit contra me calcaneum suum: eperen ep eme ten pternan autou, "has lifted up," etc., as the Hebrew expresses it here. Judas had attempted to betray Christ already, and would do it more effectually hereafter; so that both the present and future might agree with him. We also find the psalm translated qui edebat panes meos, etc. But the difference is very small. (Haydock) --- To lift up the heel, is the posture of one who attempts to supplant his adversary. (Menochius)
Psalms 40:11 But thou, O Lord, have mercy on me, and raise me up again: and I will requite them.

Them. No one is ignorant of the destruction of Jerusalem, and of the miserable condition of the Jews (Menochius) throughout the world. (Calmet) --- Christ will render every one according to his deserts. (Worthington)
Psalms 40:12 By this I know, that thou hast had a good will for me: because my enemy shall not rejoice over me.

Over me. Thus the divinity of Christ was proved, since he rose victorious, in spite of his enemies. (Calmet)
Psalms 40:13 But thou hast upheld me by reason of my innocence: and hast established me in thy sight for ever.

Innocence. Jesus was the spotless lamb incapable of sin. He effaced it by his blood, and is therefore crowned with glory, Hebrews 2:9., and Philippians 2:9. (Calmet) --- This innocence made him a fit victim for sin. (Worthington)
Psalms 40:14 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from eternity to eternity. So be it. So be it.

So be it. Chaldean, "Amen." This word, at the beginning of a discourse, implies an affirmative oath; (Matthew 6:13.) and at the end, it is a mark of approbation, Numbers 5:22. --- Here the Jews terminate the first book of the psalms, which they divide into five. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome rejects this division, as our Saviour mentions only the psalms, and the last psalm has no such conclusion. (Worthington) --- It has Alleluia. All the rest have Amen. See Psalms lxxii., lxxxix., and cvi. (Hebrew) (Berthier) --- The observations which have been made in this first part, will serve to explain many other passages, on which we shall therefore be shorter, as well as in specifying the variations from the original, which are for the most part only apparent, as the intelligent reader may be convinced, by the preceding remarks. (Haydock)
Psalms 41:0 The fervent desire of the just after God: hope in afflictions.

Psalms 41:1 Unto the end, understanding for the sons of Core.

Understanding. See Psalm xxxi. (Menochius) --- Core, who composed, (Tirinus) or sung (Menochius) most of the psalms in this second part. (Tirinus) --- Pieces of a joyful nature were generally assigned to them, according to the Jews and St. Jerome, Psalm lxxxiv. (Menochius) --- They were descendants of the famous schismatic, the miraculous preservation of whose innocent children teaches us, that the good will not be punished with the guilty, and that we must be raised above this earth, lest hell devour us, Numbers 16:31., and 26:10. (Worthington) --- The sentiments of the captives, (Calmet) and of every sincere Christian, are here expressed. (St. Augustine) --- David may have been the author, (Calmet) as it is generally believed. (Berthier)
Psalms 41:2 As the hart panteth after the fountains of water; so my soul panteth after thee, O God.

Waters. This was sung at the baptism of Catechumens, (St. Augustine) teaching them to thirst after heaven. (Haydock) --- The hart being infected with poison, thirsts exceedingly, as sinners must do for pardon. (Worthington)
Psalms 41:3 My soul hath thirsted after the strong living God; when shall I come and appear before the face of God?

Strong. Most Bibles before Clement VIII read "fountain." (Calmet) --- El signifies both God and strong. (Berthier) --- The Levites desired earnestly to serve God in his temple; Christians must wish to appear before him in heaven, (Calmet) when they will be free from temptations. Idols may destroy, but they cannot give life. (Worthington)
Psalms 41:4 My tears have been my bread day and night, whilst it is said to me daily: Where is thy God?

Bread. Ovid imitates this: Cura dolorque animi lachrymaeque alimenta fuere. (Met. x.) --- The tears of compunction obtain the remission of sin. (St. Jerome) --- God. Thus the idolaters derided those who could not point at their God. (Haydock) --- The Babylonians had conquered all the surrounding nations, and despised their deities. (Calmet) --- The wicked laugh at the just, who are for a time in distress, comforting themselves with weeping. (Worthington) --- Those who saw David wandering (Haydock) in the mountains, at a distance from the tabernacle, might ask him what religion or God he followed. (Menochius)
Psalms 41:5 These things I remembered, and poured out my soul in me: for I shall go over into the place of the wonderful tabernacle, even to the house of God: With the voice of joy and praise; the noise of one feasting.

These sarcasms fill me with grief, (Calmet) while the solemn ceremonies of religion, which, I remember, where observed in the temple, cause my heart to overflow with joy. (Berthier) --- I shall. Protestants, "I had gone with the multitude; I went with them to the house of God with the voice of joy and praise; with a multitude that kept holiday." Yet the holidays of the Catholic Church are now ridiculed by many Protestants. (Haydock) --- The original may have several other meanings. The tabernacle may here designate the musach of the Levites, 4 Kings 16:18. (Calmet) --- Feasting. Some such religious feasts were prescribed, Deuteronomy 12:12. (Haydock) --- David was not permitted to build the temple, nor to enter the tabernacle: but he speaks of heaven. (Worthington)
Psalms 41:6 Why art thou sad, O my soul; and why dost thou trouble me? Hope in God, for I will still give praise to him: the salvation of my countenance,

My countenance. Hebrew, "his," as Aquila, etc., read. (Calmet) --- Yet as the words are repeated, (ver. 12.) there seems to be a fault in the text, (Berthier) owing to v, "his" being taken in here, instead of explaining it by and, ver. 7. (Haydock) --- The arrangement of the letters in the Vulgate is preferable. (Calmet)
Psalms 41:7 And my God. My soul is troubled within myself: therefore will I remember thee from the land of Jordan and Hermoniim, from the little hill.

Little hill of Sion. I hope that I shall soon again behold the fertile regions along the Jordan. (Calmet) --- But these hills of Hermon, etc., are nothing when compared with heaven: They serve only to remind us of our banishment. (Berthier) --- The difficulties of our present abode, hemmed in on all sides, teach us to place our hopes in heaven. (Worthington)
Psalms 41:8 Deep calleth on deep, at the noise of thy flood-gates. All thy heights and thy billows have passed over me.

Flood-gates. The Hebrews imagined there were immense reservoirs of water above, (Calmet) which might serve to drown the earth, as at the deluge, Genesis 7:11. Both heaven and earth seemed to be armed against the psalmist. (Haydock) --- One affliction succeeded another, (Calmet) and God appeared to have abandoned his servants to temptations. But he enables them to come off with victory, and fills them with more joy in their trials: so that they may sing in heart, and pray. (Worthington)
Psalms 41:9 In the day time the Lord hath commanded his mercy; and a canticle to him in the night. With me is prayer to the God of my life,

Night. In affliction, as well as in prosperity, we must praise the Lord. Roman Septuagint, "in the night he will manifest it." --- Mercy. (Haydock) --- This is very beautiful, but not agreeable with the original. (Berthier)
Psalms 41:10 I will say to God: Thou art my support. Why hast thou forgotten me? and why go I mourning, whilst my enemy afflicteth me?

Psalms 41:11 Whilst my bones are broken, my enemies, who trouble me, have reproached me. Whilst they say to me day by day: Where is thy God?

Whilst. Protestants As, "with a sword in my bones, mine enemies reproach me." (Haydock) --- Thus the martyrs were tortured and upbraided. (Calmet)
Psalms 41:12 Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and why dost thou disquiet me? Hope thou in God, for I will still give praise to him: the salvation of my countenance, and my God.

Countenance. To whom I look up with confidence. (Menochius) --- The just are comforted with the hope of God's sight. (Worthington)
Psalms 42:0 The prophet aspireth after the temple and altar of God.

Psalms 42:1 A psalm for David.

David. Septuagint add, "it has no title, in Hebrew," being composed by the same author, and on the same subject, as the preceding [psalm]. (Calmet) --- David teaches the faithful how to begin a good work; and priests how they ought to officiate at Mass. (Worthington) --- Holy. Hebrew, "merciful." The Babylonians and their king, treated the Jews with great cruelty. (Calmet) --- After we have proved ourselves, according to the admonition of St. Paul, (1 Corinthians xi.) before approaching to the holy Eucharist, we may beg of God to judge and to protect us. (Worthington)
Psalms 42:2 For thou art God, my strength: why hast thou cast me off? and why do I go sorrowful, whilst the enemy afflicteth me?

Me. Without thy assistance, I can do nothing. My enemies seem too strong, while thou appearest to disregard my prayer. (Worthington)
Psalms 42:3 Send forth thy light and thy truth: they have conducted me, and brought me unto thy holy hill, and into thy tabernacles.

Light, your Messias, as the Jews confess, (Jarchi) truth, the holy Spirit. (St. Chrysostom) --- Both the titles may be applied to our Saviour. (Berthier) (St. Jerome) --- We are in the utmost distress; be pleased to send us relief. (Calmet) --- As thou hast sent Christ into the world to impart these graces, grant that we may know, and comply with our duties, before we approach to thy holy altar. --- Holy hill, the Church, (Worthington) or tabernacle on Sion, where the Jews wished to be present. (Calmet)
Psalms 42:4 And I will go in to the altar of God: to God who giveth joy to my youth.

Youth. St. Jerome, "the God of my joy and exultation." (Haydock) --- Syriac and Arabic agree with us, and Gil means, (Calmet) a young man, in Arabic and Hebrew. (Hammond) --- People in youth, shew for the effects of joy. (Berthier) --- Accompanied with light, and a pure intention, we may offer sacrifice to God, who changeth our corruptions into newness of life. (Worthington) --- The Levites might sing near the altar, but could not offer victims. (Calmet)
Psalms 42:5 To thee, O God, my God, I will give praise upon the harp: why art thou sad, O my soul? and why dost thou disquiet me?

My God. This word is singular; but the former "Elohim," is plural, to intimate one God in three persons. (Worthington) --- Harp. Hebrew cinnor, which Symmachus renders, "the psaltery." The sons of Core were chiefly door-keepers: but they also played on musical instruments. (Calmet)
Psalms 42:6 Hope in God, for I will still give praise to him: the salvation of my countenance, and my God.

God. Trust in God, whom I hope to see face to face. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:0 The Church commemorates former favours, and present afflictions; under which she prays for succour.

Psalms 43:1 Unto the end, for the sons of Core, to give understanding.

Understanding. See Psalm xli. (Menochius) --- David or the Corites composed this piece, to comfort the just under persecution. (Berthier) --- It may allude to the situation of the Jews at Babylon, (Calmet) or under Antiochus Epiphanes, (Ven. Bede) though St. Paul, (Romans 8:36.) applies ver. 22. to the persecutions of the primitive Christians, which seems to shew, that the whole psalm refers to them, (Berthier) as the Fathers have explained it. Yet it may literally be understood of the Israelites (Calmet) also, (Haydock) as well as the Christian martyrs, since all things happened to the Israelites in figure. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:2 We have heard, O God, with our ears: our fathers have declared to us, The work thou hast wrought in their days, and in the days of old.

Old, in calling Abraham, and rescuing the Hebrews for the Egyptian bondage, etc. (Worthington) --- God formerly protected our Fathers; but how are things changed? (Calmet) --- Gideon uses nearly the same words, Judges vi. (Menochius)
Psalms 43:3 Thy hand destroyed the Gentiles, and thou plantedst them: thou didst afflict the people, and cast them out.

Plantedst them, thy people. See Jeremias 2:21., and 12:10., and Ezechiel 17:6. --- Out, by means of insects, etc., Wisdom 12:8., and Josue 24:12. (Calmet) --- The Hebrews were miraculously assisted, (Worthington) without any merit of their own, (Calmet) as all were wicked at first. Yet Abraham was freely chosen, that the visible Church might be preserved. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:4 For they got not the possession of the land by their own sword: neither did their own arm save them. But thy right hand and thy arm, and the light of thy countenance: because thou wast pleased with them.

Psalms 43:5 Thou art thyself my king and my God: who commandest the saving of Jacob.

Saving (salutes) the manifold instances of protection. (Haydock)
Psalms 43:6 Through thee we will push down our enemies with the horn: and through thy name we will despise them that rise up against us.

Horn, like bulls. (Worthington) --- This we have done in former times. (Calmet) --- Not man's strength, but God's favour, granteth the victory. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:7 For I will not trust in my bow: neither shall my sword save me.

Psalms 43:8 But thou hast saved us from them that afflict us: and hast put them to shame that hate us.

Psalms 43:9 In God shall we glory all the day long: and in thy name we will give praise for ever.

We glory. Literally, "be praised." (Haydock) --- We have always attributed our success to thee. (Calmet)
Psalms 43:10 But now thou hast cast us off, and put us to shame: and thou, O God, wilt not go out with our armies.

Now. He foretelleth divers states of the Jews, and of the Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:11 Thou hast made us turn our back to our enemies: and they that hated us, plundered for themselves.

To. Literally, "after," post. They were formerly defeated; now it is our turn. (Haydock)
Psalms 43:12 Thou hast given us up like sheep to be eaten: thou hast scattered us among the nations.

Nations. Many never returned from captivity. (Calmet) See Deuteronomy 28:43.
Psalms 43:13 Thou hast sold thy people for no price: and there was no reckoning in the exchange of them.

Reckoning. Protestants, "thou dost not increase thy wealth by their price." (Haydock) --- Thou art eager to get quit of them, as of the vilest slaves. (Theodoret; Grotius) (Isaias 50:2., and 52:3.) Exchange. Some copies of the Septuagint read allalagmasi, "jubilations," with the Ethiopic. (St. Augustine, etc.) --- While others have more correctly allagmasi, like the Vulgate. There were none to purchase, so that thou hast given the people for nothing. (Calmet) --- At the last siege of Jerusalem, the Jews, who had sold (Worthington) or bought Christ for thirty pieces of money, (Haydock) were themselves sold for the smallest price; thirty being given for one penny. See Josephus, Jewish Wars. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:14 Thou hast made us a reproach to our neighbours, a scoff and derision to them that are round about us.

Psalms 43:15 Thou hast made us a bye-word among the Gentiles: a shaking of the head among the peoples.

Head, out of contempt. (Menochius) --- The Gentiles propose us as an example of a people fallen a prey to the divine indignation, 4 Kings 19:21., and Lamentations 2:15.
Psalms 43:16 All the day long my shame is before me: and the confusion of my face hath covered me.

Psalms 43:17 At the voice of him that reproacheth and detracteth me: at the face of the enemy and persecutor.

Detracteth me. St. Jerome, "blasphemeth" God, while they upbraid us, as a faithless people. (Calmet)
Psalms 43:18 All these things have come upon us; yet we have not forgotten thee: and we have not done wickedly in thy covenant.

Covenant. Till the passion of Christ, the Jews did not wholly fall from God, and then many were chosen from among them, to found the Christian religion. (Worthington) --- The Corites speak in the name of their faithful brethren, whom no provocation had induced to follow the superstitious practices of Babylon. (Calmet)
Psalms 43:19 And our heart hath not turned back: neither hast thou turned aside our steps from thy way.

Neither. Literally, "and or yet." (Haydock) --- But the negative particle is taken (Worthington) from the first part of the verse. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome, "Neither hast thou," etc. (Menochius) --- Yet many adhere to the Hebrew, etc., "And thou hast turned," etc. Though it may be taken in a dangerous sense, (Calmet) yet it may only signify, (Haydock) that God had removed his people from the country where his worship was observed, and had refused them his protection; hence their paths have been unfortunate. (Theodoret) --- This agrees better with the sequel. (Berthier) --- It is no proof that God is the author of sin, in either sense. (Tirinus)
Psalms 43:20 For thou hast humbled us in the place of affliction: and the shadow of death hath covered us.

Affliction. Hebrew, or "dragons," (St. Jerome; Menochius) alluding to the deserts, to which the Jews retired, when the Assyrians invaded them. The text may be more applicable to the first Christians, who might truly say, that they had not transgressed. (Houbigant) -- To the martyrs, death was but like a shadow. (St. Gregory) (Mark 4:17.) --- Here it denotes great darkness and misery. (Menochius)
Psalms 43:21 If we have forgotten the name of our God, and if we have spread forth our hands to a strange god:

If we. This is a Hebrew idiom, to express, we have not. (Worthington)
Psalms 43:22 Shall not God search out these things: for he knoweth the secrets of the heart. *Because for thy sake we are killed all the day long: we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.

Romans 8:36.
Slaughter. They will not suffer us to be quiet respecting our religion, striving to delude us: or, if we prove resolute, like Daniel, they expose us to torments. (Calmet) --- This was more fully verified at the first propagation of the gospel, (Romans 8:36.) as it still continues to be among those, who cease not to persecute Catholics by artifice, as well as by open violence. Christians in every age (Haydock) are persecuted, more than the prophets (Worthington) generally were. (Haydock)
Psalms 43:23 Arise, why sleepest thou, O Lord? arise, and cast us not off to the end.

Sleepest thou, seeming not to attend to our sufferings. (Menochius) --- End, shall we never be restored to favour? (Calmet)
Psalms 43:24 Why turnest thou thy face away? and forgettest our want and our trouble?

Psalms 43:25 For our soul is humbled down to the dust: our belly cleaveth to the earth.

Dust. We are at death's door, being oppressed with grief, as long as thou dost not assist us. (Worthington) --- We petition in the most fervent (Haydock) and humble posture, Isaias 49:23., and Micheas 7:17. (Calmet)
Psalms 43:26 Arise, O Lord, help us and redeem us for thy name's sake.

Psalms 44:0 The excellence of Christ's kingdom, and the endowments of his Church.

Psalms 44:1 Unto the end, for them that shall be changed, for the sons of Core, for understanding: A canticle for the beloved.

For them that shall be changed, i.e., For souls happily changed, by being converted to God; (Challoner) or it may allude to the variety of speakers here introduced. (Berthier) --- Protestants leave shoshannim, which some translate, "on the lilies," (Aquila; St. Jerome) or "instrument of six strings." (Calmet) --- The beloved, viz., our Lord Jesus Christ. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "of loves;" or of the young women, friends of the bride, (yedidoth) who sung the Epithalamium, as we see in the 18th Idyl of Theocritus. The Jews formerly explained this psalm of the Messias, as well as all the Fathers after the apostles, Hebrew, 1:8. Many passages cannot refer to Solomon's marriage with the daughter of Pharao, though some might be referred to that event, as a figure of Christ's union with his Church. (Calmet) --- The whole had better be understood of Christ, (Berthier) being intended for the instruction of all converts from paganism and schism. (Worthington)
Psalms 44:2 My heart hath uttered a good word: I speak my works to the king: My tongue is the pen of a scrivener that writeth swiftly.

Uttered. Hebrew rachash, "boileth," as one unable to contain himself. (Berthier) --- Speak, or "dedicate," dico, (Haydock) though here it only means to speak. (Calmet) --- He addresses the object of his praise, instead of invoking the muses. (St. Jerome) --- Swiftly. I have not to meditate. (Calmet) --- The Holy Ghost moves my tongue, (2 Peter 1:21.) as fast as my hands can write, Jeremias 36:18., and 4 Esdras 14:39. (Haydock) --- High mysteries, in honour of the great king, occupy my thoughts, and to him I refer this canticle. (Worthington)
Psalms 44:3 Thou art beautiful above the sons of men: grace is poured abroad in thy lips; therefore hath God blessed thee for ever

Beautiful. The corporal beauty of Christ may be problematical. (Haydock) --- But justice is the truest beauty. (St. Augustine) --- All admired his eloquence, (Luke 4:22., and John 7:46.) and innumerable converts were made, by the preaching of his word. (St. Jerome) --- The young women here address the spouse. --- Therefore, I say, (Rabbins) or "because" God hath chosen thee freely. Solomon was styled the beloved, (2 Kings 12:25.) and was highly favoured, Wisdom 8:20., and 3 Kings 4:29., etc. But this was only a figure of Jesus Christ, (Calmet) whose hypostatical union was an effect of gratuitous predestination, (St. Augustine, praed. xv.) though his other graces were merited. (St. Chrysostom) (Sa) (Calmet) --- He was most excellent in all sorts of gifts. (Worthington)
Psalms 44:4 Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O thou most mighty.

Mighty. (Potentissime) Erasmus (Apol. con. Sutor.) complains, that he could not learn, whether this was a noun or an adverb, without consulting the originals. (Amama)
Psalms 44:5 With thy comeliness and thy beauty set out, proceed prosperously, and reign. Because of truth, and meekness, and justice: and thy right hand shall conduct thee wonderfully.

Reign. Devise, execute, and perfect the establishment of thy spiritual kingdom. (Worthington) --- Solomon was no warrior; but he only wanted enemies to be so. The sword of Christ is his word, (Hebrews 4:12.) anger, (Apocalypse 19:15.; Calmet) or human nature. (St. Jerome) --- Some translate, "and ride," because kings were mounted on chariots, and governed their people with the reins of justice, etc. (Robertson) --- Justice. These titles are eagerly desired by monarchs; as martial prowess, clemency, and justice, (Calmet) render them objects of terror, and of love. (Haydock) --- Christ conquered by his miracles, mildness, etc., (Calmet) propagating the truth, and punishing the rebellious. (Worthington) (Psalm 2:8.)
Psalms 44:6 Thy arrows are sharp: under thee shall people fall, into the hearts of the king's enemies.

Fall. This seems to be placed too soon, in order to shew the rapidity of the conquest. (Calmet) --- "Thy arrows are sharp, shot into the hearts," etc. (Haydock) --- Some explain in corde, (as the Hebrew, Septuagint, etc., read) of the voluntary submission of those who had formerly been enemies of the Messias. (St. Chrysostom, etc.) --- "Thy sharp arrows, the people subject to thee, shall fall into," etc. --- Men are sometimes represented as arrows, Isaias 49:2. (Berthier)
Psalms 44:7 *Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a sceptre of uprightness.

Hebrews 1:8.
O God, O Theos. The Septuagint thus mark the vocative case, (Psalm 138:17.; Haydock) and it is clear, that the Messias is here styled God, (Hebrews 1:8.) though some of the Jews would evade this proof by saying, "God is thy throne," 1 Paralipomenon 29:23. Even Munster translates, O Deus, and the Jew Agesila, o Thee. Elohim is never addressed to any one by the prophets, but to the true God, (Berthier) and this title alludes to the judicial character of Christ, (Acts 10:42.; Calmet) of whose kingdom there shall be no end, Luke 1:33. --- Calvin is very bold in asserting, that David spoke properly of Solomon, as if the apostle had applied the text to our Saviour only in the mystical sense; whereas many things cannot belong to the former, and the Chaldean and Fathers expound this psalm of Christ and his Church. --- Solomon did not persevere in wisdom, and his beauty was equalled by that of Absalom, etc. (Worthington) --- Crellius and Grotius in vain attempted to weaken this proof of Christ's divinity, as a Jew, who disputed with Origen, did. (Origen, contra Cels. i.) (Du Hamel) (Haydock)
Psalms 44:8 Thou hast loved justice, and hated iniquity: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

God. Symmachus Thee. (Theophylactus) --- Elohim is used in both places, (Haydock) with a singular verb, as being spoken of the Deity. (St. Irenaeus 3:6.) (Bossuet) (Du Hamel) --- "O Elohim, thy Elohim," (Haydock) which implies more than one person in God. (Berthier) --- Many king might be preferred to Solomon; but Christ was raised above all. (Worthington) --- Fellows. In consequence of the free gift of God, in uniting the human nature to the second person, the Messias advanced in glory; (Haydock) or rather the prophet speaks of his subsequent merits, which entitled him to the greatest felicity. --- The oil of gladness, alludes to the reward of his labours. Dia touto seems to require this sense, though the Hebrew may be rendered, "because." (Berthier) --- Either the cause or the effect may be meant. (Menochius) --- Solomon was chosen before many of his elder brothers; but Christ was anointed by the Holy Ghost, Acts 10:38. (Calmet)
Psalms 44:9 Myrrh, and stacte, and cassia, perfume thy garments, from the ivory houses: out of which

Perfume. Literally, "from thy garments, from the ivory houses, out of which they have delighted thee, (10.) the daughters of kings, in thy honour." They esteem it an honour to wait upon thee, and perfume thy robes, which are placed in chests of ivory, with odoriferous herbs. (Haydock) --- The ancients admired such garments, Genesis 27:27., and Amos 3:15. --- They had been given, together with the ivory boxes, as a present to Solomon at his marriage, and might give him delight, (Calmet) as it was then deemed unpolite to refuse a present. (Homer, Odyssey S.) --- Stacte. Literally, "the drop" gutta, (Haydock) distils from the myrrh, the wood of settim, (Numbers 24:6.) and may denote aloes, but not the plant. (Calmet) --- Mortification and humility (Worthington) raise the soul on high, 2 Corinthians 2:16. (Haydock) --- The blessed Virgin [Mary] is here styled a house of ivory. The Church, and all who observe purity, may be considered as God's temples, 1 Corinthians 3:17. (Calmet) --- The virtues of Christ are this precious perfume. (St. Augustine, etc.) --- Houses. Septuagint Bareis, a word which means "a tower." Some have not understood this, and have rendered it, gravibus, "heavy," (St. Jerome, ad Prin.) which others have improperly correct by gradibus, "steps." (Calmet) --- Houbigant would change three words, and translate, "from ivory vessels, the vases of thy anointing."
Psalms 44:10 The daughters of kings have delighted thee in thy glory. The queen stood on thy right hand, in gilded clothing: surrounded with variety.

\f + \fr 44:10-11\ft Clothing. Hebrew, "in gold of Ophir." (Haydock) --- The Church is spotless, Ephesians 5:26. The attendants of this glorious queen, are the nations converted, or Christian virgins. They are not the maids of Pharao's daughter, whose marriage was never commended. (Berthier) --- House. Paganism, and the observances of the old law. (Berthier) --- The Church, and every faithful soul, may be styled the daughter, as well as the spouse of Christ.
Psalms 44:11 Hearken, O daughter, and see, and incline thy ear: and forget thy people and thy father's house.

Psalms 44:12 And the king shall greatly desire thy beauty; for he is the Lord thy God, and him they shall adore.

Lord. Hebrew adonaiic, "thy master," and worship him, (Haydock) like a dutiful wife, 1 Peter 3:6., and 3 Kings 1:16. --- God is not found in the Septuagint. The title belongs to Jesus Christ, the spouse, who has been twice called God before. (Calmet)
Psalms 44:13 And the daughters of Tyre with gifts, yea, all the rich among the people, shall entreat thy countenance.

Daughters of Tyre; the city, with her dependant villages. (Bossuet) --- Tyre might send presents on this grand occasion, or might even pay tribute, 2 Paralipomenon 9:26. (Calmet) --- Idolatrous nations submitted to Christ. (Berthier)
Psalms 44:14 All the glory of the king's daughter is within in golden borders,

Is within. Roman Septuagint, etc., have "of Hesebon," by mistake, for Esothen. (Calmet) --- Queens in the East, could not appear much abroad. (Kimchi) --- When they go out, they cannot be seen. The beauty of the Church consists in virtue, and in the grace of God. (Calmet) --- Borders. Charity influences the exterior works of piety, (Tirinus) and gives beauty to the ceremonies (St. Basil) and decorations used by the Church, with such magnificence. (Haydock)
Psalms 44:15 Clothed round about with varieties. After her shall virgins be brought to the king: her neighbours shall be brought to thee.

Neighbours. The Jews, as well as the Gentiles, shall embrace the faith. (Calmet) --- Virginity became honourable only after the coming of Christ. (St. Chrysostom)
Psalms 44:16 They shall be brought with gladness and rejoicing: they shall be brought into the temple of the king.

Temple. Even virgins (Haydock) out of the Church, cannot please the king. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 44:17 Instead of thy fathers, sons are born to thee: thou shalt make them princes over all the earth.

Sons. Protestants, "shall be thy children." (Haydock) --- This was the wish of those present. But it does not appear that the daughter of Pharao had any children, (Calmet) and thus it seems improbable, that she is here spoken of, as the psalmist foretells the establishment and glory (Berthier) of the Church, by means of the apostles, (St. Chrysostom) and their successors, who are made princes over all the world. Let those who are cut off acknowledge this, and come to the unity, that they may be introduced into the temple of the king. (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- Innumerable saints of all ranks, kings and emperors, acknowledge the Church for their mother, and submit to her. (Calmet)
Psalms 44:18 They shall remember thy name throughout all generations. Therefore shall people praise thee for ever; yea, for ever and ever.

They. Hebrew, Septuagint of Aldus and Complutensian, and the Greek Fathers, have "I will;" yet this is contrary to the Vatican and Alexandrian Septuagint, (Berthier) and seems less accurate. (Houbigant) --- The prophet was not to life for ever, so that the fame of the Church was to be spread by others. (Berthier) --- Ever. There shall be pastors and faithful people to the end. (Worthington)
Psalms 45:0 The Church in persecution trusteth in the protection of God.

Psalms 45:1 Unto the end, for the sons of Core, for the hidden.

It may allude to the defeat of Sennacherib, (Houbigant) or might be sung by the Corites at the dedication of the second temple, when peace was restored to the world, after the death of Cambyses, Ezechiel xxxviii. The Fathers explain it of the Christian Church, delivered from persecution. (St. Chrysostom, etc.) (Calmet)
Psalms 45:2 Our God is our refuge and strength: a helper in troubles, which have found us exceedingly:

Troubles. Those of English Catholics have been very great; yet they increase. (Worthington)
Psalms 45:3 Therefore we will not fear, when the earth shall be troubled; and the mountains shall be removed into the heart of the sea.

Psalms 45:4 Their waters roared and were troubled: the mountains were troubled with his strength.

Their. Hebrew, St. Ambrose, etc., read, "its." (Calmet) --- Both sea and land may be in confusion; we shall fear nothing, having God for our protector. (Haydock) --- Though many and noble personages have revolted from the faith in England, yet the Catholic Church will never fail, (Worthington) even if it should in these [British] islands. (Haydock)
Psalms 45:5 The stream of the river maketh the city of God joyful: the most High hath sanctified his own tabernacle.

Steam. Jerusalem was surrounded by placid streams, which are here opposed to the great waters, as in Isaias 8:6. The Church, after persecution, is restored to peace, and adorned with all graces. (Calmet) --- Tabernacle. This is the source of our joy, Apocalypse xxi., (Menochius) and 22:1., and Ezechiel 47:1. --- The advantages of the virtuous, both here and in heaven, are great. (Berthier)
Psalms 45:6 God is in the midst thereof, it shall not be moved: God will help it in the morning early.

2 Kings 6:15.
Psalms 45:7 Nations were troubled, and kingdoms were bowed down: he uttered his voice, the earth trembled.

Trembled. We have witnessed the commotions in the East, under Cyrus, and his son; the latter of whom seems to be styled Gog, (Ezechiel 38:19.) and perished in Judea, which he intended to plunder. (Calmet)
Psalms 45:8 The Lord of armies is with us: the God of Jacob is our protector.

Psalms 45:9 Come and behold ye the works of the Lord: what wonders he hath done upon earth,

Psalms 45:10 Making wars to cease even to the end of the earth. He shall destroy the bow, and break the weapons: and the shields he shall burn in the fire.

Shields. Hebrew, "the round things," which some explain, "chariots," without need. (Berthier) --- Fire. The Fathers apply this to the peace which reigned at the birth of Christ, or to that which Constantine gave to the Church. (Calmet)
Psalms 45:11 Be still, and see that I am God; I will be exalted among the nations, and I will be exalted in the earth.

Still. We have only to admire the work of God. (Berthier) --- He will bring all to a happy issue for his elect, though the wicked may rage. (Haydock)
Psalms 45:12 The Lord of armies is with us: the God of Jacob is our protector.

Psalms 46:0 The Gentiles are invited to praise God for the establishment of the kingdom of Christ.

Psalms 46:1 Unto the end, for the sons of Core.

This psalm appears to be a sequel to the former psalm, and is addressed to the Gentiles who were present at the dedication of the second temple, as Darius had ordered his governors to assist the Jews, 1 Esdras 6:15. See Esther 8:17. --- Many explain it of the translation of the ark: but the Fathers behold the establishment of Christianity, and the ascension of Christ, ver. 6. (Calmet)
Psalms 46:2 O clap your hands, all ye nations: shout unto God with the voice of joy.

Psalms 46:3 For the Lord is high, terrible: a great king over all the earth.

Psalms 46:4 He hath subdued the people under us; and the nations under our feet.

Feet. The Chanaanites were subdued by Josue, and others by David, etc. The army of Cambyses became a prey to the Jews, Ezechiel 39:10. (Calmet) --- All who embrace the true faith, even kings, become subjects, and not heads of the Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 46:5 He hath chosen for us his inheritance, the beauty of Jacob which he hath loved.

Beauty. The temple, Ezechiel 24:21. Both Jews and Gentiles form the Church.
Psalms 46:6 *God is ascended with jubilee, and the Lord with the sound of trumpet.

Trumpet. Christ ascended, accompanied by choirs of angels. His apostles proclaimed his truths. (Calmet) --- They were not left desolate, but joyful; having the Paraclete sent to them.
Psalms 46:7 Sing praises to our God, sing ye: sing praises to our king, sing ye.

King. Christ is God, by his divine nature, and our king, by his humanity. (Worthington)
Psalms 46:8 For God is the king of all the earth: sing ye wisely.

Wisely. Hebrew mascil, which is so often rendered "understanding" in the titles. No one can do well, what he does not understand. (Calmet) --- The union of faith and good works, is singing wisely. (St. Chrysostom) (Calmet) --- Concordent manus et lingua. (St. Augustine) (Du Hamel) --- Let each strive to know the mysteries of faith. (Worthington)
Psalms 46:9 God shall reign over the nations: God sitteth on his holy throne.

Throne. Christ reigns over the heart with all power, Matthew 28:18.
Psalms 46:10 The princes of the people are gathered together, with the God of Abraham: for the strong gods of the earth are exceedingly exalted.

Gods. Judges appointed by the king of Persia over the Jews, etc., (Calmet) or rather the apostles, who were more than men, (St. Jerome) and exercised a greater power than any earthly monarch. (Calmet) --- The richest princes have submitted to the God of Abraham, whose seed was to prove a blessing to all, Genesis 18:18. Hebrew as it is now pointed, "the princes of the people are gathered unto the people of the God of Abraham, for He is far elevated above the gods, the shields of the earth," as kings are often styled. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "for the shields of the earth belong unto God: He is greatly exalted;" or (Septuagint) "the earthly potentates, who are of God, have been," etc. --- We might explain the Vulgate in the same sense, if Dei were substituted for Dii, (Haydock) as it should be. (Calmet) --- Dei sunt optimates terrae, et ipse summe elevatus est. (Houbigant) --- St. Jerome agrees with the Vulgate, (Haydock) which is the clearest, (Berthier) only he renders ham, "the people" of the God, as it may also signify, and retains the word shields, which we explain the strong gods, or the "strong ones of God." (Haydock) --- The blessed Trinity is not divided, but more distinctly professed in baptism than it was under the law. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:0 God is greatly to be praised for the establishment of his Church.

Psalms 47:1 A psalm of a canticle, for the sons of Core, on the second day of the week.

On the, etc., is not in Hebrew nor Eusebius, etc. It means Sunday, (St. Ambrose; Worthington) or rather Monday, being sung on that day. (St. Jerome, etc.) (Haydock) --- The subject of the former canticle is continued, in thanksgiving to God, for some signal victory, or for the peace which God afforded to his people, after the death of Cambyses. (Calmet) --- The Fathers explain it of the propagation and peace of the Church. (Haydock)
Psalms 47:2 Great is the Lord, and exceedingly to be praised in the city of our God, in his holy mountain.

City, or temple, which lay to the north of old Jerusalem, on Sion. (Calmet) --- Yet Genebrard, etc., place this mountain south of Salem. (Menochius) --- The concourse of priests and people gave it the appearance of a great city, Ezechiel 40:2., and Isaias 14:13. --- The Church is built upon a rock. [Matthew 16:18.] (Calmet) --- The Jews and Christians are under the greatest obligation of praising God. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:3 With the joy of the whole earth is Mount Sion founded on the sides of the north, the city of the great king.

With. Hebrew, "the beautiful situation, the joy of the whole earth, (Menochius) Sion, sides of," etc. Chaldean, "Sion, thou art beautiful as a bride." Christ's Church is thus described, Apocalypse 21:2. (Calmet) --- Its figure, (Haydock) the temple, was the glory of the whole country, Psalm 25:8., and Lamentations 2:15. (Calmet) --- But the Church alone extends to the sides of the north, or over the world. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:4 In her houses shall God be known, when he shall protect her.

Houses. Hebrew, "palaces;" Septuagint, "towers." Baresi, a word which has again been mistaken for gravibus or gradibus, as [in] ver. 14., and Psalm 44:9. God is the defence of his people, (Proverbs 18:10.) the Church, Matthew 16:18. (Calmet) --- All particular houses, or churches, must come to the unity of faith, (Worthington) and to the seat of Peter. (St. Irenaeus iii.)
Psalms 47:5 For behold the kings of the earth assembled themselves: they gathered together.

Psalm 77:2.; Matthew 13:35.
Earth is superfluous. (St. Jerome, ad Sun.) (Calmet) --- Yet it is found in the Vatican Septuagint, etc. (Haydock) --- The kings of the earth assembled against the Church, (Psalm 2:2.) as many came to oppose Jerusalem, under Cambyses, Ezechiel 38:2, 13. (Calmet)
Psalms 47:6 So they saw, and they wondered, they were troubled, they were moved:

Saw. They could not say, like Caesar, Veni, vidi, vici. For they no sooner came to invade the unsuspecting people, than they began to tremble, Ezechiel 38:11., etc., and Psalm 45:7. (Haydock)
Psalms 47:7 Trembling took hold of them. There were pains as of a woman in labour.

There, denotes the promptitude of vengeance, as well as the following allusion, Isaias 13:8., and 1 Thessalonians 5:3.
Psalms 47:8 With a vehement wind thou shalt break in pieces the ships of Tharsis.

Vehement. Hebrew, "eastern." --- Tharsis, such strong-built ships, as might go to Tarsus, in Cilicia, (Genesis 10:4.; Calmet) or to India. (Menochius) --- The merchants of Tharsis, the naval officers, shall say, etc. There shall be a great commotion, etc., Ezechiel 38:13, 19. --- The same storm proved fatal to the land and sea-forces of Cambyses. His navy is mentioned by Herodotus, (III. 11., and 44.) and was probably stationed over against Acco, or Ptolemais, as the king perished at the foot of Carmel. (Calmet) --- Nothing maketh a deeper impression than the sentiments of religion. God's grace enableth the soul to sustain all conflicts, and to overcome. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:9 As we have heard, so have we seen, in the city of the Lord of hosts, in the city of our God: God hath founded it for ever.

Seen. All the promises have been fulfilled. How could any one have thought that we should have been permitted to dedicate this temple under the patronage of the king of Persia? (1 Esdras 6:8.) Who would not have feared, lest the Christian religion should perish, under such violent persecutions? Converts admire its beauty and strength. (Calmet) --- The completion of the prophecies is a wonderful confirmation and comfort of Christians, (Worthington) whose faith is founded indeed for ever. (Haydock) --- The gates of hell shall not prevail. [Matthew 16:18.] (Menochius)
Psalms 47:10 We have received thy mercy, O God, in the midst of thy temple.

Temple. Naou. Septuagint, St. Ambrose, etc., though the Vatican and Alexandrian copies have Laou, "people," with the Arabic, Ethiopic, St. Augustine, etc. (Haydock) --- In the Church we receive many graces, (Calmet) even Christ himself, (St. Ambrose) to which those who refuse to be Catholics, can have no title. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:11 According to thy name, O God, so also is thy praise unto the ends of the earth: thy right hand is full of justice.

Earth. All who hear of the wonders of God, must praise him; and who can be ignorant of what He has done, (Calmet) in the defeat of the enemies of his people, (Haydock) of Sennacherib, Cambyses, etc.? Yet all the earth will be instructed only by the propagation of the Gospel. (Calmet) --- Justice, against thy enemies, (Haydock) though this word may here imply "mercy," in opposition to the judgments, ver. 12. (Calmet) --- These perfections are never at variance. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:12 Let Mount Sion rejoice, and the daughters of Juda be glad; because of thy judgments, O Lord.

Juda. Septuagint, Symmachus, etc., have "Judea," (Calmet) which would intimate, that the psalm was composed after the captivity. But the Hebrew reads Yehuda, "Juda," with St. Jerome. (Haydock)
Psalms 47:13 Surround Sion, and encompass her: tell ye in her towers.

Surround. Hebrew, "walk round, (Haydock) tell her towers." (St. Jerome)
Psalms 47:14 Set your hearts on her strength; and distribute her houses, that ye may relate it in another generation.

Strength. Perhaps the outward wall, (Ezechiel 40:5.) not seen in Solomon's temple. --- Houses. Hebrew, "palaces." Septuagint, "houses built like towers," Bareis. Jerusalem was not rebuilt or fortified, when the second temple was dedicated, 2 Esdras 1:3. (Calmet) --- The fortresses of the Church are the holy Fathers and Doctors, who watch in her defence. Her pillars shall not fail. The particular Churches are all united in the same faith, and these reflections ought to prevail on all to embrace the same. (Worthington)
Psalms 47:15 For this is God, our God unto eternity, and for ever and ever: he shall rule us for evermore.

Our God. Christ incarnate works all this. He shall rule over the Church, not for three or four hundred years only, but as long as time shall last, and He shall have a Church triumphant in eternity. (Worthington) --- Evermore. Hebrew hal-moth. The letters being differently arranged, are rendered, "in death." St. Jerome, "even unto death." Protestants, (Haydock) "in youth," (Chaldean) or "in the secret" of Providence. It may form a part of the following title, "over the young women," as Psalm ix., and xlv. (Calmet) --- But then it would probably come after lamnatseach. The psalmist inculcates the perpetual duration of the Church under God's conduct, by three terms. In saeculum et ultra....usque ad mortem, "till death," (Pagnin) or "incessantly." (Symmachus) (Haydock) --- This psalm may also express the sentiments of a penitent, (Berthier) or of one who is put in possession of unchangeable felicity. (Haydock)
Psalms 48:0 The folly of worldlings, who live in sin, without thinking of death or hell.

Psalms 48:1 Unto the end, a psalm for the sons of Core.

Psalm. St. Ambrose adds, "of David." It is written in an enigmatical style, like the book of Ecclesiastes, and is very obscure. But the drift is, to impress the captives with a contempt of worldly grandeur, which will end in death. The redemption of mankind and the resurrection of Christ are foretold, ver. 8, 16, etc. (Calmet)
Psalms 48:2 Hear these things, all ye nations: give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world.

Psalms 48:3 All you that are earth-born, and you sons of men: both rich and poor together.

Earth-born. Hebrew, "sons of Adam," a title belonging to the meanest. Progenies terrae. Perseus 6:56. (Calmet) --- So Callimachus styles the giants, "mud-born." (Haydock)--- Yet Houbigant explains it of the rich, (Berthier) who have lands, and leave their names to them, ver. 12. (Haydock) --- Of men. Hebrew ish, noblemen. (Menochius) --- Ye just and (St. Augustine) and polite. (St. Athanasius)
Psalms 48:4 My mouth shall speak wisdom: and the meditation of my heart understanding.

Psalms 48:5 *I will incline my ear to a parable; I will open my proposition on the psaltery.

Proposition. Hebrew, "riddle." (Berthier) --- The ancients delighted in parables, which required attention to discern the meaning, and thus people had the pleasures of ingenuity. Music often accompanied their precepts. (Strabo 1:12.) (Calmet) --- Utile dulci. (Haydock) --- The psalmist intimates, that he had attended the best masters, (Calmet) even the Holy Ghost. (St. Chrysostom) --- He delivers the instructions which he had received from God, on the instrument of ten strings, to imply that we must keep the ten commandments. (Worthington) --- He listens if the instrument be in tune. (Calmet)
Psalms 48:6 Why shall I fear in the evil day? the iniquity of my heel shall encompass me.

The iniquity of my heel. That is, the iniquity of my steps, or ways: or the iniquity of my pride, with which, as with the heel, I have spurned and kicked at my neighbours: or the iniquity of my heel, that is, the iniquity in which I shall be found in death. The meaning of this verse is, why should I now indulge those passions and sinful affections, or commit now those sins, which will cause me so much fear and anguish in the evil day; when the sorrows of death shall compass me, and the perils of hell shall find me? (Challoner) --- The old serpent is constantly laying snares for our heel, Genesis 3:15. (Haydock) --- Original (St. Jerome) and actual sin, (Eusebius) particularly final impenitence, (Rabbins) and the punishment of our transgressions, (Abenezra) are much to be feared, (Haydock) as well as concupiscence. (St. Ambrose) --- All that will fill us with alarm in the day of vengeance, will be the having been supplanted, like wrestlers, by our iniquity, (Calmet) of which we have not repented. (Haydock) --- Any such injustice must be dreaded, as it will bring on damnation. (Worthington) --- Instead of heel, Symmachus has "steps," including all the unjust actions of life. (Haydock)
Psalms 48:7 They that trust in their own strength, and glory in the multitude of their riches,

They that trust, etc. As much as to say, let them fear, that trust in their strength or riches; for they have great reason to fear: seeing no brother, or other man, how much a friend soever, can by any price or labour rescue them from death. (Challoner) --- I address myself particularly to the rich, who are in the greatest danger.
Psalms 48:8 No brother can redeem, nor shall man redeem: he shall not give to God his ransom;

No. Protestants, "none of them can by any means redeem his brother; nor, etc. (Haydock) --- But the Septuagint translate as well, and the sense is the same, Matthew 16:26. (Berthier) --- If Jesus Christ, thy brother, does not redeem thee, will any other do it? (St. Augustine) or though thy brother neglect, the man, Christ Jesus, will suffice. (St. Ambrose) --- But with respect to death, no redemption will be admitted. It is appointed for all once to die. [Hebrews 9:27.] (Haydock) --- A man shall be more precious than gold, says Isaias, (xiii. 12.) of the Babylonians, whom the enemy will not spare, for any consideration. We must therefore make good use of our time, Ecclesiastes 9:10., and Proverbs 11:4. (Calmet)
Psalms 48:9 Nor the price of the redemption of his soul: and shall labour for ever,

And shall labour for ever, etc. This seems to be a continuation of the foregoing sentence; as much as to say, no man can by any price or ransom, prolong his life, that so he may still continue to labour here, and live to the end of the world. Others understand it of the eternal sorrows, and dying life of hell, which is the dreadful consequence of dying in sin. (Challoner) --- The just, on the contrary, who have laboured for eternity, shall see the death of the wicked, or of the wise of this world. (Eusebius, etc.) --- It may also be a prediction of Christ's life of sufferings and future glory, (Bossuet) or express the sentiments of infidels, who deny a Providence; because both good and bad perish alike, Ecclesiastes 3:18. (St. Augustine) --- Hebrew, "he rests for ever," (St. Jerome) or "shall he be undisturbed?" (Calmet) --- Both those who disbelieve a future state, and those who live as if they did, shall suffer. (Worthington) --- This verse is included within a parenthesis by Protestants, (For the redemption....is precious, and it, etc.) (Haydock)
Psalms 48:10 and shall still live unto the end.

Psalms 48:11 He shall not see destruction, when he shall see the wise dying: the senseless and the fool shall perish together: And they shall leave their riches to strangers:

He shall not see destruction, etc., or shall he not see destruction? As much as to say, however thoughtless may be of his death, he must not expect to escape: when even the wise and the good are not exempt from dying. (Challoner) --- Strangers. This is very distressing. (Pindar. Olym. x.) (Ecclesiastes 2:18.) --- The endeavours of the wicked to establish their families, will be vain, while they themselves shall never more return from the graves hither. (Worthington)
Psalms 48:12 and their sepulchres shall be their houses for ever. Their dwelling places to all generations: they have called their lands by their names.

Sepulchres. Hebrew Kobrom is better than the present Kirbam, their "interior," and is adopted by the Chaldean, Syriac, etc. (Calmet) --- "Their inward thought is, that their houses shall continue for ever." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Called. That is, they have left their names on their graves, which alone remain of their lands, (Challoner) or, they have called cities and countries by their own names, as Alexander and Romulus did, Alexandria, (Haydock) and Rome. (Menochius, etc.) --- They have spread their fame throughout the world. (Calmet) --- Scarcely two translate the four last verses alike. (Berthier)
Psalms 48:13 And man, when he was in honour, did not understand: he is compared to senseless beasts, and is become like to them.

Compared. Hebrew, "he is like dumb, or perishable beasts." (Haydock) --- So much is man degraded by his attachment to riches and pleasures. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- Some explain this of Adam, (St. Chrysostom) reduced to the necessity of labouring, and dying, like brutes, ver. 21., and Ecclesiastes 3:18. (Calmet) --- This is a very serious reflection, to think that man should so far neglect the gifts of reason, as to strive for temporal advantages only, like irrational creatures. (Worthington)
Psalms 48:14 This way of theirs is a stumbling-block to them: and afterwards they shall delight in their mouth.

They shall delight in their mouth. Notwithstanding the wretched way in which they walk, they shall applaud themselves with their mouths, and glory in their doings, (Challoner) though it be to their shame, Philippians 3:10. --- Hebrew, their posterity shall applaud their maxims, (Calmet) as many of their followers contributed to keep them in the delusion, (Haydock) which the damned will deplore, when it is too late, ver. 15. (St. Jerome) --- A thirst after worldly advantages has proved their ruin; yet they obstinately persist in their evil ways. (Worthington)
Psalms 48:15 They are laid in hell like sheep: death shall feed upon them. And the just shall have dominion over them in the morning: and their help shall decay in hell from their glory.

In the morning. That is, in the resurrection to a new life; when the just shall judge and condemn the wicked. --- From their glory. That is, when their short-lived glory in this world shall be past, and be no more. (Challoner) --- Sic transit gloria mundi. (Haydock) --- Then the world shall be turned upside down. (Calmet) --- The just shall have their day, (Menochius) when the beautiful palaces of the wicked shall be exchanged for darkness, and horrible torments. (Haydock) --- "Their bodies shall grow old in hell, because they have stretched out their hand, and destroyed the habitation of the house of his majesty." (Targum) --- Their figure shall be destroyed in hell, after his dwelling. (St. Jerome) --- They can rescue themselves no more than sheep. Those whom they oppressed shall be their judges. All friends will forsake them. (Worthington) --- Crowds shall be confined to those mansions, where the fire is not extinguished. (Menochius)
Psalms 48:16 But God will redeem my soul from the hand of hell, when he shall receive me.

Redeem. Chaldean and some Rabbins seem to understand this of purgatory. "He will draw me from hell, and give me a place in his habitation." (Genebrard) --- Others explain it of Christ's resurrection, or of the liberation of the patriarchs from limbo. (Cassiodorus) --- It seems a full solution of the enigma, ver. 6. I repent, and shall have nothing to fear. (Berthier)
Psalms 48:17 Be not thou afraid, when a man shall be made rich, and when the glory of his house shall be increased.

Psalms 48:18 For when he shall die, he shall take nothing away; nor shall his glory descend with him.

Him. "The glory of a man increases with his prosperity, but it does not go down with him when he descends" (St. Ambrose) into the grave. He there finds the same reception as the most ignoble.
Psalms 48:19 For in his life-time his soul will be blessed: and he will praise thee when thou shalt do well to him.

To him. The wicked are very selfish. They will seem grateful to those who are in power, and will cringe to get riches. (Haydock) --- Yea, they will seem to thank God for their prosperity, (Worthington) or rather, they will assume these appearances with men. Hebrew, "he will bless his soul during life, (Berthier) with all pleasures," Luke 12:19., and Deuteronomy 29:19. (Calmet) --- To him, is not in Hebrew, which insinuates, that people are flattered during their prosperity. (Haydock) --- Yet Houbigant would restore this word, "and he will praise thee when thou shalt have done him a kindness;" c may have been placed for i, as Symmachus seems to have read auto. (Haydock) --- The proper use of riches is to do good, Luke 16:9.
Psalms 48:20 He shall go in to the generations of his fathers: and he shall never see light.

Fathers. Like them he shall die. (Haydock) --- Hebrew reads in the second person, with Syriac, Aquila, etc. (Calmet) --- Yet Protestants, Montanus, and others agree with us and the Septuagint. --- And he. Hebrew, "they." The [] edition, however, has opsetai. Each individual, as well as the whole collection of the damned, shall be deprived of light and comfort. (Haydock) --- Chaldean, "the just shall live like his fathers, a long and happy life; but the wicked shall enjoy no light in the life to come."
Psalms 48:21 Man, when he was in honour, did not understand: he hath been compared to senseless beasts, and made like to them.

Understand. Hebrew yabin, though (ver. 13.) we find yalin, "shall remain all night." (Calmet) --- But this is probably a mistake, as the prophet concludes with repeating this important instruction: (Berthier) Remember, O man, not to degrade thy rational soul. (Worthington) --- Thou wast honoured by all, and made to the likeness of God. (Menochius)
Psalms 49:0 The coming of Christ: who prefers virtue and inward purity before the blood of victims.

Psalms 49:1 A psalm for Asaph. The God of gods, the Lord hath spoken: and he hath called the earth, From the rising of the sun, to the going down thereof:

For Asaph. The preposition L is placed before his name, as it is before David's. (Haydock) --- Yet whether he was the author of the psalm, (Calmet) or only set it to music, (Worthington) is uncertain. (Menochius) --- The 72nd, and ten following psalms, bear his name, and it is observed, that the style is not so flowing as those which are attributed to the royal prophet [David]. (Moller.) --- It is certain, that Asaph was a prophet, and chief musician in the days of David, 1 Paralipomenon 6:39., 25:2., and 2 Paralipomenon 29:30. (Berthier) --- But the psalms that have this title relate to the captives, and may have been composed by some of his descendants. This and the following seem designed to shew, that something more than bloody victims is required by God; and thus the Israelites, who could not offer sacrifices at Babylon, were comforted; and the people taught by degrees, to look for something more excellent than the law of Moses. (Calmet) --- The first and second coming of Christ are here described. (Du Hamel) --- God's angels, just men, judges, (Calmet) idols, etc. (Worthington) --- Hebrew El Elohim, Yehova, "the mighty God, the Lord." (Haydock) --- From these three titles, some of the Fathers have proved the blessed Trinity. (Estius) --- But this argument is not conclusive. (Berthier) --- They ought, however, to fill us with awe, when he shall come to judge the earth, his chosen people, (ver. 4.; Calmet) or all mankind. (Berthier) (Menochius) --- Christ will come, surrounded by many legions of angels. (Haydock)
Psalms 49:2 out of Sion the loveliness of his beauty.

Beauty. This may refer to God, or to Sion, (Calmet) where the Church of Christ began. (Worthington)
Psalms 49:3 God shall come manifestly: our God shall come, and shall not keep silence. A fire shall burn before him: and a mighty tempest shall be round about him.

Silence. Christ displayed the light of truth from Sion, at his first coming. But he would not judge any till the second, John 3:17., and 8:15. (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- Before him, at the last day, (Haydock) or in hell. (St. Athanasius) --- Our Saviour appeared formerly with great mildness: but he will come with majesty and terror, after fire shall have destroyed all transitory things. (Worthington)
Psalms 49:4 He shall call heaven from above, and the earth, to judge his people.

Earth. As if they were animated, Deuteronomy 4:26., and 32:1., Isaias 1:2., and Jeremias 2:12. --- Some understand the angels and apostles by heaven. (Calmet) --- Judge. Literally, "to divide," discernere, (Haydock) the goats from the sheep, Matthew 25:32. (Calmet) (Menochius) --- The whole earth, particularly the elect, will approve of God's decree, 1 Corinthians 6:2.
Psalms 49:5 Gather ye together his saints to him: who set his covenant before sacrifices.

His saints. Hebrew, "my merciful ones," (Haydock) the chosen people, (Calmet) particularly priests, (Theodoret) who might have too high an opinion of the legal sacrifices, (St. Chrysostom) or all the elect are meant, Matthew 24:30. (Eusebius) --- The Hebrews were the only nation which then offered sacrifices to the true God, though some individuals might do it among the Gentiles. (Calmet) --- Before, super, or, "who make a covenant with him respecting sacrifices." --- Protestants, "those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice," Malachias 1:12. (Haydock) --- The Septuagint seem to have read v for i, more accurately, as the prophet speaks till ver. 7. (Berthier) --- Judgment should begin at the house of God. And if first at us, what shall be the end of them that believe not the gospel of God? (1 Peter 4:17., and Romans 2:9.) (Haydock) --- Those who believe not, are already judged, John 3:--- Sacrifice generally precedes a covenant, Genesis 15:17. (Menochius)
Psalms 49:6 And the heavens shall declare his justice: for God is judge.

Heavens. Apostles, (St. Jerome) or angels. (Chaldean) (St. Athanasius) --- God is judge. His sentence must therefore be just, (Menochius) and we ought to tremble, 1 Corinthians 4:4. (Haydock)
Psalms 49:7 Hear, O my people, and I will speak: O Israel, and I will testify to thee: I am God, thy God.

Testify. I will require thee to speak the truth, and attest the world, Psalm 80:9. (Calmet)
Psalms 49:8 I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices: and thy burnt-offerings are always in my sight.

Sight. I complain of no neglect (Menochius) in these outward ceremonies. (Haydock) --- God required no victims during the captivity; but he always demanded praise, (ver. 14.; Calmet) a contrite heart, Psalm 50:19., etc. (Haydock) --- The prophets often admonished the people of this truth, (Isaias 1:2., and Jeremias 7:20.; Calmet) that they might not set too high a value on sacrifices, (Haydock) which, though pleasing to God, are of no service to him; as all the world is his property. (Worthington)
Psalms 49:9 I will not take calves out of thy house: nor he-goats out of thy flocks.

Psalms 49:10 For all the beasts of the woods are mine: the cattle on the hills, and the oxen.

Oxen. St. Jerome and Protestants, "the cattle upon a thousand hills." But our version is very good, and adopted by the Syriac, Ferrand, etc. (Calmet) --- Aleph means an ox as well as a thousand; and i may have been added to the preceding word, instead of u, at the beginning of this. (Berthier) --- We find u here improperly in either, "beast." (Houbigant) --- No mention is made of fishes, because they were not used as victims. (Calmet)
Psalms 49:11 I know all the fowls of the air: and with me is the beauty of the field.

I know your number, and have absolute dominion over all, Isaias 37:28. (Calmet) --- Field. Ripe fruits. (St. Cyril) (Alexandrian) --- With God all things are present. (St. Augustine; Lombard, 1 dist. 35.; F.; Amama)
Psalms 49:12 If I should be hungry, I would not tell thee: for the world is mine and the fulness thereof.

Psalms 49:13 Shall I eat the flesh of bullocks? or shall I drink the blood of goats?

Goats? Can any of you be so stupid? (Menochius) --- Some of the pagans believed, that their idols delighted in the smell of victims. (Haydock)
Psalms 49:14 Offer to God the sacrifice of praise: and pay thy vows to the most High.

Vows. A faithless promise is very displeasing, Ecclesiastes 5:3. True religion must be interior, (Calmet) also 1 Corinthians 14:15. (Haydock) --- We must discharge, not only our general, (Menochius) but also our particular vows, (Worthington) and obligations. (Haydock)
Psalms 49:15 And call upon me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.

Call. Prayer is a perfect act of religion, and a confession of God's dominion. Qui fingit sacros auro vel marmore vultus, Non facit ille Deos: qui rogat, ille facit. (Martial 8:5:24.) To neglect prayer is, in some sense, to deny God. (Calmet) --- He is pleased to exercise our confidence, (Haydock) and will have us to call upon him in distress. (Menochius)
Psalms 49:16 But to the sinner God hath said: Why dost thou declare my justices, and take my covenant in thy mouth?

Sinner. He is not blamed for praying: but his hypocrisy is condemned. (Berthier) --- The world is full of such hypocrites, who have God in their mouths, but not in their hearts, and whose voice alone is the voice of Jacob, Genesis 27:22., Isaias 29:13., and Titus 1:16. --- The wicked judges, who condemned Susanna, (Daniel xiii.) should have attended to these lessons. (Calmet) --- Thou that teachest another, teachest not thyself, Romans 2:21. --- It is surely to be expected, (Haydock) that those who undertake to teach others, should shew good example, and serve God with sincerity, (Worthington) and not content themselves with the glory of their vocation. (Menochius)
Psalms 49:17 Seeing thou hast hated discipline: and hast cast my words behind thee.

Psalms 49:18 If thou didst see a thief, thou didst run with him: and with adulterers thou hast been partaker.

Psalms 49:19 Thy mouth hath abounded with evil, and thy tongue framed deceits.

Psalms 49:20 Sitting thou didst speak against thy brother, and didst lay a scandal against thy mother's son:

Lay. Hebrew, "slanderest." (Protestants) But dophi occurs on where else. (Berthier) --- The sinner sits to detract, or with pleasure, (Menochius) habitually offends. (Haydock)
Psalms 49:21 these things hast thou done, and I was silent. Thou thoughtest unjustly that I shall be like to thee, but I will reprove thee, and set before thy face.

Silent, and deferred punishment, (St. Augustine) waiting for thy conversion, Romans 2:4. --- Unjustly, is not expressed in Hebrew. (Berthier) --- Face, judgment and hell, (Chaldean) or all these things, (St. Jerome) and thy manifold transgressions. The sight will be most intolerable. (Calmet)
Psalms 49:22 Understand these things, you that forget God; lest he snatch you away, and there be none to deliver you.

Lest he. Hebrew, "I tear you in pieces." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Rapiat ut Leo. (St. Augustine) --- It may be understood of death, (Theodoret) or of God. (Calmet)
Psalms 49:23 The sacrifice of praise shall glorify me: and there is the way by which I will shew him the salvation of God.

Praise. This kind of improper sacrifice, and those of justice, and of a contrite heart, (Psalm iv., and l.) must accompany outward sacrifices, to make them acceptable. The latter has always been obligatory, (Worthington) as well as the former. (Haydock) --- This psalm proves, that the old victims should give place to one far more excellent, the body of Christ, the sacrifice of praise which the Church offers. (St. Augustine, con. advers. xx. orat. con Jud. vi. and ep. 120:18.) (Worthington) --- Eucharist means even "good grace," or thanksgiving, being intended to enable us to render that tribute of praise, which he requires. (Haydock) --- There. Hebrew, " to him that ordereth his conversation aright, will I," etc. (Protestants) --- The difference consists only in the points. (Berthier) --- Syriac, "There I will shew him the way of his salvation," or, according to St. Chrysostom, "even my salvation." (Calmet) --- By adoring God in spirit and truth, (Haydock) we may be saved. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:0 The repentance and confession of David after his sin. The fourth penitential psalm.

Psalms 50:1 Unto the end, a psalm of David,

Psalms 50:2 when Nathan, the prophet, came to him, after he had sinned with Bethsabee. [2 Kings xii.]

Bethsabee. Septuagint, "Bersabee." Some copies add, "the wife of Urias." (Haydock) --- The rest of the title is in Hebrew, etc., so that it is one of the most authentic. Nathan did not give the admonition till about a year had elapsed after the transgression, (2 Kings xii.) when David was made to enter into himself, by a prophet inferior to himself. (Berthier) --- After his departure, he is supposed to have composed this psalm, to testify his repentance to all the world. (Calmet) --- He had also in view the state of the captives. (Theodoret, etc.) --- The two last verses seem to have been added at Babylon, (Abenezra) as a similar addition has been made (Psalm 105:47., and 1 Paralipomenon 16:35.; Calmet) by some inspired author. (Haydock) --- David knew that something more than confession was requisite, and that he must submit to temporal punishments, even though the prophet had assured him that his sin was remitted. He prays to be washed still more from evil habits, ver. 4. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:3 Have mercy on me, O God, according to thy great mercy. And according to the multitude of thy tender mercies, blot out my iniquity.

Thy great mercy. Such is the purport of the Hebrew chasdec, though (Haydock) the Chaldean and Syriac omit great. My sin requires the deepest compunction. I must strive to repair the scandal I have given. (Calmet) --- Mercies. I stand in need of many sorts, mitigation of punishment, true sorrow and perseverance, and that I may make some amends for my bad example, etc. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:4 Wash me yet more from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.

Yet more, by baptism. (Eusebius; St. Ambrose, apol.) --- The true penitent never ceases to deplore his sins, like David, St. Peter, and St. Paul, Ecclesiasticus 5:5. The psalmist prays, that all the remains of sin may be obliterated, John 13:10. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:5 For I know my iniquity, and my sin is always before me.

Me. I do not forget it, but am covered with shame. (Calmet) --- Sin is our greatest enemy, and continually cries for vengeance. (Haydock) --- While David did not confess, his sin lay heavy upon him. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:6 To thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before thee; *that thou mayst be justified in thy words, and mayst overcome when thou art judged.

Romans 3:4.
Only, or principally, who art the only God, (1 Timothy 1:17.; Worthington) the judge and witness of my crime. (Haydock) --- David was a king, and acknowledged no judge among men. (St. Ambrose, c. x.) --- Soli Deo reus est. (Cassiodorus) --- Urias, whom he had injured, was no more. (St. Augustine) --- The action had been done in secret: (2 Kings 12:12.) but many began to suspect, and to blaspheme. (Haydock) --- Judged. St. Paul reads thus, (Romans 3:4.) though the Hebrew be, "when thou judgest." St. Jerome has also judicaberis, so that we might infer, that the Hebrew is now incorrect, or that beshophtec means in judicare te. (Berthier) --- Houbigant changes the order of the verses, "cleanse me from my sins, that thou mayst be blameless when thou comest into judgment: For I know," etc. (Haydock) --- Susanna was preserved from sinning by the thought of God's presence, Daniel 13:25. --- If David fell, he confessed his fault. (Berthier) --- God is faithful to his promises, and desires the conversion of sinners, though some would represent him as cruel, and unconcerned about his creatures. The psalmist prevents this unjust inference, (Haydock) and proves, that God is both just and merciful. (Worthington) --- He acknowledges his ingratitude, as the captives confess, that their sins have brought on them this chastisement, though they had not injured the Babylonians. (Theodoret) (Flaminius) (Calmet) --- God had often promised pardon to those who truly repent. An appeal is made to his truth and mercy.
Psalms 50:7 For behold I was conceived in iniquities; and in sins did my mother conceive me.

Sins. Hebrew, "iniquity,....and in sin did my mother warm or conceive me." Original sin has a manifold deformity, and is the fatal root of other transgressions. See St. Augustine, Ench.; St. Thomas Aquinas, 1:2. q. 82. a. 2., est multiplex virtute. (Haydock) --- The prophet speaks here undoubtedly of original sin. (Amama) --- No text could be more express, as the Fathers and the Jews agree. Yet Grotius, whose opinions are almost always singular, and dangerous, maintains, that the expression is hyperbolical, and only implies, that David had been long subject to sin, even from his infancy, as Job was naturally of a merciful disposition, Job 31:18. --- Thus free-thinkers abuse the Scripture, and setting aside all authority, will only see what they think proper. (Calmet) --- The weakness of man is a motive for pity: (Menochius) David pleads for it, yet allows, that the fault was entirely his own, and that he had grace sufficient to have avoided it. (Calmet) --- The consideration of our sinful origin, ought to move us to beg, that we may be washed still more, and that we may not yield to our evil propensities. (Worthington) --- We may resist them, and therefore David would not make vain excuses in sin, as God loves the truth, and a sincere confession. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:8 For behold thou hast loved truth: the uncertain and hidden things of thy wisdom thou hast made manifest to me.

Uncertain. Hebrew, "in the interior," I am full of sin, and thou requirest that I should constantly adhere to virtue. See Job 14:1. --- To me. This increases my crime, (Calmet) as I cannot plead ignorance. (Menochius) --- Those who have true faith, are more easily converted. But God gives to all some good, which he loves in them, and is ever ready to preserve his gifts, and to save his creatures. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:9 *Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed: thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow.

Leviticus 14.; Numbers 19.
Hyssop, which was used in sprinkling lepers, etc., (Leviticus 14:6.) not that the like ceremony, or even sacrifice, would suffice to heal the wound of the soul. Sincere contrition, (ver. 18, 19.) and the virtue of Christ's blood, are necessary. (Calmet) (Hebrews 9:19.) --- The heat (Numbers xix.) and operation of this sovereign medicine was shewn to the prophet, John xix. (Worthington) --- The sprinkling of the priest might be of service, if the heart was contrite, Hebrews 9:13. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:10 To my hearing thou shalt give joy and gladness, and the bones that have been humbled shall rejoice.

Rejoice, when thou givest me an assurance of pardon. My bones, or virtue, shall then be restored. Hebrew, "the bones which thou hast broken may exult." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- God gives contrition, after which the whole interior is filled with joy. (Berthier) --- When the affections are purified, the soul takes delight in God's word, and revives. (Worthington) --- The assurance of being pardoned, gives her fresh alacrity in his service. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:11 Turn away thy face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities.

Face. Anger. If the sinner consider his fault, God will forget it. (Calmet) --- His justice requires that he should punish the impenitent. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:12 Create a clean heart in me, O God: and renew a right spirit within my bowels.

Create. Hebrew bera, a term never used but for a new production. Whatever comes immediately from God must be pure, and as David had fallen into impurity, he earnestly implores this gift. He prays for the new heart of flesh, Ezechiel 36:26. (Haydock) --- Thou hast said, Behold, I make all things new, Apocalypse xxi. Oh that I may be included, that I may sing a new canticle, having become a new man! (2 Corinthians 5:17., and Ephesians 4:24.) (Berthier) --- Right. Hebrew, "constant," (Haydock) the Holy Spirit, thy inspiration, or that uprightness, of which I have been deprived. (Calmet) --- Bowels, or interior. (Worthington) --- These sentiments ought to animate priests, when they hear confessions. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:13 Cast me not away from thy face; and take not thy holy spirit from me.

Spirit of prophecy, which is not withdrawn, except for some crime. (Origen) (Huet. p. 35.) --- David had been without this privilege, till his repentance. (St. Athanasius) --- Yet St. Chrysostom and Theodoret maintain the contrary. (Calmet) --- He prays for final perseverance, which is due to none, (Berthier) and that he may fall no more. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:14 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation, and strengthen me with a perfect spirit.

Salvation, or thy salutary joy, (Berthier) "the joy of thy Jesus," (St. Jerome) for whom he prays, (St. Augustine) knowing that He will save his people from their sins, and that there is salvation in no other name. (Haydock) --- Perfect. Literally, "principal." Septuagint, "conducting;" such a spirit as may suit one who is to command. (Haydock) --- This may denote sound reason, (4 Machabees; Philo Nobil) which keeps the passions under, (St. Chrysostom; Job 30:15.) or God himself, to whose Spirit all others should be subservient. Rance often inculcated to his Monks, the importance of having this principal spirit, which includes every virtue, particularly of liberality, as the Hebrew nediba, implies. (Berthier) --- "Thy free Spirit." (Protestants) --- How earnestly should we endeavour to be disentangled from all the chains of our passions! (Haydock) --- David might also fear, lest he had forfeited the throne, like Saul, whom the Spirit left, 1 Kings 10:9., and 16:14. Kings affected to be styled liberal, Luke 23:25. (Calmet) --- He repeats his petition thrice, in allusion to the three persons in one God, (St. Augustine, etc.) and prays, that the Messias may still spring from him, notwithstanding his sins, and that he may have a constant and willing spirit to fall no more. (Worthington) --- Principal, or liberal, may refer to the Holy Ghost, the fountain of all grace, or to the king, who ought to be generous. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:15 I will teach the unjust thy ways: and the wicked shall be converted to thee.

Thee. The sinner cannot testify his gratitude better, than by promoting the conversion of others. (Worthington) --- This is a sort of satisfaction. (Menochius) --- While engaged in sin, David could not well exhort his subjects to repentance. His example was rather an inducement for them to transgress. (Berthier)--- But when they saw his grief, and knew that God had pardoned him, they were no longer tempted to despair. He also watched more carefully over their conduct.
Psalms 50:16 Deliver me from blood, O God, thou God of my salvation: and my tongue shall extol thy justice.

Blood, from death, which I have deserved. (St. Athanasius) --- That of Urias, and his companions, (Worthington) cries to heaven for vengeance, 2 Kings 11:24. (Haydock) ---Hence the word sanguinibus, is used. (Berthier) --- Spare me, and my people. --- Justice, which has given place to mercy. (Calmet) --- The latter word is here used by Symmachus, and justice may have this meaning. (Theodoret) --- Sixtus V reads exaltabit, instead of exultabit, which Septuagint agalliasetai, (Calmet) requires. Hebrew terannen, "shall sing aloud of." Protestants, "shall praise thy justice." (St. Jerome) --- Extol agrees better with exaltabit, though both have nearly the same sense. (Haydock) --- God's justice will pardon the penitent, as he has promised. (Worthington)
Psalms 50:17 O Lord, thou wilt open my lips: and my mouth shall declare thy praise.

Psalms 50:18 For if thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it: with burnt-offerings thou wilt not be delighted.

Sacrifice. If my crime were of such a nature as to be expiated by certain victims, I would surely have offered them: but my heart has offended, and must do penance. (Calmet) --- The legal victims were not of themselves sufficient to remit sin. (Menochius) --- Contrition was necessary, Isaias 66:2., and Ezechiel 6:9. (Berthier) --- The Scripture often prefers internal, before outward sacrifices. This of the heart must precede those of justice, and of praise. (Worthington) --- The heart must be broken, to make place for love. Compunction is thrice urged. The two first terms in Hebrew are the same, "contrite," (Haydock) broken, or disconcerted. Kateklasthe philon etor. (Homer, Odyssey) (Menochius) --- The captives might adopt this prayer, Daniel 3:39. (Calmet) --- External sacrifices are commended in the next verses, as they are good, (Haydock) being instituted by God. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:19 A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit: a contrite and humbled heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.

Psalms 50:20 Deal favourably, O Lord, in thy good-will with Sion; that the walls of Jerusalem may be built up.

Deal. These two verses have no necessary connexion with the preceding: they may have been added by some prophet at Babylon, (Calmet) or David foresaw the destruction of the city by the Chaldeans. (St. Chrysostom) --- He might fear that his sin would draw ruin on the capital, as a much less offence did, and as in all ages, the sins of the rulers have fallen on their subjects, 2 Kings xxiv. (Haydock) --- Though the place was not destitute of fortifications, (Calmet) he might pray that they might be completed, (Berthier) as they were by Solomon, who built the temple and various walls, so that David might very will add this conclusion, (3 Kings 3:1., and 9:15.; Haydock) alluding to the sacrifices which should be offered in the future temple. (Berthier) --- He insinuates, that his pardon may prove beneficial to his people, and sues for it to be granted for their sakes. (Menochius)
Psalms 50:21 Then shalt thou accept the sacrifice of justice, oblations and whole burnt-offerings: then shall they lay calves upon thy altar.

Justice; works of piety, (Psalm 4:6.) or victims vowed or prescribed by the law; the same which are afterwards styled holocausts (Calmet) by two different terms, hola and calil. (Haydock) --- The latter includes fruits, etc. (Calmet) --- While we are in sin, our good works are less acceptable. (Menochius)
Psalms 51:0 David condemneth the wicked of Doeg, and foretelleth his destruction.

Psalms 51:1 Unto the end, understanding for David,

Psalm 13:1.
Psalms 51:2 when Doeg, the Edomite, came and told Saul: David went to the house of Achimelech. [1 Kings xxii. 9.]

\f + \fr 51:2-3\ft Achimelech. Sixtus V, Septuagint, etc., read Abimelech. But the former is the true name. See 1 Kings 22:9, 20. (Calmet) --- The word understanding implies, that we ought to reflect on the misery of detraction, and bear our crosses with submission. (Berthier) --- Doeg was but half a Jew, and persecuted the faithful. (Worthington) --- Iniquity. Hebrew chesed, means also mercy, and some translate, "the mercy of God! or, the great mercy." Noble exploit! (Calmet) --- But our version seems more natural. El may be a preposition, as Symmachus has Kath. (Berthier) --- If Doeg, who was the most powerful of the shepherds of Saul, (1 Kings 21:7.) thought it his duty to give his master information of what had passed, he ought to have stated the matter fairly, instead of insinuating, that the high-priest was ill-affected. (Haydock) --- Nothing could be more false, as he supposed he was acting agreeably to the interests of Saul, and of the state. (Calmet)
Psalms 51:3 Why dost thou glory in malice, thou that art mighty in iniquity?

Psalms 51:4 All the day long thy tongue hath devised injustice: as a sharp razor, thou hast wrought deceit.

Psalms 51:5 Thou hast loved malice more than goodness; and iniquity rather than to speak righteousness.

Psalms 51:6 Thou hast loved all the words of ruin, O deceitful tongue.

Ruin. Septuagint katapontismou, "drowning," or to make the innocent suffer "shipwreck."
Psalms 51:7 Therefore will God destroy thee for ever: he will pluck thee out, and remove thee from thy dwelling-place: and thy root out of the land of the living.

Thy, is not found in Hebrew. Doeg would not dare to enter the tabernacle, after he had slain the priests. (Calmet) --- Houbigant properly supplies thy. (Berthier) --- Living. The Jews inform us, that Doeg slew himself with his master at Gelboe, and that David punished his offspring with death. (Calmet)
Psalms 51:8 The just shall see and fear, and shall laugh at him, and say:

Laugh, at the last day, when they will have nothing to fear, nor the wicked to hope. In this life, the just are full of compassion; but they cannot but approve of God's judgments. (Calmet)
Psalms 51:9 Behold the man that made not God his helper: But trusted in the abundance of his riches: and prevailed in his vanity.

The man. Hebrew hageber, "the hero."
Psalms 51:10 But I, as a fruitful olive-tree in the house of God, have hoped in the mercy of God for ever; yea, for ever and ever.

Fruitful. David foretells his own prosperity on the throne, (Worthington) when this wretch shall be no more. (Haydock) --- He was at this time in great perplexity, (Calmet) in banishment from the house of God. (Menochius)
Psalms 51:11 I will praise thee for ever, because thou hast done it: and I will wait on thy name, for it is good in the sight of thy saints.

It punished the wicked, and asserted thy just providence. (Haydock) --- Good. Thy saints find the greatest comfort in thee. (Calmet)
Psalms 52:0 The general corruption of man before the coming of Christ.

Psalms 52:1 Unto the end, for Maeleth, understanding to David. The fool said in his heart: *There is no God.

Maeleth, or Machalath. A musical instrument, or a chorus of musicians: for St. Jerome renders it, per chorum; (Challoner) and Aquila, "for dancing." Sixtus V, etc., read incorrectly, "for Amalec." --- The psalm is nearly the same with the 13th, (Calmet) except ver. 6. (Menochius) --- We know not the reason why David gave this second copy, omitting the name of Jehovah. (Berthier) --- St. Augustine explains it of the dangers of the latter times. (Worthington) --- It seems to speak of the return from captivity, ver. 7. (Calmet)
Psalms 52:2 They are corrupted, and become abominable in iniquities: there is none that doth good.

Psalms 52:3 God looked down from heaven on the children of men: to see if there were any that did understand, or did seek God.

Psalms 52:4 *All have gone aside, they are become unprofitable together: there is none that doth good; no, not one.

Romans 3:12.
Psalms 52:5 Shall not all the workers of iniquity know, who eat up my people as they eat bread?

Psalms 52:6 They have not called upon God: there have they trembled for fear, where there was no fear. For God hath scattered the bones of them that please men: they have been confounded, because God hath despised them.

God hath scattered the bones, etc. That is, God hath brought to nothing the strength of all those that seek to please men, to the prejudice of their duty to their Maker. (Challoner) --- That. Hebrew, "who besiege thee. Thou hast confounded them, because," etc. Septuagint seem to have read more correctly, as no one has been addressed before. (Berthier)
Psalms 52:7 Who will give out of Sion the salvation of Israel? when God shall bring back the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad.

Glad. The Fathers explain this of Christ's redemption. The captives doubted not but that they should be speedily set at liberty, as the prophets had assured them. (Calmet)
Psalms 53:0 A prayer for help in distress.

Psalms 53:1 Unto the end, in verses, understanding for David.

Psalms 53:2 When the men of Ziph had come and said to Saul: Is not David hidden with us? [1 Kings xxiii. 19.]

Ziph lay to the south of Juda. (Haydock) --- David was rescued from the most imminent danger, by an irruption of the Philistines. He then composed this canticle, expressing his sentiments in danger, and his gratitude to God. (Calmet) --- It may also be used by any person in distress. (Worthington) --- The Church orders it to be said by her ministers at Prime, that they may be protected from all their spiritual enemies. (Berthier) --- The Fathers apply it to Jesus Christ, (St. Hilary) or to his persecuted members. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 53:3 Save me, O God, by thy name, and judge me in thy strength.

Name, which is a strong tower, (Proverbs 18:10.; Calmet) event thyself. Hence it is so criminal to take it in vain. (Berthier) --- Judge. Ancient psalters have, "deliver." Saul and the Zipheans persecute me unjustly. I commit my cause to thee. (Haydock) --- Defend me for the justice of my cause. (Worthington)
Psalms 53:4 O God, hear my prayer: give ear to the words of my mouth.

Psalms 53:5 For strangers have risen up against me; and the mighty have sought after my soul; and they have not set God before their eyes.

Strangers. Barbarous, (Worthington) enemies, though of the same tribe. (Calmet) --- Hostis dicebatur quem nunc peregrinum dicimus. (Cicero, Off. i.) --- The devil and our passions, as well as the world, are such to us. (Berthier)
Psalms 53:6 For behold God is my helper: and the Lord is the protector of my soul.

Behold. He admires how God delivered him, though Saul seemed to have only one step more to take. Jesus Christ was secure amid the persecutions of the Jews, till he was pleased to deliver himself up, John 10:18. (Calmet)
Psalms 53:7 Turn back the evils upon my enemies: and cut them off in thy truth.

Truth. To fulfil thy promises. (Haydock) --- He foretells their destruction.
Psalms 53:8 I will freely sacrifice to thee, and will give praise, O God, to thy name: because it is good:

Freely, without being commanded. (Worthington) (Menochius) (Leviticus 3:1.) --- Jesus Christ was offered, because he would, Isaias 53:7., and John 10:17. (St. Jerome) --- Good, so to do, (Du Hamel) or sweet in itself, Psalm 51:11. (Calmet)
Psalms 53:9 For thou hast delivered me out of all trouble: and my eye hath looked down upon my enemies.

Enemies, from the hill which divided the armies. I saw them retire, (Haydock) and in security beheld their chastisement. (Menochius)
Psalms 54:0 A prayer of a just man under persecution from the wicked. It agrees to Christ persecuted by the Jews, and betrayed by Judas.

Psalms 54:1 Unto the end, in verses, understanding for David.

David. It alludes to some of his persecutions, particularly to that of Absalom, as well as to that of the Church, and of Jesus Christ. Bede explains it of Onias: who, being excluded from the high priesthood, retired into Egypt, and built the temple of Onion, 2 Machabees xiii. (Calmet)
Psalms 54:2 Hear, O God, my prayer, and despise not my supplication:

Psalms 54:3 be attentive to me, and hear me. I am grieved in my exercise; and am troubled,

Hear me. He repeats the same petition four times, (Haydock) to testify his fervour, and humility, Ecclesiasticus 35:21. --- Exercise, among the wicked, (St. Augustine) or while I consider the sufferings of Christ. (Eusebius) --- David was perplexed what course to take, when he first heard of his son's revolt. Our Saviour was sorrowful unto death, Matthew 26:37. (Calmet) --- This life is a warfare. (Worthington) --- Ldoleschia. Hebrew sichi, denotes serious (Haydock) meditation, Genesis 24:63. (Menochius)
Psalms 54:4 at the voice of the enemy, and at the tribulation of the sinner. For they have cast iniquities upon me: and in wrath they were troublesome to me.

Upon me. When a person has fallen into distress, the world is ever ready to attribute it to some fault. Absalom accused his father of neglecting to judge, etc., 2 Kings 15:2. The Jews calumniated and sought the death of Christ, whose agony in the garden is well described, (ver. 5.) as well as the consternation of David, at the sight of such a general revolt, (Calmet) which almost overwhelmed him. (Worthington)
Psalms 54:5 My heart is troubled within me: and the fear of death is fallen upon me.

Troubled, like a woman in labour, (Menochius) as yachil implies, (Calmet) in Hiphel. (Menochius)
Psalms 54:6 Fear and trembling are come upon me: and darkness hath covered me.

Psalms 54:7 And I said: Who will give me wings like a dove, and I will fly and be at rest?

Dove, which flies swiftly. He now adored the judgments of God, which chastised him, as he had threatened; (2 Kings 12:11.) though, while innocent, he had rejected a similar proposal, Psalm 10:1. The event shewed, that he acted wisely in retiring beyond the Jordan. (Calmet) --- O that I could fly, and in the simplicity of the dove, be removed from these afflictions! (Worthington) --- As I could not go to heaven, I retired into the wilderness. (Menochius)
Psalms 54:8 Lo, I have gone far off flying away; and I abode in the wilderness.

Psalms 54:9 I waited for him that hath saved me from pusillanimity of spirit, and a storm.

Storm. The first fury of the rebels, which is most dangerous, is thus specified. David was convinced, that his son's party would dwindle away, when he was informed that he did not pursue him, following the advice of Chusai. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "I would hasten my escape from the impetuous wind and tempest." But the Septuagint may be equally correct. (Berthier) --- God protected his weak servant in the greatest dangers. (Worthington)
Psalms 54:10 Cast down, O Lord, and divide their tongues; for I have seen iniquity and contradiction in the city.

Cast down. Hebrew, "swallow up," as the earth did Dathan. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "drown." (Haydock) --- Tongues, as at Babel, that they may not know how to proceed. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "swallow up....the torrent of their tongue." (Bate.) --- Pallag, means also to "divide." Absalom was accordingly infatuated by David's friend, 2 Kings 15:31., and 17:7. (Menochius) --- City of Hebron, or even of Jerusalem, which caused the king to leave no garrison in it. The city was still more abandoned in our Saviour's regard. (Calmet) --- Contradiction. Their counsels agree not. They have their troubles, yet will not amend; but strive to oppress the poor. (Worthington)
Psalms 54:11 Day and night shall iniquity surround it upon its walls: and in the midst thereof are labour,

Psalms 54:12 And injustice. And usury and deceit have not departed from its streets.

Psalms 54:13 For if my enemy had reviled me, I would verily have borne with it. And if he that hated me had spoken great things against me: I would perhaps have hidden myself from him.

From him. But how shall we guard against a traitor? (Calmet) --- The injury received from a friend is most cutting. (Worthington)
Psalms 54:14 But thou, a man of one mind, my guide, and my familiar:

Guide, the prime minister, (Berthier) and chief of the council. (Menochius) --- Such was Achitophel, who had nevertheless been long (Calmet) secretly disaffected. See 2 Kings 15:12., and 16:23. He professed the same religion, and was trusted with the most important affairs, as Judas carried the purse. (Haydock)
Psalms 54:15 Who didst take sweet meats together with me: in the house of God we walked with consent.

Consent, or with expedition, as the Rabbins order people to go to the temple, though they must return slowly. All this designates Judas. (Calmet) --- Dreadful lesson for all sacred ministers, who prove faithless! (Berthier) participating of the holy sacraments in the Catholic Church, (Worthington) and yet betraying themselves, and their master! Achitophel had probably to attend David in the temple, as Naaman did Benadad, 4 Kings 5:18. (Haydock)
Psalms 54:16 Let death come upon them, and let them go down alive into hell. For there is wickedness in their dwellings: in the midst of them.

Let death, etc. This, and such like imprecations, which occur in the psalms, are delivered prophetically; that is, by way of foretelling the punishments which shall fall upon the wicked from divine justice, and approving the righteous ways of God: but not by way of ill-will, or uncharitable curses, which the law of God disallows. (Challoner) --- David shewed even too much tenderness towards the rebels, in the opinion of Joab, etc. He would not hurt Saul. His predictions were verified; as Achitophel became a suicide, Absalom perished miserably, suspended between heaven and earth, as an object of horror to both, while many of his accomplices were either slain, or fell into precipices, 2 Kings 17:23., and 18:8. (Haydock) --- Hell, by a sudden death, like Antiochus, Core, etc., Numbers 16:30. The just are already dead to this world. (Berthier) --- Those who sin on purpose, descend, as it were, alive into hell. (Worthington)
Psalms 54:17 But I have cried to God: and the Lord will save me.

Psalms 54:18 Evening and morning, and at noon, I will speak and declare: and he shall hear my voice.

Evening. The Hebrew then began the day. (Calmet) (Genesis 1:5.) (Haydock) --- They had three times allotted for prayer, (Daniel 6:10.) as the Church had afterwards. (Const. Ap.[Apostolic Constitutions?] 7:25.) (Calmet) --- Evening song, matins, and the sacrifice of the mass, are the principal times for divine service. (Worthington) --- David comprises all times, because his prayer was continual. (Berthier) (Calmet)
Psalms 54:19 He shall redeem my soul in peace from them that draw near to me: for among many they were with me.

Among many, etc. That is, they that drew near to attack me, were many in company, all combining to fight against me. (Challoner) --- Or, many also joined themselves to me with Joab, and the holy angels, (4 Kings 6:16.) though almost all Israel followed Absalom, 2 Kings 15:13. (Calmet) --- In many things, schismatics agree with the Church; but their crime is the breaking of unity. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 54:20 God shall hear, and the Eternal shall humble them. For there is no change with them, and they have not feared God:

Change, or redemption for them, (Psalm 43:13.; Eusebius) or they will not amend, (Worthington) nor cease to blaspheme God, and to calumniate me. (Calmet) --- Eternal. Literally, "He who is before ages." (Haydock)
Psalms 54:21 he hath stretched forth his hand to repay. They have defiled his covenant,

Repay. Hebrew bishlomaiv, "in his retributions," or "against his peaceable ones." Houbigant too arbitrarily translates, "they have sent forth their hand against, " etc. (Berthier)
Psalms 54:22 They are divided by the wrath of his countenance, and his heart hath drawn near. His words are smoother than oil, and the same are darts.

They are divided, etc. Dispersed, scattered, and brought to nothing, by the wrath of God, who looks with indignation on their wicked and deceitful ways. (Challoner) --- They are separated from the good, (St. Jerome) slain by a look, 2 Thessalonians 2:8. --- Near, or fought, ver. 19. (Calmet) --- Some translate, "they have divided the butter, like words of his mouth." But this is less accurate, and the same idea is conveyed in the next words. (Berthier) --- Protestants, "The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart. His words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn swords." (Haydock) --- My enemy has violated every law, under the appearance of friendship. (Calmet) --- Darts. Absalom kissed the men of Israel to delude them, (2 Kings 15:2.) and the traitor gave this sign to those who came to seize our Saviour, Matthew 26:48. (Calmet) --- The words of God are most excellent in themselves, but they seem hard to the incredulous. Thus the Capharnaites gave rise to the first heresy against the words of Christ, which St. Peter piously believed, though, as yet, he did not comprehend their meaning, John vi. (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- His heart and words may thus be understood of God: but they more probably relate to any one of David's numerous enemies, who is thus singled out. (Haydock)
Psalms 54:23 *Cast thy care upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee: he shall not suffer the just to waver for ever.

Matthew 6:25.; Luke 12:22.; 1 Peter 5:7.
Cast. The prophet had experienced the happy effect of this conduct. (Calmet) --- In all troubles and doubts, we must have recourse to God. (Worthington) (1 Peter 5:7.)
Psalms 54:24 But thou, O God, shalt bring them down into the pit of destruction. Bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days: but I will trust in thee, O Lord.

Destruction; "into gehenna," (Chaldean) or "hell," (St. Jerome) to which the judge sentences the reprobate, without promoting their crimes. (St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- Days. It is rare that murderers and notorious malefactors escape punishment in this world; but in the next, they will surely be requited. Absalom perished in the flower of his age. (Berthier) --- Achitophel, and many others, have been suddenly cut off. God sometimes permits such to reign for a time, to exercise his servants, or that they may repent. (St. Augustine) --- The Scripture often threatens sinners in this manner, Job 21:21., and Isaias 65:20. (Calmet) --- Their days are indeed spent, when they die. But if they had altered their conduct, they might have prolonged their life, (Haydock) according to the usual course of nature. (Worthington) (Menochius)
Psalms 55:0 A prayer of David in danger and distress.

Psalms 55:1 Unto the end, for a people that is removed at a distance from the sanctuary: for David, for an inscription of a title, (or pillar) when the Philistines held him in Geth.

Geth. Before (Berthier) or after his escape to the cave of Odollam, (Calmet) he composed this psalm, to comfort his followers with the consideration of God's protection. (Haydock) --- See 1 Kings xxii., and Psalm xv. The title is variously rendered. St. Jerome, "to the victor for the dumb dove," etc. Protestants, "upon Jonath elem rechokim Michtam of David." This is to elude the difficulty, and we might as well adhere to the Septuagint, who seem to have only added, "from the sanctuary." The psalm may suit any one in distress, (Berthier) unable to attend the public service, (Worthington) or it may be understood of our Saviour's passion. (Berthier)
Psalms 55:2 Have mercy on me, O God, for man hath trodden me under foot: all the day long he hath afflicted me, fighting against me.

Man. All combine against me. (Calmet) --- The sins of every man oppressed Jesus Christ. (Berthier) --- All who live piously, must suffer many attacks. (Worthington)
Psalms 55:3 My enemies have trodden on me all the day long; for they are many that make war against me.

Psalms 55:4 From the height of the day I shall fear: but I will trust in thee.

The height of the day. That is, even at noon day, when the sun is the highest, I am still in danger. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "many fight against me from an elevation, or from day-break." --- Fear. Many prefix a negation, which St. Jerome rejects, (ad Sun.) explaining this height of the divine majesty. (Calmet) --- David felt the impressions of fear; but corrected them by his confidence in God. (Worthington)
Psalms 55:5 In God I will praise my words, in God I have put my trust: I will not fear what flesh can do against me.

My words. The words or promises God has made in my favour. (Challoner) --- Praising God (Haydock) removed the dejection of David. (Eusebius) --- Detested. Protestants, "wrest." They put an evil construction upon what I say, (Haydock) and make me their laughing-stock, Psalm 37:13. (Calmet) --- But I cease not to proclaim what God has declared in my favour, (Haydock) or what good I have been enabled to effect by his grace. My enemies may meet to devise my ruin, and to supplant me; yet all in vain. (Worthington)
Psalms 55:6 All the day long they detested my words: all their thoughts were against me unto evil.

Psalms 55:7 They will dwell and hide themselves: they will watch my heel. As they have waited for my soul,

Psalms 55:8 for nothing shalt thou save them: in thy anger thou shalt break the people in pieces. O God,

For nothing shalt thou save them. That is, since they lie in wait to ruin my soul, thou shalt for no consideration favour or assist them, but execute thy justice upon them. (Challoner)
Psalms 55:9 I have declared to thee my life: thou hast set my tears in thy sight, As also in thy promise.

I have. Protestants, "thou tellest my wanderings: put thou my tears into thy bottle. Are they not in thy book?" St. Jerome, "thou hast numbered my most secret things: place my tears in thy sight," etc. (Haydock) --- Septuagint render the sense clearer. (Berthier) --- God has promised to relieve the distressed, who confided in him.
Psalms 55:10 Then shall my enemies be turned back. In what day soever I shall call upon thee, behold I know thou art my God.

Psalms 55:11 In God will I praise the word, in the Lord will I praise his speech. In God have I hoped, I will not fear what man can do to me.

To me. This is almost a repetition of ver. 5. (Calmet) --- Elohim and Jehova are mentioned (Haydock) as "the power and eternity" of God gave David the greatest confidence.
Psalms 55:12 In me, O God, are vows to thee, which I will pay, praises to thee.

To thee. Literally, "thy vows." (Haydock) --- Houbigant chooses rather to follow the Syriac, "with thee, O God, are my vows:" which is clearer, though our version may be well explained, "I will perform my vows to thee," (Berthier) the sacrifice of praises, in this psalm. (Calmet) --- I will endeavour to comply with my engagements and vows. (Worthington)
Psalms 55:13 Because thou hast delivered my soul from death, my feet from falling: that I may please in the sight of God, in the light of the living.

Matthew 16:27.; Romans 2:6.; 1 Corinthians 3:8.; Galatians 6:5.
Living, in my own country, where I am no longer, as formerly during my banishment, in the region of the dead. (Calmet) --- The Fathers explain this of Jesus Christ, or of eternal glory. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- In the true faith and good works, I will strive to please God. (Worthington)
Psalms 56:0 The prophet prays in his affliction, and praises God for his delivery.

Psalms 56:1 Unto the end, destroy not, for David, for an inscription of a title, when he fled from Saul into the cave. [1 Kings xxiv.]

Destroy not. Suffer me not to be destroyed, (Challoner; Menochius) or I will not allow my men to destroy an implacable foe, (Haydock) as they entreat me to do. This conduct is worthy of eternal memory. (Worthington) --- The words may also be an admonition to the reader, not to alter this piece, Apocalypse 22:18. (Calmet) --- Al tashcheth, (or thosséth.; Haydock) is supposed to be an instrument, or a favourite song, such as that of Moses, (Deuteronomy 9:26.) which begins thus. But the point is uncertain. The same words occur, Psalm lviii., lix., (Berthier) and lxxiv. They are put in the mouth of Christ suffering, by St. Hilary, etc. --- Cave of Odollam, or rather of Engaddi. (Calmet)
Psalms 56:2 Have mercy on me, O God, have mercy on me: for my soul trusteth in thee. And in the shadow of thy wings will I hope, until iniquity pass away.

In thee. This obliges God to take pity, Psalm 46:11. --- Wings, as a chicken retires to the hen, Ruth 2:12., and Matthew 23:37.
Psalms 56:3 I will cry to God, the most High; to God, who hath done good to me.

Psalms 56:4 He hath sent from heaven, and delivered me: he hath made them a reproach that trod upon me. God hath sent his mercy and his truth,

Sent his mercy, etc., (Calmet) above the power of man. (Worthington) --- Reproach. Saul was forced to entreat David to preserve his family, as he had just spared his own life; which would, no doubt, mortify his pride, (1 Kings 24:18, 22.; Calmet) and seem a reproach to him. (Worthington)
Psalms 56:5 and he hath delivered my soul from the midst of the young lions. I slept troubled. The sons of men, whose teeth are weapons and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword.

Lions. Poetry gives life to all things. It represents mercy and truth as God's messengers; and Saul as a young lion. He might have entered the cave with his men, and destroyed David: but Providence caused him to enter alone, so that David had an opportunity to cut off the hem of his garment, and to shew his clemency. --- Sword. Thus were the Jews armed, to demand Christ's death. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- The persecutors use artificial weapons, and excite one another to fury, 1 Kings 22:16. (Worthington)
Psalms 56:6 Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens, and thy glory above all the earth.

Psalms 56:7 They prepared a snare for my feet; and they bowed down my soul. They dug a pit before my face, and they are fallen into it.

Down. Hebrew, "my soul was bowed down," (Berthier) or "to bow down my soul." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Saul strove many ways to destroy his rival, sending him to fight the Philistines, who, nevertheless, proved the ruin of Saul, 1 Kings 18:17., and 31:1. (Worthington)
Psalms 56:8 My heart is ready, O God, my heart is ready: I will sing, and rehearse a psalm.

My. This and the following verses, from the 107th psalm. (Calmet)
Psalms 56:9 Arise, O my glory; arise, psaltery and harp: I will arise early.

Glory. Soul, tongue, or rather instruments of music, (Calmet) and spirit of prophecy. (St. Athanasius)
Psalms 56:10 I will give praise to thee, O Lord, among the people: I will sing a psalm to thee among the nations.

Nations. The psalms are now recited, (Worthington) in every language, and the wonders wrought by Christ are proclaimed. (Calmet)
Psalms 56:11 For thy mercy is magnified even to the heavens: and thy truth unto the clouds.

Clouds. They are exceedingly great. (Haydock) --- Christ has mounted to the highest heavens, and his apostles have preached (Calmet) his saving truths, which, like clouds, render the earth fruitful in good works. (Haydock)
Psalms 56:12 Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens: and thy glory above all the earth.

Earth. It is just thy mercy should be extolled. (Menochius; ver. 6.)
Psalms 57:0 David reproveth the wicked, and foretelleth their punishment.

Psalms 57:1 Unto the end, destroy not, for David, for an inscription of a title.

Title. This psalm is a sequel to the former, (Worthington) and refers to the malevolent speeches of Saul's courtiers, (1 Kings 24:10., and 26:7.; Calmet) and to the proceedings of the Jews against Christ. (St. Jerome) --- It is an invective against hypocrites, (Calmet) and detractors. (Berthier)
Psalms 57:2 If in very deed you speak justice: judge right things, ye sons of men.

Men. If you be consulted by Saul, and act as judges, do what is right. Condemn not a man unheard. (Calmet) --- Few refuse to speak well. (Worthington) --- Hebrew also, "O assembly," act not hypocritically.
Psalms 57:3 For in your heart you work iniquity: your hands forge injustice in the earth.

Heart. Hence proceed evil thoughts, etc. (Haydock) --- Quicquid vis et non potes, factum Deus computat. (St. Augustine) --- Forge, as you endeavour to preserve the appearance of rectitude. Hebrew, "weigh" in scales. (Calmet) --- This double-dealing aggravates the fault. (Worthington)
Psalms 57:4 The wicked are alienated from the womb, they have gone astray from the womb: they have spoken false things.

Womb. Born in sin. (Haydock) --- They have followed the same course through life, being always bent on wickedness. (Calmet)
Psalms 57:5 Their madness is according to the likeness of a serpent: like the deaf asp that stoppeth her ears:

Madness; or "poison," chamath. (Menochius) --- Deaf asp. This is the most dangerous species. The ancients attempted to charm serpents. But these courtiers were deaf to every proof of David's innocence, (Calmet, Diss.) and would receive no admonition, stopping their ears, like asps. (Worthington) --- The prophet speaks conformably to the received opinion, (Berthier) without determining it to be true. (Menochius)
Psalms 57:6 Which will not hear the voice of the charmers; nor of the wizard that charmeth wisely.

Wisely. "Cunningly." Many read, qui incantatur a sapiente. (Calmet) --- He does not approve of the magical art. (Menochius) --- Serpents may naturally be affected with music. The torpid snake by incantation bursts. (Virgil, Ec. viii.; Bochart 5:3. 385.) Parkhurst, chober. (Haydock)
Psalms 57:7 God shall break in pieces their teeth in their mouth: the Lord shall break the grinders of the lions.

Psalms 57:8 They shall come to nothing, like water running down: he hath bent his bow till they be weakened.

Psalms 57:9 Like wax that melteth they shall be taken away: fire hath fallen on them, and they shall not see the sun.

Wax. Hebrew shabbelul, occurs no where else, and this signification is surely preferable to that of the Rabbins, "a snail." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Fire. Hebrew, "like the untimely birth of a woman, which has not seen the sun." (Houbigant after St. Jerome) --- Septuagint may not have read th at the end of esh, "fire." But both version imply, that the wicked shall perish, without resource (Berthier) or struggle. This in enforced by a multiplicity of examples. (Haydock)
Psalms 57:10 Before your thorns could know the brier; he swalloweth them up as alive, in his wrath.

Before your thorns, etc. That is, before your thorns grow up, so as to become strong briers, they shall be overtaken and consumed by divine justice, swallowing them up, as it were, alive in his wrath. (Challoner) --- You shall be cut off when you least think of it. (Menochius) (Psalm 54:24.) (Haydock) --- David probably alludes to the proposal mentioned, (Judges 9:14.) where the brier (rhammus) invites all the trees to come under its shade. Before you, my followers, shall fall under the oppression of our cruel persecutors, they shall be suddenly destroyed. (Berthier) --- "Before your pots can feel the thorns, he shall take them away, as with a whirlwind, both living, and in his wrath." (Protestants) --- This version of Pagnin is rejected by Montanus, who nearly follows the Vulgate. Sirothecem means, "your thorns, or pots," Ecclesiastes 7:7. (Haydock)
Psalms 57:11 The just shall rejoice when he shall see the revenge: he shall wash his hands in the blood of the sinner.

Shall wash his hands, etc. Shall applaud the justice of God, and take occasion, from the consideration of the punishment of the wicked, to wash and cleanse his hands from sin. (Challoner) --- Hands. Hebrew, "feet," (though this is not certain. Psalm 73:4.; Berthier) and all his body; the carnage shall be so great. The just approve of God's judgments, (Calmet) in or "over," epi, to testify that he has no connexion with the wicked. (Theodoret) --- The just will purify himself still more at the sight of vengeance. This interpretation is good, but no so literal. (Berthier)
Psalms 57:12 And man shall say: If indeed there be fruit to the just; there is indeed a God that judgeth them on the earth.

A God. Hebrew Elohim shophetim. Both are in the plural, which has induced many to suppose that angels, etc., are meant; yet the plural is sometimes used, when speaking of the true God, Genesis 20:13., and Josue 24:19. (Calmet) --- Houbigant translates, "gods," which he explains of the pastors of the Church, or "judges." The reward of virtue, and punishment of vice, are very important truths. Let us wait till the time of harvest, and all will be in its proper place. (Berthier)
Psalms 58:0 A prayer to be delivered from the wicked, with confidence in God's help and protection. It agrees to Christ and his enemies, the Jews.

Psalms 58:1 Unto the end, destroy not, for David, for an inscription of a title, when Saul sent and watched his house, to kill him. [1 Kings xix.]

Watched. Hebrew, "they (the guards) watched." The psalm relates also to the resurrection of Christ, and vocation of the Gentiles, (Berthier) as well as to the reprobation, and future conversion of the Jews. It seems to be most applicable to the times of Esdras and Nehemias: (2 Esdras 4:1., and 6:1.) one of whom may have composed it. (Calmet) --- But this is only a conjecture, (Berthier) and Saul's emissaries may be styled Gentiles, (Menochius) because they imitated their manners. (Haydock) --- Saul sent repeatedly, and went himself to attack David. He gave him Michol with the same design. (Worthington) --- But God turned her heart another way. (Haydock)
Psalms 58:2 Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; and defend me from them that rise up against me.

Psalms 58:3 Deliver me from them that work iniquity, and save me from bloody men.

Psalms 58:4 For behold they have caught my soul: the mighty have rushed in upon me:

Caught. Hebrew, "laid snares for." Septuagint, "hunted." The enemy wished eagerly to take David, or Nehemias, (Haydock; Calmet) and they seemed to have so surrounded the former, as to be sure of him. (Worthington)
Psalms 58:5 Neither is it my iniquity, or my sin, O Lord; without iniquity have I ran, and directed my steps.

I ran. Hebrew, "they," etc. But the Septuagint would not have made such a mistake, (Berthier) and the Hebrew appears to be incorrect, though we may understand "without iniquity in me, they have run." (Calmet) --- I gave them no offence. (Worthington) --- All this may be well explained of Jesus Christ, who alone could use these expressions with propriety, being without sin.
Psalms 58:6 Rise up thou to meet me, and behold: even thou, O Lord, the God of hosts, the God of Israel. Attend to visit all the nations: have no mercy on all them that work iniquity.

No mercy. Nehemias uses the like prophetic threats, 2 Esdras 4:5. (Calmet) --- "Every sin must be punished, either by the penitent, or by an avenging God." The prophet supposes that his enemies died impenitent. (St. Augustine) --- When the gospel was first preached, God visited the world with various afflictions, to make people enter into themselves. (Eusebius) --- The prophet prays that God would visit all nations with peace, and punish obstinate persecutors of the Catholic Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 58:7 They shall return at evening, and shall suffer hunger like dogs: and shall go round about the city.

Evening, when they came to take David. But, out of regard for Michol, they providentially waited till he had escaped, 2 Kings xix. (Haydock) --- Nehemias was obliged to watch continually, 2 Esdras 4:11, 23. (Calmet) --- The Jews will embrace the faith at the end of the world, (St. Augustine) or they will be destroyed (St. Hilary) or banished by Titus and Adrian (A.D. 137); the latter of whom forbade them even to look at Jerusalem from an eminence. They could not enter it in the time of Eusebius, (Psalm xlviii.) and St. Jerome. (Soph. 1.) --- They have a hunger for God's word, of which they have lost the true sense. (St. Athanasius) --- Persecutors are never satiated, though they labour to destroy, all their lives. (Worthington) --- They allow themselves no rest. (Menochius)
Psalms 58:8 Behold they shall speak with their mouth, and a sword is in their lips: for who, say they, hath heard us?

Lips. They seek my ruin, 2 Esdras 4:2, etc. --- Heard. Thus they deny Providence, Psalm (Hebrew) 10:11. (Calmet) --- This thought and the occasion of sin have produced much wickedness. "Whithersoever thou goest, thou art seen by Jesus Christ, who made, redeemed, and died for thee." (St. Augustine, Ser. 161.) --- A serious consideration of God's presence is the best preservative. (Berthier) --- The wicked devise all sorts of cruelty, as if there were no God. (Worthington)
Psalms 58:9 But thou, O Lord, shalt laugh at them: thou shalt bring all the nations to nothing.

Laugh. Permitting them to become ridiculous. (Calmet)
Psalms 58:10 I will keep my strength to thee: for thou art my protector:

My. Hebrew, "his," which seems incorrect. Chaldean (Calmet) and St. Jerome agree with the Vulgate. Houbigant would also substitute, "My strength, I will sing to thee," which affords a better sense, ver. 17. (Berthier) --- Yet our version is very plain; I will make all my powers serve thee, and acknowledge that all comes from thee. (Haydock) --- Such was the admirable humility of Nehemias, who never assumed any glory to himself. (Calmet) --- David and all just men entertain the same sentiments. We are here assured (Haydock) that the Church and some virtuous souls will persevere, by God's grace. (Worthington)
Psalms 58:11 My God, his mercy shall prevent me.

His mercy. Protestants, "the God of my." Yet the text has "his;" i and v are easily confounded. The Keri here allows "my," which Pagnin translates. St. Jerome, "the mercy of my God;" (Haydock) or "my God, my mercy." (Ep. ad. Sun.) (Calmet) --- All comes to the same end. These words are most applicable to Jesus Christ. (Berthier)
Psalms 58:12 God shall let me see over my enemies: slay them not, lest at any time my people forget. Scatter them by thy power; and bring them down, O Lord, my protector:

Over. St. Jerome, "my spies." (Haydock) --- Forget. Let them suffer a long time, (Menochius) that their punishment may be a greater warning. The ancients read, "thy law," instead of people, and apply this to the Jews, (Calmet) who still preserve the law, and bear witness throughout the world that the prophecies were not a fabrication of Christians. (Haydock) --- Their exemplary chastisement and continuance, may serve to caution all not to follow their example. Judaei testes iniquitatis suae et veritatis nostrae. (St. Augustine) (Eusebius) --- "If all the Jews had been converted, we should have had only suspicious witnesses; and if all had been exterminated, we hould have had none." God permits our spiritual adversaries to remain for our trial, (Tertullian) that we may not forget ourselves in prosperity. (Worthington) --- We may also translate Al, "O God, (as well as not) slay them, that they may attack my people no more;" (see 2 Esdras 4:4.) for what reason could Nehemias have to beg that they might be spared? (Calmet) --- God might have some. (Haydock)
Psalms 58:13 For the sin of their mouth, and the word of their lips: and let them be taken in their pride. And for their cursing and lying, they shall be talked of,

For, is not expressed. Literally, "bring down....the sign," etc. Let not their haughty speeches take effect, or escape punishment. The imprecations of the Jews against themselves, (Haydock) and against Christ, have brought on their destruction. (St. Augustine) --- Thus nothing need be supplied. --- Of. Hebrew, "shall relate;" which has little sense. Laying aside the points, it may have the meaning of the Vulgate. This passage can hardly be applicable to David's persecutors, though it might predict the disasters of Saul. It alludes more to the enemies of Christ, (Berthier) who called down his blood upon themselves, (Matthew 27:25.) and most falsely accused Him. (Calmet) --- Hence they are become the reproach of men, and are no longer a people. They behold the reign of Christ propagated throughout the world, (ver. 16.; Haydock) while they are wandering about and despised. They once would not serve; boasting that they were children of Abraham, John viii. (Menochius)
Psalms 58:14 When they are consumed: when they are consumed by thy wrath, and they shall be no more. And they shall know that God will rule Jacob, and all the ends of the earth.

Consumed. At the destruction of Jerusalem, or for opposing Nehemias, 2 Esdras 6:16. --- Earth. The Jews who were preordained to life, embraced the gospel. (Calmet) --- How can those know, who are no more? Their condition will be worse than annihilation. They will exist in hell, though no more visible to us. (Berthier) --- They will know the truth, when it is too late; and when they are on the point of plunging into the abyss. The measure of their crimes being full, they shall be accused and punished. (Worthington)
Psalms 58:15 They shall return at evening, and shall suffer hunger like dogs: and shall go round about the city.

City. This is a sort of chorus, ver. 7. St. Jerome and Protestants, "Let them bark." (Haydock) --- It insinuates, that the attacks of the enemies of Nehemias, (Calmet) David, and Christ, were unceasing. (Haydock)
Psalms 58:16 They shall be scattered abroad to eat, and shall murmur, if they be not filled.

Murmur. Hebrew also, "shall tarry all night." Protestants, "grudge." (Haydock) --- Finding no oil for their lamps, they will repent like Judas, and blaspheme in hell. (Worthington)
Psalms 58:17 But I will sing thy strength; and will extol thy mercy in the morning. For thou art become my support, and my refuge, in the day of my trouble.

Morning. With earnestness, (Haydock) I will fulfil this duty (Calmet) at the resurrection, (Worthington) in the morning of a glorious immortality. (Menochius)
Psalms 58:18 Unto thee, O my helper, will I sing; for thou art God, my defence: my God, my mercy.

Helper. St. Jerome, "my strength," virtutem meam tibi cantabo, ver. 10. I will sing, that all I have comes from thy pure mercy. (Haydock)
Psalms 59:0 After many afflictions, the Church of Christ shall prevail.

Psalms 59:1 Unto the end, for them that shall be changed, for the inscription of a title, to David himself, for Doctrine,

Changed. Psalm xliv. Title, Psalm xv., doctrine explaining what will be the progress of the Church. (Menochius) --- It seems to have the same import as understanding, in other titles, but here is of little authority. (Berthier) --- It has no connexion with the psalm, which seems to have been written before David had obtained the sovereignty over Israel, (Houbigant; ver. 8) or it expresses the sentiments of the captives, (Calmet) and of Jesus Christ, and his Church. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 59:2 When he set fire to Mesopotamia, of Syria and Sobal; and Joab returned, and slew of Edom, in the vale of the salt-pits, twelve thousand men.

Set fire. Hebrew, "fought against Syria of Mesopotamia, and Syria of Soba." (St. Jerome) (2 Kings 8:10.) (Haydock) --- Twelve. Abisai slew 18,000, perhaps on another occasion; (1 Paralipomenon 18:12.) so that this title does not contradict history. (Menochius)
Psalms 59:3 O God, thou hast cast us off, and hast destroyed us; thou hast been angry, and hast had mercy on us.

Off. Chastising thy people frequently under Moses, etc. (Berthier) --- On us. Redeeming mankind, which thou hadst condemned, for the fault of Adam, and giving us a more abundant grace, Romans 5:9. (St. Hilary) --- Thou hast treated us like a good physician, (Deuteronomy 32:39.; Calmet) chastising us for our sins, that we might improve in virtue. (Worthington)
Psalms 59:4 Thou hast moved the earth, and hast troubled it: heal thou the breaches thereof, for it has been moved.

Moved. He personifies the earth, which had fallen into the hands of the Chaldeans, (Calmet) or had experienced various commotions under Saul, etc., (Haydock) which he denotes by the mention of an earthquake. (Menochius)
Psalms 59:5 Thou hast shewn thy people hard things; thou hast made us drink wine of sorrow.

Sorrow. Hebrew, "muddy," such as is given to slaves or malefactors, (Matthew 27:34.) mixed with myrrh, or venom. Literally, "wine of trembling," (Calmet) or soporiferous. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- All these expressions give the idea of something disagreeable. (Berthier) --- The people became penitent, or were astonished. (Menochius)
Psalms 59:6 Thou hast given a warning to them that fear thee: that they may flee from before the bow: That thy beloved may be delivered.

Warning, to amend, (Worthington) the sign of the cross (Calmet) in baptism, (St. Jerome) or confirmation. (Eusebius) --- It was customary to erect a pole, on which some signal was placed, in case of invasion, Isaias 5:26., and 11:12., etc. (Calmet) --- Bow. Hebrew kossoth, (Haydock) as St. Jerome, etc., have read, though the present Hebrew end with t, less correctly, and is explained, "because of the truth." (Calmet) (Berthier)
Psalms 59:7 Save me with thy right hand, and hear me.

Save me. The king praying for all. (Menochius) --- St. Augustine reads, me, (Calmet) though the Vulgate does not here express it. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "save thy right hand," the people, or man of thy, etc., Psalm 79:18. (Calmet) --- Hear me. Hebrew, "him." But the margin has, me. (Haydock)
Psalms 59:8 God hath spoken in his holy place: I will rejoice, and I will divide Sichem; and will mete out the vale of tabernacles.

Holy one, Jesus Christ, (Eusebius) the prophet, (Menochius) the sanctuary, (Calmet) or oracle. (Worthington) --- He had promised that the captives should return in seventy years time, Jeremias 25:11., and 29:10. (Calmet) --- Sichem. (partibor Sichimam....metibor.) These two verbs are sometimes used for partiar and metiar, in ancient authors. --- Tabernacles. Hebrew, "succoth." (Berthier) (Genesis 33:17.) --- It may also signify the Arabs, who lived in tents. (Menochius) --- David's dominion extended over these nations, (Haydock) and the captives at Babylon hoped to recover them, as the Machabees did. The kingdoms of Juda and Israel were no more divided, (Isaias 11:13., and Jeremias 31:8.) to shew the unity of the Church.
Psalms 59:9 Galaad is mine, and Manasses is mine: and Ephraim is the strength of my head. Juda is my king:

Head. This tribe was at the head of the kingdom of Israel, but submitted to David, (Haydock) and afforded excellent soldiers and captains. (Calmet) --- His temporal kingdom was extended by God, who will crown his elect. (Worthington) --- King. Hebrew, "law-giver," alluding to Genesis 49:10. Symmachus, "my general." (Calmet) --- The word king implies all this. (Haydock) --- Juda always swayed the sceptre. (Berthier) --- After the captivity, Zorobabel was at the head of the people. Jesus Christ sprung from this tribe, and is the true king of the people, whom he has redeemed, and put in possession of the land of promise. (Calmet)
Psalms 59:10 Moab is the pot of my hope. Into Edom will I stretch out my shoe: to me the foreigners are made subject.

The pot of my hope; or my watering pot. That is, a vessel for meaner uses, by being reduced to serve me, even in the meanest employments. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- Plautus (Mort. 2:scen. 1. 40) says, Ego vos pro matula habeo, etc. Symmachus adopts the sense of the Septuagint amerimnias, as réts, in Syriac means "to trust," (Daniel 3:28.) and "to wash" in Hebrew. It was customary to throw lots into a pot full of water, and that which came out last was most esteemed. To this custom the psalmist may allude, (Calmet) or he hoped that the fruitful region of Moab would supply him with food. It was subject to David, (2 Kings 8:2.; Haydock) and to the Machabees, 1 Machabees 5:6. --- Shoe, to be untied, or carried, as by the meanest slaves, (Matthew 3:11.) or to take possession, Deuteronomy 11:24. Thus "Alexander threw a javelin, and danced on the shore of Asia, begging that those lands would not receive him unwillingly for king." (Diod. Arrian. Justin.) --- David conquered Idumea, (2 Kings 8:14.; Haydock) as Hyrcanus did afterwards. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 13:17.) (Calmet) --- Foreigners, alienigenae, or, "Allophyli." (St. Augustine) --- "Of another tribe." (Haydock) --- So the Philistines are called, who had no kindred with the Israelites; whereas the Edomites, Moabites, etc., were originally of the same family. (Challoner) --- Subject, or "friends," Psalm 107:10. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Philistia, triumph thou, because of me." Marginal note insinuates this is spoken "by irony;" but (Haydock) Hebrew properly means, "make an alliance with me;" or, Syriac, "I will shout for joy over Palestine." This country was subdued by the Machabees, (1 Machabees 4:15.; Calmet) as it had been tributary to David, 2 Kings 8:2. (Berthier) --- "I will make a league against the Philistines." (Houbigant)
Psalms 59:11 Who will bring me into the strong city? who will lead me into Edom?

City. The capital of the aforesaid counties, or Jerusalem; (Calmet) but more particularly Petra, (Haydock) the strongest place in Idumea. (Menochius) (Abdias, 3.) (Berthier) --- The Fathers understand the Church. (Eusebius)
Psalms 59:12 Wilt not thou, O God, who hast cast us off? and wilt not thou, O God, go out with our armies?

Off? God punishes and rewards. (Worthington) --- And wilt; or, "yet thou wilt not," etc. (Haydock) --- Thou wilt not depend on our efforts for victory. (Bellarmine) (Menochius) --- How can we expect to make such conquests, being in so forlorn a condition, when thou dost not lead forth our armies, as formerly? All that man can do is vain, but thou wilt look down upon us, and through God we shall do mightily, ver. 14. (Calmet)
Psalms 59:13 Give us help from trouble: for vain is the salvation of man.

Psalms 59:14 Through God we shall do mightily: and he shall bring to nothing them that afflict us.

Psalms 60:0 A prayer for the coming of the kingdom of Christ, which shall have no end.

Psalms 60:1 Unto the end, in hymns, for David.

Hymns. This denotes either the female musicians, or the instruments. (Calmet) --- David, under persecution, (Ferrand) the captains, (Ven. Bede; Calmet) or any one in the Church of Christ, (St. Augustine) may adopt this psalm, (Berthier) to thank God. (Worthington)
Psalms 60:2 Hear, O God, my supplication; be attentive to my prayer.

Psalms 60:3 To thee have I cried from the ends of the earth; when my heart was in anguish, thou hast exalted me on a rock. Thou hast conducted me;

Earth of Palestine, (Berthier) when David was at Mahanaim. (Ferrand) (2 Kings 17:22.) (Haydock) --- The countries beyond the Euphrates may be so styled, Psalm 64:6. --- Rock, by inspiring Cyrus to grant us liberty, (Calmet) or by sending Jesus Christ. (Eusebius) --- The Church is firmly established; and, in all places, serves God. (Worthington)
Psalms 60:4 for thou hast been my hope: a tower of strength against the face of the enemy.

Psalms 60:5 In thy tabernacle I shall dwell for ever: I shall be protected under the covert of thy wings.

Tabernacle. The words for ever seem to confine this to heaven, as the Fathers explain them, though they may also allude to a temporal protection (Berthier) in the temple. (Calmet) --- Wings. Chaldean, "of thy deity." Chaldean, I will continue a member of thy Church here, and be happy for ever. (Menochius)
Psalms 60:6 For thou, my God, hast heard my prayer: thou hast given an inheritance to them that fear thy name.

Inheritance. David had both a temporal, and an eternal one in view. (Berthier) --- The captives express their gratitude for their deliverance. (Calmet)
Psalms 60:7 Thou wilt add days to the days of the king; his years even to generation and generation.

King. They wish long life to the king, expecting that the predictions of the prophets insured to them temporal dominion. But when they saw Zorobabel possess no such splendour, they were naturally taught to extend their thoughts to the Messias, of whom the Chaldeans and ancient Jews, as well as the Fathers, explain this passage. (Calmet) --- Chaldean, "the days of the future world thou wilt add to the days of the king, the Messias. His years shall be like the generations of this world, and the generations of the world to come." Eternity is clearly meant. If David speaks of himself, and of his successors on the throne for many ages, he must be considered as a figure of Christ, who is also designated. (Berthier) --- The Church will continue to the end, and be triumphant throughout eternity. (Worthington)
Psalms 60:8 He abideth for ever in the sight of God: his mercy and truth who shall search?

Search? Who can comprehend what thou hast prepared for this king? He may allude to the promises made to David's family, (Psalm 88:30, 38.; Calmet) which should reign for ever, by means of Christ. (Haydock) --- Who can explain the mercy of God in redeeming us; and his fidelity in granting his promised rewards? (Worthington)
Psalms 60:9 So will I sing a psalm to thy name for ever and ever: that I may pay my vows from day to day.

Day. A Levite speaks, having dedicated himself by vow to serve God continually in his temple, after his return from Babylon, (Calmet) or David expresses his resolution to testify his gratitude, by sacrifice. (Haydock) --- I will sing psalms, etc., in this life, and for ever. (Worthington)
Psalms 61:0 The prophet encourageth himself and all others to trust in God, and serve him.

Psalms 61:1 Unto the end, for Idithun, a psalm of David.

Idithun, to sing. (Worthington) --- He was one of the chief musicians under David, 1 Paralipomenon 25:3. The psalm may be explained of David, persecuted by Absalom, (Calmet) of the Machabees, (Theodoret) etc., or of Christ, and his Church. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome considers it as a piece of excellent morality, (Calmet) and this may suffice, without referring it to any historical fact. (Berthier)
Psalms 61:2 Shall not my soul be subject to God? for from him is my salvation.

Subject. The just is resigned, though he feel like other men. David found a sort of resentment against the rebels, arising in his breast, which he presently repressed, by the thought of God's will, 2 Kings 12:11. (Calmet) --- He fears nothing, because his soul is subject to God. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "silent." (Haydock)
Psalms 61:3 For he is my God and my Saviour: he is my protector, I shall be moved no more.

Psalms 61:4 How long do you rush in upon a man? you all kill, as if you were thrusting down a leaning wall, and a tottering fence.

Fence. This may refer to the persecutors, who resembled a leaning wall. (Berthier) (Isaias 30:13.) (Calmet) --- Protestants, "ye shall be slain all of you, as a bowing wall shall ye be," etc. He threatens them with speedy destruction, (Haydock) or represents to them the baseness of attacking a man ready to fall. (Calmet) --- He informs them, that their attempts will be in vain, though they be very numerous, and he himself apparently so weak. (Worthington)
Psalms 61:5 But they have thought to cast away my price, I ran in thirst: they blessed with their mouth, but cursed with their heart.

Price. Septuagint, St. Hilary, etc., "my honour." They wish to dethrone me, and to represent me as unfit to govern. --- I ran. Septuagint edramon, "they ran" likewise, as Hebrew implies, and as the Greek Fathers generally explain it. David thought proper to flee, that he might be at a distance from traitors, 2 Kings 15:14. His enemies sought his destruction. (Calmet) --- They wished to deprive him of the reward of his labours; but he ran more earnestly. --- Blessed. Flattery is very dangerous. (Worthington)
Psalms 61:6 But be thou, O my soul, subject to God: for from him is my patience.

Psalms 61:7 For he is my God and my Saviour: he is my helper, I shall not be moved.

Psalms 61:8 In God is my salvation and my glory: he is the God of my help, and my hope is in God.

God. The multiplicity of titles shews the prophet's love. See Apocalypse 5:12. (St. Augustine, Conf. 1:4.) (Berthier)
Psalms 61:9 Trust in him, all ye congregation of people: pour out your hearts before him: God is our helper for ever.

All. Hebrew, "always, O people." Septuagint seem to have read, adoth, for heth. --- For ever. Here Selah is translated, (Berthier) though it be not in Septuagint, etc. David exhorts his followers to address themselves to God, with compunction and confidence. (Calmet)
Psalms 61:10 But vain are the sons of men, the sons of men are liars in the balances: that by vanity they may together deceive.

Liars. They are so vain and light, that if they are put into the scales, they will be found to be of no weight; and to be mere lies, deceit, and vanity. Or, they are liars in their balances, by weighing thing by false weights, and preferring the temporal before the eternal. (Challoner) (Proverbs 11:1., and 20:10.) --- They give false judgments; be not concerned; God is our protector. (Calmet) --- God's servants strive to draw others to the practice of virtue. (Worthington) --- All sinners (Haydock) will not outweigh vanity itself. (Menochius)
Psalms 61:11 Trust not in iniquity, and covet not robberies: if riches abound, set not your heart upon them.

Them. Let the rich assist their needy brethren; and you, my followers, beware of enriching yourselves, by unjust rapine, during this civil war. (Calmet) --- Raise your thoughts to something better. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 61:12 God hath spoken once, these two things have I heard, that power belongeth to God,

Once, by the generation of his word, (St. Augustine) or when he promulgated the law, Exodus 20:6. (Berthier) --- God's word is invariable, (Worthington; Job 33:14.; Menochius) and will be put in execution. (St. Ambrose) (Tirinus) --- This he has often inculcated. (Vatable) (Job 39:35.) Amos 1:3. uses three and four, in the same sense. (Calmet)
Psalms 61:13 and mercy to thee, O Lord; *for thou wilt render to every man according to his works.

Works. We must therefore refrain from every injustice. (Haydock) --- God spoke once by Moses, and again by his own Son. Both the Testaments confirm the certainty of rewards and punishments, (Berthier) as God is able and willing (Worthington) to execute his decrees. Luther, followed by the Dutch, translates, "as he merits;" to which expression, concerning the just, Amama objects. (Haydock)
Psalms 62:0 The prophet aspireth after God.

Psalms 62:1 A psalm of David, when he was in the desert of Edom.

Edom, (Idumaeae.) (Haydock) --- Several copies read Judaeae; which agrees with the Hebrew, etc. The Idumeans, after the captivity, occupied those deserts (Calmet) of Ziph, Haret, etc., (Worthington) where David had screened himself from the fury of Saul. This psalm may express his sentiments, (Theodoret; Muis) or those of the captives, returning home, (Calmet) or it may agree with all those, who thirst after their heavenly country. (Berthier) --- St. Jerome explains it of the coming of Christ, and it was used in the morning service. (St. Chrysostom) (Psalm cxl.) (Calmet) --- Catholics, who are imprisoned for their faith, and cannot approach the tabernacle, may here find comfort. (Worthington)
Psalms 62:2 O God, my God, to thee do I watch at break of day. For thee my soul hath thirsted; for thee my flesh, O how many ways!

Day. The manna dissolved with the sun beams, and God will be served with diligence. --- Flesh. The sensations of my soul affect all my body. (Worthington) --- Thirst is more insupportable than hunger; and the psalmist could not express his ardour better. (Calmet) --- He loves God with all his strength, etc. (Haydock) --- "The soul desires, but the end can be attained only by good works." Carnis laboribus pervenitur. (St. Jerome) --- O how! Protestants, "longeth for thee in a dry," etc. But come is no Hebrew verb, and occurring no where else, is little understood by the Jews. It seems that comu, "as," should be here, to correspond with the following so. "As my flesh thirsts in this, etc., so in the," etc. I shall find no less pleasure in attending thy worship, than a thirsty traveller does in finding water. (Calmet) --- Theodotion agrees with the Septuagint, in considering this as a compound word posaplos, (Calmet) and we had best stick to the most ancient version. (Berthier)
Psalms 62:3 In a desert land, and where there is no way, and no water: so in the sanctuary have I come before thee, to see thy power and thy glory.

Land. "O solitude," cries out St. Ephrem, "ladder of heaven, mother of compunction,....and piety, thou art the guardian of the eyes," etc. --- Glory. The ark, (Calmet) or Jesus Christ, the desired of all nations. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- I have attended thy worship in spirit, not being able to be present at Jerusalem. (Calmet) (Menochius) (Worthington) --- Thus people, who cannot hear mass, ought to act. (Haydock)
Psalms 62:4 For thy mercy is better than lives: thee my lips shall praise.

Lives. For these must perish, while heaven remains for ever. (St. Hilary) --- This consolation is preferable to any worldly prosperity. (Worthington)
Psalms 62:5 Thus will I bless thee all my life long: and in thy name I will lift up my hands.

Hands. Doing good works, as the Fathers explain it. This is the posture of people who pray, or take an oath. (Tertullian) (1 Timothy 2:8.) (Calmet) --- I will, etc. Comfort is proportioned to suffering for Christ, 2 Corinthians 1:(Worthington)
Psalms 62:6 Let my soul be filled as with marrow and fatness: and my mouth shall praise thee with joyful lips.

Fatness. With the most exquisite delights of the temple, Jeremias 31:14. (Calmet) --- Thy grace will enable me to give thee due praise (Worthington) with joy. (Menochius)
Psalms 62:7 If I have remembered thee upon my bed, I will meditate on thee in the morning:

Bed. I will think on thee both when I retire to rest, and when I get up. (Berthier) --- Thou art my first beginning, and last end. (Haydock) --- At all times I will meditate on thy mercies (Calmet) in bed, and much more, when I arise, (Worthington) as I shall not then be so much oppressed with drowsiness. (Menochius)
Psalms 62:8 because thou hast been my helper. And I will rejoice under the covert of thy wings:

Psalms 62:9 my soul hath stuck close to thee: thy right hand hath received me.

Psalms 62:10 But they have sought my soul in vain, they shall go into the lower parts of the earth.

John 2:17. --- ** Romans 15:3.
Earth. To seek me out, (Houbigant) or they shall perish. The Babylonians were exposed to many miseries under Cyrus, as the prophets assert, (Isaias 13:1., and Jeremias 25:12.) though profane history be silent. (Calmet) --- David foretells the destruction of his persecutors, either temporal or spiritual. (Worthington) --- The devils may be styled foxes. (Berthier) (St. Hilary) --- This may also be verified in the Jews, who persecuted Christ, and fell a prey to the Roman arms, etc. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- Saul perished in battle, and his body was exposed on a gibbet to wild beasts, 1 Kings xxxi. (Worthington)
Psalms 62:11 They shall be delivered into the hands of the sword, they shall be the portions of foxes.

Psalms 62:12 But the king shall rejoice in God, all they shall be praised that swear by him: because the mouth is stopped of them that speak wicked things.

The king. David, (Berthier, etc.) or Zorobabel, for whom the Jews had the highest regard, though he was not an independent monarch, nor wore a crown, Aggeus 2:24., and Zacharias 3:8. It was customary to swear by the life of the king, 1 Kings 1:26., and 20:3. The Fathers understand Jesus Christ to be meant, and this is the true and primary sense; as Zorobabel was only a figure of Him, and never really possessed the throne, that the Jews might not think that the prophecies were fulfilled in his person. --- By him. The king, (Du Pin; Calmet) or God. (Menochius) (Bossuet) (Tirinus) --- Those who follow the true religion, (Deuteronomy 6:13., and Isaias 45:23.; Calmet) and act accordingly (Haydock) shall be kings for ever, Apocalypse. (Berthier) (1 Peter 2:9.) (Haydock) --- As David came to the throne, on the death of his rival, so was Christ's name exalted, after the Romans had destroyed the Jews. (Worthington)
Psalms 63:0 A prayer in affliction, with confidence in God that he will bring to nought the machinations of persecutors.

Psalms 63:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David.

David, in distress. (Eusebius, etc.) --- It has no relation to any historical fact. But it expresses the sentiments of any just man, surrounded with danger. (St. Hilary) --- Yet many apply it to Daniel, in the lion's den, (Muis) to the captives, (Calmet) or to Jesus Christ and his Church. (St. Augustine, etc.) (Haydock)
Psalms 63:2 Hear, O God, my prayer, when I make supplication to thee: deliver my soul from the fear of the enemy.

Psalms 63:3 Thou hast protected me from the assembly of the malignant; from the multitude of the workers of iniquity.

Malignant. I am encouraged to hope by past experience. (Worthington)
Psalms 63:4 For they have whetted their tongues like a sword; they have bent their bow a bitter thing, 5 to shoot in secret the undefiled.

Thing, or discourse. This describes the poisonous insinuations of heretics, (Eusebius) or the calumnies of the Jews against Christ. (Berthier)
Psalms 63:6 They will shoot at him on a sudden, and will not fear: they are resolute in wickedness. They have talked of hiding snares; they have said: Who shall see them?

Them. The snares. (Haydock) --- Houbigant prefers "us," with reason, (Berthier) after the Syriac, Arabic, Cassiodorus, etc. Yet the Hebrew, etc., retain them, which is very easily explained. (Haydock) --- The most wicked desire to preserve the reputation of honesty, (Calmet) and flatter themselves that no mortal is conscious of their deceit, and that even Providence does not regard things below, Psalm 10. (Haydock)
Psalms 63:7 They have searched after iniquities: they have failed in their search. Man shall come to a deep heart:

Search. Or, they have made the most diligent investigation, (Berthier) to no purpose. (Haydock) --- Thus David and our Saviour were treated. --- Heart. That is, crafty, subtle, deep projects and designs; which nevertheless shall not succeed; for God shall be exalted in bringing them to nought, by his wisdom and power. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "both the inward thought of every one of them, and the heart is deep." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- But, without the points, the Septuagint is accurate. (Berthier) --- The Jews, with all their deep machinations to prevent the belief of Christ's resurrection, bringing even sleeping witnesses, only made themselves ridiculous. (St. Augustine) (Haydock) --- Achitophel was forced to give way, (2 Kings xvii.; Worthington) though he had been considered as an oracle. (Haydock)
Psalms 63:8 And God shall be exalted. The arrows of children are their wounds:

The arrows of children are their wounds. That is, the wounds, stripes, or blows, they seek to inflict upon the just, are but like the weak efforts of children's arrows, which can do no execution; and their tongues, that is, their speeches against them, come to nothing. (Challoner) --- Or, children themselves have wounded these crafty politicians, and exposed their folly. (Haydock) --- Hebrew is "very perplexed in the last three verses. Let us adhere to the Vulgate and Septuagint, who generally read more correctly than the present Hebrew." (Calmet) (Berthier) --- Yet St. Jerome gives a very good sense. (Haydock) --- Wounds. God hath chosen the weak things of this world to confound the strong, (Worthington) and he hath taken the wise in their craftiness. (Menochius)
Psalms 63:9 And their tongues against them are made weak. All that saw them were troubled;

Psalms 63:10 and every man was afraid. And they declared the works of God: and understood his doings.

Afraid, at the sight of God's judgments on the Babylonians, etc. (Calmet)
Psalms 63:11 The just shall rejoice in the Lord, and shall hope in him; and all the upright in heart shall be praised.

Praised. All will begin to esteem the chosen race. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "shall glory." The Jews and Christians (Haydock) shall esteem themselves honoured by the title of God's people. (Calmet) --- They shall be praised for rightly serving God, (Worthington) and shall be rewarded by Him (Haydock) with universal applause. (Menochius)
Psalms 64:0 God is to be praised in his Church, to which all nations shall be called.

Psalms 64:1 To the end, a psalm of David. The canticle of Jeremias and Ezechiel to the people of the captivity, when they began to go out.

Of the captivity. That is, the people of the captivity of Babylon. This is not in the Hebrew, but is found in the ancient translation of the Septuagint. (Challoner) --- From the word canticle. (Haydock) --- It is of little authority. Jeremias and Ezechiel were never together. (Calmet) (Berthier) --- Perhaps the former might have put this psalm of David into the hands of the people, when they were going to Babylon, and Ezechiel might have exhorted them to recite it at their return. (Haydock) --- It seems to have been composed by David, in thanksgiving for rain; (Psalm xxviii.; Muis) or some of the Levites wrote it, after God had removed the scourge of drought, with which he had afflicted the people, in consequence of their neglecting to finish the temple, Aggeus 1:4., and Malachias 3:9. (Calmet) --- David predicts the return from captivity, (Berthier) and the vocation of the Gentiles, (St. Hilary, etc.; Menochius) which the prophets Jeremias, etc., had insinuated, by the coming of the nations from Babylon, so as to forsake idolatry. (St. Augustine, etc.) (Worthington)
Psalms 64:2 A hymn, O God, becometh thee in Sion: and a vow shall be paid to thee in Jerusalem.

Hymn. Or Hebrew, "Praise is silent," (Haydock) "waiteth," (Protestants) or "silence is praise for thee, O God." (Pagnin) Favete linguis. (Horace) (Grotius) --- "We worship Him with pure silence." (Porphyrius, Abst. iii.) (Zacharias 2:13.) (Haydock) --- In Jerusalem, is not in Hebrew, etc., though Houbigant thinks it was originally. (Berthier) --- "Only the vows of ecclesiastical religion are useful." (St. Hilary) --- Praises of those who are out of the Church, are not acceptable to God. (Worthington)
Psalms 64:3 O hear my prayer: all flesh shall come to thee.

O. Hebrew, "hearer of prayer," (Calmet) or "graciously hear my prayer, till all," etc. (St. Jerome) (Houbigant) --- To thee. At the last judgment, or (Calmet) at the vocation of the Gentiles. (Berthier) (Menochius)
Psalms 64:4 The words of the wicked have prevailed over us: and thou wilt pardon our transgressions.

Transgressions. These are the words of the Christian converts, (Eusebius) or of the Jews, who acknowledge that they have been justly punished with drought, for neglecting the temple and first fruits, Aggeus 1:4., and Malachias 3:9. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "thou wilt expiate our transgressions," which denotes Christ's satisfaction. (Berthier) --- Though the wicked threaten, we fear nothing, as long as thou wilt pardon our offences. (Worthington) --- These have been the occasion of our past sorrows. (Menochius)
Psalms 64:5 Blessed is he whom thou hast chosen, and taken to thee: he shall dwell in thy courts. We shall be filled with the good things of thy house; holy is thy temple,

To thee, by predestination. --- House, adorned with exterior graces. (St. Hilary) --- Happy the man, whom thou hast ordained, by faith and good works, to eternal life! David speaks in the name of the elect. (Menochius)
Psalms 64:6 Wonderful in justice. Hear us, O God our Saviour, who art the hope of all the ends of the earth, and in the sea afar off.

Justice. Because there thou wilt fulfil thy promises, and requirest the greatest composure and attention, Ephesians 2:12, 22. (Berthier) --- Nothing defiled can enter into heaven, Apocalypse xxi. (Worthington) --- Off. The Jews were dispersed into all countries, (Jeremias 31:8.) and all are called to the true faith. (Calmet)
Psalms 64:7 Thou who preparest the mountains by thy strength, being girded with power:

Strength, or rain. The power (Calmet) and goodness of God, are described with regard to the captives, and converted nations, (Berthier) and the great works of the creation. (Worthington)
Psalms 64:8 who troublest the depth of the sea, the noise of its waves. The Gentiles shall be troubled,

Troublest. Protestants, "stillest the noise." (Haydock) --- Troubled. The most obdurate are converted from all countries. (Worthington)
Psalms 64:9 and they that dwell in the uttermost borders shall be afraid at thy signs: thou shalt make the outgoings of the morning and of the evening to be joyful.

Joyful. People both of the east and west shall learn to fear thee; or thy chosen people shall dwell in peace, and attend the morning and evening service. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- Both morning and evening afford delight, as people may labour, or take some rest, according to their different wants.
Psalms 64:10 Thou hast visited the earth, and hast plentifully watered it; thou hast many ways enriched it. The river of God is filled with water; thou hast prepared their food: for so is its preparation.

River. Hebrew, "the division," or all the seas and fountains (Berthier) of consequence, (Menochius) particularly the Jordan, which overflows, like the Euphrates, about Pentecost, Josue 3:15., and Jeremias 12:5. (Calmet) --- Its, the earth's, after a plentiful rain. (Haydock) --- God has wrought many wonders by water, and hath fed his people, (Exodus 7:14., and 16:3., etc.) to prefigure the graces conferred in baptism, the holy Eucharist, etc. (Worthington)
Psalms 64:11 Fill up plentifully the streams thereof, multiply its fruits; it shall spring up, and rejoice in its showers.

Showers. This gives the sense, rather than the words of the Hebrew. (Berthier) --- Pastors are still preserved to feed the faithful; and all the just receive the crown of justice, at the end of their life, 2 Timothy 4:(Worthington)
Psalms 64:12 Thou shalt bless the crown of the year of thy goodness: and thy fields shall be filled with plenty.

Crown. The crops shall succeed each other, and be abundant, Leviticus 26:5, 10., and Amos 9:13. This fertility was foretold, Aggeus 2:20. (Calmet) --- "By thy blessing, the year shall roll along, and thy steps shall distil fatness." (St. Jerome) (Haydock)
Psalms 64:13 The beautiful places of the wilderness shall grow fat: and the hills shall be girded about with joy.

Wilderness. Or, of such places as were not ploughed. Little hay was collected, as cattle might almost always pasture. --- Hills, covered with vine-trees, etc., Joel 3:18., and Job 20:17. (Calmet) --- The most barren will bring forth fruit, and the perfect shall advance in merit. (Worthington)
Psalms 64:14 The rams of the flock are clothed, and the vales shall abound with corn: they shall shout; yea, they shall sing a hymn.

Clothed, with fleeces, (Haydock) or rather, shall be surrounded with sheep. Hebrew also, "the pastures shall be covered with sheep." Houbigant would read e, for c, and translate, "the mountains shall be clothed with flocks." But such changes require some proof, and the sense is the same. (Berthier) --- All nature (Menochius) praises God in its own manner, when it answers the designs of God. Yet man is chiefly invited to sing. (Haydock) --- The pastors, (Worthington) like rams, lead the way; but all the just, without exception, shall be happy in their celestial mansions, and with the utmost content, shall join in the hymns of Sion. (Haydock)
Psalms 65:0 An invitation to praise God.

Psalms 65:1 Unto the end, a canticle of a psalm of the resurrection. Shout with joy to God, all the earth,

Psalm. Cassiodorus, etc., add, "of David." But it is thought, he was not the author of this and the following piece, as his name is not in the original. (Calmet) --- This argument is, however, of small weight. --- Resurrection. Hebrew, Origen's Septuagint, etc., omit these words, (Berthier, T. iii.) which seem to have been added by some Greek Christian, who thought he perceived some allusion to the resurrection of Christ, ver. 9. The Fathers have well explained it in this sense, though they also apply it literally to the return of the captives, (Theodoret; Calmet) and to the general resurrection, the end of all the miseries of the elect, (Bellarmine) as well as to the conversion of the Gentiles, (Genebrard) and the resurrection of a soul from the state of sin. (Haydock)
Psalms 65:2 sing ye a psalm to his name; give glory to his praise.

Psalms 65:3 Say unto God, How terrible are thy works, O Lord! in the multitude of thy strength, thy enemies shall lie to thee.

Lie. Prove faithless to thee, (Psalm 17:46., etc.) notwithstanding the evidence of thy wonders, and their deceitful professions. Thus the Samaritans pretended they wished to assist the Jews to build the temple; yet soon after obtained an order from court to hinder it, 1 Esdras 4:1., and 8:36. (Calmet) --- Pharao frequently promised to let the people go, but as often broke his word. (Worthington) --- They had been moved with servile fear. (Menochius) --- The sight of God's judgments upon the world was enough to inspire terror. (Worthington)
Psalms 65:4 Let all the earth adore thee, and sing to thee: let it sing a psalm to thy name.

Psalms 65:5 Come and see the works of God: who is terrible in his counsels over the sons of men.

Men. Choosing some, and rejecting others, (St. Jerome) calling the Gentiles, while he casts off the Jews. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 65:6 Who turned the sea into dry land, in the river they shall pass on foot: there shall we rejoice in him.

In him. God, (Haydock) Jesus, (Eusebius) or "on it," the river Euphrates, which we shall pass over with as much ease, as our ancestors did the Red Sea. So the prophets frequently speak in a figurative sense, Isaias 11:16., and 50:3., and Zacharias 10:10., and 4 Esdras 13:41. (Calmet) --- As Josue led the Israelites across the river Jordan on dry land, (Haydock) so we shall extol thy wonders. (Worthington) --- There, reflecting on these prodigies, both past and present, we shall rejoice. (Menochius)
Psalms 65:7 Who by his power ruleth for ever: his eyes behold the nations; let not them that provoke him he exalted in themselves.

Provoke him. The faithless Jews, or Gentiles; particularly those of Babylon; or those among God's people, who neglected his service, Aggeus iv., and 1 Esdras ix., etc. (Calmet) --- These often gave way to murmuring, and are therefore exhorted not to be proud, lest they should be brought low.
Psalms 65:8 O bless our God, ye Gentiles; and make the voice of his praise to be heard.

Gentiles. By this invitation, he predicts their conversion.
Psalms 65:9 Who hath set my soul to live: and hath not suffered my feet to be moved.

Moved. The apostles were most courageous. Only those Jews returned, who had separated themselves from impure idols, 1 Esdras 5:21. The Church never fails. If some apostatize, others embrace the faith. (Worthington)
Psalms 65:10 For thou, O God, hast proved us: thou hast tried us by fire, as silver is tried.

Tried. So Daniel was treated, Daniel 3:21. The Babylonian captivity is compared to a furnace, as well as all severe trials of virtue, Proverbs 17:3., and Zacharias xiii. (Calmet)
Psalms 65:11 Thou hast brought us into a net, thou hast laid afflictions on our back:

Back. Hebrew, "loins." The Captives had experienced the greatest miseries, as the martyrs of Christ have done since. (Calmet) --- The Church is put to the most severe trials. (Worthington) --- Yet God brings no one into the net of sin. This is solely the effect of man's corruption. (Haydock)
Psalms 65:12 thou hast set men over our heads. We have passed through fire and water, and thou hast brought us out into a refreshment.

Fire and water, which the Egyptians considered as the emblems of purity, (Horus. xli.) and which here denote the greatest tribulations. (Calmet) --- The just still overcome by God's grace, (Worthington) notwithstanding all the efforts of tyrants who may be set over them. (Menochius)
Psalms 65:13 I will go into thy house with burnt-offerings: I will pay thee my vows,

Psalms 65:14 which my lips have uttered, And my mouth hath spoken, when I was in trouble.

Uttered. These were alone deemed obligatory by the Jews, (Leviticus 5:4.; Calmet) yet the more enlightened knew that God discerns the secrets of hearts, whence the force of a vow proceeds. (Haydock)
Psalms 65:15 I will offer up to thee holocausts full of marrow, with burnt-offerings of rams: I will offer to thee bullocks with goats.

Marrow. Malachy (Malachias 1:13.) reproaches some for presenting lean victims. (Calmet) --- Offer. Hebrew ehese, "will make." Septuagint use poieso, in the same sense, and are followed by the writers of the New Testament. --- Do this, etc. (Berthier) --- The best external victims of the old law are here specified. Yet even then the internal sacrifice was most pleasing. (Worthington)
Psalms 65:16 Come and hear, all ye that fear God: and I will tell you what great things he hath done for my soul.

My soul. Every Israelite ought to cherish the same sentiments. (Calmet)
Psalms 65:17 I cried to him with my mouth: and I extolled him with my tongue.

Extolled, by meditation, (Muis) or God has immediately granted my request. (Theodoret) --- Some Latin Bibles read, "I have exulted under my tongue," which my heart directs. (Worthington)
Psalms 65:18 If I have looked at iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear me.

Heart. Being enslaved to any passion. (Haydock) --- Iniquity and dissimulation hinder the effect of our prayers; and in some sense, it is true, that God does not hear sinners: (John 9:31., and 2 Timothy 2:9.) though He regards favourably such as wish to repent, like the publican, Luke 18:14. (Calmet) --- Whosoever would be heard, must repent of his sins. (Worthington)
Psalms 65:19 Therefore hath God heard me, and hath attended to the voice of my supplication.

Psalms 65:20 Blessed be God, who hath not turned away my prayer, nor his mercy from me.

Psalms 66:0 A prayer for the propagation of the Church.

Psalms 66:1 Unto the end, in hymns, a psalm of a canticle for David.

For David, is not in Hebrew, nor in some copies of the Septuagint. (Calmet) --- Yet the psalm expresses the sentiments of the royal prophet, (Berthier) or it is a sequel to the two former [psalms], thanking God for liberty, and for rain. The Fathers explain it of the coming of Jesus Christ, and the calling of the Gentiles, ver. 5. It many have been sung when the first-fruits were brought to the temple. See Psalm lxxxiv. (Calmet)
Psalms 66:2 May God have mercy on us, and bless us: may he cause the light of his countenance to shine upon us, and may he have mercy on us.

Upon us, to grant our requests; or may the Messias come, Hebrews 1:3. --- And may, etc., is in the Arabic, and in most copies of the Septuagint and Vulgate, though it is omitted in Hebrew, etc., "and we shall live." (Ethiopic) (Calmet) --- Perhaps it may be given to express the sense of Selah, which seems to have been a term of approbation. It does not alter the sense. (Berthier) --- God first forgives sins, and then bestows his manifold graces. (Worthington) --- This was the form of solemn blessing, Numbers 6:17. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 66:3 That we may know thy way upon earth: thy salvation in all nations.

Way. The true religion. (Menochius) --- Salvation. Christ, who is the only way to be saved, John 14:6., and Matthew 1:21. (Calmet) --- This way is new, leading to new heavens, etc., Hebrews 10:20., and 2 Peter 3:13. (Berthier)
Psalms 66:4 Let people confess to thee, O God: let all people give praise to thee.

Psalms 66:5 Let the nations be glad and rejoice: for thou judgest the people with justice, and directest the nations upon earth.

Earth. Thou art the Father and ruler of thy people. Let all submit to the sweet yoke of Christ, Zacharias 8:21.
Psalms 66:6 Let the people, O God, confess to thee: let all the people give praise to thee:

Psalms 66:7 The earth hath yielded her fruit. May God, our God bless us:

Fruit, after rain; or, in a spiritual sense, Jesus Christ, the root, or bud of Jesse, (Isaias 4:2.; Calmet) born in Judea, (Berthier) of the holy Virgin. (St. Jerome) --- God. The triple repetition of God's name, insinuates the blessed Trinity, (Haydock; Fathers) and the prophet's earnestness. (Calmet) --- The faith of the Trinity is to be preached throughout the world, (Haydock) for the salvation of nations. (Worthington)
Psalms 66:8 May God bless us: and all the ends of the earth fear him.

Fear him. With holy fear and obedience. (Menochius) --- The blessings which God bestows upon his servants, and their piety, will induce many to embrace the truth. (Haydock)
Psalms 67:0 The glorious establishment of the Church of the New Testament, prefigured by the benefits bestowed on the people of Israel.

Psalms 67:1 Unto the end, a psalm of a canticle for David himself.

Himself. This is the most difficult of all the psalms, (Calmet) crux ingeniorum. (Muis) --- The prodigies wrought by God in favour of his people, when they came out of Egypt, and conquered the land of Chanaan, are described by David in this triumphal canticle, which was sung when the ark was removed. (Houbigant) --- He had also in view the greater prodigies, which should attend Jesus Christ, and the propagation of the gospel. The latter explanation is also literal, (Berthier) and is given by the Fathers, (Calmet) on the authority of St. Paul, ver. 19., and Ephesians 4:8. (Haydock)
Psalms 67:2 Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered: and let them that hate him flee from before his face.

Arise. These words were used when the Israelites decamped, (Numbers 10:35.; Calmet) and in the exorcisms to expel devils, who are here styled enemies. (St. Athanasius) --- The Jews were confounded when Christ rose again. (St. Augustine) --- The psalmist foretells the ruin of God's enemies, in the form of a prayer.(Worthington)
Psalms 67:3 As smoke vanisheth, so let them vanish away; as wax melteth before the fire, so let the wicked perish at the presence of God.

Psalms 67:4 And let the just feast, and rejoice before God: and be delighted with gladness.

Feast. This was done when the ark was removed, 1 Paralipomenon xv., and 16:3. (Calmet) --- But believers may now receive God himself. (St. Ambrose) (Psalm xxxix.) (Berthier)
Psalms 67:5 Sing ye to God, sing a psalm to his name: make a way for him who ascendeth upon the west: the Lord is his name. Rejoice ye before him: but the wicked shall be troubled at his presence,

Who ascendeth upon the west. Super occasum. St. Gregory understands it of Christ, who after his going down, like the sun, in the west, by the passion and death, ascended more glorious, and carried all before him. St. Jerome renders it, who ascendeth, or cometh up, through the deserts; (Challoner) which some explain of the coming out of Egypt, others of the progress of the gospel, in a western direction. (Menochius) --- Baharaboth, means also, "in the remotest heavens," (Montanus; Haydock) or, "in delights," or "darkness," and all these senses may have been in the prophet's mind, as they are all beautiful. (Berthier) --- Resist not God's inspirations. He triumphs over death, and is Lord of all. (Worthington) --- Lord. Hebrew, "in Yah is his name." (Haydock) --- The Word was with God, John 1:--- But....presence. These words seem to have been in the copy of the Septuagint, and shew the contrast between the just and their oppressors, at the presence of the ark, and of the Messias, (Berthier) before whom the latter must tremble.
Psalms 67:6 who is the father of orphans, and the judge of widows. God in his holy place:

The Father, (patris.) Hebrew, pater, "the Father....God." He delights in these titles, (Haydock) and though he dwelleth on high, he looketh on the low, Psalm 112:5. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:7 God who maketh men of one manner to dwell in a house: Who bringeth out them that were bound in strength; in like manner them that provoke, that dwell in sepulchres.

Of one manner. That is, agreeing in faith, unanimous in love, and following the same manner of discipline. It is verified in the servants of God living together in his house, which is the Church, 1 Timothy 3:15. (Challoner) --- Hebrew may signify, "He maketh those who were alone (steriles) to dwell in a house," Psalm 112:9. He builds up their houses, and grants them children. (Flaminius) (Exodus 1:21.) --- The Israelites under Pharao, (Calmet) saw their male issue destroyed, (Haydock) but God enabled them to multiply exceedingly, Exodus 1:12. (Calmet) --- Yechidim means "the solitary," (St. Jerome) and "the united," as the first Christians were. (Berthier) (Acts 2:44.) (Haydock) --- The Church preserves unity in faith, etc. (St. Cyprian, ep. 76.) (Worthington) --- Bound. The power and mercy of God appears, in his bringing out of their captivity, those who were strongly bound in their sins; and in restoring to his grace those whose behaviour had been most provoking; and who by their evil habits were not only dead, but buried in their sepulchres. (Challoner) --- God's grace moves even the rebellious and negligent will of man, so that it willingly embraces the right path. (Worthington) --- In strength. Houbigant, "to walk freely." The Gentiles were, as it were, buried, before Christ delivered them, (Berthier) as he did those who were once incredulous in the days of Noe, (1 Peter 3:20., and 4:6.; St. Athanasius) and God rescued the Israelites from servitude, notwithstanding their repeated provocations, both before and after this mercy. Some translate, (Haydock) Hebrew, "He delivers those who were bound in chains; but the rebels (Egyptians, or faithless Hebrews) have remained in the desert." (Calmet) --- Their bodies have there become a prey to beasts, and to corruption. (Haydock) --- God permitted the rebellious Egyptians to pursue his people. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:8 O God, when thou didst go forth in the sight of thy people, when thou didst pass through the desert:

Psalms 67:9 The earth was moved, and the heavens dropped at the presence of the God of Sinai, at the presence of the God of Israel.

Dropped. The earthquake and rain are not mentioned by Moses. But the prophets often supply omissions. Debora and Habacuc speak in the same lofty strains, Exodus 19:16., Judges 5:4., and Habacuc 3:6. (Calmet) --- Debora specifies some words, (Haydock) which seem to be here wanting, "the clouds also dropped water, the mountains melted" at, etc. --- Of Sinai, or, "Sinai at," etc. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "this Sinai before God, (Judges 5:5., Jehovah) the God of Israel." The old manuscript 3 retains the word Jehovah at least six times, where it is not once printed, as that of Lambeth, 434, does here, etc. (Kennicott) --- St. Augustine and the ancient psalters read, A facie Domini; Mons Sinai, etc. (Calmet) --- The mount itself seemed to melt amid thunder and rain. (Haydock)
Psalms 67:10 Thou shalt set aside for thy inheritance a free rain, O God: and it was weakened, but thou hast made it perfect.

A free rain. The manna, which rained plentifully from heaven, in favour of God's inheritance, that is, of his people Israel: which was weakened indeed under a variety of afflictions, but was made perfect by God; that is, was still supported by divine Providence, and brought on to the promised land. It agrees particularly to the Church of Christ, his true inheritance, which is plentifully watered with the free rain of heavenly grace; and through many infirmities, that is, crosses and tribulations, is made perfect, and fitted for eternal glory. (Challoner) --- God came to redeem us, without any merit on our side. He chose the weak, but made them strong. (Worthington) --- The cattle stood in great need of water, as the Hebrews did of manna. (Calmet) --- He will render the promised land most fertile. (Houbigant)
Psalms 67:11 In it shall thy animals dwell; in thy sweetness, O God, thou hast provided for the poor.

In it, etc. That is, in this Church, which is thy fold, and thy inheritance, shall thy animals, thy sheep, dwell: where thou hast plentifully provided for them. (Challoner) --- Those whom thou hast chosen shall enjoy this manna, or the blessed Sacrament. (Worthington)
Psalms 67:12 The Lord shall give the word to them that preach good tidings with great power.

To them that preach good tidings. Evangelizantibus. That is, to the preachers of the gospel; who, receiving the word from the Lord, shall with great power and efficacy, preach thoughout the world the glad tidings of a Saviour, and of eternal salvation through him; (Challoner) with miracles following, Mark xvi. (Worthington) (Luke 21:15.) (Calmet) --- Hebrew seems to speak of females, who used to sing canticles of victory, like Mary and Deborah, etc. But the feminine is used at the beginning of Ecclesiastes, though Solomon be meant, and here the Chaldean paraphrases, "God gave the words of the law to his people, by the mediation of Moses and Aaron, who published the word of God." This passage has a striking analogy with Ephesians 4:11., etc. He gave some apostles....for the perfecting of the saints, etc., which St. Paul observes, just after quoting this psalm. (Berthier)
Psalms 67:13 The king of powers is of the beloved, of the beloved; and the beauty of the house shall divide spoils.

The king of powers. That is, the mighty King, the Lord of Hosts, is of the beloved, of the beloved; that is, is on the side of Christ, his most beloved Son; and his beautiful house, viz., the Church, in which God dwells for ever, shall by her spiritual conquests, divide the spoils of many nations. The Hebrew (as it now stands pointed) is thus rendered: The kings of armies have fled, they had fled, and she that dwells at home (or, the beauty of the house) shall divide the spoils. (Challoner) --- Yet Symmachus comes nearer the Septuagint and St. Jerome has in the same sense, (Berthier) "the kings of armies shall form leagues," etc. The great King, is the Lord (ver. 12.) of hosts, who shall enable many to publish his wonders. They are represented as women, to denote the particular Churches of Christ, which have risen on the ruins of idolatry, though they may also refer to the victories of the Israelites, under Debora, when mighty kings came to invade the country, Judges iv., and 5:19, 24. (Haydock) --- The glory of that victory was given to her, and to Jahel, who slew Sisara. (Calmet) --- Soon after the preaching of the gospel, the most potent monarchs (Calmet) submitted to its authority, and thus a glorious prey was rescued from the power of the devil. (Worthington) --- Women sometimes promoted this great work. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:14 If you sleep among the midst of lots, you shall be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and the hinder parts of her back with the paleness of gold.

If you sleep among the midst of lots, (inter medios cleros, etc.) viz., in such dangers and persecutions, as if your enemies were casting lots for your goods and persons: or in the midst of the lots (inter medios terminos, as St. Jerome renders it) that is, upon the very bounds or borders of the dominions of your enemies: you shall be secure, nevertheless, under the divine protection; and shall be enabled to fly away, like a dove, with glittering wings, and feathers shining like the palest and most precious gold; that is, with great increase of virtue, and glowing with the fervour of charity; (Challoner) or, "if....in the borders of the dove," etc., the ensign of Babylon, Jeremias 25:38. --- When, etc. (Tirinus) --- The tribe of Juda may be denoted by the dove, as it seems to be in the canticles, because it continued faithful longer than the ten tribes; (Berthier) or these words may be addressed to the tribes of Ruben and Gad, which neglected to come to the aid of Debora, and thus melted away like snow, as Jacob had threatened the former; (Genesis xlix.) or rather, that we may not interrupt the harmony of this solemnity by reproaches, we may (Calmet) adhere to the Vulgate, which renders, they shall be, etc., ver. 15. (Haydock) --- The former stain has been effaced by their subsequent good conduct. (Calmet) --- While the pastors of the Church diligently propose the doctrines revealed in the two lots, or Testaments, to the prophets and apostles, the faith of the Church shines most conspicuously. The other explanations maybe seen in Lorin., etc. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:15 When he that is in heaven appointeth kings over her, they shall be whited with snow in Selmon.

Kings over her. That is, pastors and rulers over his Church, viz., the apostles, and their successors. Then by their ministry shall men be made whiter than the snow, which lies on the top of the high mountain Selmon, (Challoner) which is in the tribe of Ephraim, shaded with trees, Judges 9:48. (Worthington) --- Discern it, may also mean, "judgeth," (Haydock) or "divideth," as St. Jerome translates; and may intimate, that when God shall have exterminated the kings, who attacked his chosen race, it should appear more glorious. (Haydock) --- In the first year of Cyrus, who had been commissioned by God, with Darius the Mede, to punish Babylon, (Daniel v.) the Jews were liberated. (Tirinus)
Psalms 67:16 The mountain of God is a fat mountain. A curdled mountain, a fat mountain.

The mountain of God. The Church, which (Isaias 2:2.) is called, The mountain of the house of the Lord upon the top of mountains. It is here called a fat and a curdled mountain; that is to say, most fruitful, and enriched by the spiritual gifts and graces of the Holy Ghost. (Challoner) --- Fat. Hebrew, "as the hill of Basha," (Protestants) which was very fertile: the very name signifying "fat." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- The psalmist apostrophizes the mountains of Chanaan, which were very high, and those of Basan, where Og ruled; (Calmet) or he insinuates, that the latter could not vie with Sion, where the ark was now to be placed. (Berthier)
Psalms 67:17 Why suspect ye curdled mountains? A mountain in which God is well pleased to dwell: for there the Lord shall dwell unto the end.

Why suspect ye curdled mountains? Why do you suppose or imagine there may be any other such curdled mountains? You are mistaken: the mountain thus favoured by God is but one; and this same he has chosen for his dwelling for ever. (Challoner) --- They who are not of the Church, vainly imagine, that any other mountains are united, (Worthington) rich in grace, or beautiful. (Haydock) --- Sects do not agree among themselves, but only in opposing the Catholic Church. They have not the marks of truth, which are here given. The Church of God is compared to a mountain, visible to all; fat, with the graces of the Holy Ghost; united and firm, like cheese; the perpetual residence of God, who will never suffer her to fall into error. (Worthington) --- Why then do you deign to look at such conventicles of pride and perdition, as if they could be the one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church? Hebrew, "why do ye contend, ye high mountains, against the mountain?" etc. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- There are several other interpretations. But that of the Vulgate, suspicamini, is the most followed, even by the Jews. (Berthier)
Psalms 67:18 The chariot of God is attended by ten thousands; thousands of them that rejoice: the Lord is among them in Sinai, in the holy place.

The chariot of God, descending to give his law on Mount Sinai; as also of Jesus Christ, his Son, ascending into heaven, to send from thence the Holy Ghost, to publish his new law, is attended with ten thousands, that is, with an innumerable multitude of joyful angels. (Challoner) --- Literally, "with forty thousand." (Berthier) --- Innumerable hosts of Cherubim, (Haydock) seem to be the chariot of the most high, Daniel vii. (Worthington) --- But here the Israelites, who came to conquer Chanaan, are meant, Deuteronomy 33:2., Zacharias 14:5., and Habacuc 3:6. (Calmet) --- The promulgation of the old and new law is contrasted. God is the author of the beauty of his Church. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:19 Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive; thou hast received gifts in men. Yea, for those also that do not believe, the dwelling of the Lord God.

Led captivity captive. Carrying away with thee to heaven those who before had been the captives of Satan; and receiving from God the Father gifts to be distributed to men; even to those who were before unbelievers. (Challoner) --- Yea, even these were the spoils which Christ presented to his Father. (Haydock) --- St. Paul quotes this text rather in a different manner, ascending on high, he led captivity captive; he gave gifts to men; as the Hebrew lakach means, "to give and to receive." Abenezra, Chaldean, Syriac, etc., give it the former sense, with the apostle; St. Justin Martyr (Dialogue), St. Hilary, and the ancient psalters of Rome and Chartres. St. Augustine approves both readings. (Calmet) --- So Samson said, "take this woman for a wife for me," Judges 14:3. The true God is here undoubtedly meant, and as St. Paul explains it of Christ, the Socinians, who admit the authority of the epistle to the Ephesians, ought to confess his divinity. (Berthier) --- Those. Protestants, "gifts for men, (Marginal note, "in the man,") yea, for the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them." Yet the construction of the Hebrew and Vulgate would insinuate as well, that these faithless people were now become true subjects, and were the gifts here presented to the Almighty. Christ came to save sinners. He gratuitously sought after them, and filled them with graces, that they might become a suitable present for God. (Haydock) --- He received gifts to be distributed among his servants, and merited grace for the conversion of innumerable souls. At his ascension, he was accompanied by angels, and by the patriarchs, who had been retained in captivity. (Worthington) --- The rebellious nations were forced to pay tribute, (Judges 3:15.; Calmet) or to submit to Josue, David, etc. (Haydock) --- God in the flesh, or in his holy mountain, the Christian Church. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:20 Blessed be the Lord day by day: the God of our salvation will make our journey prosperous to us.

To us. So the Israelites might be filled with confidence in the desert, (Haydock) or the people pray that God would favour the pious design of their king. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "God will carry us, (St. Jerome) or loadeth us with benefits." (Protestants) (Haydock)
Psalms 67:21 Our God is the God of salvation: and of the Lord, of the Lord are the issues from death.

The issues from death. The Lord alone is master of the issues, by which we may escape from death. (Challoner) --- He killeth and giveth life, 1 Kings 2:6.
Psalms 67:22 But God shall break the heads of his enemies: the hairy crown of them that walk on in their sins.

Sins. He will humble them, or will slay the proud, Psalm 72:18. (Calmet) --- Though Christ died to save man, He will condemn the obstinate. (Worthington) --- Sinners take pride in what ought to fill them with confusion. (St. Augustine) (Du Hamel)
Psalms 67:23 The Lord said: I will turn them from Basan, I will turn them into the depth of the sea.

I will turn them from Basan, etc. I will cast out my enemies from their rich possessions, signified by Basan, a fruitful country; and I will drive them into the depth of the sea: and make such a slaughter of them, that the feet of my servants may be dyed in their blood, etc. (Challoner) --- Into. Most translate from, and explain this of God's people. But it seems more naturally to refer to their enemies, and the preposition m, signifies in, Psalm 36:15. (Berthier) --- I will treat them like Pharao. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:24 That thy foot may be dipped in the blood of thy enemies: the tongue of thy dogs be red with the same.

Same. Streams of blood shall flow, as was the case when Moses overcame Og, etc., Numbers 21:23. (Calmet) --- The gospel was propagated without bloodshed, but no less effectually. At the last day, the just shall triumph over the reprobate. (Berthier)
Psalms 67:25 They have seen thy goings, O God, the goings of my God: of my king who is in his sanctuary.

Thy goings. Thy ways, thy proceedings, by which thou didst formerly take possession of the promised land in favour of thy people; and shalt afterwards of the whole world, which thou shalt subdue to thy Son. (Challoner) --- Many have now become acquainted with what Christ has done for the salvation of mankind; but the faithful consider this with most attention, and view him seated on his throne above, as our Mediator, through whom alone others can have access. (Worthington) --- Eusebius and St. Hilary suppose, that Christ appeared and spoke to the patriarchs and prophets of the Old Testament. (Calmet)
Psalms 67:26 Princes went before joined with singers, in the midst of young damsels playing on timbrels.

Princes. The apostles, the first converters of nations: attended by numbers of perfect souls, singing the divine praises, and virgins consecrated to God. (Challoner) --- St. Paul exhorts the faithful to sing hymns, Ephesians 5:19. (Berthier) --- Moses and Mary[Miriam] had sung a canticle, after the passage of the Red Sea, Exodus xv. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:27 In the churches bless ye God the Lord, from the fountains of Israel.

From the fountains of Israel. From whom both Christ and his apostles sprung. By Benjamin, the holy Fathers on this place understand St. Paul, who was of that tribe, named here a youth, because he was the last called to the apostleship. By the princes of Juda, Zabulon, and Nephthali, we may understand the other apostles, who were of the tribe of Juda; or of the tribes of Zabulon and Nephthali, where our Lord began to preach, Matthew 4:13., etc. (Challoner) --- The Jews were first invited, Acts 1:(Worthington) --- All the tribes were present at the translation of the ark. It is not known why these four alone are mentioned. (Berthier)
Psalms 67:28 There is Benjamin a youth, in ecstacy of mind. The princes of Juda are their leaders: the princes of Zabulon, the princes of Nephthali.

Mind. Through excessive joy. Hebrew also, "containing (or ruling) them." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- But this seems improper. Hence Protestants have, "with their ruler," though with is not in the original. (Berthier) --- Rodem (Keri rode) "presided." Saul, indeed, had been the first king of Israel; but the throne afterwards continued in the tribe of Juda: and at the time of the conquest of Chanaan, as well as at the translation of the ark, Benjamin could not be considered as the chief. (Haydock) --- We may therefore better follow the Septuagint and Deschamps, who has sopore corripitur. (Berthier) --- St. Paul was in an ecstacy, rapt to the third heaven, 2 Corinthians xii. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:29 Command thy strength, O God: confirm, O God, what thou hast wrought in us.

Command thy strength. Give orders that thy strength may be always with us. (Challoner) --- Display thy power from thy holy temple. (Haydock) --- Send the Messias, grant perseverance to the just, and defend thy Church against all attacks. (Calmet) --- As she commenced by God's power, so by the same she is continually preserved. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "Thy God hath commanded thy strength." (Protestants) or, "command thy God." (Berthier)
Psalms 67:30 From thy temple in Jerusalem, kings shall offer presents to thee.

From. Symmachus For. Kings shall reverence the temple, which David foresaw would be shortly erected; or, "with greater magnificence, than in the temple of Jerusalem, kings shall offer gifts to thee," (Deschamps) which clearly refers to the Messias. (Berthier) --- "As soon as thy temples shall be," etc. Under Solomon, many kings became tributary, and at the preaching of the gospel, emperors submitted to Christ. (Calmet) --- They have contributed to adorn the Church, (Isaias lx., and lxvi.) where God is praised with the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and the virtues of penance and prayer. (Menochius)
Psalms 67:31 Rebuke the wild beasts of the reeds, the congregation of bulls, with the kine of the people; who seek to exclude them who are tried with silver. Scatter thou the nations that delight in wars:

Rebuke the wild beasts of the reeds: or the wild beasts which lie hid in the reeds. That is, the devils, who hide themselves in order to surprise their prey. Or by wild beasts, are here understood persecutors, who, for all their attempts against the Church, are but as weak reeds, which cannot prevail against them, who are supported by the strength of the Almighty. The same are also called the congregation of bulls, (from their rage against the Church) who assembled together all their kine, that is, the people, their subjects, to exclude, if they can, from Christ and his inheritance, his constant confessors, who are like silver tried by fire. (Challoner) --- Symmachus nearly agrees with this version: "Rebuke the wild beasts." Yet most render the Hebrew in the singular, to denote the chief of the enemies, (Haydock) particularly the devil, who dwells with the vain and luxurious, (Bellarmine) being Behemoth, in Job 40:16., (Menochius) and the old serpent, (Haydock) as he probably lay concealed, among the shrubs of Paradise, when he tempted our first parents. (Berthier) --- It refers literally to the kings of Egypt, and of Ethiopia, who might be solicited to make war on David, by the Philistines. Pharao is often called a dragon, (Ezechiel 29:3.) as his officers, or the princes "of Chus," may be styled bulls. They shall be forced to submit, ver. 32. (Calmet) --- To exclude. Hebrew, "trampling upon," (Berthier) or "boasting of their pieces of silver," (Montanus) which is so common among them, 3 Kings 10:27. (Haydock) --- The Egyptians even adorned their sandals with it. (Clem. Ped. 2:11.) --- The soldiers of Antiochus had mostly gold nails in their shoes. (Val. Max. 9:2.) (Calmet) --- Houbigant proposes some alterations, and translates, "Keep down the beast of the reed, the collection of the strong, as also the chariots of the people, which run quickly on silver wheels." All the versions tend to shew the fury and insolence of the enemy against God's people. (Berthier) --- Tried. Protestants, "till every one submit himself with pieces of silver." (Haydock)
Psalms 67:32 ambassadors shall come out of Egypt: Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God.

Ambassadors shall come, etc. It is a prophecy of the conversion of the Gentiles, and by name of the Egyptians and Ethiopians, (Challoner) who were among the first converts, Isaias 19:9., Sophonias 3:10., and Acts 8:27. --- Ambassadors. Hebrew chashmannim occurs no where else. But it denotes some people in authority, and seems to have the same import as "the Asmonean." --- Ethiopia, comprises the country on both sides of the Red Sea, as well as that below Egypt, and on the Araxes. This prediction was accomplished, when Solomon married the daughter of Pharao, and was visited by the queen of Saba. But is was more fully verified by the propagation of the gospel, (Calmet) when many in Egypt became monks and nuns. (Worthington)
Psalms 67:33 Sing to God, ye kingdoms of the earth: sing ye to the Lord: Sing ye to God,

\f + \fr 67:33-34\ft Sing ye to God, is rejected by St. Jerome; but defended by St. Hilary, etc. It seems proper to connect the former sentence after Selah, (Berthier) or may be added instead, to express applause. (Haydock) --- East. From Mount Olivet, which is on the east side of Jerusalem. (Challoner) --- God fills all places, ver. 5., and Deuteronomy 33:26. (Calmet) --- Religion has gone westward, but will return to the east, Apocalypse xvi. (Tirinus) --- Power. That is, he will make his voice to be a powerful voice; by calling from death to life, such as were dead in mortal sin: as at the last day he will, by the power of his voice, call all the dead from their graves. (Challoner) --- He will come to judge with great majesty, (Worthington) and his thunder shall resound, as well as the last trumpet, 1 Corinthians 15:52.
Psalms 67:34 Who mounteth above the heaven of heavens, to the east. Behold he will give to his voice the voice of power,

Psalms 67:35 Give ye glory to God, for Israel, his magnificence, and his power is in the clouds.

For Israel. Altering the stops, we might translate, "over Israel appears his magnificence;" (Berthier) agreeably to Hebrew, St. Augustine, etc. (Calmet)
Psalms 67:36 God is wonderful in his saints: the God of Israel is he who will give power and strength to his people. Blessed be God.

Saints, or sanctuary. Hebrew literally, "thou art terrible, O God, from thy holy places." (Montanus) --- Yet Pagnin retains, "in his holy," etc. The tabernacle, or temple, (ver. 30.) and the ark, were esteemed the bulwarks of Israel. There God was pleased to grant his people's requests more easily, to encourage public worship. (Haydock) --- The sanctification of the faithful is a miracle of God. (Calmet) --- They may justly be styled his sanctuaries. --- People. Adorning his elect with immortality. (Menochius)
Psalms 68:0 Christ, in his passion, declareth the greatness of his sufferings, and the malice of his persecutors, the Jews; and he foretelleth their reprobation.

Psalms 68:1 Unto the end, for them that shall be changed; for David.

Changed. A psalm for Christian converts, to remember the passion of Christ; (Challoner) whose sentiments this and the 21st psalm express in the most energetic language. (Berthier) --- It may have been composed by a captive Levite, (Calmet) or David may allude to their sufferings at Babylon, or to his own, though he had those of the Messias principally in view. See Psalm xlv. (Haydock)
Psalms 68:2 Save me, O God: for the waters are come in even unto my soul.

Save me from affliction, Luke 22:42. Christ could not be lost. (Menochius) --- Waters of afflictions and sorrows. My soul is sorrowful even unto death, Matthew xxvi. (Challoner) See John 3:6.
Psalms 68:3 I stick fast in the mire of the deep: and there is no sure standing. I am come into the depth of the sea: and a tempest hath overwhelmed me.

Standing, upostasis, "subsistence:" there is no bottom. (Haydock)
Psalms 68:4 I have laboured with crying; my jaws are become hoarse: my eyes have failed, whilst I hope in my God.

Hoarse. This might be literally true, as Christ had suffered the greatest torments, and recited this and the 21st psalm on the cross; looking up towards heaven, so that his eyes were weakened, as well as by shedding many tears. Hope. Thus the blasphemy of heretics, who pretend that he gave way to despair, is refuted. (Berthier) --- Christ was not presently delivered from tribulation: neither ought his followers to expect better treatment. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:5 They are multiplied above the hairs of my head, who hate me without cause. My enemies are grown strong, who have wrongfully persecuted me: then did I pay that which I took not away.

Cause. The captives had not injured Babylon, and Christ had even bestowed the greatest favours upon his enemies. He suffered for our sins, Isaias 53:4. (Calmet) --- Away. Christ in his passion made restitution of what he had not taken away, by suffering the punishment due to our sins, and so repairing the injury we had done to God. (Challoner) --- The expression was proverbial, Jeremias 31:29., and Lamentations 5:7. --- Many of the captives were very innocent. (Calmet) --- But Christ was without sin; (Worthington) though made a curse and a sin-offering, Galatians 3:13., and 2 Corinthians 5:21. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:6 O God, thou knowest my foolishness; and my offences are not hidden from thee:

My foolishness and my offences; which my enemies impute to me: or the follies and sins of men, which I have taken upon myself. (Challoner) --- My cross is foolishness to the Gentiles, 1 Corinthians 1:23. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 68:7 Let not them be ashamed for me, who look for thee, O Lord, the Lord of hosts. Let them not be confounded on my account, who seek thee, O God of Israel.

For me. If I rise not again, my disciples will take me for a mere man. If the captivity continue much longer, many will despair, ver. 11. (Calmet) --- Suffer not the weak to be scandalized in my passion. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:8 Because for thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face.

Reproach. Because I would not adore idols. Christ undertook to expiate our offences, and to satisfy the justice of his Father, Romans 15:3. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:9 I am become a stranger to my brethren, and an alien to the sons of my mother.

Mother. This might be true with respect to some apostate Jews. But it was more fully accomplished in Christ, who was betrayed by Judas, etc. (Calmet) --- His own received him not, John 1:(Berthier)
Psalms 68:10 *For the zeal of thy house hath eaten me up: **and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me.

Upon me. The disciples remembered that this had been written concerning Christ, who drove out the profaners of his temple, (John 2:17.) and will not be less severe on those who dishonour the Church by their scandalous lives, or by propagating erroneous opinions. (Calmet) --- St. Paul (Romans 15:3.) doubted not but this passage was literally applicable to Christ, who has taught us to prefer the glory of God, and our neighbour's salvation before our own temporal advantages. (Berthier) --- Those who have less zeal, are not so much persecuted. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:11 And I covered my soul in fasting: and it was made a reproach to me.

Covered. Retiring from society. (Berthier) --- Roman Septuagint and Houbigant, "I humbled." Hebrew, "I bewailed my soul in fasting," (Aquila) as if death were inevitable; and this practice was derided, as the fasts of the Church, (Haydock) and mortification, (Worthington) are still by unbelievers. (Haydock) --- The Jews seemed to scoff at the thirst of Christ, when they gave him vinegar; and the devil took occasion from his 40 days' fast to tempt him. (Berthier)
Psalms 68:12 And I made hair-cloth my garment: and I became a bye-word to them.

Hair-cloth. The sacred humanity, which being torn, let out the price of our redemption. (St. Augustine) (Menochius) --- I mourned for my country, etc. (Calmet) --- Christ was clothed in derision, with a soldier's straight purple garment. (Berthier)
Psalms 68:13 They that sat in the gate spoke against me: and they that drank wine made me their song.

Song. Both judges and common people (Worthington) derided me over their cups of shecar, (Haydock) or strong drink, and palm wine, Lamentations 3:14. (Calmet) --- Thus the soldiers made Christ their jest, while they drank on the long night of his passion. (Berthier)
Psalms 68:14 But as for me, my prayer is to thee, O Lord; for the time of thy good pleasure, O God. In the multitude of thy mercy, hear me in the truth of thy salvation.

Pleasure. Which is seasonable, and appointed for pardon, Psalm 31:6., and 101:14. --- Father, forgive them, etc. The term of the captivity is at hand. I seek no revenge; but commit my cause to thee. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:15 Draw me out of the mire, that I may not stick fast: deliver me from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters.

Waters. Beneath which the Hebrews supposed hell was placed, Job 26:5. (St. Hilary 5:39.) --- He prays to be delivered from misery, (ver. 2.) and for a glorious resurrection. (Calmet) --- Christ could not be detained in limbo or in the grave. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:16 Let not the tempest of water drown me, nor the deep swallow me up: and let not the pit shut her mouth upon me.

Psalms 68:17 Hear me, O Lord, for thy mercy is kind; look upon me according to the multitude of thy tender mercies.

Psalms 68:18 And turn not away thy face from thy servant: for I am in trouble, hear me speedily.

Psalms 68:19 Attend to my soul, and deliver it: save me because of my enemies.

Enemies. That they may insult no longer over me, (Calmet) being converted or covered with shame, (Menochius) that they do no more hurt. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:20 Thou knowest my reproach, and my confusion, and my shame.

Shame, (reverentiam.) St. Augustine, etc., read verecundiam. (Calmet) --- Christ was covered with all sorts of reproach. (Haydock) (Eusebius)
Psalms 68:21 In thy sight are all they that afflict me: my heart hath expected reproach and misery. And I looked for one that would grieve together with me, but there was none: and for one that would comfort me, and I found none.

Misery. For which I ardently longed, as the Fathers explain it. --- None. I expected that my brethren would at least condole with me: but I was deceived. Christ drank the bitter chalice to the dregs, and found no consolation even from his Father. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:22 *And they gave me gall for my food, and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.

Matthew 27:48.
Food. Tertullian reads "drink;" which agrees better with gall. Yet it might be mixed with food, (Calmet) with wine and myrrh, which were given to our Saviour, when he arrived at Calvary, as vinegar was offered to him on the cross, Matthew 27:34., and John 19:28. This was the last prophecy which regarded our Saviour, while living; and was the last instance of the Jewish malice, by which they requited him for the thirst which he had for the salvation of mankind. (Gregory of Nazianzus, etc.) (Berthier) --- Jeremias 8:14., and 23:15., and Lamentations 3:15. uses the same expressions, in a metaphorical sense, to describe the afflictions of the captives. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:23 *Let their table become as a snare before them, and a recompense, and a stumbling-block.

Romans 11:9.
Let their table, etc. What here follows in the style of an imprecation, is a prophecy of the wretched state to which the Jews should be reduced, in punishment of their wilful obstinacy; (Challoner) or it may be a sentence pronounced on them by Jesus Christ. They are driven from their own country, and the sacred books (Calmet) being misunderstood, (Menochius) prove their ruin. Our Saviour and St. Paul confirm this prediction. The latter adheres to the Septuagint (Romans 11:9.) though some would translate lishlomim, "for peace"-offerings, instead of recompenses, as it also means. (Berthier) --- "Let their sacrifices become a scandal to them;" (Chaldean) or rather, May their table, the symbol of friendship, be a snare for them, that they may be destroyed, or betrayed by their dearest friends. (Calmet) --- The overthrow of the Jews, when they were assembled to eat the paschal lamb, is here foretold. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:24 Let their eyes be darkened that they see not; and their back bend thou down always.

Always. The Babylonians were ordered by Cyrus to look upon the Persians as their masters. (Xenophon vii.) --- Nothing could more strikingly point out the present condition of the Jews than this passage. They are every where kept under, and see not the sense of the Scriptures, (Calmet) and the truth of Christ's doctrine; but are bent on worldly gain. (Worthington) (2 Corinthians iii.) (Menochius)
Psalms 68:25 Pour out thy indignation upon them: and let thy wrathful anger take hold of them.

Thy wrathful. Literally, "the fury of thy anger." (Haydock) --- The first term denotes expedition; the second, perseverance. Quickly destroy them, without redress. (Theodoret) (Calmet)
Psalms 68:26 *Let their habitation be made desolate: and let there be none to dwell in their tabernacles.

Acts 1:20.
Desolate. Babylon gave place to Susa, and "was reduced to a solitude by the vicinity of Seleucia." (Pliny, [Natural History?] 6:26.) (Isaias xlvii.) --- But the fall of Jerusalem was more sudden and memorable, within 40 years after the death of Christ, Psalm 58:7. (Calmet) --- The Jews, and particularly the traitor, lost their country, Acts 1:20. (Berthier) --- He (the traitor) indeed hath possessed a field of the reward of iniquity....and burst asunder. (Haydock)
Psalms 68:27 Because they have persecuted him whom thou hast smitten; and they have added to the grief of my wounds.

Wounds. The enemy persecuted Christ even after his death, opening his side, spreading false reports, and guarding his tomb. (Calmet) --- God ordained his death for the good of man: but they sought it out of malice. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:28 Add thou iniquity upon their iniquity: and let them not come into thy justice.

Iniquity. The first term may denote the crime; and the second, the punishment. (Calmet) --- Peccatum paena peccati est. (St. Augustine) --- God permits people to fall; (Worthington) but he does not force them. (Haydock) --- Let the Babylonians become victims of thy indignation: but save thy people. Very few of the Jews embraced the faith of Christ. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:29 Let them be blotted out of the book of the living; and with the just let them not be written.

Living. Let them die. (Grotius) --- If we understand the book of the predestinate to life eternal, and not merely to present and mutable justice, (Tirinus) God never blots any out. But though they fall, he brings them to repentance. (St. Augustine; Estius; Bellarmine) --- The reprobation of the obstinate Babylonians (Calmet) and Jews, is predicted. (Haydock) --- The latter were effaced from the book of the living of the Old Testament, and were never written in that of the just, belonging to the New. (St. Jerome) --- At death, the unbelieving Jews (Haydock) shall not find their expectations well founded. (Worthington) --- Only the faithful are truly just. (Menochius)
Psalms 68:30 But I am poor and sorrowful: thy salvation, O God, hath set me up.

Up. The cross is now triumphant, (Haydock) an object of veneration. (Berthier) --- Christ submitted to die upon it, and rose again. (Worthington) --- He was exposed naked, and was truly a man of sorrows. (Menochius)
Psalms 68:31 I will praise the name of God with a canticle: and I will magnify him with praise.

Psalms 68:32 And it shall please God better than a young calf, that bringeth forth horns and hoofs.

Hoofs. They were to be three years old. (Kimchi) --- So Virgil says, (Aeneid ix.) Jam cornu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam. (Ec.[Ecclesiasticus?] iii.) (Calmet) --- Our prayers are therefore offered through our Lord Jesus Christ, Hebrews 13:15. (Berthier) --- Devout prayer is more acceptable than victims of the best description, though they were also good, (Worthington) and, caeteris paribus, of a higher dignity. (Haydock)
Psalms 68:33 Let the poor see and rejoice: seek ye God, and your soul shall live.

See, my deliverance, or thy just vengeance on the wicked. (Calmet)
Psalms 68:34 For the Lord hath heard the poor: and hath not despised his prisoners.

Prisoners. Martyrs, (Menochius) and those who suffer for the faith, will be rewarded. (Worthington)
Psalms 68:35 Let the heavens and the earth praise him; the sea, and every thing that creepeth therein.

Therein, the fish. Our admiration of creatures causes us to praise God. (St. Augustine; St. Hilary)
Psalms 68:36 For God will save Sion, and the cities of Juda shall be built up. And they shall dwell there, and acquire it by inheritance.

Sion. The Catholic Church. The cities of Juda, etc., her places of worship, which shall be established throughout the world. And there, viz., in this Church of Christ, shall his servants dwell, etc. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- It matters not whether a person live in the Church of God, which is at Corinth, or at Philippi, provided he be a member of the Catholic Church. But those who adhere to separate congregations, and style themselves "the Church of England," or "the Kirk of Scotland," etc., cannot be written with the just, (ver. 29.) nor have any part in this prediction. (Haydock) --- It alludes to the restoration of the captives, (Calmet) or rather to the propagation of the gospel, (Haydock) of which the former was a figure, (Eusebius; St. Augustine) as the Jews were never quietly settled again in their country, and were expelled by Titus; whereas the Church of Christ remains to the end of the world. (Berthier)
Psalms 68:37 And the seed of his servants shall possess it: and they that love his name, shall dwell therein.

Therein. The succession of the Catholic Church is uninterrupted. (Worthington) --- Those who adhere to Christ by faith, hope, and charity, will be saved. (Menochius)
Psalms 69:0 A prayer in persecution.

Psalms 69:1 Unto the end, a psalm for David, to bring to remembrance that the Lord saved him.

Remembrance. This is all that occurs in Hebrew, or in many Greek copies, though the following words were perhaps extant in the copy of the Septuagint, or were added to complete the sentence. Several of the verses are found in Psalm xxxiv., and xxxix., and seem to have been used as a form of prayer in any danger. (Berthier) --- David foresaw that Christ would pray for the safety of his natural and mystical body, and would be heard. (Menochius) --- The following psalm is a sequel to this. (Calmet)
Psalms 69:2 O God, come to my assistance; O Lord, make haste to help me.

Psalms 69:3 Let them be confounded and ashamed that seek my soul:

Psalms 69:4 Let them be turned backward, and blush for shame that desire evils to me: Let them be presently turned away, blushing for shame, that say to me: 'Tis well, 'tis well.

'Tis well, 'tis well. Euge, euge. St. Jerome renders it, vah! vah! which is the voice of one insulting and deriding. Some understand it as a detestation of deceitful flatterers. (Challoner) --- In the New Testament, Well done, denotes applause. (St. Jerome in Ezechiel vi.) --- These predictions relate to the murderers of the Messias. (Berthier) --- In the 39th psalm, the Church prays for aid; and here David, persecuted by Absalom, or any of the just, lays before God his particular wants. (Worthington)
Psalms 69:5 Let all that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee; and let such as love thy salvation, say always: The Lord be magnified.

Psalms 69:6 But I am needy and poor; O God, help me. Thou art my helper and my deliverer: O Lord, make no delay.

Psalms 70:0 A prayer for perseverance.

Psalms 70:1 A psalm for David. Of the sons of Jonadab, and the former captives. In thee, O Lord, I have hoped, let me never be put to confusion:

Of the sons of Jonadab. The Rechabites, of whom see Jeremias xxxv. By this addition of the seventy-two interpreters [Septuagint], we gather that this psalm was usually sung in the synagogue, in the person of the Rechabites, and of those who were first carried away into captivity. (Challoner) --- This first captivity happened under Joakim, in the year of the world 3398, the second, under Jechonias, 3405, and the last, when the city was destroyed and Sedecias was taken, 3416. (Usher) --- The Rechabites entered Jerusalem a little before the first of these events, and set the people an example of obedience by submitting to Nabuchodonosor, as Jeremias directed. (Bellarmine) (Menochius) --- St. Jerome considers their being confined within the walls, as their first captivity. (E. ad Paul. and ad Rust.) --- But there is nothing in this title in Hebrew, Eusebius, etc., and several copies of the Septuagint acknowledge the same; (Calmet) so that it is of no great authority. (Berthier) --- The psalm contains the sentiments of the captives, (Theodoret) or of David, persecuted by his son: and in a more sublime sense, of Jesus Christ, complaining of treason and cruelty. (Calmet) --- All the saints, under persecution, may adopt the same language. (Berthier) --- Hoped. These three verses are almost exactly the same, Psalm xxx. Bias "being asked what was sweet to men, answered, hope." (Laertius 1.) --- Vain is the salvation of man. But hope confoundeth not, Psalm 59:13., and Romans 5:5. (Calmet)
Psalms 70:2 deliver me in thy justice, and rescue me. Incline thy ear unto me, and save me.

Justice. Or mercy, Psalm 30:1. I have not injured Absalom, etc. (Calmet) --- God avengeth the injuries done to his servants. (Worthington)
Psalms 70:3 Be thou unto me a God, a protector, and a place of strength: that thou mayst make me safe. For thou art my firmament and my refuge.

Refuge. The parallel passage seems more complete (Calmet) in Hebrew, some letters of which may have been altered, since the time of the Septuagint. Yet the sense is nearly the same. (Berthier) --- "Be thou my strong habitation, whereunto I may continually resort. Thou hast given commandment to save me; for thou art my rock and my fortress." (Protestants) (Haydock)
Psalms 70:4 Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the sinner, and out of the hand of the transgressor of the law, and of the unjust.

Unjust. Achitophel and Absalom. (Calmet)
Psalms 70:5 For thou art my patience, O Lord: my hope, O Lord, from my youth.

Patience. Confiding on thee, I lost not patience; (St. Augustine; Worthington) or rather, (Amama) all my expectations are from thee, Psalm 61:6. (Calmet)
Psalms 70:6 By thee have I been confirmed from the womb: from my mother's womb thou art my protector. Of thee shall I continually sing:

Art my. Hebrew, "hast taken me," (Haydock) or "cut the navel string," Ezechiel 15:4. Thou hast acknowledged me for thy son, by taking me upon thy knee, as soon as I was born, Genesis 50:22., and Psalm 21:11.
Psalms 70:7 I am become unto many as a wonder, but thou art a strong helper.

Wonder. My exaltation, (Calmet) and present misery, (Worthington; Menochius) fill all with astonishment. (Haydock) (Isaias 8:18., and 11:10.) --- God often made his prophets bear about the signs of his vengeance on others, Isaias 19:20. (Calmet) --- Christ was a sign, which shall be contradicted, Luke 2:34. (Haydock) --- He was looked upon as a prodigy. (Eusebius; St. Augustine) --- Helper. He gives all the glory to God. (Calmet) --- None can persevere without his grace. (Worthington)
Psalms 70:8 Let my mouth be filled with praise, that I may sing thy glory; thy greatness all the day long.

Psalms 70:9 Cast me not off in the time of old age: when my strength shall fail, do not thou forsake me.

Old age. Absalom rebelled when his father was grown old. (Calmet) --- Against the dangers of our last conflict, (Haydock) Christ has instituted Extreme Unction. (Worthington)
Psalms 70:10 For my enemies have spoken against me; and they that watched my soul have consulted together,

Watched. My guards, (Ferrand) or rather my enemies. (Calmet)
Psalms 70:11 Saying: God hath forsaken him: pursue and take him, for there is none to deliver him.

Him. Thus the world commonly judges of those in distress. It was known that David had sinned; but none could tell that God was now punishing him rather than putting his virtue to the trial. "Upbraid not the miserable," said Thales.
Psalms 70:12 O God, be not thou far from me: O my God, make haste to help me.

Psalms 70:13 Let them be confounded, and come to nothing, that detract my soul; let them be covered with confusion and shame that seek my hurt.

Detract. Hebrew, "are satans," or "adversaries," during my trial. The Fathers say these are predictions, Psalm 34:4. (Calmet) --- David certainly wished to spare the chief of the rebels, and he most probably speaks of his spiritual enemies. (Berthier)
Psalms 70:14 But I will always hope; and will add to all thy praise.

Praise. To perform good works, and to praise God, is the best way to advance in virtue. (Worthington)
Psalms 70:15 My mouth shall shew forth thy justice; thy salvation all the day long. Because I have not known learning,

Learning. As much as to say, I build not upon human learning, but only upon the power and justice of God. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- I have not leisure to write a canticle at present, as the word known intimates, Psalm 13:3., and 73:9. But I will do it hereafter, and record the praises which I now proclaim. Some would translate, "I know not the number" of thy mercies. (Berthier) --- This sense is adopted by the Chaldean, Theod., etc. See Psalm 39:6. Yet it seems more probable, that David acknowledges his inability to speak of God as he deserves, though he promises to do his best to shew the utmost respect. So Solomon confessed his ignorance, (Proverbs 30:2.) and Socrates asserted, that all his knowledge consisted in the conviction of his complete ignorance. If this be true with respect to human science, how much more so is it, when we speak of God, (Haydock) and attempt to dive into the holy Scriptures? (Genebrard) --- David meditated on the law continually, Psalm 1:2. (Calmet) --- Yet he admits, that he stands in need of a guide (Haydock) and must enter into the sanctuary, to penetrate such high mysteries, Psalm 72:17. St. Augustine and Eusebius understand, that the letter of the Mosaic law is incapable of insuring salvation. (Calmet) --- This text has been abused, to encourage ignorance, as Amama (p. 502.) complains with respect to the Protestant pulpits and colleges abroad. Knox gives a dreadful picture, of their universities in England. (Haydock) --- "With the unlearned Anabaptists and fanatics, such may perhaps conclude, that they will thus more easily approach to God," (Tarnov.) and "may boast, that they have been instructed in the school of the holy Spirit," theodikatoi, "when they boldly ascend the pulpit, and adduce texts from Scripture, it matters not whether right or wrong." (Amama) --- Is not this generally the case among those who broach new religions? (Haydock) --- Vatican Septuagint reads, pragmateias, "mercantile affairs." But the Vulgate follows the edition of Aldus, etc., grammateias. (Berthier) --- A similar variation occurs, 1 Esdras viii. The former reading is adduced by the Fathers, and by Gelasius, (dist. 88.) who hence condemns clergymen engaging in merchandise, (Amama) as it was contrary to their calling: and formerly at least, very dangerous for any honest man. (Haydock) --- David had not received a polite education, and he disapproved of Achitophel's worldly prudence. (Menochius)
Psalms 70:16 I will enter into the powers of the Lord: O Lord, I will be mindful of thy justice alone.

Psalms 70:17 Thou hast taught me, O God, from my youth: and till now I will declare thy wonderful works.

Till now. Here the stop should be placed. (Berthier) (Calmet) --- The verb may also be explained in the past time, "till now I have declared." (Berthier)
Psalms 70:18 And unto old age and grey hairs: O God, forsake me not, Until I shew forth thy arm to all the generation that is to come: Thy power,

Psalms 70:19 and thy justice, O God, even to the highest great things thou hast done: O God, who is like to thee?

The great things. Thou hast even punished the rebel angels. (Menochius)
Psalms 70:20 How great troubles hast thou shewn me, many and grievous: and turning, thou hast brought me to life, and hast brought me back again from the depths of the earth:

Me. Hebrew, "us." Yet Protestants, etc., retain the singular, as the context requires. (Berthier) --- Earth. To which I seem to be consigned, (Haydock) being in the greatest distress. It may be understood of Christ's return from hell, and from the grave, Psalm 68:17. (Calmet)
Psalms 70:21 Thou hast multiplied thy magnificence; and, turning to me, thou hast comforted me.

Thy. Hebrew and Syriac, "my." Thou hast raised me to the highest honours. St. Augustine, etc., read "thy justice." (Calmet) --- Houbigant prefers the Vulgate. (Berthier)
Psalms 70:22 For I will also confess to thee thy truth with the instruments of psaltery: O God, I will sing to thee with the harp, thou holy one of Israel.

Psalms 70:23 My lips shall greatly rejoice, when I shall sing to thee; and my soul, which thou hast redeemed.

Psalms 70:24 Yea, and my tongue shall meditate on thy justice all the day; when they shall be confounded, and put to shame, that seek evils to me.

Meditate. Or, utter my most serious reflections. (Calmet)
Psalms 71:0 A prophecy of the coming of Christ, and of his kingdom: prefigured by Solomon and his happy reign.

Psalms 71:1 A psalm on Solomon.

Psalm. Some copies add, "of David." But the Hebrew has only Lishlomo, "to Solomon;" (St. Jerome; Haydock) or, composed by Solomon. The former sense is more generally adopted, (Berthier) though the Chaldean and Eusebius look upon the latter as most plausible. David, however, seems to have written this last most beautiful piece, when he placed his son upon the throne; (3 Kings 1:47.) and being transported with a divine enthusiasm, he described the reign of the Messias, (Calmet) to whom alone many of the passages can be applied, (St. Augustine; Worthington) as the Jews, Chaldean, Kimchi, etc., confess, though they will not allow Jesus to be the Christ, ver. 5, 11, 17. (Calmet)
Psalms 71:2 Give to the king thy judgment, O God: and to the king's son thy justice: To judge thy people with justice, and thy poor with judgment.

Son. Solomon, (Berthier) or Cyrus, (Pr. disc.) or the Messias. Most blessed Trinity, enable the Son of man, or of David, to judge the world. (Worthington) (Isaias 10:3., and John 5:22.) --- Judgment. Equity is the duty of governors, as obedience is that of subjects. Solomon acted with the greatest sagacity, 1 Paralipomenon 22:10., and 29:23., and 2 Paralipomenon 1:10. The psalmist inculcates the obligation of defending the rights of the poor, who are under God's protection. To him even judges and monarchs must give an account, Deuteronomy 1:17., and 2 Paralipomenon 19:6.
Psalms 71:3 Let the mountains receive peace for the people, and the hills justice.

Justice. These blessings shall be so common; (Psalm 35:6., and Joel 3:18.) or, let princes pursue the paths of justice and peace, Micheas 6:1. Solomon was to enjoy a perpetual peace, (1 Paralipomenon 22:9.) as he was a figure of Jesus Christ, who has procured a more solid one for us, Ephesians 2:14., John 14:27., and Isaias 52:7. (Calmet) --- Hebrew has "by righteousness," as this is the source of true peace, Romans 14:17. These virtues are publicly enforced in the Church, as from a mountain, Isaias 2:2. (Berthier) --- Christ, the rock, (Haydock) and his ministers, the hills, preach reconciliation. (Worthington)
Psalms 71:4 He shall judge the poor of the people, and he shall save the children of the poor; and he shall humble the oppressor.

Oppressor. Literally, "calumniator." Christ has chained down the devil, the accuser of our brethren, Apocalypse 12:10., and 20:2. (Menochius) --- He hath taken away his spoils, (John 8:44.) and undertaken the defence of the humble, Isaias 11:4. Solomon was also the reverse of those wicked princes, who receive bribes, and neglect the poor, Isaias 1:23. (Calmet)
Psalms 71:5 And he shall continue with the sun, and before the moon, throughout all generations.

Before. Or, in the presence of the moon, as the Hebrew indicates, (Berthier) though St. Jerome translates, ultra, "beyond, or after." (Haydock) --- Yea, Christ existed before all the creation, (Psalm 109:3.; Calmet) and these comparisons do not insinuate that he will ever cease to be. (Theodoret) --- The kingdom of David and Solomon is described in the same poetic language, (Psalm 88:28., and 37.; Calmet) as it will remain for ever in the hands of the Messias. (Haydock) --- Hebrew makes a sudden address to the king, "they shall fear thee with the sun," which Houbigant dislikes. Some letters may have been changed, though the sense is not bad. (Berthier) --- "They shall fear thee at the rising of the sun, and shall pray to they by the light of the moon," Chaldean, both day and night. (Calmet) --- Solomon, as a figure of Christ, was good for some time; but no king, except our Saviour, will reign for ever. (Worthington) --- The mind of the prophet is now raised to behold him. (Menochius)
Psalms 71:6 He shall come down like rain upon the fleece; and as showers falling gently upon the earth.

Fleece. Or, "new cut grass," as the original term also signifies. Yet the explanation given by the Vulgate seems preferable, (Berthier) as an allusion is made to what happened to Gideon, (Judges 6:37.; Houbigant) prefiguring the miraculous conception of our Saviour. He shall call both the strayed sheep of the house of Israel, and the inhabitants of all the earth: as Solomon gave the greatest satisfaction to his people, during the early part of his reign, (Haydock) and spoke with the utmost eloquence, 3 Kings 4:34. (Calmet) --- Some supply His justice, (ver. 7.) or rather, "his word" shall come, Deuteronomy 32:2. (Calmet) --- The incarnation was effected sweetly, and in silence. (Worthington)
Psalms 71:7 In his days shall justice spring up, and abundance of peace, till the moon be taken away.

Justice. Hebrew, "the just," who appear most under a good king, being animated by his example. (Haydock) --- Away. Chaldean, "till those who adore the moon be exterminated." This idolatry pervaded almost all the east. Solomon's reign was very peaceable, 3 Kings 4:25. But this was only a feeble representation of the peace which Christ should bring. At his birth, the whole world was at peace. Angels proclaimed it to all the earth, Luke 2:14., and Isaias 2:4. (Calmet) --- It is certain, that the internal peace of Solomon's reign did not continue to the end, (Haydock) much less till the moon should be taken away. (Berthier)
Psalms 71:8 And he shall rule from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.

To sea. Solomon ruled from the Mediterranean, Red, and Indian Seas, to the Persian Gulph, and the Euphrates, having all Arabia tributary to him, (Haydock) and the countries as far as Syria; so that he enjoyed all that had been promised by God, Genesis 15:18., Numbers 34:3., and 2 Paralipomenon 9:26., and 3 Kings 4:24. --- The earth, denotes this kingdom. (St. Jerome in Isaias 13:4.) But if we explain it of Christ, his Church has no limits. In spite of the corruption of the world, she still asserts her title of Catholic. (Calmet) --- She is universal, both as to time and place, and always visible, ver. 15. (Worthington) --- Her divine head began to propagate this kingdom, after he had been baptized in the river Jordan, (Berthier) as the Fathers agree. This unlimited dominion was promised, (Psalm 2:7.; Calmet) and the prophet Zachary, (Zacharias ix.) seems to quote this passage, when speaking of the Messias alone; so that it is best to understand it in this sense, as the Septuagint have done, by oikoumenes. (Berthier) (Isaias 9:6.)
Psalms 71:9 Before him the Ethiopians shall fall down; and his enemies shall lick the ground.

Ethiopians. So St. Jerome, Aquila, etc., translate Tsiim, (Haydock) which denotes any nations living at a distance from commerce, (Berthier) or islanders, and those who are accustomed to sail, Isaias 13:21. People on the continent, as well as those in islands, and ships, shall submit to Solomon, (3 Kings 10:11.) as all shall yield to Christ, (Calmet) at least at the day of judgment. --- Ground. Prostrating to adore him, Isaias 49:23. (Berthier) --- Thus the Persians approach their kings, (Val. Max. 7:3.) as the Muscovites and Chinese do still. (Calmet) --- The eunuch of the queen of Ethiopia was the first convert of those who did not live in the holy land, Acts 8:27. (Menochius)
Psalms 71:10 The kings of Tharsis and the islands shall offer presents: the kings of the Arabians and of Saba shall bring gifts;

Tharsis. Bordering on "the sea," (Berthier) or in Cilicia, though we find not that Solomon ever claimed any authority there, or that the Mediterranean was under his control. He sent his fleet indeed to Tharsis; (3 Kings 10:22.) but Arabia and Saba brought presents, or tribute to him. Under the name of islands, the Hebrews comprise all places, to which they had to go by water, as Asia Minor, etc., Isaias 66:19. (Calmet) --- The three kings were the first who verified this prediction concerning our Saviour; [Matthew ii.] and afterwards Constantine and other potentates embraced his religion. Among other islands, Britain, which is the greatest in Europe, was partly converted in the days of the apostles, (Theodoret in Timothy, etc.) and more under Eleutherius; though the English nation received the faith from St. Augustine of Canterbury and others, sent by Pope Gregory the Great, A.D. 596. (Worthington) --- Saba. Hebrew Seba. The preceding Arabia is sheba, (Haydock) and refers to some of those who peopled that country. --- Gifts, or tribute, 1 Paralipomenon xviii. (Calmet) --- If the former term, presents, (Hebrew mincha, "a sacrifice of flour," etc.; Haydock) be taken in the strict sense, the text cannot be applicable to any but the true God, the Messias. (Berthier) --- The wise men, who came from this country, adored and offered presents to Christ, Matthew 2:(Menochius)
Psalms 71:11 And all kings of the earth shall adore him: all the nations shall serve him.

Earth, is omitted in Hebrew, Roman Septuagint, etc., so that this cannot regard Solomon, (Berthier) though he was reverenced by all the neighbouring kings, 3 Kings 10:23. Christ alone is the universal king, (Apocalypse 19:16., and Philippians 2:10.; Calmet) to whom every knee shall bend, at least when all shall appear in judgment. Many kings shall submit before. (Berthier)
Psalms 71:12 For he shall deliver the poor from the mighty: and the needy that had no helper.

Psalms 71:13 He shall spare the poor and needy: and he shall save the souls of the poor.

Psalms 71:14 He shall redeem their souls from usuries and iniquity: and their names shall be honourable in his sight.

Usuries. Hebrew toc, (Haydock) means "fraud and usury." Eternal torment is the usury which God exacts for murder, etc., (St. Augustine) or a transient pleasure. (Haydock) --- From this Christ has redeemed us, (Berthier) as well as from iniquity. (St. Augustine) --- Original sin is the capital, for which the devil claims usury. (Bellarmine) --- Name. Hebrew, "blood." Septuagint properly wrote aima, which has been changed for onoma. The sense is not very different, as those who respect a person's name, are careful to defend him from death. (Berthier) --- Hebrew, "their blood is precious," Psalm 115:15., and 1 Kings 26:21. Solomon repressed all injustice, so that usury was banished, and the poor was so much enriched, as not to be forced to borrow. (Calmet) --- Yet, after his fall, he laid heavy burdens on his people. (Haydock) --- How much has the name and blood of Christians cost! Yet we fear not to scandalize those (Berthier) for whom Christ died! The most beautiful qualification of all in power is, to protect the poor, and to promote the work of God, for which he lends them his authority. (Haydock)
Psalms 71:15 And he shall live, and to him shall be given of the gold of Arabia, for him they shall always adore: they shall bless him all the day.

Arabia. Hebrew sheba, ver. 10. (Haydock) --- This was accomplished by the wise men. [Matthew ii.] (Eusebius) --- For him, (de ipso.) They shall adopt the form of prayer which he has taught, (St. Augustine) or they shall adore him on his own account. (Berthier) --- Through him we have access in one spirit to the Father, Ephesians 2:18., and Romans 5:1. People might pay a civil respect also to Solomon. --- He shall live. The prolongation of the ruler's life is sometimes (Haydock) a blessing, Proverbs 28:2. The poor shall live, and pay the taxes cheerfully, praying for his prince, etc. (Calmet) --- They shall adore God, and offer their vows for him, (Haydock) as subjects would do for Solomon, and the crowds did for Jesus Christ, crying out, Hosanna, etc., Matthew xxi. (Menochius)
Psalms 71:16 And there shall be a firmament on the earth on the tops of mountains, above Libanus shall the fruit thereof be exalted: and they of the city shall flourish like the grass of the earth.

A firmament on the earth, etc. This may be understood of the Church of Christ, ever firm and visible: and of the flourishing condition of its congregation. (Challoner) --- The strength or staff of bread shall not fail, Psalm 104:16., and Isaias 3:1. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "there shall be a handful of corn in the," etc. (Haydock) --- Thus moderns follow the Rabbins, who greatly exaggerate the abundance which will take place under the Messias, as expecting that wheat will then grow as high as cedars. The country was indeed very luxuriant and populous in the reign of Solomon. But the fathers explain this of the Church, founded on Christ, the rock, and enriched with all virtues, (Calmet) and the most efficacious sacraments, particularly with the holy Eucharist, to which St. Jerome may allude: "there shall be memorable wheat," etc. (Haydock) --- By these hyperbolical allegories, the abundance enjoyed in the Church was denoted. (Menochius)
Psalms 71:17 Let his name be blessed for evermore: his name continueth before the sun. And in him shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed: all nations shall magnify him.

Continueth. Protestants marginal note, "shall be as a son, to continue his father's name for ever." The Messias is the eternal son of God. Hebrew yinnin, (Keri.) might be rendered (Haydock) filiabitur, (Montanus) if this word were Latin. The ancient Jews considered this as one of the titles of the Messias. Chaldean, "before the sun was, his name was prepared." (Berthier) --- This is the third time that the glory of Christ is pronounced eternal, ver. 5., and 7. (Haydock) --- He is for ever blessed: but we cannot think of Solomon, without remembering his almost incredible fall. (Calmet) --- Blessed. This was spoken only of the Messias, (Berthier) who is the cause of salvation to all the elect. None are saved who do not continue in Him, (Menochius) by faith and good works.
Psalms 71:18 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who alone doth wonderful things.

The God. Hebrew repeats this word, (Haydock) as the Septuagint of St. Jerome did. (Ep. ad Sun.) (Calmet) --- Alone. Miracles can be wrought only by God's power. (Worthington)
Psalms 71:19 And blessed be the name of his majesty for ever; and the whole earth shall be filled with his majesty. So be it. So be it.

So be it. Hebrew, "And amen." See Psalm xl. (Haydock) --- This glory of God was David's most ardent wish. (Worthington) --- It is suspected that the collector of the psalms added these two verses, (Muis) as all the books end alike. (Calmet)
Psalms 71:20 The praises of David, the son of Jesse, are ended.

Are ended. By this it appears that this psalm, though placed here, was in order of time the last of those which David composed, (Challoner) as he died soon after. (Menochius) --- The subject which he has here treated, (Haydock) concentrated all his thoughts and desires. (Eusebius) --- "The prayers of David, son of Jesse, have been summed up." (Theodotion and V Edition.) (Haydock) --- It is probable that the collections of the psalms were made at different times; (Berthier) and though many were found after this second book was completed, it was not judged expedient to make any alteration. The Syriac and Arabic pass over this sentence entirely, (Calmet) which might be added by Esdras. (Worthington) --- The following psalms have the name of Asaph, etc., in the titles. (Flaminius) --- Yet it is certain that David composed some at least, which are place after this. See Psalm cix., etc. (Haydock) --- The true David ceaseth not to sing new canticles in his Church. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 72:0 The temptation of the weak upon seeing the prosperity of the wicked, is overcome by the consideration of the justice of God, who will quickly render to every one according to his works.

Psalms 72:1 A psalm for Asaph. How good is God to Israel, to them that are of a right heart!

Asaph. See Psalm xlix. We shall not undertake to decide whether he composed or only sung this psalm; (Berthier) or whether he lived under David or Josaphat, or rather during the captivity. Those who attribute all the psalms to David, get rid of many such inquires: but they are involved in other difficulties, (Calmet) which are not insurmountable. (Haydock) --- How. Hebrew, "Surely," as if an answer was given to what had long troubled the author. (Berthier) --- God is more excellent and beneficent (Haydock) than any tongue can express. (Worthington)
Psalms 72:2 But my feet were almost moved; my steps had well nigh slipt.

Slipt. I had almost yielded to the temptation (Menochius) by denying Providence, (Haydock) and following the broad road. [Matthew 7:13.] (Worthington) --- Upon more mature reflection, (Haydock) I am perfectly convinced that God is not indifferent about those who serve him, though he may have treated Israel with severity. (Calmet)
Psalms 72:3 Because I had zeal on occasion of the wicked, seeing the prosperity of sinners.

Zeal. I was grieved, (Menochius) or even inclined to imitate the wicked; (see Matthew 3:14., Psalm xxxvi., Jeremias xii., and 21:7.) though the whole book is intended to clear up this difficulty respecting the treatment of the good and bad in this life.
Psalms 72:4 For there is no regard to their death, nor is there strength in their stripes.

Regard. They are not restrained by the thoughts of death, (Haydock) which they banish (Worthington) as much as possible. Protestants, "There are no bands ("of pain." Munster) in," etc. (Haydock) --- Stripes. They quickly remove their light afflictions. (Worthington) --- "And their halls are strong." (St. Jerome) --- "Their strength is firm;" (Protestants) "fat." (Marginal note) (Haydock) --- Septuagint follow another derivation, which is equally accurate. (Berthier) --- The wicked die with content and ease, in an advanced age, falling off like ripe apples, without being torn violently away or bound. They look not on all sides to see if there be no escaping. (Menochius) --- Having enjoyed all the luxuries of life unto satiety, they are resigned to die, little suspecting what will follow. (Haydock) --- They are like victims fattened for slaughter, Proverbs 7:22. (St. Augustine) --- A noted English deist had the assurance to say on his death-bed, and to have place on his tomb-stone, Dubius, sed non improbus vixi: securus morior, haud perturbatus! (Haydock)
Psalms 72:5 They are not in the labour of men: neither shall they be scourged like other men.

Other men, who follow a more virtuous course (Worthington) than themselves. Their prosperity encourages their pride, and they indulge in every excess. (Worthington)
Psalms 72:6 Therefore pride hath held them fast: they are covered with their iniquity and their wickedness.

Psalms 72:7 Their iniquity hath come forth, as it were, from fatness: they have passed into the affection of the heart.

Fatness. Abundance, and temporal prosperity, which have encouraged them in their iniquity; and made them give themselves up to their irregular affections. (Challoner) --- This sense is better than the modern Hebrew affords. (Berthier) --- "Their eyes stand out with fatness." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- Into. Hebrew, "the thoughts of the heart," or their utmost expectations; (Haydock) or "they have executed the devices of their heart;" which comes to the same. (Berthier) --- They have done what mischief they could. (Worthington)
Psalms 72:8 They have thought and spoken wickedness: they have spoken iniquity on high.

High. With impudence; (Menochius) boldly despising others, (Worthington) from their exalted station. (Berthier) --- They even dare to contend with the Almighty. (Haydock)
Psalms 72:9 They have set their mouth against heaven: and their tongue hath passed through the earth.

Earth. Attacking men as well as God. (Berthier)
Psalms 72:10 Therefore will my people return here: and full days shall be found in them.

Return here; or hither. The weak among the servants of God will be apt often to return to this thought, and will be shocked when they consider the full days, that is, the long and prosperous life of the wicked; and will be tempted to make the reflections against Providence which are set down in the following verses. (Challoner) --- Protestants, "his people return hither, and waters of a full cup are wrung out for them." St. Jerome saw nothing of waters. "And who among them shall be found full?" He also reads my people (Haydock) better. It is difficult to understand the present Hebrew: whereas the Septuagint is plain; as they found imi, days, instead of ume, "and who," or "and waters." (Berthier) --- We may explain this of the sentiments which the captives should entertain (Calmet) at their return. (Theodoret) --- Asaph, seeing the impiety of the Babylonians, concluded that they would surely be punished, and Israel, being converted, would be put again in possession of their delightful country. (Calmet) --- The prosperity of the former will cause some to fall away, and their days will be full of misery, (Worthington) or they will ponder whole days on these things. (Berthier)
Psalms 72:11 And they said: How doth God know? and is there knowledge in the Most High?

They. The weak, (Worthington; Berthier) under this perplexity, or the wicked, said. (Calmet)
Psalms 72:12 Behold these are sinners; and yet abounding in the world they have obtained riches.

Psalms 72:13 And I said: Then have I in vain justified my heart, and washed my hands among the innocent.

And I said, is added by the Septuagint to connect the sentence. (Berthier) --- Hebrew, "truly in vain." --- Innocent. Keeping company with them, and avoiding evil, Psalm 25:6.
Psalms 72:14 And I have been scourged all the day; and my chastisement hath been in the mornings.

Mornings. Every day, (Menochius) or it comes quickly upon me. (Haydock)
Psalms 72:15 If I said: I will speak thus; behold I should condemn the generation of thy children.

If I said, etc. That is, if I should indulge such thoughts as these. (Challoner) --- I should. Hebrew, "the generation of thy children will say, that I have prevaricated." (Pagnin) --- Or, "I should offend against the," etc. (Protestants) (Haydock) --- I should not be in unison with Abraham. (St. Augustine) --- I seem to declare them reprobates, and thy providence unjust. (Calmet) --- It was not thus that they thought and acted, when they were under trials; (Haydock) for God chastiseth every son whom he receiveth. (Worthington) --- The psalmist begins thus to enter into himself, and to correct his mistake. (Berthier)
Psalms 72:16 I studied that I might know this thing, it is a labour in my sight:

Psalms 72:17 Until I go into the sanctuary of God, and understand concerning their last ends.

Sanctuary. The Church, which teaches all truth; or heaven, (Menochius) or the holy Scriptures, (Lyranus) or rather the counsels of God, which were disclosed to him, (ver. 24.) when he was sensible that the question was not to be answered satisfactorily by human reason. (Calmet) --- The last judgment will explain all. (Haydock) --- In this life, we cannot know the particular causes why the just are afflicted. (Worthington) --- None but the high priest could enter into the Mosaic sanctuary. (Calmet) --- Religion alone, or the future world, can unfold these mysteries. There we shall learn, that the just require to be purified, and that the sinner's conversion is expected to be the fruit of his reprieve, and of his temporal felicity, (Berthier) to which he may perhaps have had some title, for the few good works which he may have done. (Haydock)
Psalms 72:18 But indeed for deceits thou hast put it to them: when they were lifted up, thou hast cast them down.

Thou hast put it to them. In punishment of their deceits, or for deceiving them, thou hast brought evils upon them in their last end, which in their prosperity they never apprehended. (Challoner) --- Septuagint, etc., add, "thou hast placed evils." St. Ambrose reads, "goods." (Calmet) --- Dolos, seems to form part of both sentences, "for deceits thou hast put deceits." (Berthier) --- With the perverse, thou wilt be perverted, Psalm 17:27. Protestants, "surely thou didst set them in slippery places, thou calledst them down into destruction;" (Haydock) or, "when they were lifted up." Do the rich think, that their prosperity may be an effect of God's indignation? (Calmet) --- We are here informed, in general, that evils are prepared to punish sins. (Worthington) --- The wicked have risen by their crimes to such a slippery situation. (Menochius)
Psalms 72:19 How are they brought to desolation? they have suddenly ceased to be: they have perished by reason of their iniquity.

Psalms 72:20 As the dream of them that awake, O Lord; so in thy city thou shalt bring their image to nothing.

City. In heaven. (Calmet) --- Hebrew also, "when thou shalt awake," (Chaldean; Houbigant; Berthier) and come to judge, after waiting a long time. (Calmet) --- Image. The splendour of worldlings is a mere phantom. Death will shew its vanity. (Haydock) --- Their felicity is only imaginary. (Worthington) (Job 20:8., Isaias xxix., and Psalm 75:6.) (Calmet) --- Though the wicked may live to a great age, (ver. 4.; Haydock) yet all time is short. (Menochius)
Psalms 72:21 For my heart hath been inflamed, and my reins have been changed:

Changed. St. Jerome, "are like a fire smoking." I was indignant, (ver. 3.; Haydock) and almost consumed with afflictions, and heavy laden. But I depend on my protector. (Worthington)
Psalms 72:22 And I am brought to nothing, and I knew not.

Nothing. In point of knowledge. Hebrew Bahar means, "a foolish man." (Berthier) --- Knew not, the solution of this difficulty, which thou hast explained. (Calmet)
Psalms 72:23 I am become as a beast before thee: and I am always with thee.

With thee. I endeavoured to fathom these things by my weak reason; but thou wast graciously pleased to bear with me, (Eusebius) as I was always convinced, indeed, that thy conduct could not be unjust. I am willing to be led like a beast. (Calmet) --- I still feared thee amid all my perplexities, and therefore thou hast delivered me from this temptation. (Berthier) --- I am now filled with sentiments of my own past ignorance, and take thee for a guide. (Haydock)
Psalms 72:24 Thou hast held me by my right hand; and by thy will thou hast conducted me, and with glory thou hast received me.

By thy will. Hebrew and Septuagint, "into thy council." Thou hast hindered me from yielding to my doubts, and hast revealed thy truths to me. (Calmet) --- And. Hebrew, "afterwards." --- Glory. Syriac and Houbigant supply thy glory. (Berthier)
Psalms 72:25 For what have I in heaven? and besides thee what do I desire upon earth?

Earth? I no longer envy the prosperity of the wicked, (Calmet) seeing that it is all a dream, and a snare, ver. 18, 20. (Haydock) --- Nothing can now give me content, but thyself. (Calmet) --- This is all we should desire, both for soul and body, as our true inheritance. The wicked, on the contrary, use their free-will to offend God, who destroys, or sentences them to eternal fire. (Worthington)
Psalms 72:26 For thee my flesh and my heart have fainted away: thou art the God of my heart, and the God that is my portion for ever.

Away. I am ready to die for love, and gratitude. (Haydock) --- I esteem not myself, if I am deprived of Thee. We must love God with a most chaste, and disinterested affection, if we desire to enjoy him, (Berthier) GOD ALONE. (Boudon.)
Psalms 72:27 For behold they that go far from thee shall perish: thou hast destroyed all them that are disloyal to thee.

Disloyal. The adherence to any creature is resented by God, as a fornication. (Berthier)
Psalms 72:28 But it is good for me to adhere to my God, to put my hope in the Lord God: That I may declare all thy praises, in the gates of the daughter of Sion.

Praises. Literally, "tidings." Predicationes. (Haydock) --- The ancient psalters read laudes, praises. --- In the gates, etc., was not in the most correct Septuagint, etc., being taken from Psalm 9:15. (Calmet)
Psalms 73:0 A prayer of the Church under grievous persecutions.

Psalms 73:1 Understanding for Asaph. O God, why hast thou cast us off unto the end? why is thy wrath enkindled against the sheep of thy pasture?

Understanding. Psalm xxxi. (Haydock) --- We behold here the destruction of the tabernacle by the Philistines, (Grotius) or rather of the temple, by Nabuzardan, (4 Kings 25:8., and Jeremias 52:12.) though some understand the profanation of Epiphanes, or the final ruin by the Romans. In the latter destruction, the Jews were no longer God's inheritance, and he would never have inspired the prophet to pray for what would not be granted. (Calmet) --- This psalm may be used by the just, under affliction; and why, He knew it, was on account of sin; but wishes to move God to mercy, and to put an end to the distress of his people. (Berthier) --- In long persecutions, the weak begin to fear that God has abandoned them. (Worthington) --- He acts externally as if He had. (Menochius)
Psalms 73:2 Remember thy congregation, which thou hast possessed from the beginning. The sceptre of thy inheritance, which thou hast redeemed: Mount Sion, in which thou hast dwelt.

Mount. St. Augustine reads montem, (Calmet) as the Hebrew may also signify. "This Mount Sion, thou hast dwelt in it." (Montanus) (Haydock) --- What injury has it done? (Calmet) --- The more enlightened are fully persuaded, that God will still preserve his Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 73:3 Lift up thy hands against their pride unto the end; see what things the enemy hath done wickedly in the sanctuary.

Hands. Hebrew, "feet," (Mont.; Haydock) or "strokes," phehamec. (Berthier) --- "The elevation of thy feet (thy foot-stool, or temple; Calmet) is destroyed unto the end;" (St. Jerome) or "for victory," as Symmachus renders netsach. The Chaldeans have boasted of their victory over thee, and violated thy most holy places. (Haydock) --- This is what fills me with grief. (Berthier) --- But thou wilt punish them. The captives saw the overthrow of their empire. (Calmet) --- God's former wonders give reason to hope, that he will not fail to assist his Church, which he delivered from the hand of Pharao, and by Christ's death, from the devil's power. (Worthington)
Psalms 73:4 And they that hate thee have made their boasts, in the midst of thy solemnity. They have set up their ensigns for signs:

Made. Hebrew, "have roared," sending forth shouts of war, where thy praises alone ought to be heard. (Calmet) --- Ensigns. They have fixed their colours for signs and trophies, both on the gates, and on the highest top of the temple; and they knew not, that is, they regarded not the sanctity of the place. This psalm manifestly foretells the time of the Machabees, and the profanation of the temple by Antiochus; (Challoner; 1 Machabees i.; Menochius) or rather it seems to refer to the destruction under Nabuchodonosor; (Berthier) as under the former the temple was not burnt: (ver. 7.; Calmet) yet the doors were, 1 Machabees 4:(Menochius) --- For signs. Literally, "yea, their signs," signa sua signa. (Haydock)
Psalms 73:5 and they knew not both in the going out, and on the highest top. As with axes in a wood of trees,

Going out. Septuagint, "coming in." Both designate the same gates, (Haydock) or the ends of roads and streets, Matthew xxii. (Menochius) --- Top. The doors of the temple were very lofty. The idolatrous ensigns were fixed there, as on an eminence, to give notice of an invasion, (Isaias 11:12.) while the soldiers plundered all, before they set fire to the city and temple, 4 Kings 25:9. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "a man was famous according as he had lifted up axes upon the thick trees." The text is very obscure, insomuch that St. Jerome's version is unintelligible. (Berthier) --- Yet it may signify, "they have placed their ensigns for a trophy, manifest upon the entrance aloft; their hatchets in a wood of trees; and now its sculptures together they have defaced with axe and hatchets, dolatoriis." Not content with these excesses, they at last set fire to the fabric, (Haydock) which was easily reduced to ashes, as there was so much wood about it, and in the very walls. (Calmet) --- St. Chrysostom contemplates the like havoc, which is made by sin. (Berthier) --- In false religions, some external shew, festivals, and altars, are opposed to the true ones. (Worthington)
Psalms 73:6 they have cut down at once the gates thereof: with axe and hatchet they have brought it down.

Psalms 73:7 *They have set fire to thy sanctuary: they have defiled the dwelling-place of thy name on the earth.

4 Kings 25:9.
Name. That temple, which was the only one consecrated to thee. (Haydock) --- All persecutors seek to destroy the places of true worship. (Worthington)
Psalms 73:8 They said in their heart, the whole kindred of them together: Let us abolish all the festival days of God from the land.

Together. And the infidel nations in that army, Psalm 136:7. (Calmet) --- Days. So the enemies of religion are always affected. The servants of God ought to be more zealous to preserve the remains of ancient piety. Protestant version translates, synagogues, (Haydock; Aquila; Symmachus) which Sigonius asserts were hardly known in the days of the Machabees, though they are clearly mentioned, (Esther 4:16.) and must have existed at all times, Acts 15:21., and Matthew 4:13. (Calmet) --- Houbigant has "let all the congregations of God cease." Hebrew literally, "they have burnt," (Berthier) or ended. (Calmet) --- Yet St. Jerome thinks that the Septuagint read with the VI edition, katakausomen, "let us burn," (Berthier) and Grabe has also substituted k for p, as that brings the Septuagint nearer to the sense of the Hebrew, (Haydock) and is supported by some copies, (Calmet) though it seems less accurate, if we speak of days. (Berthier) Mohed, denoted, "a set time, or meeting." (Parkhurst)
Psalms 73:9 Our signs we have not seen, there is now no prophet: and he will know us no more.

Our. Some copies of the Septuagint read "their," as if the enemy still spoke. But the people of God rather complain, that they are not so favoured with prodigies, as they had been formerly, and that the prophets did not publicly encourage them, (Berthier) or declare how long these miseries would continue; as the Hebrew may intimate. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "neither is there among us any that knoweth how long." (Haydock) --- Yet neglecting the points, our version is accurate, and any one, or God, may be understood, (Berthier) as taking no cognizance of his people. (Haydock) --- It is natural for those in distress to exaggerate; for we know that many wonders were wrought, and that prophets were sent to instruct the captives. But they were not so common, nor the prophets so popular, or complaisant, as they could have wished: nor could they be so easily consulted at Babylon, Daniel being generally at Susa, or at court, and Ezechiel in higher Mesopotamia. (Calmet) --- They could not appear at the head of the people, to harangue in their defence, like Aaron, Exodus 7:1., and Daniel 3:38. (Berthier) --- The weak, therefore, complain, that they have no prophet to console (Worthington) them with miracles. (Menochius) --- But the more perfect answer, that God both hath and will relieve his people, ver. 12. (Worthington)
Psalms 73:10 How long, O God, shall the enemy reproach? is the adversary to provoke thy name for ever?

Psalms 73:11 Why dost thou turn away thy hand: and thy right hand out of the midst of thy bosom for ever?

Ever. Why dost thou delay to heap favours on us, and destruction on thy adversaries? We are most grieved at the injury done to thy name. (Calmet)
Psalms 73:12 *But God is our king before ages: he hath wrought salvation in the midst of the earth.

Luke 1:68.
Ages. He is eternal, and hath long ago made choice of us. (Menochius) --- Earth. Publicly rescuing his people from Egypt, (Kimchi) and shewing his power over all the earth. (Calmet) --- The Fathers understand this of Jesus Christ, who died on Calvary, (Calmet) near Jerusalem, (Haydock) which some assert, is the middle of the earth, though others more properly attribute this situation to the promised land, which was nearly the centre of the world, (Amama) then known to the Jews, as there were 60 degrees to the Ganges, and as many westward to the extremity of Spain. Kimchi places it in the midst of the seven climates, (in Psalm 16:3.) and many others have explained this literally, as if Jerusalem was really the central point of the world, (St. Jerome in Ezechiel 5:5., and 38:12.; St. Hilary, etc.) in which sense Josephus styles it the navel. (Calmet) --- As the world is nearly round, any place may be said to be in the middle. Some have erroneously supposed, that Jerusalem was exactly under the line, (see de Locis. 3:in Ven. Bede's works) though it be about the 32 degree of North latitude. (Haydock) --- Its situation was at least very commodious for having access to the different parts of the ancient world. (St. Jerome in Ezechiel xxxviii.) (Calmet) --- The middle of the earth may here also relate to Egypt, where God formerly displayed his power, (Berthier) or to the wilderness, as the sequel seems to indicate. The latter formed a part of the promised land, (Haydock) which was pitched upon to be the theatre of the true religion, and of the sufferings of Christ, as they were to be made known to all the world. (Tirinus)
Psalms 73:13 Thou, by thy strength, didst make the sea firm: thou didst crush the heads of the dragons in the waters.

The sea firm. By making the waters of the Red Sea stand like firm walls, whilst Israel passed through; and destroying the Egyptians, called here dragons, from their cruelty, in the same waters, with their king; casting up their bodies on the shore, to be stript by the Ethiopians, inhabiting in those days the coast of Arabia. (Challoner) --- Isaias 27:1., styles Pharao a dragon. See Job 40:20. (Calmet) (Exechiel 29:3.) --- Leviathan denotes a whale, or crocodile, and was an emblem of the devil, and of all tyrants, particularly of antichrist. (Berthier)
Psalms 73:14 Thou hast broken the heads of the dragon: thou hast given him to be meat for the people of the Ethiopians.

Ethiopians. Or to enrich the Arabs. (Menochius) --- Hebrew Tsiim, is understood of sailors, and "fishermen," etc., Psalm 71:9. Some nations of Ethiopia are said to be cannibals; but they were too distant from the Red Sea. The Ichnyophagi or Troglodytes on the western banks, might despoil the dead, (Calmet) and procure food, (Haydock) unless this be a description of a great fish, slain by the power of the Almighty, and really eaten. (Calmet) --- Many explain these people, to mean wild beasts, which devoured the carcasses. (Eusebius; Muis)
Psalms 73:15 Thou hast broken up the fountains and the torrents: thou hast dried up the Ethan rivers.

Ethan rivers. That is, rivers which run with strong streams. This was verified in the Jordan, (Josue iii.) and in the Arnon, Numbers 21:14. (Challoner) --- Though the latter point is not so clear, God might divide the torrents, or rivers, at the station Ethan, as the Septuagint here read. (Berthier) --- Habacuc (3:9.) speaks of rivers. But in poetry, the plural is often used for the singular, and the passage of the Jordan may be meant. (Calmet) --- God had frequently supplied water from the rock, and gave a passage on dry land, through that river. (Menochius) (Worthington) --- Ethan means, "rapid," as the Jordan does also. (Haydock)
Psalms 73:16 Thine is the day, and thine is the night: thou hast made the morning light and the sun.

Morning. Aurora. Hebrew, "the light," which existed before the sun. (Berthier) --- Yet most understand the moon, (Calmet) or, in general, "the luminaries." (St. Jerome) (Haydock)
Psalms 73:17 Thou hast made all the borders of the earth: the summer and the spring were formed by thee.

Spring. Hebrew, "and winter," under which two the Jews comprised all the seasons, (Genesis 8:22.) as the Africans and Danes are said to do still. (Calmet) --- Yet choreph is used for youth, "the spring" of life, Job 29:4. (Berthier)
Psalms 73:18 Remember this, the enemy hath reproached the Lord: and a foolish people hath provoked thy name.

This. "Congregation." (Theodoret) --- Septuagint add, "thy creature." Hebrew is feminine. But it is used instead of our neuter. (Calmet) --- Consider this insolent language; the enemy, etc., ver. 22. (Haydock)
Psalms 73:19 Deliver not up to beasts the souls that confess to thee: and forget not to the end the souls of thy poor.

To thee. St. Jerome, "the soul intrusted in thy law." (Haydock) --- Hebrew has now torec, which is rendered, "thy turtle dove." But the Septuagint have read d, instead of r, better; (Calmet) and Houbigant rejects with disdain the present Hebrew, though that figurative expression would have the same meaning. (Berthier)
Psalms 73:20 Have regard to thy covenant: for they that are the obscure of the earth, have been filled with dwellings of iniquity.

The obscure of the earth. Mean and ignoble wretches have been filled, that is, enriched, with houses of iniquity, that is, with our estates and possessions, which they have unjustly acquired. (Challoner) --- Or the captives may thus complain, that they are forced to live among infidels, in constant danger of transgressing the law, (Calmet) while their children are brought up in sin, (Berthier) and ignorance. (Haydock) --- Infidels are full of all sorts of iniquity, which they hide in their conscience. (Worthington) --- Injustice is often the method of becoming rich. (Haydock)
Psalms 73:21 Let not the humble be turned away with confusion: the poor and needy shall praise thy name.

Humble. Hebrew, "the contrite," whether of Israel, or of any other nation, Isaias 66:2. (Berthier) --- The rich and presumptuous think not of thanking God. (Menochius)
Psalms 73:22 Arise, O God, judge thy own cause: remember thy reproaches with which the foolish man hath reproached thee all the day.

Psalms 73:23 Forget not the voices of thy enemies: the pride of them that hate thee ascendeth continually.

Enemies. Septuagint and St. Augustine read, "servants," and the ancient psalters, "supplicants," (Calmet) which seems to be a mistake of transcribers, (Berthier) as it is contrary to the Hebrew, Chaldean, and Syriac. (Calmet) --- The sense of both would be good. Erasmus reads iketon, quaerentium, in his edition of St. Jerome. (Haydock) --- They blaspheme all holy things, and are hardened in wickedness. (Worthington) --- Such are the times in which we live, 1 Timothy 6:20. (Berthier)
Psalms 74:0 There is a just judgment to come: therefore let the wicked take care.

Psalms 74:1 Unto the end, corrupt not, a psalm of a canticle for Asaph.

Corrupt not. 'Tis believed to have been the beginning of some ode or hymn, to the tune of which this psalm was to be sung. St. Augustine and other Fathers, take it to be an admonition of the Spirit of God, not to faint, or fail in our hope; but to persevere with constancy in good: because God will not fail in his due time, to render to every man according to his works. (Challoner) --- Symmachus has, "concerning incorruption," (Haydock) whence some have explained the psalm of the general resurrection. (Eusebius) --- The Chaldeans refer it to David, praying that the angel would cease to destroy, (2 Kings xxiv.) while others suppose that he forbids Abisai to hurt Saul, 1 Kings 26:9. (St. Jerome) --- This and similar difficult terms might resemble the anthems of Church music. (Genebrard) (Berthier) (Psalm lvi.) --- The psalm is a sequel to the former, (Calmet) or a moral instruction, given by the Son of God, (ver. 3.) after the author had admonished us to attend, and place ourselves in his presence. It is not necessary to suppose that it is written in the form of a dialogue. (Berthier)
Psalms 74:2 We will praise thee, O God: we will praise, and we will call upon thy name. We will relate thy wondrous works:

Praise. The repetition shews the certainty of the event. Christ and his apostles, who sit as judges, praise the ways of Providence. (Worthington) --- Hebrew is more obscure. (Calmet)
Psalms 74:3 When I shall take a time, I will judge justices.

When I shall take a time. In proper times: particularly at the last day, when the earth shall melt away at the presence of the great judge: the same who originally laid the foundations of it, and, as it were, established its pillars. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- This is God's answer to the longer prayer of Asaph, in the preceding psalm, which is here concluded. (Calmet) --- A time. Hebrew Mohed, "congregation." (Symmachus) --- When I shall have delivered my people. (Theodoret) --- Justices. With the utmost rigour I will punish Babylon. (Calmet) --- No mere creature knows the time of the general judgment, as Christ, the sovereign judge, does. (Worthington) --- Then the just themselves will tremble. (Haydock)
Psalms 74:4 The earth is melted, and all that dwell therein: I have established the pillars thereof.

Melted. Symmachus and Houbigant, "is strengthened." (Haydock) --- After the last fire the earth shall remain, though changed in quality. (Worthington) (2 Peter 3:10.) --- God destroys and establishes kingdoms. (Calmet)
Psalms 74:5 I said to the wicked: Do not act wickedly: and to the sinners: Lift not up the horn.

Wickedly. This is an epitome of Christian doctrine. (Worthington) --- God had severely punished Nabuchodonosor, Baltassar, and the priests of Bel. Yet the people would not attend to these salutary admonitions. --- Horn. By pride, (Worthington) which is the origin of all evil, (Haydock) and an offence pardoned by God with the greatest difficulty.
Psalms 74:6 Lift not up your horn on high: speak not iniquity against God.

God. Hebrew tsavvar means, "neck." But the Septuagint have not seen the a, and translate against God. Literally, "the rock," which is one of his titles; (Berthier) and this seems preferable to "speak not with a stiff neck;" (Calmet) or "with the old neck:" (St. Jerome) though this sense is not contemptible, as the sinner's wonted pride rises against God. (Haydock)
Psalms 74:7 For neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the desert hills:

Hills. Hebrew harim, may also be considered as the nominative case; "not from the south are there heights" to which they may flee for succour. (Haydock) --- Yet most of the ancients agree with us; though is there "refuge," must then be supplied. (Berthier) --- None would be able to screen the Babylonians, Jeremias 25:15, 26. --- Take the cup of the wine of his fury....The king of Sesac (Babylon) shall drink after them. (Haydock) --- The cup is so great that all shall taste, and the last will have the most bitter portion. (Calmet)
Psalms 74:8 For God is the judge. One he putteth down, and another he lifteth up:

Psalms 74:9 for in the hand of the Lord there is a cup of strong wine full of mixture. And he hath poured it out from this to that: but the dregs thereof are not emptied: all the sinners of the earth shall drink.

Drink. The just themselves shall suffer something. But their part will be comparatively the clear wine, while sinners shall have the dregs. Many suppose that God holds in his had two cups, which he mixes according to each one's deserts. So the Septuagint, Syriac, St. Augustine, etc., seem to intimate. Jupiter is thus represented with two barrels of goods and evils near his throne. (Homer, Iliad xxiv.) --- But most interpreters suppose that only one chalice is here specified, filled with red wine, the sediment being reserved for sinners, though it was usually thrown away at feasts. Wine was mixed with water in those hot countries. (Calmet) --- Yet here the mixture is of a different nature. (Haydock) --- Fire, (Psalm 10:7.; Menochius) gall, brimestone, etc., compose the bitter chalice of the damned, who will never arrive at the term of their inexpressible misery. In this life, sinners are frequently punished: but their sufferings do not end here. They shall experience a variety of torments in heat and cold, Job xxiv. (Worthington) (Apocalypse 14:10., Isaias 51:17., and Ezechiel 23:34.)
Psalms 74:10 But I will declare for ever: I will sing to the God of Jacob.

Declare. Septuagint, "rejoice;" as St. Augustine, etc., read, contrary to the Hebrew. (Calmet) --- Jacob. Christ did all for the glory of his Father. (Berthier)
Psalms 74:11 And I will break all the horns of sinners: but the horns of the just shall be exalted.

Just. Zorobabel, (Theodoret) the figure of the Messias. The Jews were shortly after set at liberty by Cyrus, who was the scourge of their oppressors. (Calmet) --- The virtuous, who use well their free-will, are thus rewarded. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:0 God is known in his Church: and exerts his power in protecting it. It alludes to the slaughter of the Assyrians, in the days of King Ezechias.

Psalms 75:1 Unto the end, in praises, a psalm for Asaph: a canticle to the Assyrians.

Assyrians. Septuagint, "against the Assyrian," Sennacherib, 4 Kings 19:35. (Haydock) --- David composed this after his victory over the Ammonites, and Ezechias used it when he was delivered from the Assyrians. (Grotius) --- This part of the title is of no great authority, as it is not found in Hebrew, etc. (Berthier) --- The psalm seems to speak of the victories of all the just; (Menochius) and instances one memorable example in the defeat of the Assyrians. (Worthington) --- The Church triumphs over her persecutors. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 75:2 In Judea God is known: his name is great in Israel.

Judea. Hebrew, "Juda." (Haydock) --- This shews that the psalm was composed after the separation of the tribes, (Calmet) though not invincibly; as the names of Juda and Israel were used in David's time. (Haydock) --- The divine worship was almost confined to the promised land till the birth of Christ; whose gospel has diffused light throughout the world. (St. Augustine; Calmet, etc.) --- See Jeremias 60:23. (Berthier) --- A Christian is the true Juda, or "Confessor." (Menochius) --- God was known to some philosophers, but not by such special benefits. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:3 And his place is in peace: and his abode in Sion.

Peace. Hebrew Shalem. --- Abode. Hebrew, "tent or hut," an expression which shews, how much the finest structure of the East was beneath God's majesty. (Calmet) --- He suffered the rest of the world to follow their own inventions, and false gods, reserving Israel for his Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:4 There hath he broken the powers of bows, the shield, the sword, and the battle.

There. In that favoured country. The army of Sennacherib perished on its road to Pelusium, 4 Kings xx. --- Powers. Hebrew, "sparks," (Calmet) or "burning arrows." (Montanus) (Psalm 7:14., and 119:4.) (Haydock) --- All the opponents of the Church, or Sion, must perish. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:5 Thou enlightenest wonderfully from the everlasting hills.

Hills. Of Juda, which are styled eternal, on account of their stability, Deuteronomy 33:15. Hebrew seems to be incorrect. (Calmet) --- "Thou art a light magnificently from (Haydock) or more than, (Berthier) the mountains of the captivity." (St. Jerome) --- Or, "of prey." (Protestants) --- "Thou art more terrible....than the richest mountains." (Theodoret) --- Yet this comparison hardly suits in this place, (Calmet) and Houbigant prefers the Vulgate and Septuagint, who may have read terem, "before," or saraph, "of the seraph," (alluding to God's seat upon the ark) instead of tareph, "prey." (Berthier) --- God grants victory to his people, and enlightens them with the true faith. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:6 All the foolish of heart were troubled. They have slept their sleep: and all the men of riches have found nothing in their hands.

Troubled. Hebrew, "plundered," or "stupified." (Berthier) --- The haughty and blasphemous Sennacherib, Rabsaces, etc., were full of dismay, when the destroying angel slew 185,000 (Calmet) in the dead of the night. "What dire astonishment, ye men Of Media, sunk you to despair?" (Hymn on War, p. 52.; Haydock) --- Sleep in death, Job 27:19. --- Of riches, with which they are possessed, as with a fever, (Seneca, ep. cxix.) and of which they dread, Isaias 29:8. (Calmet) --- Yet the most opulent must die, and are foolish in clinging to riches, since they can carry nothing away. (Menochius) --- Hands. Hebrew, "the men of the army have not found their hands." (Berthier) --- They could not use their arms against a spirit. (Haydock) --- Christ has enlightened the mountains, his apostles; and fools despise their instructions, as the Athenians did St. Paul's, being too much attached to the world. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- Though they may be troubled, they will not open their eyes to be convinced. Hence, they have no oil of good works, when they awake in eternity. [Matthew xxv.] (Worthington)
Psalms 75:7 At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, they have all slumbered that mounted on horseback.

Mounted. Hebrew, "the chariot and horse." (Calmet) --- But the riders are meant. (Berthier) --- Rabsaces had boasted, that Ezechias could not find men to mount 2,000 horses, if he should give them to him, 4 Kings 18:23. (Calmet) --- But God chastised his vain boasting. (Haydock) --- While he defends his people, their enemies seem to slumber. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:8 Thou art terrible, and who shall resist thee? from that time thy wrath.

And. Hebrew, "thou, and who shall subsist before thee in the moment of thy wrath?" Houbigant rejects the second thou. (Berthier) --- From. From the time that thy wrath shall break out. (Challoner) --- Ex tunc, often relates to a distant period. We have long known the effects of thy indignation. (Calmet) (Hebrews 10:31.) --- At the first notice of thy will the enemy is dejected, and fears thy potent anger. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:9 Thou hast caused judgment to be heard from heaven: the earth trembled and was still,

Heard. Some editions of the Septuagint read, "thou hast darted judgment." (St. Augustine) --- Still. All were filled with astonishment, and Sennacherib was glad to escape in the most private manner. (Calmet) --- Persecutors will all be terrified when the signs of judgment begin to appear in heaven, which are here represented as past, on account of their certainty. (Worthington) --- The divine power will be again displayed. (Menochius)
Psalms 75:10 When God arose in judgment, to save all the meek of the earth.

God. After the signs of dissolution, the Son of God shall come to judge. (Berthier) --- The earth is now full of bustle: but then all shall be silent. (St. Augustine) --- Meek. Ezechias had given large sums to preserve peace, 4 Kings 18:14. (Calmet) --- Judgment will take place for the sake of the just. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:11 For the thought of man shall give praise to thee: and the remainders of the thought shall keep holiday to thee.

To thee. The enemy shall repress his resentment, when he beholds the fall of Sennacherib. (Tirinus) --- The people who had been delivered, express their constant sentiments of gratitude. They revolve in mind the wonders of God, (Haydock) both in time and in eternity, and keep holidays in memory of such benefits. (Berthier) --- Hebrew, "for the wrath of man shall confess to thee, thou shalt be girded with the remains of wrath." (St. Jerome) --- The fury of the enemy shall only cause thy power to shine forth in his destruction. (Haydock) --- Petau unites both these ideas, in his beautiful Greek verses, though it must be confessed, this passage is very obscure, both in the original and versions. (Berthier) --- Men shall meditate on these benefits, and praise God with gladness, being moved to make vows, even of things left to their discretion, which they must perform. (Worthington)
Psalms 75:12 Vow ye, and pay to the Lord your God: all you that are round about him bring presents. To him that is terrible,

God. Victims of thanksgiving, as was customary after a victory, Psalm xxi., xxvi., xlix., and xiv. He speaks to the people who had been spared, particularly to the priests, though it may be understood also of foreign nations, who complied with this invitation, 2 Paralipomenon 32:22. (Calmet) --- Vows, and their completion, ought not to be separated, even though the thing vowed may have been before a matter of choice, as virginity, etc. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- What says Luther? (Haydock)
Psalms 75:13 Even to him who taketh away the spirit of princes: to the terrible with the kings of the earth.

Away. Hebrew, "he will cut off," (Montanus) like grapes: which means rather to destroy, than to bereave of counsel, Isaias 19:13. This might be written after Sennacherib was slain, 4 Kings 19:37. (Calmet) --- God is terrible, and will demand an account even of princes, respecting vows and other good works. Great discretion is therefore requisite. (Worthington)
Psalms 76:0 The faithful have recourse to God in trouble of mind, with confidence in his mercy and power.

Psalms 76:1 Unto the end, for Idithun, a psalm of Asaph.

Idithun. Hebrew, "upon Idithun," was not formerly in the text. (St. Jerome) --- It may be the name of an instrument, (Bellarmine) or tune, (Muis) or this master of music and Asaph might sing alternately. There is nothing certain; (Menochius) though some would hence conclude, that Asaph was the author. The occasion of the psalm is also unknown, and may be applied to all the afflicted servants of God, (Berthier) or to the captives. (Calmet)
Psalms 76:2 I cried to the Lord with my voice; to God with my voice, and he gave ear to me.

To God. These repetitions denote fervour, (Calmet) and that God alone must be the object of our desire. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 76:3 In the day of my trouble I sought God, with my hands lifted up to him in the night: and I was not deceived. My soul refused to be comforted:

Deceived, in my expectations, as I prayed with mind and body continually. (Worthington) --- Good works are a strong recommendation. "They cry, though we be silent." Many have recourse to the great for assistance, and few to God. Yet in isto invenio omnia. (St. Jerome) --- Hebrew is variously translated, and may have been altered. "My hand fell in the night, and ceased not." Symmachus and St. Jerome come near to the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- They have, "and does not cease," which would be the case, if the person were deceived or rejected. (Berthier) --- Protestants, "my sore ran," etc. (Haydock) --- But this seems rather violent. (Calmet) --- Comforted. By any worldly advantages. (Menochius) --- Joy can come from God alone. (Berthier)
Psalms 76:4 I remembered God, and was delighted, and was exercised, and my spirit swooned away.

Delighted. Hebrew, "cried out," which many explain through sorrow. But the Septuagint seem rather to take it in a different sense, as well as the swooning, which might proceed from ecstatic joy (Berthier) at the thought of God. The alternate sorrows and joys of the just are well described. They are seldom allowed to continue long in the same state. Protestants, "I complained, and my spirit was overwhelmed. Selah." St. Jerome, "I spoke within myself," exercising myself in meditation. (Haydock) --- I was sometimes in such distress, that nothing seemed capable of giving me any comfort. But I relied on God, and was in an ecstacy. (Worthington)
Psalms 76:5 My eyes prevented the watches: I was troubled, and I spoke not.

My eyes. Vatican Septuagint, Arabic, and St. Augustine read, "my enemies," but our Vulgate follows the edition of Aldus and Complutensian (Berthier) very frequently, which here agree better with the Hebrew, "I hindered my eyes from looking up;" (St. Jerome; Symmachus) or, "thou hast kept the watches of my eyes," (Aquila) hindering me from sleeping; (Haydock) so that I did not watch three hours only, like the sentinels, but all night. (Calmet) --- The sudden address to God seems incorrect. (Berthier) --- I rose before the usual time, yet did not utter my sentiments, (Worthington) being quite oppressed both with grief and joy. (Haydock) --- I durst not speak, as I was convinced that thy judgments were right. (Menochius)
Psalms 76:6 I thought upon the days of old: and I had in my mind the eternal years.

Of old. And the favours which had been heaped on the nation. (Calmet) --- Years. Both past and future times; (Haydock) yea, eternity itself, the great occupation of life. (St. Augustine) (Berthier)
Psalms 76:7 And I meditated in the night with my own heart: and I was exercised, and I swept my spirit.

Heart. Septuagint have read differently from the present [Hebrew]. (Berthier) --- Hebrew, "I recollected my canticle in the night, and communed with my own heart, and my spirit sought to the bottom;" or, "I swept, (or directed, scopebam) my spirit," (St. Jerome) from all things unbecoming. Septuagint Eskallon. "I dug and harrowed" it by earnest meditation, to extract the weeds, and make it fit to receive the divine seed, (St. Jerome, here and ep. ad Sun.) and to bring forth fruit; (Haydock) or I swept to discover the precious jewel (Berthier) of salvation. (Haydock) --- Scopebam, is not deemed a good Latin word; but seems to be derived from skopeo, "I consider or direct my aim;" though some think it means rather," I swept," Isaias 14:23. Hugo reads scopabam. (Calmet) --- I diligently examined my conscience, (Worthington) and left nothing unturned, like the woman in the gospel who sought the groat. [Luke 15:8.] (Menochius) --- Hebrew yechapes, may also mean, "my spirit is set free," to say what might seem too bold, Will God, etc. (Calmet)
Psalms 76:8 Will God then cast off for ever? or will he never be more favourable again?

Psalms 76:9 Or will he cut off his mercy for ever, from generation to generation?

Ever. Hebrew adds, "is his word ineffectual?" which the Vatican Septuagint neglects, (Berthier) though gamar omer be thus rendered in other editions. "Has he completely fulfilled his word," which may be the true sense, consumabitur verbum. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- "Will he execute this threat from generation?" etc. (Calmet) --- God will never abandon his Church, (Worthington) though he may chastise his people. (Haydock)
Psalms 76:10 Or will God forget to shew mercy? or will he in his anger shut up his mercies?

Mercies? Turning the waters another way, (Muis; Calmet) or going against his natural inclination. Vincit illum misericordia sua. (St. Jerome)
Psalms 76:11 And I said, Now have I begun: this is the change of the right hand of the Most High.

Begun. By God's grace, I now perceive that my thoughts were wrong. (Worthington) --- I see that we are chastised on account of our sins; (Theodoret) but now I hope for better things. (Tirinus) (Genebrard) --- Hebrew may have this (Berthier) and many other meanings. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "I said this is my infirmity. But I will remember the years of right," etc. De Dieu, "To pray, this is mine; to change the right hand, is of the most High." (Calmet) --- All comfort and every good resolution must come from him. Challothi is derived from eel, by the Septuagint, and from chala, (Haydock) "he is sick," by others. Who will assert that the former are not the most ancient and learned interpreters? The sequel shews that the psalmist begins to entertain better hopes. (Berthier) --- Now have I begun to follow wisdom, and to amend my life. St. Anthony advised all to make this resolution every morning. (Tirinus)
Psalms 76:12 I remembered the works of the Lord: for I will be mindful of thy wonders from the beginning.

Beginning. In favour of Israel, or rather of all the just from Abel. (Haydock)
Psalms 76:13 And I will meditate on all thy works: and will be employed in thy inventions.

Inventions. Protestants, "doings," (Haydock) or the secrets of Providence, (Calmet) and his "affections." (St. Augustine) --- The just find an interest in all his works, (Berthier) as they work together for their salvation, Romans 8:28. (Haydock)
Psalms 76:14 Thy way, O God, is in the holy place: who is the great God, like our God?

Holy "place," or person. (St. Jerome) --- Thy ways are inscrutable, (Muis) but always holy. (Genebrard) --- Hebrew, "in sanctity." (Menochius)
Psalms 76:15 Thou art the God that dost wonders. Thou hast made thy power known among the nations:

Psalms 76:16 With thy arm thou hast redeemed thy people, the children of Jacob, and of Joseph.

Arm. Christ, (St. Jerome) or power, Deuteronomy 5:15. --- Joseph, who was in Egypt, while the rest of the family dwelt in Chanaan. (Berthier)
Psalms 76:17 The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee: and they were afraid, and the depths were troubled.

Afraid. St. Jerome, "in labour." (Haydock) --- Troubled. The dry land appearing, to let the Israelites pass. (Berthier) (Psalm 113:3.) --- St. Jerome and the Jews understand this of the storm of Sinai. But most people suppose that the catastrophe at the Red Sea is described, when Moses insinuates, that a dreadful tempest overwhelmed the Egyptians, as it is here specified. See Josephus, [Antiquities?] 2:7. (Calmet)
Psalms 76:18 Great was the noise of the waters: the clouds sent out a sound. For thy arrows pass:

Waters. St. Jerome, "the clouds poured out waters," mayim, Septuagint may have read hamim, "sounds," and omit clouds, which come again in this verse. (Berthier)
Psalms 76:19 The voice of thy thunder in a wheel. Thy lightnings enlightened the world: the earth shook and trembled.

Wheel. (Protestants) (Haydock) Hebrew, "a whirlwind," (Calmet) or "wheel," (Pagnin) in the air. (Haydock) --- The noise of thunder is something similar to a wheel, rattling on the pavement. (Haydock) --- Salmoneus foolishly tried to imitate it with his chariot. (Apoll. Bib. i.) --- Trembled. The preaching of the apostles was attended with success. (Haydock) (Fathers) (Calmet) --- Earthquakes were felt, and men were under a general alarm. (Menochius)
Psalms 76:20 Thy way is in the sea, and thy paths in many waters: and thy footsteps shall not be known.

Known. The waters resumed their usual course, Hebrews 3:15. The wheels of the enemy might be discerned long after. (Calmet)
Psalms 76:21 *Thou hast conducted thy people like sheep, by the hand of Moses and Aaron.

Exodus 14:29.
Hand. By the ministry (Worthington) of those, who acted in God's place, in the desert. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:0 God's great benefits to the people of Israel, notwithstanding their ingratitude.

Psalms 77:1 Understanding for Asaph. Attend, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth.

Asaph. David composed this, to declare the rights of Juda to the throne, in preference to the tribe of Ephraim, (Lyranus) which had kept possession of the ark a long time; which was henceforth to be on Mount Sion. (Haydock) --- It seems to relate to the times of Asa, who reunited several of the other tribes to his dominion, (2 Paralipomenon 15:8.; Calmet) and contains a moral instruction, delivered in the person of Christ, (ver. 2.; Eusebius; Berthier) and submitted to the attentive consideration of the faithful. (Worthington) --- Law. Given to Moses, (Berthier) and sanctioned by the divine authority. (Haydock) --- The law, and the people were not David's, but God's, in whose name he speaks. (St. Gregory in Job ii.) (Worthington)
Psalms 77:2 I will open my mouth in parables: I will utter propositions from the beginning.

Propositions. Deep and mysterious sayings. By this it appears, that the historical facts of ancient times, commemorated in this psalm, were deep and mysterious; as being figures of great truths appertaining to the time of the New Testament. (Challoner) --- St. Matthew (xiii. 35.) has, things hidden from the foundation of the world. Hebrew minni kedem, "from of old." St. Jerome, "ancient riddles." (Haydock) --- Mashal and chidoth, "parables and enigmas." frequently denote things very plain, but spoken in a sententious poetic style, Numbers 23:7. (Calmet) --- The facts, etc., of the Old Testament, prefigured the mysteries of the New. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:3 How great things have we heard and known, and our fathers have told us.

Fathers. Christ might thus speak as man, and he enforces tradition in the strongest terms. (Berthier) --- Only some things were written. (Worthington) --- The most ancient and universal mode of instruction, was by word of mouth. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:4 They have not been hidden from their children, in another generation. Declaring the praises of the Lord, and his powers, and his wonders which he hath done.

Psalms 77:5 And he set up a testimony in Jacob; and made a law in Israel. How great things he commanded our fathers, that they should make the same known to their children:

Testimony. The tabernacle, (Eusebius) or the law which notifies his will. (Calmet) (Menochius) --- He also thrice required the Israelites to perpetuate the memory of what he had done for them, by instructing their children, Deuteronomy 4:9., and 6:7., and 11:19. Both the written and the unwritten word must be carefully preserved, 2 Thessalonians 2:14. God had freely chosen Abraham, and given him the law of circumcision; as he directed his posterity by the mouth of Moses. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:6 That another generation might know them. The children that should be born, and should rise up, and declare them to their children.

Psalms 77:7 That they may put their hope in God, and may not forget the works of God: and may seek his commandments.

That, etc. This was the end of all the laws and monuments of religion, (Calmet) to increase our confidence, (Worthington) gratitude, and observance of our duty. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:8 That they may not become like their fathers, a perverse and exasperating generation. A generation that set not their heart aright: and whose spirit was not faithful to God.

Fathers. Some were virtuous, like Moses, Josue, Samuel, etc., ver. 3., and 5. (Berthier) --- But the majority proved faithless. (Haydock) --- To God. Or did not confide in him, or know that without God's grace, no good can be done. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- Abraham instructed his house, (Genesis xviii.) and David his subjects, that they might avoid bad example. The same advice regards Christians, 1 Corinthians 10. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:9 The sons of Ephraim, who bend and shoot with the bow: they have turned back in the day of battle.

Battle. Many of this tribe were cut off by the men of Geth, (1 Paralipomenon 7:21.; Chaldean; Geier.) as they fought without God's command, Numbers xiv. (Worthington) --- They did not defend the ark against the Philistines, though they seemed more bound to do so than the rest, since it was brought from their city, Silo, and they also set the others a pattern of infidelity; (1 Kings iv.; Abenezra) whence they are singled out likewise by Osee. (Berthier) --- The famous victory of Abia against Jeroboam may be also designated, 2 Paralipomenon xiii. (Calmet) --- This had not yet taken place, no more than (Haydock) their captivity, under Salmanazar, which is enigmatically foretold. After this reproach, the whole body of the Israelites is condemned, ver. 10. (Berthier)
Psalms 77:10 They kept not the covenant of God: and in his law they would not walk.

Psalms 77:11 And they forgot his benefits, and his wonders that he hath shewn them.

Psalms 77:12 Wonderful things did he do in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Taneos.

Taneos. Hebrew Tsohan, (Haydock) which means, "spreading," either because the plagues spread from this capital, or because it was in a plain, (Berthier) or very extensive, (Haydock) on the eastern branch of the Nile, in the Delta. (Calmet) --- Here Moses wrought his wonders. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:13 *He divided the sea and brought them through: and he made the waters to stand as in a vessel.

Exodus 14:22.
Vessel. Literally, "bottle," like walls on either side.
Psalms 77:14 And he conducted them with a cloud by day: and all the night with a light of fire

By day. Literally, "of the day." (Haydock) --- But this is the real import of the Greek. The same cloud (Calmet) was both luminous and obscure. When the light side was turned towards Israel, the Egyptians were in darkness. (Haydock) --- The eternal Son of God guided this pillar, and the Israelites tempted him, (ver. 18., and 1 Corinthians x., and Exodus 13:21.; Berthier) forgetting their baptism or initiation in the service of God. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:15 *He struck the rock in the wilderness: and gave them to drink, as out of the great deep.

Exodus 17:6.; Psalm 104:41.
Deep. Water was so abundant, and followed them in streams, 1 Corinthians 10:4. (Calmet) --- The first miraculous grant of water was at Horeb, the second at Cades, ver. 20. (Berthier)
Psalms 77:16 He brought forth water out of the rock: and made streams run down as rivers.

Psalms 77:17 And they added yet more sin against him: they provoked the most High to wrath in the place without water.

Psalms 77:18 And they tempted God in their hearts, by asking meat for their desires.

Desires. Literally, "souls," as if they were dying for hunger, though they had plenty of manna, Numbers 11:4. (Calmet)
Psalms 77:19 And they spoke ill of God: they said: Can God furnish a table in the wilderness?

Ill. Hebrew, "against," (Numbers xi.; Calmet) still distrusting in God's power. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:20 Because he struck the rock, and the waters gushed out, and the streams overflowed, Can he also give bread, or provide a table for his people?

Bread. Including all sorts of food. (Worthington) --- Table. Hebrew, "flesh." It is true we have water and manna, but we want something more solid and agreeable. (Calmet)
Psalms 77:21 *Therefore, the Lord heard, and was angry: and a fire was kindled against Jacob, and wrath came up against Israel.

Numbers 11:1.
Angry. This is the sense of the Hebrew. Distulit means, "he deferred" (Haydock) to put his threats, (Berthier) or promises, in execution. (Menochius) --- The destroyer punished those who gave way to murmuring, 1 Corinthians x., and Numbers 11:1. (Calmet) --- Their incredulity was punished (Worthington) for nearly forty years, and all the guilty who were twenty years old at the first numbering, were cut off in the desert. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:22 Because they believed not in God: and trusted not in his salvation.

Psalms 77:23 And he had commanded the clouds from above, and had opened the doors of heaven.

And. Or "though he had." Berthier has mandavit. "He commanded," would be better rendered, this order being given before the complaints. God had supplied them abundantly with manna from the clouds, as from his granaries. (Calmet) --- Therefore they ought to have trusted in his power and goodness. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:24 *And had rained down manna upon them to eat, and had given them the bread of heaven.

Exodus 16:4.; Numbers. 11:7.
Psalms 77:25 *Man eat the bread of angels: he sent them provisions in abundance.

John 6:31.; 1 Corinthians 10:3.
Angels. Hebrew also, "of the strong ones." (Aquila) --- Such is the blessed Eucharist, of which manna was only a figure, John vi. The angels prepared this food. (Calmet) --- It was an effect of the divine bounty, not of the power of Moses, John 11:32. How it could be inferior (Berthier) to the bread which Christ would give, was a riddle to the Jews, as it must be still to all who do not admit the real presence. If both were figures, surely manna was better than common bread. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:26 *He removed the south wind from heaven: and by his power brought in the south-west wind.

Numbers 11:31.
West wind. Literally, Africum, which blows "from Africa," in this direction, with respect to Jerusalem. (Haydock) --- The same wind may be styled the south wind. Hebrew Kadim, "strong, eastern," etc. (Berthier) --- These quails came from the banks of the southern ocean, or from the Red Sea, as the Israelites were still in Arabia, when they were furnished with them a second time, (Numbers 11:31.) for a whole month, (Calmet) though there were about three million people. (Berthier) --- God changed the wind, so as to bring them into the camp, Exodus xvi. (Worthington) --- It was before blowing from the south-east. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:27 And he rained upon them flesh as dust: and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea.

Psalms 77:28 And they fell in the midst of their camp, round about their pavilions.

Psalms 77:29 So they did eat, and were filled exceedingly, and he gave them their desire:

Psalms 77:30 they were not defrauded of that which they craved. *As yet their meat was in their mouth:

Numbers 11:33.
Psalms 77:31 and the wrath of God came upon them. And he slew the fat ones amongst them, and he brought down the chosen men of Israel.

Israel. St. Jerome applies this to those who receive unworthily, particularly if they be priests, 1 Corinthians 11:29. (Calmet) --- God selected the most guilty (Berthier) having allowed them to feast for a whole month. (Worthington) --- Then he brought down by death, or "hindered," as it were, "by shackles," (Septuagint) the most valiant. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:32 In all these things they sinned still: and they believed not for his wondrous works.

Still. Notwithstanding this instance of God's severity, they fell shortly after into greater sins, and would have stoned Moses, etc., despairing of ever taking possession of the promised land, which highly displeased God, so that he swore, that none of the rebels should enter it. Many were also slain in the sedition of Core, (Numbers 13:17.) and the rest did not live about thirty-eight years. (Calmet) --- Thus about 600,000 perished, (Worthington) having done nothing worthy of praise. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:33 And their days were consumed in vanity, and their years in haste.

Psalms 77:34 When he slew them, then they sought him; and they returned, and came to him early in the morning.

Morning. Those who were spared pretended to repent. (Haydock) --- Afflictions are the source of much good. But the Israelites are blamed for their inconstancy and deceit. (Calmet) --- They came with apparent earnestness (Haydock) to offer the morning sacrifice (Worthington) under affliction. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:35 And they remembered that God was their helper: and the most high God their Redeemer.

Psalms 77:36 And they loved him with their mouth: and with their tongue they lied unto him:

Psalms 77:37 But their heart was not right with him: nor were they counted faithful in his covenant.

Psalms 77:38 But he is merciful, and will forgive their sins: and will not destroy them. And many a time did he turn away his anger: and did not kindle all his wrath.

Their and them, is supplied also by Protestants. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "he....will forgive sin," etc. This seems more beautiful. (Berthier)
Psalms 77:39 And he remembered that they are flesh: a wind that goeth and returneth not.

Flesh. The inferior appetite wars against the spirit, Galatians 5:17., and Matthew 26:41. (Haydock) --- Not, in the ordinary course. This does not contradict the faith of the resurrection, which is elsewhere clearly expressed. (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- Man may go astray, but cannot be converted by his own efforts, Proverbs 2:19. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- God will never abandon the whole Church. The Jews here mark the middle of the psalter, and the 1263rd verse, (Worthington) or the division of the book. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:40 How often did they provoke him in the desert: and move him to wrath in the place without water?

How often. It would be difficult to specify. God mentions ten times, Numbers 14:22. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:41 And they turned back and tempted God: and grieved the holy one of Israel.

Grieved. Hebrew, "set bounds to," or "marked," holding up to scorn, Hebrews 6:6. Genebrard thinks we might translate, "crucified," hithvu, as this is the root of Thau, which formerly resembled a cross. (Calmet) --- This would surely be one of the most striking enigmas. St. Jerome agrees with us. (Berthier) --- "They pushed on," concitaverunt, as God's wrath must be greatly excited by setting limits to his power and goodness. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:42 They remembered not his hand, in the day that he redeemed them from the hand of him that afflicted them:

Not. How could they so soon forget these prodigies? We might ask, how came Adam to pay so little attention to God's command? How do many act contrary to their better knowledge? Upon occasion of this forgetfulness, the psalmist repeats many of the chief miracles recorded, Exodus vii., and xiii. (Berthier)
Psalms 77:43 How he wrought his signs in Egypt: and his wonders in the field of Taneos.

Signs. The turning the rod into a serpent. The rest of the signs were also plagues. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:44 *And he turned their rivers into blood, and their showers that they might not drink.

Exodus 7:20.
Showers. Hebrew, "floods." (Haydock) --- Many have asserted that it does not rain in Egypt: but pretty heavy showers fall, even above Cairo, (Vansleb.; Calmet) though seldom. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:45 *He sent amongst them divers sorts of flies, which devoured them: *and frogs, which destroyed them.

Exodus 8:24. --- ** Exodus 8:6.
Flies. Caenomyiam. Many copies of the Septuagint have kynomiam, "the dog-fly," which St. Jerome, (Calmet) and St. Augustine properly correct. (Berthier) (Exodus 8:24.)
Psalms 77:46 *And he gave up their fruits to the blast, and their labours to the locust.

Exodus 10:15.
Blast. Hebrew also "the bruchus," (Haydock) a sort of locust, which does great damage in the East. (Calmet) --- Chasil may signify both. (Berthier) --- Ovid speaks of the blast: Interea crescat scabrae rubiginis expers. (Fast. 1.)
Psalms 77:47 *And he destroyed their vineyards with hail, and their mulberry trees with hoar-frost.

Exodus 9:25.
Vineyards. Herodotus (I. 77.) says, the Egyptians use "ale, because they have no vines." But he is contradicted by Athenaeus, etc. --- Trees. Hebrew shikmoth, is supposed to mean sycamore trees. (Calmet)
Psalms 77:48 And he gave up their cattle to the hail, and their stock to the fire.

Fire. St. Jerome, "who gave their pastures to the hail, and their cattle to the birds." Reshaphim is also rendered "coals," by Pagnin. It may denote the thunderbolts. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:49 And he sent upon them the wrath of his indignation: indignation, and wrath, and trouble, which he sent by evil angels.

Angels. Hebrew, "messengers of evil," (Tirinus) as the Septuagint may also signify the good angels. (Amama) --- He ordered Moses and Aaron to denounce his judgments, which he executed either by the devils, (Origen; Worthington) or by the blessed spirits. (St. Ambrose; Exodus 12:29., and Wisdom 18:14.) --- Hence from the effect, (Bellarmine) they may have the appellation of evil. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- The other plagues are thus briefly mentioned. (Menochius) (Worthington)
Psalms 77:50 He made a way for a path to his anger: he spared not their souls from death, and their cattle he shut up in death.

Psalms 77:51 *And he killed all the first-born in the land of Egypt: the first-fruits of all their labour in the tabernacles of Cham.

Exodus 12:29.
Labour. "The first-born," (St. Jerome; Genesis 49:3., and Proverbs 5:9.) and their best effects. (Calmet) --- This was the tenth plague. Cham was the father of Misraim, who peopled Egypt. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:52 And he took away his own people as sheep: and guided them in the wilderness like a flock.

Psalms 77:53 And he brought them out in hope, and they feared not: *and the sea overwhelmed their enemies.

Exodus 14:27.
Not, after they saw the Egyptians destroyed, whom they had feared greatly before. In the desert they enjoyed rest, while their enemies were in the utmost confusion, (Berthier) having lost their king. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:54 And he brought them into the mountain of his sanctuary: the mountain which his right hand had purchased. *And he cast out the Gentiles before them: and by lot divided to them their land by a line of distribution.

Josue 13:6 and 7.
Mountain. Hebrew, "term." Oros, with the soft spirit, means a mountain, (Berthier) and the Vulgate has taken it in this sense in both places, as the Greek accents and spirits are not of greater antiquity or consequence than the Hebrew vowel points. (Haydock) --- The land of Chanaan was very different from that of Egypt, being full of mountains, Deuteronomy 3:25., and Ezechiel 36:2. But Sion may be here meant. --- Line. Thus were lands measured, Josue 13:8., and 17:5. (Calmet) --- God had made a particular choice of this hilly country for his people, (Worthington) and for the chief seat of religion. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:55 And he made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tabernacles.

Psalms 77:56 Yet they tempted, and provoked the most high God: and they kept not his testimonies.

Psalms 77:57 And they turned away, and kept not the covenant: even like their fathers, they were turned aside as a crooked bow.

The covenant, is omitted in many Greek and Latin copies, as well as in Hebrew. (St. Jerome, ad Sun.) --- Yet it is found in the Vatican edition, (Calmet) as well as in the Alexandrian, esunthetesan. (Haydock) --- Bow, which hits not the mark. It alludes to the faithless Israelites, (Calmet) particularly to Ephraim, ver. 9., Osee 7:6., and Jeremias 9:3. The bow of Jonathan was not such, 2 Kings 1:22. (Calmet) --- A bad bow misses the aim, or breaking, wounds the person who uses it. (Menochius) --- These people hurt themselves by their treachery. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:58 They provoked him to anger on their hills: and moved him to jealousy with their graven things.

Hills. The high places, in which they imitated the pagans, and which brought on their ruin, Leviticus 26:30. With so much difficulty are people taught to serve God in spirit and truth. They foolishly imagined that they would be nearer the gods. (Berthier) --- Things. Protestants, "images." They have not forgotten to insert this word as usual, to make the ignorant believe that all images are forbidden! (Haydock)
Psalms 77:59 God heard, and despised them, and he reduced Israel exceedingly, as it were to nothing.

Heard. So he did the crimes of Sodom, Genesis 18:20. (Calmet) --- Reduced. Hebrew, "abhorred exceedingly several in Israel." (Haydock) --- The people were not exterminated; but greatly reduced in the time of the judges. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:60 *And he put away the tabernacle of Silo, his tabernacle, where he dwelt among men.

1 Kings 4:4.; Jeremias 7:12.; Jeremias 26:6.
Silo. Where it had remained about 350 years, (Berthier) before the ark was removed, never to be replaced there. (Haydock) --- The tabernacle was afterwards at Nobe, and at Gabaon; whence it was probably removed to the treasury of the temple, (Calmet) and was hidden by Jeremias, 2 Machabees i., and Josue 18:1. (Berthier) --- God gave his oracles more particularly where the ark, (Worthington) or the tabernacle, was found. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:61 And he delivered their strength into captivity: and their beauty into the hands of the enemy.

Their. Hebrew, "his." (Houbigant) --- The ark was an earnest of God's protection, (Haydock) and the glory of Israel, 1 Kings 4:21.
Psalms 77:62 And he shut up his people under the sword: and he despised his inheritance.

Sword. So that they could not escape. --- Despised. Hebrew hithhabar,is rendered distulit by St. Jerome, (ver. 21, 59.; Calmet) or non distulit, "he did not delay" to punish, as Erasmus reads. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:63 Fire consumed their young men: and their maidens were not lamented.

Fire of God's indignation, (Menochius; Worthington) or of war. --- Lamented. St. Jerome, "its virgins no one bewailed." (Haydock) --- He seems to have read éullu, with the Septuagint. Others translate, (Berthier) "did not mourn," though they were now deprived of the hopes of marrying, (Calmet) or "the virgins were not praised" in the canticles used at the marriage-feast, (Chaldean, etc.) non epithalamio celebratae sunt, (Montanus) or "married." (Pagnin) (Haydock) --- There was no time to bewail the death of the young men, or the captivity of the women. (Calmet) --- Each one was too solicitous for his own safety. (Haydock)
Psalms 77:64 Their priests fell by the sword: and their widows did not mourn.

Priests. Ophni and Phinees, (1 Kings 4:11.; Calmet) the origin of this calamity, (Haydock) and the high priest himself broke his neck. (Worthington) --- Mourn, plorabantur, intimates rather that the people did not mourn for him. But the Hebrew has this meaning also, fleverunt, (Montanus) sunt fletae. (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- The widow of Phinees died on hearing the sad news; and Eusebius seems to think that grief killed Ophni's widow likewise. (Calmet)
Psalms 77:65 And the Lord was awaked as one out of sleep, and like a mighty man that hath been surfeited with wine.

Surfeited. St. Jerome, Chaldean, etc., agree in this sense. But Hebrew may admit another, not quite so harsh, (Calmet) "like a hero who shouts for (Montanus) or sing after wine;" (Haydock) dialalon ex oinou, "rendered talkative by wine." (Symmachus) --- God allowed the Philistines to prosper for a time; but, at last, he covered them with ignominy. (Haydock) --- We must reflect that the Oriental languages are bolder in their expressions than ours, and that this is simply a comparison, not more astonishing than that used by our Saviour, when he says that he will come like a thief in the night. (Berthier) --- If the Spirit of God had not consecrated such comparisons, no one durst have used them. (St. Augustine) --- God rose to punish the infidels, and to preserve his Church. (Worthington) --- The psalmist speaks of him as of a man invigorated by wine, and filling all with confusion. (Menochius)
Psalms 77:66 And he smote his enemies on the hinder parts: he put them to an everlasting reproach.

Parts. As they were fleeing, (Berthier) or with emerods. (Chaldean, etc.) (Calmet) (1 Kings 5:10.)
Psalms 77:67 And he rejected the tabernacle of Joseph: and chose not the tribe of Ephraim:

Ephraim. Who had been preferred before his elder brother, and yet proved the most inclined to idolatry, ver. 9. (Haydock) --- This tribe was deprived first of the ark, and then of the tabernacle, which were its greatest glory, and this strongly indicated the divine displeasure. (Calmet)
Psalms 77:68 But he chose the tribe of Juda, Mount Sion, which he loved.

Sion. The ark was removed from Cariathiarim, in the tribe of Juda, to the house of Obededom, for three months, and afterwards to the palace or tabernacle on Sion, (Haydock) which God had probably chosen for its fixed abode, towards the beginning of David's reign. (Calmet)
Psalms 77:69 And he built his sanctuary as of unicorns, in the land which he founded for ever.

As of unicorns. That is, firm and strong, like the horn of the unicorn. This is one of the chief of the propositions of this psalm, fore-shewing the firm establishment of the one, true, and everlasting sanctuary of God, in his Church. (Challoner) (Menochius) --- It was preserved before Christ, and will remain till the end of time. (Worthington) --- The temple was not built by David: but the spot was consecrated for it, (2 Kings xxiv.) and the ark was placed on Sion; which was the land which he had founded for ever for this purpose. Hebrew ramim, means "unicorns, (Chaldean; St. Jerome) heights, (Montanus) palaces," (Pagnin) etc. Santificium and sanctuarium, have the same import. (Haydock) --- In the land. Hebrew, "as the land." Septuagint have read b for c, as well; (Berthier) and it is observable that Montanus translates the latter, though the former occur in the Hebrew text below, edition 1632: so easily may these letters be confounded! (Haydock) --- The temple was to have the same stability as the earth, and was but one, like the horn of the unicorn, which is most solid and beautiful. (Calmet) --- Yet this could not be understood of the material temple, which was the most magnificent structure in the world. It was fulfilled in the Church of Jesus Christ, who is also the true David, ver. 72. (Haydock) --- The crowning of David, who was his figure, was a great blessing to Israel. (Worthington)
Psalms 77:70 And he chose his servant, David, and took him from the flocks of sheep: he brought him from following the ewes great with young,

Young. Hebrew also, "giving milk." David was actually with his father's flocks, when he was sent for by Samuel. Saul was also engaged in the pursuits of a country life when he was chosen king: and it would indeed have been difficult to find people of another description among the Israelites, as all followed some business. Croesus observed that he first of his race (Gyges) obtained his liberty and the throne at the same time, as he had kept the flocks of the preceding king. (Xenophon vii.)
Psalms 77:71 To feed Jacob, his servant, and Israel, his inheritance.

Psalms 77:72 And he fed them in the innocence of his heart: and conducted them by the skilfulness of his hands.

Skilfulness. Literally, "intelligences." Plural words are used to express the greatness of the thing. David was very upright and intelligent. (Haydock) --- This enhances the ingratitude of Ephraim, etc., who divided the kingdom. (Calmet) --- Yet David had fallen into some grievous mistakes, so that this can only belong strictly to Jesus Christ, who is the good shepherd, without sin. (Berthier) --- He has here detailed what may serve to illustrate the law and the gospel, and may fill us either with confidence or with alarm. (Haydock) --- We are astonished at the repeated infidelities of the Israelites. But if three millions of Christians were placed in the same circumstances, would they behave better? (Berthier)
Psalms 78:0 The Church in time of persecution prayeth for relief. It seems to belong to the time of the Machabees.

Psalms 78:1 A psalm for Asaph. O God, the heathens are come into thy inheritance, they have defiled thy holy temple: they have made Jerusalem as a place to keep fruit.

Asaph, who might live during the captivity. (Calmet) --- If the ancient (Haydock) Asaph, or David, composed this psalm, it must be considered as a prediction of the ruin caused by Nabuchodonosor, or by Epiphanes. (Berthier, T. v.) --- The author of 1 Machabees 7:17. accommodates it to the sufferings of those (Calmet) whom Alcimus destroyed; or rather the prophet had them also in view as well as Christian martyrs. (Haydock) --- He cannot speak of the last ruin of Jerusalem, since it would have been improper to pray for its restoration. (St. Augustine) --- Fruit. A mean village, (Menochius) as Isaias 1:8. had threatened. Hebrew, "a heap of stones," (St. Jerome) in the field, Micheas 1:6. Such was the condition of Jerusalem under Nabuchodonosor (Calmet) and Ephiphanes, 1 Machabees 1:(Berthier) --- Catholics have been persecuted in every country, and forced to use mean houses for divine worship. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:2 They have given the dead bodies of thy servants to be meat for the fowls of the air: the flesh of thy saints for the beasts of the earth.

Saints. The Assideans, who were the most esteemed for piety, 1 Machabees 2:42. In the worst of times, there were always some pious Israelites, and the generality of them were less wicked than their enemies, who exercised a horrid barbarity in refusing them burial, after destroying vast numbers, 2 Paralipomenon 36:17. (Calmet) --- This was done at least under Epiphanes, 1 Machabees 7:16. (Haydock) --- Persecutors have hung the bodies of martyrs on poles to be the food of birds, (Worthington) as the missionary priests were treated in England not long ago. Hebrew is here rather inaccurate, (Haydock) "to the wild beast of the earth itself;" (Montanus) lechaitho arets, being put forth léith, earts, (Houbigant) as Protestants themselves translate. (Haydock)
Psalms 78:3 They have poured out their blood as water, round about Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them.

Psalms 78:4 We are become a reproach to our neighbours; a scorn and derision to them that are round about us.

Us. The Idumeans, etc., are hence blamed by the prophets, Ezechiel 25:12., and Abdias 10. (Calmet) --- Christ and his disciples have been treated with scorn, (Berthier) being styled Galileans, Papists, etc. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:5 How long, O Lord, wilt thou be angry for ever: shall thy zeal be kindled like a fire?

Zeal, or jealousy, as God has the greatest affection for his people, and resents their infidelity as a kind of adultery. (Calmet) --- Sin is the source of misery. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:6 *Pour out thy wrath upon the nations that have not known thee: and upon the kingdoms, that have not called upon thy name.

Jeremias 10:25.
Name. Their ignorance was of course culpable. (Berthier) --- This prayer is prophetical, (St. Augustine) or insinuates that those infidels were still more deserving of punishment. (Berthier) --- By destroying Israel, the number of God's worshippers would be lessened. (Calmet) --- Yet this consideration would not hinder God from chastising them; and it is not absolutely true that pagans are always more guilty. Those who know the will of their master, and do it not, shall suffer many stripes. [Luke 12:47.] Having the true faith, they may, however, (Haydock) be sooner converted. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:7 Because they have devoured Jacob; and have laid waste his place.

They have devoured. So Pagnin ventured to translate the Hebrew. But Montanus substitutes the singular, though it be evidently incorrect, (Haydock) and contrary to all the ancient versions and the parallel passage, (Jeremias 10:25.) as well as to Manuscript 3, Lambeth 435, etc., (Kennicott) v being lost at the end of acol. (Houbigant) --- Place. Hebrew also, "beauty," the ark or temple. (Calmet)
Psalms 78:8 *Remember not our former iniquities: let thy mercies speedily prevent us, for we are become exceedingly poor.

Isaias 64:9.
Former iniquities, which we and our fathers have committed. The Hebrews generally pray for the remission of their parent's faults, Lamentations 5:7., Baruch 3:5., and Daniel 9:5. (Calmet) --- But here the penitents' own transgressions may be meant. (Berthier) --- God is ready to pardon such. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:9 Help us, O God, our Saviour: and for the glory of thy name, O Lord, deliver us: and forgive us our sins for thy name's sake:

Help. The necessity of grace, and the co-operation of free-will, are here plainly asserted. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 78:10 Lest they should say among the Gentiles: Where is their God? And let him be made known among the nations before our eyes, By the revenging the blood of thy servants, which hath been shed:

Their God. Let him rescue his people. Cicero (pro Flacco) speaking of the Jewish nation, says, "How dear it was to the immortal gods, appears from its being overcome, enslaved," etc. --- Shed. He speaks not of revenge; (Calmet) but in order that chastisement may open the eyes of the infidels, that they may be converted. (Eusebius) --- Let none suspect that thou disregardest thy people. The event will evince the contrary. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:11 let the sighing of the prisoners come in before thee. According to the greatness of thy arm, take possession of the children of them that have been put to death.

Put. Chaldean, "consigned." (Calmet) --- Protect the successors of the martyrs. (Worthington)
Psalms 78:12 And render to our neighbours seven-fold in their bosom: the reproach wherewith they have reproached thee, O Lord.

Bosom. Punish them severely (Calmet) in this world. (St. Jerome) --- Many of the surrounding nations were subdued by Nabuchodonosor, five years after he had conquered the Jews. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 10:10.) (Jeremias 49:7., etc.)
Psalms 78:13 But we thy people, and the sheep of thy pasture, will give thanks to thee for ever. We will shew forth thy praise, unto generation and generation.

Psalms 79:0 A prayer for the Church in tribulation, commemorating God's former favours.

Psalms 79:1 Unto the end, for them that shall he changed, a testimony for Asaph, a psalm.

Testimony, or instruction, (Calmet) and proof of the psalmist's faith. (Haydock) --- Psalm. Vatican Septuagint, St. Augustine, etc., add, "for (or against) the Assyrian:" whence some have inferred that it relates to the captivity of Israel. But as Benjamin is also mentioned, it seems rather to speak of the captives of Babylon, (Calmet) or of all Jews and Christians in distress. (Berthier) --- The faithful pray for the coming of the Messias, ver. 2, 4, 16. (Haydock) (Fathers) (Calmet)
Psalms 79:2 Give ear, O thou that rulest Israel: thou that leadest Joseph like a sheep. Thou that sittest upon the Cherubim, shine forth

Joseph. He mentions these two as persons dear to God. All the tribes were equally led away captives, and the distinction of kingdoms was not regarded. (Calmet) --- All Israel is denoted by Joseph, who composed two tribes, having the double portion; (Worthington; Menochius) and ruling in Egypt. (Bellarmine)
Psalms 79:3 before Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasses. Stir up thy might, and come to save us.

Manasses. These three tribes followed the ark in the desert, (Numbers 2:18.) and might better see the majesty shining over it. (Worthington) (Calmet) --- Let all be united once more in the divine service. (Muis) --- Samaria, and Jerusalem in part, were in the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin, (Menochius) and Manasses occupied both sides of the Jordan. (Haydock)
Psalms 79:4 Convert us, O God: and shew us thy face, and we shall be saved.

Saved. This chorus occurs three (Worthington) or four times. (Calmet) --- With God's grace, we shall be able to act virtuously. (St. Jerome) --- Thou canst easily rescue us from our misery. Be pleased to send us the Messias, thy substantial image, 2 Corinthians 4:4., and Colossians 1:15. If thou assist us, we may co-operate to obtain salvation. (Worthington)
Psalms 79:5 O Lord, God of hosts, how long wilt thou be angry against the prayer of thy servant?

Psalms 79:6 How long wilt thou feed us with the bread of tears: and give us for our drink tears in measure?

Measure. Hebrew shalish, "three-fold." (St. Jerome) --- The capacity of this measure is not determined. It might be the seah, or the third part of an epha, which would be very abundant, speaking of tears; though small to contain the earth, Isaias 40:12. (Calmet) --- Penitents must eat little. (St. Jerome) --- Yet their sorrow must be moderated by hope. (Eusebius) See Osee 9:4. (Calmet) --- God punishes so as not to destroy us. (Worthington)
Psalms 79:7 Thou hast made us to be a contradiction to our neighbours: and our enemies have scoffed at us.

At us. See Psalm 78:4. (Haydock) --- Such was the condition of Jeremias, 15:10. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "have scoffed among themselves." Chaldean and St. Jerome agree with us. Scorn is more difficult to bear than poverty. Hence to comfort himself, the psalmist repeats, O God, etc. (Berthier)
Psalms 79:8 O God of hosts, convert us: and shew thy face, and we shall be saved.

Psalms 79:9 Thou hast brought a vineyard out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the Gentiles and planted it.

Vineyard. Thy Church and people. (Worthington) (Isaias 5:1., Osee 10:1., and Matthew 20:2.)
Psalms 79:10 Thou wast the guide of its journey in its sight: thou plantedst the roots thereof, and it filled the land.

Sight. Hebrew, "Thou didst dig before it," (Montanus) making the ground ready. (Calmet) --- The cloud went before the Israelites. (Worthington) --- Land of promise. (Haydock)
Psalms 79:11 The shadow of it covered the hills: and the branches thereof the cedars of God.

God. The highest cedars were surpassed by the branches, or even by the smallest shoots (arbusta) of this vine. (Haydock) --- Most powerful nations were forced to submit to David. (Theodoret) --- The Israelites were exceedingly multiplied, (Worthington) and enjoyed the fruits of the country, Micheas 4:4. (Calmet)
Psalms 79:12 It stretched forth its branches unto the sea, and its boughs unto the river.

River Euphrates, from the Mediterranean, Red, and Indian seas. (Haydock) (Deuteronomy 11:24.)
Psalms 79:13 Why hast thou broken down the hedge thereof, so that all they who pass by the way, do pluck it?

It? Thou hast withdrawn thy protection. The temple is destroyed, and all plunder with impunity, because thy vineyard has not rendered good fruit, Jeremias 2:21.
Psalms 79:14 The boar out of the wood hath laid it waste: and a singular wild beast hath devoured it.

Singular. The wild boar, which does not go with other beasts. Nabuchodonosor is here designated, (Calmet) or Salmanasar, and all persecutors, (Berthier) particularly the devil, who goes about like a roaring lion, [1 Peter 5:8.] and stirs up his agents to disturb the world. Hence the enemy becomes more cruel than any wild beast. (Worthington)
Psalms 79:15 Turn again, O God of hosts, look down from heaven, and see, and visit this vineyard:

Psalms 79:16 And perfect the same which thy right hand hath planted: and upon the Son of man whom thou hast confirmed for thyself.

And look down upon "the Messias," (Chaldean) the true vine, John 15:1., and Matthew 21:33. (Calmet) --- Of man, is not in Hebrew, only, ver. 18. (Haydock) --- Some perfection was wanting in the Church of the Old Testament.
Psalms 79:17 Things set on fire and dug down, shall perish at the rebuke of thy countenance.

Things set on fire, etc. So this vineyard of thine, almost consumed already, must perish if thou continue thy rebukes. (Challoner) --- Things, would imply that incensa is in the neuter plural. But this is not the case in Septuagint or Hebrew. (Berthier) --- St. Jerome has succensam, "Look down upon the vine or root, (17) burn up and without any branches. Let them perish at," etc., who have thus treated it. (Haydock)
Psalms 79:18 Let thy hand be upon the man of thy right hand: and upon the Son of man, whom thou hast confirmed for thyself.

The man of thy right hand. Christ, (Challoner) where he sits, (Calmet) being as man in the highest place of heaven, Matthew 26:64., and 12:32. (Haydock) --- Who else could redeem Israel? (Calmet) --- Zorobabel was only a figure of Him. (Haydock) --- Christ's birth was miraculous, (Menochius) and he was appointed by the right hand of God to do great things; and, as man, is moved to take compassion on the distresses of his people. (Berthier)
Psalms 79:19 And we depart not from thee, thou shalt quicken us: and we will call upon thy name.

From thee. This is our fixed determination for the future. (Haydock) --- Will call. Hebrew, "Shall be called by thy name," (St. Jerome; Haydock) thy people. (Symmachus) (Calmet) --- But the Vulgate is equally correct, invocabimus. (Montanus) (Protestants) (Haydock)
Psalms 79:20 O Lord God of hosts, convert us: and shew thy face, and we shall be saved.

Psalms 80:0 An invitation to a solemn praising of God.

Psalms 80:1 Unto the end, for the wine-presses, a psalm for Asaph himself.

For the wine-presses, etc., torcularibus. It either signifies a musical instrument, or that this psalm was to be sung at the feast of the tabernacles after the gathering in of the vintage, (Calmet) or on the feast of trumpets, on the 1st of Tisri, Leviticus 23:24. (Eusebius) (Pin.) (Calmet) See Psalm viii. --- From the grape some good wine is extracted, and the rest is thrown away: so in this psalm we find the just rejoice, while the wicked complain, during the persecutions of the Church. (St. Augustine) --- Some Latin copies add, "on the 5th day of the week;" and Genebrard supposes that these additions are owing to the Jewish traditions, (Calmet) as they might sing this psalm on Thursday. (Haydock) --- We need not attempt to ascribe this piece to any particular time, though some have thought that it regards the captives, the translation of the ark, or the vocation of the Gentiles, etc. (Calmet) --- It is very beautiful. (Berthier)
Psalms 80:2 Rejoice to God our helper: sing aloud to the God of Jacob.

Psalms 80:3 Take a psalm and bring hither the timbrel: the pleasant psaltery with the harp.

Psalms 80:4 Blow up the trumpet on the new moon, on the noted day of your solemnity.

New moon of Tisri, Leviticus 23:24. --- Noted. Hebrew, "in the obscure, in the day of our solemnity." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "in the time appointed, on our solemn feast-day." Cose may denote "obscure or appointed;" (St. Jerome) "in the middle of the month;" (Haydock) which alludes to the feast of tabernacles, when the Jews dwelt under the shade of tents, made of branches. This was esteemed "the most holy and greatest" of their festivals. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] 8:2.) (Numbers 29:12., and Proverbs 7:20.) (Calmet) --- It may also be explained of the new moon of Tisri, (Menochius) when the people were admonished of the beginning of the civil year, or of the three great festivals to be then celebrated, perhaps (Haydock) in memory of the world's creation, at that season. (Berthier) --- How carefully ought we not, therefore, to celebrate the Christian holidays, which are instituted to excite our gratitude for greater benefits! (Haydock) --- The days of the new moons (Numbers 28:11.) were consecrated, to acknowledge God's constant providence; and that of Tisri in particular, (Numbers 29:1.) to thank him for the preservation of Isaac, Genesis 22:18. (Worthington) --- But the Lord's day reminds us not only of the world's creation, but also of its redemption, etc., Romans 4:25. (Berthier)
Psalms 80:5 For it is a commandment in Israel, and a judgment to the God of Jacob.

Jacob. It is a duty which we owe to God, in obedience to his command. Hebrew may be, (Haydock) "a decree for the princes (gods) of Jacob." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "a law of," etc.
Psalms 80:6 *He ordained it for a testimony in Joseph, when he came out of the land of Egypt: he heard a tongue which he knew not.

Genesis 41:29.
Joseph. Who represents all the family of Israel, as he took care of it. (Calmet) (Psalm 79:2.) (Worthington) --- Not. The Israelites heard the voice of God at Sinai, (St. Jerome, etc.; Calmet) and for the last time, where forced to hear the insults of the Egyptians at their heels; (Haydock) whose language was barbarous to them, (Psalm 113:1.; Menochius) and not well understood by all, as they had very little society together. Joseph spoke to his brethren by an interpreter. (Haydock) --- Some explain this of Joseph himself, when he first came into Egypt, (Chaldean. Bossuet) or of the Israelites, at their arrival there. (Vatable) --- But this agrees not with the Vulgate or Hebrew, (Haydock) the latter of which is very confused and incorrect, though it be adopted (Calmet) by St. Jerome: "I heard a tongue which I knew not, I withdrew," etc., (Haydock) or, making a small alteration, "God hast established this festival in Joseph, when He appeared in the land of Egypt to rescue his people: then said the Lord, I made him hear a language which he knew not, that I was the protector of my people, I will remove," etc. (Calmet) --- The authors of the Pin. disc. take this liberty, which would make the sense pretty clear. But the Hebrew means, "I heard," etc. Some not being able to understand this, have substituted, "He heard," with the German version. (Berthier) --- The ancient Greek interpreters seem to have read the same, as no variation is noticed. (Calmet) --- If, however, we must explain the Hebrew of St. Jerome, we must suppose that, "I knew not, means I condemned, as it often does; and God certainly reprobated the harsh language of the Egyptian task-masters, and came to deliver his people from oppression, Exodus 2:25., and 3:8., and 5:14. (Haydock)
Psalms 80:7 He removed his back from the burdens: his hands had served in baskets.

Baskets. Hebrew, "brazen." (Montanus) --- "His hands shall pass from the pots." (Protestants) --- Dud, means also, "basket." (Haydock) --- The Hebrews were thus forced to carry mortar, (Menochius) straw, etc. (Worthington)
Psalms 80:8 Thou calledst upon me in affliction, and I delivered thee: I heard thee in the secret place of tempest: *I proved thee at the waters of contradiction.

Exodus 17:5.
In the secret place of tempest. Hebrew, of thunder. When thou soughtest to hide thyself from the tempest: or, when I came down to Mount Sinai, hidden from the eyes in a storm of thunder; (Challoner; Exodus 19:16.) or when I afflicted Egypt, (Exodus 9:23.) and Pharao's army, Psalm 76:19. --- Contradiction, at Mara, or rather at Cades, where Moses betrayed some distrust, Exodus 24:25., and Numbers 20:12. (Calmet) --- After so many benefits, they still contradicted God, and would not serve him. (Worthington)
Psalms 80:9 Hear, O my people, and I will testify to thee: O Israel, if thou wilt hearken to me,

Testify. Instruct, or call heaven to witness our covenant. (Calmet) --- Man has free will, and may choose whether he will obey or not. (Worthington)
Psalms 80:10 There shall be *no new god in thee: neither shalt thou adore a strange god.

Exodus 20:3.
New God. Who must of course be false. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "strange," Exodus 20:2., and Jeremias 23:23. (Calmet) --- An express law on this head was a great benefit, (Worthington) as most people had gone astray. (Haydock)
Psalms 80:11 For I am the Lord, thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt: open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it.

Fill it. I will grant all thy just requests, if thou be faithful. (Eusebius) (Calmet) (Worthington) --- God uses the title of Jehovah, "the Eternal self-existent Being." (Berthier)
Psalms 80:12 But my people heard not my voice: and Israel hearkened not to me.

Psalms 80:13 *So I let them go according to the desires of their heart: they shall walk in their own inventions.

Acts 14:15.
Inventions. Ancient psalters read, "wills." This is the greatest (Calmet) of God's judgments, Romans 1:24. (Menochius) --- He sometimes permits a person to go on, that he may be disgusted with sin. Ut saturati vitiis vel sic agant poenitentiam. (St. Jerome) --- We ought all to dread this root of bitterness, (Hebrews 12:15.) which may cause us to resist God's grace, and to be abandoned by him, as the Israelites seemed to be, before their ruin came on. (Berthier)
Psalms 80:14 *If my people had heard me: if Israel had walked in my ways:

Baruch 3:13.
Psalms 80:15 I should soon have humbled their enemies, and laid my hand on them that troubled them.

Soon. Forsitan, "perhaps," (Haydock) does not here imply a doubt, (Menochius) but rather the ease and liberty (Worthington) with which God could have rescued his people (Hebrew) "in a moment." (Calmet) (Berthier)
Psalms 80:16 The enemies of the Lord have lied to him: and their time shall be for ever.

Enemies. The faithless Israelites, (Calmet) or infidel nations. (Bossuet, etc.) --- Ever. Impenitent sinners shall suffer for ever. (Challoner) --- The Jews will scarcely be converted at last. (Menochius) --- For a long time God bore with their infidelities, and heaped favours upon them. (Haydock)
Psalms 80:17 And he fed them with the fat of wheat, and filled them with the honey out of the rock.

And. Or "though." This increases their ingratitude. --- Filled. Hebrew, "I will fill thee;" which reading few admit. St. Jerome agrees with us. (Berthier) --- Protestants, (16) "the haters of the Lord should have submitted (marginal note, lied) to him; but their time should have endured for ever. (17) He should have fed them, (v rather signifies "him;" Haydock) also with the finest of wheat, and with honey out of the rock, should I have satisfied thee." This sudden change seems rather abrupt, though God may have spoken either in the first or third person, from ver. 6. (Haydock) --- Rock. He fed them in the desert with manna, and the water seemed most delicious, as they were thirsty; unless he speaks of real honey. (Menochius) --- The promised land was very fruitful; but all this prefigured the favours which God bestows upon his servants, in the blessed Eucharist, 1 Corinthians 10:4. (Calmet) --- How many, like Judas, partake of them, and prove faithless! (St. Augustine)
Psalms 81:0 An exhortation to judges and men in power.

Psalms 81:1 A psalm for Asaph. God hath stood in the congregation of gods; and being in the midst of them he judgeth gods.

Asaph. Josaphat gave the like instructions to his judges, 2 Paralipomenon 19:6. (Kimchi) (Calmet) --- God rejected the Jews in the preceding psalm, and here the reason is assigned. (Theodoret) --- Congregation, or church of the Jews, who were gathered together like cattle, and sought after temporal advantages (St. Augustine, in Psalm 72:23.) alone. (Catec. Trid. Symb.[The Catechism of Trent: The Creed: Article ix.?]) --- This is not exactly true of all, (Hebrews 11:14.) though it might be of the people in general, who seldom raised their thoughts to spiritual delights. (Haydock) --- Of gods. Hebrew, "of God," who presides in his own council, and gives authority to others. (Amama) --- Yet Syriac has, "the angels;" Chaldean, "the just;" Protestants, "the mighty;" and Aquila, "the powerful ones." (Haydock) --- Gods here are put for judges, who act in God's name, Deuteronomy 1:17., and Exodus 22:28. To decide affairs of consequence, the priests and other judges met in the temple; and the Romans did the like, each senator offering incense and wine to the god who was honoured in that place. (Suetonius in Aug. xxxv.) (Calmet) --- All magistrates ought to be equally careful in what they determine, as if they heard God present giving them the following instructions. (Worthington) --- Judgeth gods, or "God, our Saviour, is judged." (Houbigant) --- This bringeth on the reprobation of the Jews, ver. 5, etc. (Berthier)
Psalms 81:2 How long will you judge unjustly: and accept the persons of the wicked?

Wicked. Contrary to the law, Deuteronomy 1:17., and Leviticus 19:15.
Psalms 81:3 Judge for the needy and fatherless: do justice to the humble and the poor.

Do justice. This is the sense of justificate, "justify," as the poor must not be screened from justice, any more than the rich. (Haydock) --- They are in greater danger of being neglected, Isaias 1:23., and Jeremias 5:28. (Haydock)
Psalms 81:4 *Rescue the poor; and deliver the needy out of the hand of the sinner.

Proverbs 24:11.
Psalms 81:5 They have not known nor understood; they walk on in darkness: all the foundations of the earth shall be moved.

Moved. The ignorance, inapplication, and injustice of those in power overturn the state, which is supported by justice, Proverbs 14:34. They draw down God's curse upon the land, (St. Jerome; Calmet) and expose it to all the miseries of anarchy. This regards pastors also. (Berthier) --- By gross ignorance judges walk in darkness, and throw all into confusion.
Psalms 81:6 *I have said: You are gods, and all of you the sons of the most High.

John 10:34.
Gods. The people look upon you as such, and treat you with respect. But entertain not sentiments of pride on that account. (Calmet) --- If judges, even those whom God condemns, may be styled gods without blasphemy, how much more might Jesus Christ, who was holy and did the works of God? He uses this argument to make the fury of the people abate: but then he continues to prove that he was God in a very different and proper sense, insomuch that the Jews, clearly perceiving his meaning, which Socinians would now mistake, took up stones to throw at him, John 10:34. (Haydock) --- If he had not been God, He would surely have told them plainly, as St. Paul did when people would have offered sacrifice to him, and as St. John the Baptist confessed that he was not the Christ. The sons of Seth, priests, the just, and all the Israelites, were styled sons of God, as well as the angels and judges, Genesis 6:2., Psalm 28:1., Wisdom 5:5., and Job 1:6. But no individual is called the Son, except Jesus Christ the true God. (Berthier) --- This passage may be understood of all the faithful, (St. Augustine) particularly of bishops: and Constantine the Great was hence deterred from judging them (St. Gregory 1:dec. Grat. p. 2. C. 11. q. 1.) or the clergy; (St. Melchiades C. 12. q. 1.) though this name seems inaccurate, as he died before (Glossa) the council of Nice. Amama restrains the text to men in power. (Haydock) --- Their elevated station makes their ignorance and misconduct less excusable. (Menochius)
Psalms 81:7 But you like men shall die: and shall fall like one of the princes.

Men. Hebrew Adam, or "like a man" (Montanus; Haydock) of the meanest rank. --- Princes. Among men, (Calmet) or like Lucifer, the first of the rebel angels. (Eusebius) (St. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho) --- Most tyrants come to a miserable end. (Menochius) --- At death, judges themselves are brought to the bar, and their case is then more terrible, as the mighty in guilt shall suffer more, Wisdom vi. (Worthington) --- They are forced to taste of death; while Jesus Christ was master of it, John 10:17, 28. This comparison evinces Christ's divinity. But Socinians blind themselves by looking at the sun, and attempting to fathom all by the weak light of reason. (Berthier)
Psalms 81:8 Arise, O God, judge thou the earth: for thou shalt inherit among all the nations.

Nations. Those whom thou hast appointed judges, prevaricate, Genesis 18:25. (Calmet) --- Come, therefore, thyself, Lord Jesus, (Apocalypse 22:20.) to whom all nations were promised for an inheritance. (Berthier) (Psalm 2:7.) --- His appearance at the last day is described in the 49th psalm; and most of the Fathers here discover a clear prediction of the conversion of the Gentiles. (Calmet)
Psalms 82:0 A prayer against the enemies of God's Church.

Psalms 82:1 A canticle of a psalm for Asaph.

Asaph. This psalm alludes to the wars of David, (2 Kings viii.; Berthier) against Ammon, (Bossuet) or of the Jews returned from captivity, (2 Esdras iv., and Ezechiel xxxviii.; Theodoret) or of the Machabees; (1 Machabees v., and 2 Machabees x.; Bellarmine) or rather of Josaphat, 2 Paralipomenon xx. (Kimchi) (Hammond) (Calmet) --- All in danger are taught to have recourse to God. (Berthier)
Psalms 82:2 O God, who shall be like to thee? hold not thy peace, neither be thou still, O God;

To thee? Hebrew, "be not silent to thyself." (Pagnin) --- But domi also implies "like;" (Bellarmine) and there would otherwise be a sort of tautology. (Berthier) --- Christ on earth was like other men: but when he shall come to judgment, none will be comparable to Him. (St. Augustine) --- Amama says this exposition is groundless: but others are of a contrary opinion. (Haydock) --- The ancient Greek interpreters seem not to have varied from the Septuagint, though St. Jerome adopts the present Hebrew, "be not silent. Hold," etc., which may express the utmost fervour and want of protection. Thy own cause is now at stake: the enemy wishes to destroy religion. (Calmet)
Psalms 82:3 For lo thy enemies have made a noise: and they that hate thee, have lifted up the head.

Noise. Like the boisterous ocean. (Haydock) --- Head. To revolt, 4 Kings 3:9., and 2 Paralipomenon xx.
Psalms 82:4 They have taken a malicious counsel against thy people, and have consulted against thy saints.

Saints. Hebrew, "hidden ones;" (Protestants; Haydock) the people under God's protection, (Menochius; Berthier) or the treasures of the temple. (Calmet)
Psalms 82:5 They have said: Come and let us destroy them, so that they be not a nation: and let the name of Israel be remembered no more.

Nation. That there may be no more of this religion, or Catholics. (Worthington) --- Israel delighted most in being styled the chosen nation of God. (Berthier)
Psalms 82:6 For they have contrived with one consent: they have made a covenant together against thee,

Psalms 82:7 The tabernacles of the Edomites, and the Ismahelites: Moab, and the Agarenes,

Agarenes descended from Agar, though they took the name of Saracens, as if they had sprung from Sara, (Worthington) or they dwelt at Agra, otherwise called Petra, in Arabia; or on the east of Galaad, 1 Paralipomenon 5:10. (Calmet)
Psalms 82:8 Gebal, and Ammon and Amalec: the Philistines, with the inhabitants of Tyre.

Psalms 82:9 Yea, and the Assyrian also is joined with them: they are come to the aid of the sons of Lot.

Assyrian, or "Assur," sprung from Dedan, (Genesis 25:3.) and dwelt near the Ammonites. (Calmet) --- Come. Hebrew, "an arm to," etc. (Haydock) --- All infidels conspire against Catholics, (Worthington) and are willing to forget their private quarrels. (Haydock)
Psalms 82:10 Do to them *as thou didst to Madian **and to Sisara: as to Jaban at the brook of Cisson.

Judges 7:22. --- ** Judges 1:15.
Madian: 120,000 of whom were defeated by Gedeon with 300 men, (Haydock; Judges vii.) as Sisara was routed by Debora, at Cisson, and slain by Jahel, Judges 4:(Calmet)
Psalms 82:11 Who perished at Endor: and became as dung for the earth.

Endor. Near this place the Madianites fell upon one another. --- All their princes of Madian, (Calmet) or treat all the princes of the people, who now attack us, like them. (Menochius) --- Both senses are good. (Berthier)
Psalms 82:12 *Make their princes like Oreb, **and Zeb, and Zebee, and Salmana. All their princes,

Judges 7:25. --- ** Judges 8:21.
Psalms 82:13 Who have said: Let us possess the sanctuary of God for an inheritance.

Psalms 82:14 O my God, make them like a wheel; and as stubble before the wind.

Psalms 82:15 As fire which burneth the wood: and as a flame burning mountains.

Mountains. The prayer or prediction was not in vain. The enemies of Josaphat, (2 Paralipomenon 20:11, 24.; Calmet) and of David, etc., were destroyed. (Haydock) --- The trees on the mountains, (Menochius) or the mountain itself, might burn like Etna and Vesuvius. (Genebrard) --- The destruction of the wicked is thus described. (Worthington)
Psalms 82:16 So shalt thou pursue them with thy tempest: and shalt trouble them in thy wrath.

Tempest. During the night, a tempest probably arose, which threw the enemy into confusion, who supposing that the Israelites had broken into the camp, fell upon each other in the dark. (Calmet) --- St. Paul reminds us of God's indignation, which Christians as well as Jews ought to dread, Hebrews 12:25, 29., and Deuteronomy 4:24. (Berthier)
Psalms 82:17 Fill their faces with shame; and they shall seek thy name, O Lord.

Name. This was the desire of the prophet; (St. Jerome; Calmet; Berthier) and for this end, God sends afflictions. The impenitent must perish for ever, ver. 18. (Worthington)
Psalms 82:18 Let them be ashamed and troubled for ever and ever: and let them be confounded and perish.

Psalms 82:19 And let them know that the Lord is thy name: thou alone art the most High over all the earth.

Lord. He who is, Exodus 3:14., and 6:3. (Worthington) --- The name of the Lord is Himself. (Berthier)
Psalms 83:0 The soul aspireth after heaven: rejoicing, in the mean time, in being in the communion of God's Church upon the earth.

Psalms 83:1 Unto the end, for the wine-presses, a psalm for the sons of Core.

Core. See Psalm viii., xli., and lxxx. (Haydock) --- The Corites were musicians, as well as porters in the temple, 1 Paralipomenon xxvi. They here represent the faithful upon earth, (St. Augustine; Worthington) who sigh after the heavenly Sion. David was animated with these sentiments, more than with the desire of revisiting Jerusalem, during the revolt of his son. (Berthier) --- This psalm might have been written by him under the persecution of Saul, (Grotius) or it may refer to the captives. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- Yet, at those times, the tabernacle was not subsisting on Sion, as it seem to have been when this beautiful piece was composed. (Berthier) --- The Jews are said to recite it every night, in hopes of seeing Jerusalem rebuilt, and it might very well be used by all Israelites, when they went to celebrate the three great festivals. (Calmet)
Psalms 83:2 How lovely are thy tabernacles, O Lord of host!

Psalms 83:3 My soul longeth and fainteth for the courts of the Lord. My heart and my flesh have rejoiced in the living God.

Fainteth. The eager desire of heaven sometimes deprives people of external satisfaction, and the body partakes of the inward joy. (Worthington) --- Living. The idols of Babylon have no life. (Eusebius)
Psalms 83:4 For the sparrow hath found herself a house, and the turtle a nest for herself, where she may lay her young ones: Thy altars, O Lord of hosts, my king and my God.

Turtle. Moderns prefer to render "swallows," without reason. (Bochart) --- Thy altars. They can rest in the ruins of the temple; (Kimchi; Muis) but in that supposition, the altars were destroyed. (Haydock) --- It seems rather that this is an exclamation, (Berthier) which the enraptured psalmist is unable to conclude, giving us to understand that he desired his asylum and place of rest to be near God's altars, (Haydock) with the angels above, Isaias vi. (Worthington) --- The faithful soul seeks to dwell in heaven, and in the mean time keeps in the Catholic Church, laying up store of good works. For, out of it, whatever good pagans and heretics may seem to do, by feeding the hungry, etc., as these things are not laid in the nest, they will be trodden under foot, conculcabuntur. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 83:5 Blessed are they that dwell in thy house, O Lord: they shall praise thee for ever and ever.

Joel 2:13.
Psalms 83:6 Blessed is the man whose help is from thee: in his heart he hath disposed to ascend by steps,

In his heart, he hath disposed to ascend by steps, etc., ascensiones in corde suo disposuit. As by steps men ascended towards the eternal temple by certain steps of virtue disposed or ordered within the heart. And this whilst he lives as yet in the body, in this vale of tears, the place which man hath set: that is, which he hath brought himself to: being cast out of paradise for his sin. (Challoner) --- There is no standing still. "As the saint daily advances, so the sinner daily decreases." (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- Hebrew of these three following verses is variously rendered. The Septuagint are the most ancient, and very exact. (Berthier) --- Heart. "The more you love, the higher will you ascend." (St. Augustine) --- Hebrew, "the paths are in his heart. Passing in the vale of tears, they shall place (or deem) it a fountain. The teacher shall be clothed with benediction. They shall go from strength to strength: they shall appear before God in Sion." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Three words occasion the difference: ábri, "passing," means also, "disposing." Septuagint have only used it as a singular, to agree with man, Máin, "a fountain," may have been read máun, "for the place." --- Al, means, "the God," and "to." (Berthier) --- Amama says the points are different. But we have often shewn the futility of that objection; which might regulate the versions of the Masorets, but could have no influence on those who lived many ages before their invention. They are neglected here by the authors of Prin. disc., "the God almighty shall appear in Sion." (Haydock)
Psalms 83:7 In the vale of tears, in the place which he hath set.

Tears. Protestants, "Baca." Marginal note, "of mulberry-trees," near Jerusalem, Judges 2:5., and 1 Kings 5:23. (Haydock) --- It was perhaps used proverbially for any dry place. The Lord had promised to relieve the captives with water, Isaias 35:5., etc. (Calmet) --- Place. The temple or tabernacle, (Haydock) which the Lord hath appointed. (Calmet)
Psalms 83:8 For the lawgiver shall give a blessing, they shall go from virtue to virtue: the God of gods shall be seen in Sion.

Blessing. Abundance of water, and other necessaries, (2 Corinthians 9:6.) as well as (Haydock) spiritual graces, which help those who continue in the true Church to arrive at the vision of God. (Worthington) --- Virtue, or "company," in which manner the Israelites went to the temple. (Calmet) --- God. And not merely the temple, etc., as here on earth. (Menochius)
Psalms 83:9 O Lord, God of hosts, hear my prayer: give ear, O God of Jacob.

Psalms 83:10 Behold, O God, our protector: and look on the face of thy Christ.

Christ. Chaldean, "the Messias," (Berthier) through whom we address all our petitions. (Worthington) --- Protect thy people, (St. Jerome) and raise up the throne of David. (Calmet)
Psalms 83:11 For better is one day in thy courts above thousands. I have chosen to be an abject in the house of my God, rather than to dwell in the tabernacles of sinners.

Thousands elsewhere, (Calmet) among sinners. He is so much affected, as to leave the sentence imperfect, ver. 4. But the meaning is clear. Temporal must yield to eternal happiness. Eternity is all as one point: it has no division of time, which has a thousand parts. (Haydock) --- Heaven is represented as a palace, (Berthier) in which the blessed enjoy perpetual felicity. (Haydock) --- With respect to future rewards, one day in the Church is better than thousands out of it. (Worthington), ver. 4. --- Abject. Protestants, "door-keeper." Marginal note, "on the threshold." (Haydock) --- This was the office of the Corites, (Calmet) and they prefer it before the finest occupations among sinners. Hebrew, "the tents of wickedness." (Haydock) --- The poorest condition in the Catholic Church, is better than the highest dignities which the wicked can bestow. (Worthington) --- Indeed poverty, and attention to God's service, is the most secure road to heaven, and gives even present content to those who are actuated by the divine spirit. (Haydock)
Psalms 83:12 For God loveth mercy and truth: the Lord will give grace and glory.

Truth. He is merciful, and always performs what he has promised: (Menochius) whereas sinners are noted for cruelty and deceit. Hebrew, "the Lord God is a sun and shield." (Haydock) --- This sense is very good. But Theodotion agrees with the Septuagint, who have read differently, unless they have substituted the thing signified for the figure. (Berthier) --- Glory, in the next world, (Worthington) or even in this. He will restore us to happiness, and cause even our persecutors to esteem us. (Calmet) --- Donator est indulgentiae, debitor coronae....promittendo. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 83:13 He will not deprive of good things them that walk in innocence: O Lord of hosts, blessed is the man that trusteth in thee.

Innocence. After the remission of sin. (Worthington)
Psalms 84:0 The coming of Christ, to bring peace and salvation to man.

Psalms 84:1 Unto the end, for the sons of Core, a psalm.

Psalm. It resembles the 66th [psalm], and seems to have been sung when the first-fruits were brought to the temple. Most people explain it of the captives delivered, (Theodoret; Du Pin) and of Christ's redemption. (Eusebius; St. Augustine) (Calmet) --- David foresaw the afflictions and captivity of his people; and was aware of the miseries of mankind, to be removed by the Messias alone. (Berthier)
Psalms 84:2 Lord, thou hast blessed thy land: thou hast turned away the captivity of Jacob.

Blessed. Hebrew, "taken into favour," or "hast rendered fruitful." (Judea) (Calmet) --- God had bestowed many benefits upon his people, rescuing them from the Egyptian bondage, and not punishing them as much as they deserved. (Worthington) --- Others explain it of the captivity at Babylon, or under the devil. (Menochius) --- David speaks of the former event by the prophetic spirit, and the latter misfortune was always deplorable, and to be terminated only by the Messias. (Berthier) --- The redemption of man was prefigured by the liberation of the Jews. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 84:3 Thou hast forgiven the iniquity of thy people: thou hast covered all their sins.

Psalms 84:4 Thou hast mitigated all thy anger: thou hast turned away from the wrath of thy indignation.

Psalms 84:5 Convert us, O God our Saviour: and turn off thy anger from us.

Convert. Bring back the remnant of thy people, dispersed through the world. Only a few returned under Cyrus; the rest came back by degrees principally during the reigns of Hystaspes and Alexander the Great. (Calmet, Diss.) --- While we continue unconverted, we are objects of God's wrath. (Berthier) (Lamentations 5:21.) --- Our Saviour. Septuagint, "of our salvations." St. Jerome, "our Jesus." (Haydock) --- Saviour of mankind, mitigate thy wrath against us. (Worthington)
Psalms 84:6 Wilt thou be angry with us for ever: or wilt thou extend thy wrath from generation to generation?

Ever. The Pythagoreans settled their differences before sunset. (Plut.) --- "Cherish not, mortals, an immortal wrath." (Aristotle, Rhet. 2:21.) (Haydock) --- As long, O God, as we see not our brethren restored, we shall think that thou art not perfectly reconciled to us. (Calmet)
Psalms 84:7 Thou wilt turn, O God, and bring us to life: and thy people shall rejoice in thee.

Turn, conversus. The ancient psalters read convertens. "Converting, O God, thou wilt bring us to life," free us from captivity, and redeem us from sin by Jesus Christ, the conqueror of death. (Calmet) --- Before their conversion sinners lie dead in guilt. (Worthington) --- O God, thou wilt again restore us to life. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 84:8 Shew us, O Lord, thy mercy; and grant us thy salvation.

Salvation. By Cyrus, or rather by the Messias, whose time drew near. (Calmet)
Psalms 84:9 I will hear what the Lord God will speak in me: for he will speak peace unto his people: And unto his saints: and unto them that are converted to the heart.

Hear. Hitherto the prophet had been distracted by the thought of his people's misery. (St. Augustine) --- In me, is not expressed in Hebrew. --- Heart. Some of the ancients add, "to him." (Calmet) --- The Septuagint seem to have had a copy different from the present Hebrew, "But let them not turn again to folly;" (Protestants; Haydock) though the sense is much the same. They may have read lobom lie, "their heart to God," (Berthier) or lobsle, (Calmet) "the heart, Sela;" instead of lecisla, "to folly." (Haydock) --- Those Israelites who had given way to idolatry, were little inclined to return to their own country, at the invitation of Cyrus. Though Christ came to save all, only men of good will obtained his peace, Luke 2:4., and John 1:5. (Calmet) --- There is no peace for the wicked, Isaias 48:22., and Philippians 4:9. (Berthier) --- The redemption of the world was here revealed. (Worthington) (Menochius)
Psalms 84:10 Surely his salvation is near to them that fear him: that glory may dwell in our land.

Land. After the captivity, Judea flourished by degrees. But the glory of the second temple consisted in the presence of the Messias, Aggeus 2:8. (Calmet) --- Those who were moved with godly fear, embraced the gospel, in order to be saved, while many rejected it through their own fault. (Worthington)
Psalms 84:11 Mercy and truth have met each other: justice and peace have kissed.

Kissed. Or, "embraced," like friends, as the ancient psalters read. The people practised these virtues after the captivity, and more particularly in the Church of Christ. (Calmet) --- At the time appointed, He reconciled sinners to his Father, having satisfied his justice, (Berthier) and displayed his own mercy. (Menochius) --- Thus justice is strictly observed, and peace made between God and man. (Worthington) --- The justice of the Father and the mercy of the Son kiss each other. (Du Hamel) (Haydock)
Psalms 84:12 Truth is sprung out of the earth: and justice hath looked down from heaven.

Earth. Good men preserve a clear conscience. (Worthington) --- Virtues of every description (Menochius) are become common among God's people, (Calmet) particularly Christians, though our Saviour may here be styled justice. (Menochius) --- He was born of a pure virgin. (St. Jerome) (Lyranus) --- Jam redit et virgo; redeunt saturnia regna. (Virgil, Ec. iv.) (Haydock)
Psalms 84:13 For the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit.

Fruit. By imitation, (Calmet) "we may give birth to Jesus Christ," says St. Jerome. God bestows grace, and so men yield fruit. (Worthington)
Psalms 84:14 Justice shall walk before him: and shall set his steps in the way.

Him. The holy John the Baptist shall prepare the way of the Lord. (Lyranus) (Muis) --- Hebrew, "each one's justice," etc. (Symmachus) --- After the captivity religion shall reign. If we wish to enter heaven, we must follow virtue. (Calmet)
Psalms 85:0 A prayer for God's grace to assist us to the end.

Psalms 85:1 A prayer for David himself. Incline thy ear, O Lord, and hear me: for I am needy and poor.

David. He might compose this psalm under any affliction, though prayer is always necessary (Berthier) for any person. (Worthington) --- Others apply it to Ezechias, (Theodoret) the captives, or the Church. (Calmet) --- Jesus Christ prays during his passion, and foretells his resurrection, and the vocation of the Gentiles. (St. Augustine) --- Needy. Hebrew, "mild or afflicted." Humility is requisite to pray well, as those who think themselves rich, ask not with fervour. (Calmet) --- God "inclines his ear if thou dost not lift up thy neck." (St. Augustine)
Psalms 85:2 Preserve my soul, for I am holy: save thy servant, O my God, that trusteth in thee.

I am holy. I am by my office and profession dedicated to thy service, (Challoner) as a Levite, (Calmet) or a member of the true Church. (Haydock) --- He may also speak in the person of Christ, who prays for us and in us. (Du Hamel) --- Syriac and Arabic read, "thou art good." (Calmet) --- Our necessities, firm purposes of leading a virtuous life, and confidence in God, move him to shew mercy. (Worthington)
Psalms 85:3 Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I have cried to thee all the day.

Psalms 85:4 Give joy to the soul of thy servant; for to thee, O Lord, I have lifted up my soul.

Soul. I ardently desire to serve in thy temple, Jeremias 22:27. A holy importunity, (Luke 18:2.; Tertullian, Apol. 39.; Calmet) and fervour in prayer, (Haydock) with perseverance, attention, and a sense of God's infinite perfections, are requisite. (Worthington)
Psalms 85:5 *For thou, O Lord, art sweet and mild: and plenteous in mercy to all that call upon thee.

Psalms 85:6 Give ear, O Lord, to my prayer: and attend to the voice of my petition.

Psalms 85:7 I have called upon thee in the day of my trouble: because thou hast heard me.

Heard me. This gives me confidence that thou wilt do it again. (Haydock) --- Thou art not like senseless idols. (Calmet)
Psalms 85:8 There is none among the gods like unto thee, O Lord; and there is none according to thy works.

Gods, which have been set up by men; or among angels, etc., (Calmet) capable of working miracles by an independent power. (Haydock)
Psalms 85:9 All the nations thou hast made shall come and adore before thee, O Lord: and they shall glorify thy name.

Name. This was partly verified after the captivity, and fully when the gospel was preached. (Calmet) --- The Gentiles came by faith, and glorified God by good works, Matthew 5:17. (Worthington)
Psalms 85:10 For thou art great and dost wonderful things: thou art God alone.

Alone. Vatican Septuagint, Arabic, etc., add, "the great." (Calmet) (Acts 17:24.
Psalms 85:11 Conduct me, O Lord, in thy way, and I will walk in thy truth: let my heart rejoice, that it may fear thy name.

Truth. Let me see the justice of thy conduct in suffering the wicked to prosper, (Psalm 72:17.) or let me invariably observe thy holy law, which alone can give me true content. --- Rejoice. Hebrew, as we read at present, "likewise fear," (Calmet) "unite," (Montanus) or "let my heart be one," solitary, disengaged from all, unicum, (St. Jerome) "to fear," etc. (Calmet) --- This sense is very good. But yached, means also rejoice. (Berthier) --- Our joy must be mixed with fear. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 85:12 I will praise thee, O Lord, my God, with my whole heart, and I will glorify thy name for ever:

Psalms 85:13 For thy mercy is great towards me: and thou hast delivered my soul out of the lower hell.

Hell of the damned, (Worthington) according to the Fathers: or out of captivity and dangers. (Berthier) --- If it be understood of Christ, it must refer to limbo. (Bellarmine) (Menochius) --- It seems equivalent to the lower pit, Psalm 87:7. (Haydock) --- The Jews admit seven regions in hell, (Genebrard) and our theologians four: 1. Of the damned; 2. of unbaptized infants; 3. of purgatory; and 4. of the saints in Abraham's bosom. St. Augustine mentions the first and last here: but he speaks clearly of purgatory in other places. (De Gen. contra Manch. 2:17. in Psalm vi.) (Calmet) --- David was rescued from the most imminent dangers, and Christ came out of limbo, (Psalm 15:10.; Du Hamel) by his own power. (Haydock)
Psalms 85:14 O God, the wicked are risen up against me, and the assembly of the mighty have sought my soul: and they have not set thee before their eyes.

Eyes. The Babylonians oppress us most unjustly. (Calmet)
Psalms 85:15 And thou, O Lord, art a God of compassion, and merciful, patient, and of much mercy, and true.

True. This title is also applied to Christ, who, of course, is God:; since every man is liable to mistake, Romans 3:4., and Apocalypse 19:1. God authorized Moses and the prophets to address Him, as the psalmist does, Exodus 34:6., and Joel 2:13. (Berthier)
Psalms 85:16 O look upon me, and have mercy on me: give thy command to thy servant, and save the son of thy handmaid.

Command. Hebrew, "strength," (Haydock) to resist the enemy. (Menochius) --- Order me as thou pleasest: I am entirely devoted to thee from my very birth, Psalm 115:16. Restore the throne of David. (Calmet) --- The prophets frequently thus turn to the Church, the kingdom of the Messias, who was born of the handmaid of the Lord. (Worthington)
Psalms 85:17 Shew me a token for good: that they who hate me, may see, and be confounded, because thou, O Lord, hast helped me and hast comforted me.

Good. Mark me for thy slave, (Calmet) which will be the highest honour. (Haydock) --- Give me such a sign as the angel did when he was going to destroy the first-born of Egypt. (St. Athanasius) --- By some prodigy convince our oppressors that there is a God. (Calmet) (Berthier) --- The resurrection, prefigured by Jonas, was the great proof of Christ and his Church; and this serves either for the conversion or for the condemnation of mankind. See St. Augustine. (Worthington) Quod precor eveniet, sunt certa oracula vatum, Nam Deus optanti prospera signa dedit. (Ovid, 2 de Ponto 1.) --- Comforted. St. Cyprian was in sorrow while suffering, but was comforted when crowned. "All the martyrs, with Christ, pray for us." (St. Augustine) (Du Hamel)
Psalms 86:0 The glory of the Church of Christ.

Psalms 86:1 For the sons of Core, a psalm of a canticle. The foundations thereof are in the holy mountains:

Mountains. So far the Jews extend the title, supposing that the subject of this canticle was concerning Sion, Moria, etc. Others think that, thereof, refers to a part of the psalm which has been lost, (Calmet) or to the temple or city which occupied the prophet's thoughts; or it is sufficiently explained by the word Sion, which follows, as the relative sometimes comes first. (Du Hamel) See Proverbs 14:3. --- This psalm might be composed (Berthier) by some of the Corites, during, or after the captivity, when Jerusalem received strangers within her walls, as a figure of the Christian Church; (Isaias 2:2., and Zacharias 8:20.; Calmet) or David (Berthier) might write it when he had removed the ark to Sion, which was to be the seat of the true religion. (Ferrand) --- Mountains. The apostles and prophets; (Ephesians 2:20.; Challoner) on which the Church is founded. (Haydock) --- The city was styled holy, from the temple built on Moria. Several other mountains were included within its walls. (Calmet)
Psalms 86:2 The Lord loveth the gates of Sion above all the tabernacles of Jacob.

Jacob. Jerusalem belonged to some of his children. Hence the psalmist clearly speaks of something better, even of the Church of Christ, (Berthier) which God has chosen for his spouse, having abandoned the synagogue, (Apocalypse 21:9.; Calmet) which was only intended to be a pedagogue. (Haydock)
Psalms 86:3 Glorious things are said of thee, O city of God.

Psalms 86:4 I will be mindful of Rahab and of Babylon knowing me. Behold the foreigners, and Tyre, and the people of the Ethiopians, these were there.

2 Kings 7:12.
Rahab. Egypt, etc. To this Sion, which is the Church of God, many shall resort from all nations. (Challoner) --- Christ gives his apostles command to preach to all, Matthew xxviii., and Luke 24:27. (Worthington) --- Some have supposed that Rahab, who received the spies, is here put, to signify the Chanaanites. But her name is written Reb; and the word before us is Rahab, (Haydock) signifying "pride," (Menochius) or Egypt; particularly the Delta, which is still called Rib. (Calmet) --- Me. I will receive into my Church not only the Jews, but also the most abandoned nations. (Haydock) --- Foreigners. Philistines, Psalm 82:8. (Menochius) --- Were. Hebrew, "this man was born there." (Haydock) --- In Christ there is no distinction of nations, Romans 10:12. The Jews will never shew us the completion of this prophecy any where but in the Church. (Calmet) --- It is spoken of as past, to denote the certainty of the event. (Worthington)
Psalms 86:5 Shall not Sion say: This man and that man is born in her? and the Highest himself hath founded her.

Shall not Sion say, etc. The meaning is, that Sion, viz., the Church, shall not only be able to commemorate this or that particular person of renown born in her, but also to glory in great multitudes of people and princes, of her communion; who have been foretold in the writings of the prophets, and registered in the writings of the apostles. (Challoner) --- We might also translate, "shall it not be said of Sion?" (Worthington) --- Some may have read dicetur, instead of dicet. "Shall not a man say to Sion, yea, a man is born in her?" (Haydock) --- Septuagint have, "mother," metre, which St. Jerome says should be meti, shall not. Other nations may have produced some great men. But Sion has given birth to the Man-God, who was brought into the world in its vicinity, and preached and rose again there. (Berthier) --- She has had many heroes, and has been founded by the Highest. (Menochius) --- Christ, both God and man, is the builder of his Church, and people, in admiration, recount how many great personages have embraced her communion. (Worthington) --- John the Baptist, a man sent by God, announced the Messias; who, according to his humanity, was born of a virgin, among the people of Sion; while, by his divine nature, He was the most High. (Denis the Carthusian) (Bellarmine) --- See Amama. --- Sion, or Jerusalem, shall be the mother of an infinite multitude, (Isaias 49:18.) the metropolis of Judea. Septuagint, Arabic, etc., read, "mother," in this sense. People deemed it an honour to be born there. (Calmet) --- Christ "became man for our sakes, being God before us. How do we know this? The Lord has told us in the writings of peoples." (St. Augustine) (Du Hamel)
Psalms 86:6 The Lord shall tell in his writings of peoples and of princes, of them that have been in her.

Writings. He alone can number the inhabitants: or He will enroll all nations as citizens of Sion. (Calmet) --- The New Testament explains the vocation of the Gentiles, and the incarnation of Christ. (Berthier) --- The Scriptures are the books of all mankind, as well as of princes. All are equally interested in their contents, and ought to become acquainted with them. Hebrew, "the Lord has numbered, writing down peoples: He was born in it for ever." (St. Jerome) --- This refers to Jesus Christ, whose birth is also specified in the preceding verse, (Berthier) as ennobling Sion, far more than that of Homer, Alexander, or Caesar could do any of the pagan cities, Egypt, etc., ver. 4. (Haydock) --- The mystery of the incarnation will shine forth at the last day, as well as the glory of the elect. But these things are already consigned in part to all nations, in the writings of the apostles, (Berthier) and in ecclesiastical history. (Menochius) --- Princes, is not here in Hebrew. (Berthier)
Psalms 86:7 The dwelling in thee is as it were of all rejoicing.

The dwelling, etc. Hebrew, "the singers, like people dancing, (for joy) all my fountains are in thee." St. Jerome reads, "strong ones," and (Haydock) others, "my thoughts," instead of "fountains;" which shews that they have read differently. Vesharim, may signify and princes, taken form the line above, though of this we ought to have some proofs from manuscripts, etc. (Berthier) --- The authority of the Septuagint may perhaps suffice, (Haydock) as they have read more correctly mauni, "habitation," rather than mahyanai, as we have at present. (Berthier) --- If we adopt this sense, (Haydock) the fountains may denote the nations which shall spring from Sion, Psalm 67:27. (Hammond) --- All the inhabitants shall be filled with joy in the heavenly Jerusalem, Apocalypse 17:15. (Calmet) --- This short, but difficult psalm, allegorically describes the mystery of Christ, and of the Church. (Berthier) --- Catholics may taste pure delights, having peace of conscience, etc. But the blessed enjoy the most perfect content in the Church triumphant. (Worthington) (Menochius)
Psalms 87:0 A prayer of one under grievous affliction: it agrees to Christ in his passion, and alludes to his death and burial.

Psalms 87:1 A canticle of a psalm for the sons of Core: unto the end, for Maheleth, to answer, understanding of Eman, the Ezrahite.

Maheleth. A musical instrument, or chorus of musicians, to answer one another, (Challoner) in doleful music. (Worthington) --- See Psalm xli., and lii. (Menochius) --- Hebrew may imply, "on infirmity, (Montanus) or sorrow," from ele. (Berthier) --- The subject is very mournful, and relates to the captives, and to Christ's suffering. (Calmet) --- Understanding. Or a psalm of instruction, composed by Eman, the Ezrahite, or by David, in his name. (Challoner) --- We read of Eman, a descendant of Juda by Zara, (1 Paralipomenon 2:6.; Calmet) and if he composed this piece, as the Jews and Lightfoot improbably suppose, it must be the most ancient (Calmet) writing extant. (Haydock) --- There was a son of Joel, and a seer of king David, of the same name, 1 Paralipomenon 6:33., and 25:1. But they are not styled Ezrahites. This person was probably the brother of Ethan, the Ezrahite, who might be young under David, and a man of consummate wisdom under his successor, 3 Kings 4:31. The psalm may express the sentiments of David, or of any other under tribulation, as well as those of Jesus Christ, (Berthier) who speaks herein, (Houbigant) and who expects that we should answer him by an imitation of his virtues. (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- The Ezrahite. Hebrew haezrachi. (Haydock) --- Septuagint, etc., read incorrectly, "Israelite," (Calmet) and some copies have "Aitham," or Ethan, as in the following psalm, instead of Eman. (Haydock)
Psalms 87:2 O Lord, the God of my salvation: I have cried in the day, and in the night before thee.

Thee. The psalm 21st is nearly similar to this. My prayer is continual. (Calmet)
Psalms 87:3 Let my prayer come in before thee: incline thy ear to my petition.

Prayer. It is represented as a person prostrated before God. Homer (Iliad ix.) says, that "supplications are the daughters of Jupiter, lame....with the eyes downcast, and following after injuries," which admirably shews the conditions requisite for prayer. (Calmet)
Psalms 87:4 For my soul is filled with evils: and my life hath drawn nigh to hell.

Hell. The grave, or captivity. (Calmet) --- Our Saviour said, My soul is sorrowful unto death. [Matthew 26:38.] David, Jeremias, or the captives, were not reduced to this extremity. (Berthier)
Psalms 87:5 I am counted among them that go down to the pit: I am become as a man without help,

Pit. Like a slave confined every night in prison, Exodus 12:29.
Psalms 87:6 free among the dead. Like the slain sleeping in the sepulchres, whom thou rememberest no more: and they are cast off from thy hand.

Free. Hebrew also "separated" from society, 4 Kings 15:5., and 2 Paralipomenon 26:21. (Calmet) --- Christ, after enduring the greatest miseries was still free. He could resign his life, and take it up again, John 10:18. (Haydock) --- The Fathers adopt this explanation, which is very striking. (Calmet) --- Hand. Thou actest as if thou hadst forgotten the corpse in the dust, till the time of the resurrection. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- In the mean while, those who formerly made such a noise in the world, are effaced from the book of life, or from God's register. He is often represented as a great monarch, keeping an account of his troops. (Calmet) --- He cannot forget any of his creatures, (Berthier) though he may not restore them to life as yet. (Menochius) --- Christ possessed infinite power among the dead, (Worthington) who are free from the cares of this world. (Menochius)
Psalms 87:7 They have laid me in the lower pit: in the dark places, and in the shadow of death.

They. Hebrew, "thou hast." --- Shadow. Hebrew, "in the depths," seem to have read a, v, and m, in those two places, which are now wanting. (Houbigant) --- The Chaldean has, the shadow of death, as well as the Vulgate. All this regards Jesus Christ, though it may be applied to any in distress. (Berthier) -- The wicked endeavour to kill the soul by sin, as well as the body. (Worthington) --- Great difficulties entangle the psalmist: Christ descends into hell. (Menochius)
Psalms 87:8 Thy wrath is strong over me: and all thy waves thou hast brought in upon me.

Waves. Of afflictions. Christ bore our iniquities. (Haydock)
Psalms 87:9 Thou hast put away my acquaintance far from me: they have set me an abomination to themselves. I was delivered up, and came not forth:

Delivered up, to prison. (Berthier) --- The disciples abandoned our Saviour; St. Peter, with a curse, denied that he ever knew him, (Mark 14:71.; Haydock) and Judas betrayed him. It is not so easy to explain this of the captives in general, though it might refer to the psalmist. (Calmet) --- At Babylon, the Israelites were not imprisoned, but left to multiply, Jeremias 29:5. (Berthier)
Psalms 87:10 My eyes languished through poverty. All the day I cried to thee, O Lord: I stretched out my hands to thee.

Poverty. Or "affliction." (Symmachus) --- To thee, for aid, (Psalm 27:2.) or to implore pardon for sinners. Thus Jesus prayed for us on the cross, (Calmet) with his hands stretched out ready to receive the penitent. (Haydock) --- Septuagint have read rupaim ikimu for ropaim ikumu, "shall the dead arise?" (Amama)
Psalms 87:11 Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead? or shall physicians raise to life, and give praise to thee?

Physicians. St. Jerome, "will the giants rise again?" (Haydock) --- These were heroes of great renown. (Calmet) --- But they were consigned to hell, whence there was no redemption, Job 25:5., and Proverbs ix. --- The author insinuates that if the true adorers be cut off, God's external glory will be diminished. (Haydock) --- This argument is often pressed, Isaias xxxviii., and Psalm cxiii.--- Rephaim (Haydock) denotes physicians, as well as giants, Genesis 50:2., and 2 Paralipomenon 17:12. The Thalmud sentences "the best of them to hell." (Amama) --- Their power does not extend to the dead. (Berthier) --- The psalmist prays to be preserved from death, not expecting to be raised again miraculously. (Worthington) --- Yet Christ contemplates his future glorious resurrection. (Haydock)
Psalms 87:12 Shall any one in the sepulchre declare thy mercy: and thy truth in destruction?

Psalms 87:13 Shall thy wonders be known in the dark; and thy justice in the land of forgetfulness?

Of, etc. Septuagint, "forgotten land." Securos latices et longa oblivia potant. (Virgil, Aeneid vi.) (Calmet) --- When dead, I shall not be able to sound forth thy praises before men: much less shall those do it, who are confined to the regions of darkness. (Worthington)
Psalms 87:14 But I, O Lord, have cried to thee: and in the morning my prayers shall prevent thee.

Psalms 87:15 Lord, why castest thou off my prayer: why turnest thou away thy face from me?

Prayer. Some copies of the Septuagint read "soul," with the Hebrew, etc. (Calmet) --- Why dost thou neglect to grant my request, which I urge with all the earnestness of my soul? (Haydock) --- This may relate to Jesus in the garden. (Calmet) --- His prayer prevents, or is presented early, (Menochius) and with the truest fervour to the Lord, who moves us to pray. (Haydock)
Psalms 87:16 I am poor, and in labours from my youth: and being exalted, have been humbled and troubled.

Exalted. On the cross, or arrived at the years of manhood, (Berthier; Worthington) I have experienced the greatest contradictions. David was brought up in poverty, like our Saviour, and the exaltation of both was attended with great trials. (Berthier) --- The life of Christ was a continual martyrdom. (Menochius) --- He had all his sufferings in view from his first conception.
Psalms 87:17 Thy wrath hath come upon me: and thy terrors have troubled me.

Troubled me. The enemy has laid waste the country. This agrees with Christ in his agony. (Calmet) --- Unhappy the sinner, upon whom the wrath of God remains, (John 3:36.) and does not merely come; literally, pass, transierunt. (Berthier)
Psalms 87:18 They have come round about me like water all the day: they have compassed me about together.

Psalms 87:19 Friend and neighbour thou hast put far from me: and my acquaintance, because of misery.

Misery. Hebrew, "darkness." Thou hast permitted my friends to abandon me, and hast exposed me to disgrace. (Calmet) --- They were afraid lest they might be involved in my calamities, (Menochius) if they appeared in my defence, (Haydock) or seemed to know me. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 88:0 The perpetuity of the Church of Christ, in consequence of the promises of God: which notwithstanding, God permits her to suffer sometimes most grievous afflictions.

Psalms 88:1 Of understanding, for Ethan, the Ezrahite.

Ezrahite. Septuagint, etc., "Israelite," as in the former psalm. The Jews think that Ethan or Eman lived during the Egyptian bondage. But this psalm was rather composed by one of the captives at Babylon who bewails the destruction of the kingdom of Juda, under Sedecias. After he had detailed the promises of God, (ver. 39.; Calmet) David might write it in the person (Haydock) of Ethan, or Idithun, 1 Paralipomenon 25., and 3 Kings. 4:31. (Worthington) --- Most of the Fathers explain it of Christ's kingdom. See Psalm 136:11., and Jeremias 33:17. (Calmet) --- The sceptre or administration of affairs was to continue in the tribe of Juda till his coming, as it really did, though kings were not always at the head of the people. (Berthier)
Psalms 88:2 The mercies of the Lord I will sing for ever. I will shew forth thy truth with my mouth to generation and generation.

The. Septuagint and Houbigant, "Thy mercies, Lord." --- Truth. Notwithstanding our distress, I know thou wilt perform thy promises. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:3 For thou hast said: Mercy shall be built up for ever in the heavens: thy truth shall be prepared in them.

For thou. Hebrew, "I." Yet St. Jerome agrees with the Septuagint, (Berthier) though he is quoted by Calmet as conformable with Aquila, etc., Dixi. --- Heaven and earth shall pass away sooner than God's word. (Haydock) --- If we do not see how his promises are accompanied we must confess our ignorance, or throw the blame on the sins of the nation: but never call in question the divine mercy. (Calmet) --- Truth. I will perform what I have promised to thee. (Menochius) --- The apostles, represented by the heavens, have, by their preaching, established by the Church for ever. (Worthington) --- In them, is not in the Septuagint, St. Augustine, etc. (Calmet) --- Houbigant would remove Dixisti, "for thou," etc., to ver. 4. (Haydock)
Psalms 88:4 I have made a covenant with my elect: *I have sworn to David my servant:

Elect. Abraham, and the whole body of the people to whom the Messias had been promised. David was assured that he should spring from his family, ver. 52. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:5 Thy seed will I settle for ever. And I will build up thy throne unto generation and generation.

Generation. David's posterity occupied the throne for a long time, (Haydock) and subsisted till the coming of Christ; so that if any conqueror of that family had then appeared, the Jews would not have hesitated to admit, that this prediction was fulfilled. It is there misfortune to understand the text in this sense, whereas God spoke of the spiritual kingdom of his Son, which is to be perpetual. They can never answer the argument which the Fathers urged in the 4th century, and which has attained fresh strength from the longer duration of misery under which the royal family of David has been depressed. It is plain, that it has enjoyed no power from many ages, and as God's word is invariable, He could not have promised an everlasting earthly dominion. (Berthier) --- The temporal kingdom of David decayed at the captivity, and is now wholly destroyed. But Christ was of this family, and established the Church, his spiritual kingdom, which shall continue unto the end. (Worthington) --- His ministers exercise a power, which is founded on truth and justice. See 2 Kings 7:9. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:6 The heavens shall confess thy wonders, O Lord: and thy truth in the church of the saints.

Saints. These alone, (Haydock) the heavens or angels, worthily proclaim thy praises. (Haydock) --- Preachers announce the same in the Church, (St. Augustine) "the communion of saints," as none are found out of her society. (Haydock)
Psalms 88:7 For who in the clouds can be compared to the Lord: or who among the sons of God shall be like to God?

Sons. Angels (Calmet) to God the Son. None is like him. (St. Jerome) --- Lucifer fell by aiming at it. I will be like to the Most High, Isaias 14:14.
Psalms 88:8 God, who is glorified in the assembly of the saints: great and terrible above all them that are about him.

About. God eclipses every created beauty. (Haydock) --- The angels themselves tremble before him. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:9 O Lord God of hosts, who is like to thee? thou art mighty, O Lord, and thy truth is round about thee.

Truth. He often praises this attribute, as if to excuse himself for asking, why God had debased the throne of David? (Calmet) --- God cannot be divested of this perfection. (Du Hamel)
Psalms 88:10 Thou rulest the power of the sea: and appeasest the motion of the waves thereof.

Power. Hebrew, "pride." Thou canst raise a storm, or restore a calm. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:11 Thou hast humbled the proud one, as one that is slain: with the arm of thy strength thou hast scattered thy enemies.

Proud one. Hebrew Rahab, Egypt or Pharao, Psalm 86:4., and Isaias 51:9. (Calmet) He alludes to the plagues inflicted on the Egyptians, etc. (Worthington)
Psalms 88:12 *Thine are the heavens, and thine is the earth: the world and the fulness thereof thou hast founded:

Genesis 1:2.
Psalms 88:13 The north and the sea thou hast created. Thabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name:

Sea. Hebrew, "the right," (Calmet) which here denotes the south, (Psalm 106:3.; Menochius) as Hermon may do the east, (Du Hamel) with reference to Thabor, which lies to the west, though this seems unusual. (Calmet) (Berthier) --- The north, etc., more probably refers to the limits of the promised land, from Libanus to the Indian or Mediterranean sea; and from Hermon, on the north-eastern part, to Thabor, on the west. (Haydock) --- These two mountains were particularly fertile, and seemed to rejoice. (Berthier) --- They "shall praise thy name," euphemesousi. (Symmachus) (Haydock)
Psalms 88:14 Thy arm is with might. Let thy hand be strengthened, and thy right hand exalted:

Might. Others can make no resistance with all their armies.
Psalms 88:15 Justice and judgment are the preparation of thy throne. Mercy and truth shall go before thy face:

Preparation. Hebrew, "basis." --- Face. Like guards. (Menochius) --- He extols the mercy, and still more the fidelity of God. (Calmet) --- Whether he punished, or reward, all tends to promote his glory, and is perfectly just. (Worthington)
Psalms 88:16 Blessed is the people that knoweth jubilation. They shall walk, O Lord, in the light of thy countenance:

Jubilation. Hebrew, "how to sound the trumpet," which was the office of priests. They marched near the ark, as it were under the eyes of God. (Calmet) --- Those who consider, and adore the ways of Providence, are blessed, (Worthington) and secure. (Menochius)
Psalms 88:17 and in thy name they shall rejoice all the day, and in thy justice they shall be exalted.

Psalms 88:18 For thou art the glory of their strength: and in thy good pleasure shall our horn be exalted.

Horn. Power and kingdom. (Worthington) --- He speaks like a virtuous Levite, who acknowledges that all good came from the Lord. (Haydock) --- He cannot speak of temporal blessings alone. (Berthier)
Psalms 88:19 For our protection is of the Lord, and of our king the holy one of Israel.

Israel. The Lord our king, (1 Kings 8:7.) will protect us, (Haydock) or He will defend our King David, and his posterity, as he then promised to him, ver. 5, 20. These verses may be thus connected, as the psalmist had been led to praise the wonderful works of God, and now returns to his promises. (Berthier)
Psalms 88:20 Then thou spokest in a vision to thy saints, and saidst: I have laid help upon one that is mighty, and have exalted one chosen out of my people.

Then, may relate to a distant time, when God chose Israel. (Menochius) --- Saints. Hebrew, "merciful ones." Samuel, or Nathan, Septuagint, Arabic, etc., have "sons." The rest read "saints." (St. Jerome) --- People. As Moses had written, Deuteronomy 17:15. (Calmet) --- This regards David, as a figure of the Messias, (Luke 1:32., and Ezechiel 34:23.; Berthier) in whom it was more fully verified, 2 Kings v., and Acts 13:22. (Worthington)
Psalms 88:21 *I have found David, my servant: with my holy oil I have anointed him.

1 Kings 16:1.; 1 Kings 16:12.; Acts 13:22.
Oil. Vatican Septuagint has, "mercy," and is followed by St. Jerome in Ezechiel 55:3. (Calmet) --- But is a mistake, eleei being put for elaio. (Berthier)
Psalms 88:22 For my hand shall help him: and my arm shall strengthen him.

Psalms 88:23 The enemy shall have no advantage over him: nor the son of iniquity have power to hurt him.

Him. The Jews contributed to the glory of Christ, and the redemption of mankind. The enemies of David fell before his feet. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:24 And I will cut down his enemies before his face; and them that hate him I will put to flight.

Psalms 88:25 And my truth and my mercy shall be with him: and in my name shall his horn be exalted.

Psalms 88:26 And I will set his hand in the sea; and his right hand in the rivers.

Rivers. Of his kingdom there shall be no end, Luke 1:33., and Zacharias 9:10. (Haydock) --- Every nation shall adore him. David extended his conquests over all Arabia, and from the Pelusium to the Euphrates. (Calmet) --- In this sense, the text may be applied to him, though it belongs more to Christ. (Menochius)
Psalms 88:27 He shall cry out to me: Thou art my Father: my God, and the support of my salvation.

Father. We never find that David used this title; (Du Hamel) but Christ did frequently, insomuch that the Jews were convinced, that he claimed the divine nature: though, as man, he called God his support. (Berthier) (Isaias 63:16.)
Psalms 88:28 And I will make him my first-born, high above the kings of the earth.

First-born. Or favourite, Exodus 4:22., and Jeremias 31:9. What king could be preferred to David for piety, riches, etc.? Yet he was only a feeble type of our Saviour, who surpasses all kings, as much as the reality does a shadow. (Calmet) (Colossians 1:15., Romans 8:29., and Apocalypse 1:5.) (Berthier) --- High. Hebrew helyon, which is one of the titles of God, and belongs to Christ, (Haydock) who is King of kings, and heir of all, Hebrews 1:(Menochius)
Psalms 88:29 I will keep my mercy for him for ever: and my covenant faithful to him.

Psalms 88:30 And I will make his seed to endure for evermore: and his throne as the days of heaven:

Heaven. This can only be verified in Christ, who rules over all, and gives power to his Church unto the end. The family of David has been confounded with the rest of the nation for nearly 2,000 years. (Calmet) --- The temporal dominion of those princes has ceased in Jechonias, (Du Hamel) like that of other monarchs; so that God had in view a different throne, (Berthier; ver. 5.) and the Messias, who would render the kingdom of David perpetual, (Menochius) in a spiritual sense. (Haydock)
Psalms 88:31 And if his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments:

And if. God foresaw the prevarications of the Israelites and Christians: But he speaks this to shew their free-will, and that he would treat them as children, (Berthier) and not with the utmost severity, (Calmet) unless they proved obstinate, 2 Kings 7:14. (Haydock) --- Some shall always continue faithful, and shall be glorified, while the bad shall be cast away. (St. Augustine) --- Christ will never lose his Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 88:32 If they profane my justices; and keep not my commandments:

Psalms 88:33 I will visit their iniquities with a rod: and their sins with stripes.

Psalms 88:34 But my mercy I will not take away from him: nor will I suffer my truth to fail.

From him. David. Many ancient psalters read, "from them." (Calmet) --- God, by degrees, punished the Jews, by depriving them of their kings; though the family of David was preserved, and some share of power remained till Christ's coming. (Berthier)
Psalms 88:35 Neither will I profane my covenant: and the words that proceed from my mouth I will not make void.

Psalms 88:36 Once have I sworn by my holiness: I will not lie unto David: 37 his seed shall endure for ever.

Holiness. Or by myself , having nothing greater, Hebrews 6:13. (Calmet) --- I will not. Literally, "if I lie," which is a Hebrew idiom, (Berthier) implying as much. (Worthington) --- I have sworn irrecoverably, once for all. (Menochius)
Psalms 88:38 *And his throne as the sun before me: and as the moon perfect for ever, and a faithful witness in heaven.

2 Kings 7:16.
Witness. Which may refer to the throne, or to the sun, (Calmet) or to the rainbow. (Berthier) (Du Hamel) --- As long as the stars subsist, so long shall his throne be established. (Calmet) --- The Church shines like the sun, and is easily known. (Berthier) --- God, (Eusebius) or Christ, attests the promises. (St. Jerome) (Isaias 55:4., and Apocalypse 1:5.) --- The rainbow was assigned as a memorial, that the world should no more be drowned, Genesis ix. The other covenants made by God have no less stability. (Haydock) --- Christian souls may shine in virtue, like the sun, or full moon, (Worthington) particularly (Haydock) after the resurrection, when they will be perfect, and not liable to change. (St. Augustine)
Psalms 88:39 But thou hast rejected and despised: thou hast been angry with thy anointed.

Rejected. In all kingdoms, there are some interruptions, and God did not fail in his promises. He still maintained the sceptre in Juda, though not with the same splendour at all times. (Berthier) --- Angry. Or literally, "hast deferred." Distulisti. (Haydock) --- The Israelites ardently wished for the coming of the Messias. The psalmist here contrasts the present forlorn condition of the people with the preceding promises; and bewails the fate of Sedecias, who was slain at a distance from home. Distulisti. See Psalm 77:21., and lxii. (Calmet) --- Thou hast been angry with thy Christ, (king Sedecias) and even with our Redeemer, in some sense, (Calmet) as He was treated thus, in consequence of the sins of mankind. (Eusebius, etc.) --- The promises were not fulfilled in David, that we may look farther. Solomon seemed to answer all his expectations. But he fell, and God had not him but Christ in view. The kingdom and sacrifices of the Jews are no more. Christ was not taken from them, but deferred. Some Jews and many Gentiles believed in him, ver. 47., etc. (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- Anointed. Thou hast despised us, and delayed the coming of the Messias. We cannot accuse the psalmist of impatience, as a late commentator has done, his words being dictated by the Holy Ghost. He expostulates with love and confidence, (Berthier) and comforts himself with the thought, that the coming of the Messias is only delayed. (Worthington)
Psalms 88:40 Thou hast overthrown the covenant of thy servant: thou hast profaned his sanctuary on the earth.

Overthrown the covenant, etc. All this seems to relate to the time of the captivity of Babylon, in which, for the sins of the people and their princes, God seemed to have set aside for a while the covenant he had made with David. (Challoner) --- Yet he did not in effect, ver. 39. (Haydock) --- Sanctuary. The temple, (Theodoret) or according to the Hebrew, "the diadem," by which the king was "set apart" from the common people, and rendered sacred, Psalm 131:18. (Berthier) --- The psalmist speaks in the person of the weak, who complained, (Worthington) that the kingdom was a prey to invaders, and the Church oppressed by infidels. (Worthington) (Tirinus)
Psalms 88:41 Thou hast broken down all his hedges; thou hast made his strength fear.

Fear. All his forts can afford no refuge. The country is like an abandoned vineyard. The Assyrians and Chaldeans have ruined it, and the neighbouring nations of Samaria and Edom take possession of it. (Calmet) --- Thou leadest on their armies, and renderest our efforts useless. (Menochius) --- This conduct of God proceeded from mercy. This severe chastisement awakened his people, who after the captivity were more tractable. (Chaldean) (Berthier) (Calmet)
Psalms 88:42 All that pass by the way have robbed him: he is become a reproach to his neighbours.

Psalms 88:43 Thou hast set up the right hand of them that oppress him: thou hast made all his enemies to rejoice.

Psalms 88:44 Thou hast turned away the help of his sword: and hast not assisted him in battle.

Psalms 88:45 Thou hast made his purification to cease: and thou hast cast his throne down to the ground.

Cease. The priests are absent; and he cannot be purified in the temple. --- Purification may here denote the royal ornaments. (Pagnin) (Calmet) (Menochius)
Psalms 88:46 Thou hast shortened the days of his time: thou hast covered him with confusion.

Time. Hebrew, etc., "youth." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Joachim was only seventeen years old when he came to the throne, which he occupied three months. (Amama) --- The four last kings of Juda reigned but a short while, and most of them came to an untimely end. Instead of chronou, the Roman Septuagint, St. Augustine, etc., read thronou, "of his throne," or reign. (Calmet) --- The Vulgate seems more natural, as the throne of David had subsisted above 400 years, so that it was not overturned in "its youth," or commencement, though the number of ages, promised to it, seemed now to be abridged. (Berthier)
Psalms 88:47 How long, O Lord, turnest thou away unto the end? shall thy anger burn like fire?

How long. Here the third part, or the prayer of the psalmist, begins. (Calmet) --- Away. Another interrogation might then commence, "shall it be unto the end?" (Haydock) --- In this prayer he foretells that God will regard our weakness, and preserve his Church. (Worthington)
Psalms 88:48 Remember what my substance is: for hast thou made all the children of men in vain?

Remember what. Hebrew ani, "I." As this seems odd, Houbigant substitutes, adni, "Lord." (Berthier) --- Substance is. That Christ will assume our nature, (St. Augustine, City of God 17:9, 11.) or "how long I shall live." (Montanus) --- Even the world "passes" like a shadow, 1 Corinthians vii. (Amama) --- "Be mindful of me from the depth: else why hast thou in vain created the sons of men?" (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- In vain. To spend their days in misery? or rather, "are not all created subject to vanity?" If thou do not succour us, we shall presently perish, and who will glorify thy name on earth? (Psalm 144:4.) (Calmet) --- Will thy providence take no care of us? (Berthier) --- If the Messias come not, we cannot be saved, and we shall appear to have been created in vain. (Menochius)
Psalms 88:49 Who is the man that shall live, and not see death: that shall deliver his soul from the hand of hell?

Psalms 88:50 Lord, where are thy ancient mercies, according to *what thou didst swear to David in thy truth?

2 Kings 7:11.
David. He was a man according to thy own heart, and thy promises to him were absolute. Ethan speaks not of the other kings, or of the people, who might have justly irritated the Lord. He excuses their failings, by the consideration or their mortal and frail nature, ver. 49. (Calmet)
Psalms 88:51 Be mindful, O Lord, of the reproach of thy servants (which I have held in my bosom) of many nations:

Nations. Who continually insult us, and blaspheme thy name. (Haydock) --- This fills me with the most poignant grief. (Calmet) --- Which, etc. Aquila and St. Jerome, "For I have carried in my bosom all the iniquities of peoples." If we should read kul, "voice," for col, "all," which seems useless before rabim, "many," (Haydock) we might translate, "I bore in my bosom the discourse of many peoples." (Calmet)
Psalms 88:52 Wherewith thy enemies have reproached, O Lord; wherewith they have reproached the change of thy anointed.

Wherewith. Or "because," quod. (Haydock) --- Change. Hebrew also, "the supplanting or retardment." Why does not your Messias come? How are your kings fallen! though God had promised them an eternal kingdom! Boast no more of his power or veracity. This impious language disturbs me. (Calmet) --- They deride the ignominious life of the Messias. (Eusebius) --- Sedecias had "exchanged" the promised crown for irons, which was a cutting reproach. (Berthier) --- Christ appeared to have left his people. (Worthington) --- Infidels objected, that David's piety was ill requited by God, and that the anointed had made a bad exchange; antallagma, Matthew 16:26. (Menochius)
Psalms 88:53 Blessed be the Lord for evermore. So be it, so be it.

So be it. Some suppose, that these words were added by the collector of the psalms into five books. (Calmet) --- Here the third ends. (Haydock) --- The psalmist loses not hope, under adversity. (Berthier) --- He begins and finishes with God's praises. (Calmet) --- We beg that all may praise thee, O Lord. (Worthington) --- This is the only reply which he makes to the sarcasms of infidels, being convinced of God's providence. (Calmet)
Psalms 89:0 A prayer for the mercy of God; recounting the shortness and miseries of the days of man.

Psalms 89:1 A prayer of Moses, the man of God. Lord, thou hast been our refuge from generation to generation.

God. This characterizes the Jewish legislator [Moses]. (Berthier) (Deuteronomy 33:1.) (Du Hamel) --- David composed it in his [Moses'] name, (Menochius) or it bears some analogy with his writings. St. Jerome maintains, that he [Moses] was the author of the nine following psalms, (Calmet) which have no title in Hebrew. (Tirinus) --- But St. Augustine thinks they would then have formed a part of the pentateuch. (Calmet) --- The life of man was longer in the days of Moses than seventy or eighty years. (Bellarmine; ver. 10.) --- Moses cannot be the author of the 94th and 95th psalms. (Worthington) --- In Psalm 98:6., Samuel is mentioned, and it is not necessary to have recourse to the prophetic spirit. One of the descendants of Moses, during the captivity, may have been the author, (Calmet) or David may have predicted that event. (Haydock)
Psalms 89:2 Before the mountains were made, or the earth and the world was formed; from eternity and to eternity thou art God.

Formed. Hebrew, "brought forth," Job 38:8. (Calmet) --- Here Origen improperly concluded the sentence. (St. Jerome, Ep. ad Cypr.) --- God, is not in Septuagint, Syriac, or ancient Latin psalters. (Calmet) --- Al signifies both God, and not, and seems to be twice explained in the Vulgate, as Hebrew omits not, ver. 3. (Haydock) --- The sentence would be very striking, if God were left out, as it is done by Houbigant. The eternity of matter is refuted by this text. (Berthier) (Worthington) --- God's eternity is contrasted with man's short life. (Calmet) --- New gods must of course be false. (Menochius) --- Plato asserted, that "the creator of all must be unbegotten and eternal." (Plut. Conviv. viii.)
Psalms 89:3 Turn not man away to be brought low: and thou hast said: Be converted, O ye sons of men.

Turn not man away, etc. Suffer him not quite to perish from thee, since thou art pleased to call upon him to be converted to thee. (Challoner) --- God wills not the death of the sinner. (Worthington) --- Give him grace not to yield to his base passions. (St. Augustine) --- Hebrew, "thou humblest man," (Haydock) that he may enter into himself. (Calmet)
Psalms 89:4 For a thousand years in thy sight are as yesterday, which is past. And as a watch in the night,

For, et. This thought naturally tends to convert the sinner. --- Watch. Consisting of three hours, (Berthier) which were of unequal length, according to the seasons. (Calmet) --- A thousand years seem not so long to God. (Haydock) --- What then must be the short life of man? See Job 7:8. (Calmet) --- None ever lived one thousand years. Yet what would that be, compared with eternity? (Worthington)
Psalms 89:5 Things that are counted nothing, shall their years be.

Their years be. Hebrew, "thou strikest, (Calmet) or inundatest them: they are a dream." But our version is accurate. (Berthier)
Psalms 89:6 In the morning man shall grow up like grass, in the morning he shall flourish and pass away: in the evening he shall fall, grow dry and wither.

Fall. Hebrew, "it is cut down and dries." The heat of the climate caused the flowers to decay very soon, Isaias 40:6. Man's youth touches on old age. (Calmet) --- The present moment is all we can call our own. (Berthier) --- "A young man may die soon: an old man cannot live long," says an English proverb. (Worthington)
Psalms 89:7 For in thy wrath we have fainted away: and are troubled in thy indignation.

Psalms 89:8 Thou hast set our iniquities before thy eyes: our life in the light of thy countenance.

Life. Literally, "age." Thou clearly discernest all our proceedings. (Haydock) --- Man is condemned for Adam's sin. The Israelites who were fit for arms, and gave way to murmuring, were sentenced to die in the desert. He may allude to this event. (Berthier) --- Hebrew may signify also, "our hidden things," or "youth," (Calmet) or "mistakes," (Houbigant) or "negligences." (St. Jerome) --- From these we should always pray to be delivered, Psalm 24:7. (Haydock) --- Sin occasions the shortness of life, (Worthington) as man was created to be immortal. (Haydock) --- Before the deluge, men lived indeed longer. (Menochius)
Psalms 89:9 For all our days are spent; and in thy wrath we have fainted away. Our years shall be considered as a spider:

As a spider. As frail and weak as a spider's web; and miserable withal, whilst, like a spider, we spend our bowels in weaving webs to catch flies. (Challoner) --- Meditabuntur is here used in a passive sense. (Tirinus) --- Hebrew, "we have spent our years like one speaking a word." (St. Jerome) --- When he has done, the sound is no more: so their memory has perished with a sound, Psalm 9:8. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, Chaldean, etc., do not mention the spider: Yet it seems to have been originally in the text, as it is recognized by the Syriac, Septuagint, and the other Greek interpreters, and makes the sense more complete. (Calmet) --- The transcribers might more easily omit than the Septuagint, etc., could insert this word. (Berthier)
Psalms 89:10 *The days of our years in them are threescore and ten years. But if in the strong they be fourscore years: and what is more of them, is labour and sorrow. For mildness is come upon us: and we shall be corrected.

Ecclesiasticus 18:8.
In them. Years, (Calmet) "in the world." Chaldean, "altogether." Symmachus, years. This was the usual term of man's life in David's time, (Haydock) and about the captivity, when this was written. Many lived above one hundred years when Moses wrote. (Calmet) --- Yet this proves nothing, as there are still instances of equal longevity, though it is true, that people in general seldom live above seventy, or eighty, or if they do, their days are a burden to them. The same might be the case under Moses. He probably here alludes to those warriors, who were cut off in the wilderness, few of whom would survive 80. (Berthier) --- The author of Ecclesiasticus, (xviii. 8.) gives one hundred, for the utmost limits of life. The pagan sages speak in the same style as the psalmist. (Calmet) --- Strong. Septuagint, "in dominion." But here it means in a vigorous constitution. (Bellarmine) --- Princes lived no longer than others. Hebrew and Vulgate may be "the prime, or most of them," as even a great part of the time before seventy, as well as after, (Haydock) is usually spent in misery, Genesis 47:9. (Calmet) --- Mildness. God's mildness corrects us: in as much as he deals kindly with us, in shortening the days of this miserable life; and so weaning our affections from all its transitory enjoyments, and teaching us true wisdom. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "we pass quickly and fly away, (St. Jerome) like birds of passage, (Calmet) or "it is cut down soon," (Montanus) "in silence," (Drusius) tacitisque senescimus annis. (Haydock) --- St. Jerome wonders, that the Septuagint should have translated as they have done: But they are followed by Theodotion, and the Sext. edition, who may have had different copies, equally good. (Berthier) --- Corrected (corripiemur) or "hurried away," Genebrard. --- But this is not the sense of the Septuagint. (Amama) --- "We grow tired." (Houbigant) --- It is a mercy of God to shorten men's lives, (Menochius) as many would sin more, if they had a probability of continuing upon earth. (Worthington)
Psalms 89:11 Who knoweth the power of thy anger, and for thy fear

Anger? God must punish actual sin severely, since he thus condemns mankind on account of original sin. (Worthington)
Psalms 89:12 can number thy wrath? So make thy right hand known: and men learned in heart in wisdom.

Thy right hand. Your Messias, to liberate and instruct us. (St. Augustine) --- "Make us know how to number our days thus, and we shall come to thee with a wise heart." (St. Jerome) (Ecclesiasticus 7:40.) (Haydock) --- Septuagint have read iminoc for yamenu, "our days." (Amama) --- Make us truly wise, (Sa) or acquainted with teachers of truth. (Bellarmine) (Menochius)
Psalms 89:13 Return, O Lord, how long? and be intreated in favour of thy servants.

Psalms 89:14 We are filled in the morning with thy mercy: and we have rejoiced, and are delighted all our days.

We are. Hebrew, "Fill us." (Montanus) --- But the psalmist feels interiorly, that his petition has been granted. (Berthier) --- The prospect of a glorious immortality fills us with hope in proportion to our sufferings for the truth. (Worthington)
Psalms 89:15 We have rejoiced for the days in which thou hast humbled us: for the years in which we have seen evils.

Psalms 89:16 Look upon thy servants and upon their works: and direct their children.

Psalms 89:17 And let the brightness of the Lord, our God, be upon us: and direct thou the works of our hands over us; yea, the work of our hands do thou direct.

Yea, the work. Each in particular. Roman Septuagint, etc., omit this sentence, which Houbigant improperly deems useless. (Berthier) --- Charity must direct all. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Psalms 90:0 The just is secure under the protection of God.

Psalms 90:1 The praise of a canticle for David. He that dwelleth in the aid of the Most High, shall abide under the protection of the God of Heaven.

David. Septuagint add, "it has no title in Hebrew," and hence the Jews refer it to the preceding author, with St. Jerome, etc. But this rule is very uncertain. (Calmet) (Berthier) --- Some suppose that Moses composed it when he led the Israelites out of Egypt, or in the wilderness; while others think that it is the work of David under some imminent danger. The Fathers apply it to Jesus Christ. Yet it may be considered simply as a moral instruction, (Calmet) superior in elegance to any Greek or Latin poem. (Muis) --- Aid. Hebrew, "secret place." Of heaven. Is not in Hebrew shaddai, which means, (Haydock) "the almighty self-sufficient, or destroying God." (Calmet) --- We must keep close to God by mental prayer, if we would enjoy the divine protection. (St. Gregory, Mor. 7:7.) (Berthier)
Psalms 90:2 He shall say to the Lord: Thou art my protector and my refuge: my God, in him will I trust.

Psalms 90:3 For he hath delivered me from the snare of the hunters: and from the sharp word.

Delivered me. Hebrew and Septuagint, "shall deliver thee." Yet the Alexandrian copy has me. (Haydock) --- The psalmist addresses his own soul. (Berthier) --- Word, verbo: we sometimes find "sword," printed by mistake. Hebrew dabar, signifies "word, thing, pestilence, etc." (Haydock) --- The devil employs human respect to draw many into his nets. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- Neither subtle craft, nor the cruelty of tyrants will disturb those who trust in Providence. (Worthington)
Psalms 90:4 He will overshadow thee with his shoulders: and under his wings thou shalt trust.

With. Septuagint, "upon." St. Augustine, "between," as the Lord carried Israel, Deuteronomy 32:11. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "he will cover thee with his feathers," (Haydock) like an eagle. (Menochius)
Psalms 90:5 His truth shall compass thee with a shield: thou shalt not be afraid of the terror of the night.

Shield. God's fidelity, or word, affords the best protection, Proverbs 30:5. (Calmet) --- Having the spirit of faith, a man is secure. But he whose heart is hardened, (Berthier) is covered with the buckler of God's affliction, (Lamentations 3:64.; Haydock) abuses every thing, and seems bewitched with self-love, Galatians 1:(Berthier) --- Night. Devils, spectres, etc., (Canticle of Canticles 3:7.; Calmet) and treacherous insinuations, that people are not bound to confess the truth, in time of danger. (Worthington)
Psalms 90:6 Of the arrow that flieth in the day, of the business that walketh about in the dark: of invasion, or of the noon-day devil.

Day. Neither open attacks, nor unforeseen accidents prevail. (Calmet) --- Business. Hebrew dabar, "thing," ver. 3., "the pestilence." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- The Hebrews suppose, that one angel presides over death in the daytime, and another during the night; or that various demons send maladies at these different times. --- Invasion. Septuagint and old Italic, have, "ruin." --- St. Jerome, after Aquila, "from the bite of him who rageth, damonizontos, at noon. Keteb, (Haydock) according to an ancient tradition of the Jews, denotes one of the bolder devils, who attacks in open day, and seeks no aid from nocturnal craft. (Genebrard) The psalmist may allude to those popular notions, (Theodoret; St. Jerome) which were prevalent among the pagans. (Theocrit. Idyl. i.; Lucan iii.) (Calmet) --- Thou shalt fear no danger of the day or night, (Bellarmine) nor any which disturbs the life of man. (Scaligers, ep. 1:p. 95.) --- This author mistakes, when he supposes that Keteb is rendered devil. (Amama) --- He might also ask how the Chaldean, Aquila, and Symmachus came to discover, that the devil is here mentioned, as well as the Septuagint? (Berthier) --- These seem to have read ussod, "and the devil," instead of issud, "from destruction which ravages," (Amama) vastabit. (Montanus) (Haydock) --- But allowing that the Septuagint, etc., are accurate, what is meant by this devil? St. Peter seems to explain the idea, when he exhorts us to sobriety, 1 Peter 5:8. (Berthier) --- Violent temptations of sloth, (St. Athanasius) or impurity, (Theodoret) or the persecutions against the faithful, may be meant. Four different sorts of attacks seem to be designated. 1. Such as assult the ignorant with the fears of the night, tempting them to secure their temporal estates, while they think not of eternal woe impending. 2. Others are attacked with the arrow in the day, and threatened with death, which they know they ought rather to endure, than abandon their faith. 3. The business, etc., imitates some grievous but latent temptation, as when the faithful are persuaded to take some unlawful oath. 4. But the greatest and most manifest attack, is styled, invasion, etc., when persecutors assail those who adhere to the true faith with a succession of torments, and subtle arguments, which have been the occasion of the fall of many, who had resisted the former attacks. Yet none of these yield, but by their own fault, trusting in themselves, and not in God. (St. Augustine) (Worthington) --- Noon day. Grotius explains this of the heat of the sun, which is very dangerous to travellers in Palestine. (Calmet)
Psalms 90:7 A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand: but it shall not come nigh to thee.

Fall. Or "attack,....but shall not come nigh to thee." (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- How great soever may be the number of thy adversaries, they shall not be able to do thee any harm. They shall fall at thy feet, and their dart shall not reach thee. (Haydock) --- More forsake God in prosperity, than under adversity. (Worthington)
Psalms 90:8 But thou shalt consider with thy eyes: and shalt see the reward of the wicked.

Psalms 90:9 Because thou, O Lord, art my hope: thou hast made the Most High thy refuge.

Because. Saying, Thou, etc. (Worthington; ver. 1.) (Calmet) --- High. Hebrew helyon is a title of God, (Calmet) not the adjective to refuge, (Berthier) as Chaldean, Aquila, etc., have taken it. "Thou hast placed thy dwelling most high." So that there, etc., ver. 10. It is evident that the following promises relate not to the Lord, (Calmet) but to the just man. Protestants, "because thou hast made the Lord, which is my refuge, even the most high thy habitation." This transposition is not authorized by the text. (Haydock)
Psalms 90:10 There shall no evil come to thee: nor shall the scourge come near thy dwelling.

Scourge. Aquila has Aphe, "the leprosy," (Calmet) or any stroke of distress. (Haydock) --- What the saints have suffered were not real evils, and they will be amply rewarded in heaven. They never complain, having God with them, (Calmet; ver. 15.; Haydock) and his holy angels. (Menochius)
Psalms 90:11 *For he hath given his angels charge over thee: to keep thee in all thy ways.

Matthew 4:29.; Luke 4:10.
Angels. Many seem to be assigned to the just, to whom St. Hilary, etc., would restrain this privilege. But it is more generally believed, that each person has an angel guardian. This was the opinion even of the pagans. (Porphyrius, Ap. ii.; St. Clement of Alexandria, Strom. v.) (Calmet) --- To keep. Instead of this, the tempter substituted and, (Matthew 4:6.) finding it would not answer his purpose, (Haydock) and shewed that the question was about walking, and not about precipitating oneself. (St. Bernard, ser. xv. p. 90.) --- To attempt such unusual courses, is the way of Lucifer, (Worthington) and tempting God, as our Saviour replied. (Berthier) --- From the father of lies, heretics have learnt how to curtail and misapply the holy Scriptures. (Haydock) --- God has highly favoured man, by intrusting him to the care of these sublime ministers of his court, (St. Bernard) and surely it is lawful for us to implore their assistance, as we may apply to our fellow-creatures for redress in our temporal necessities. To refuse to do so, on the plea that we expect all immediately from God, would be going contrary to his appointment. Else why has God given them for our guardians, since He could have done all without them? In vain is it objected, that this invocation is a religious worship. It may be so styled, because they are blessed, and help us to obtain salvation. But we only honour in them the gifts of God. (Berthier) --- They protect us by his ordinance, (Worthington) and the very form of praying, shews in what light we regard them. Who durst say to God, pray for us? (Menochius)
Psalms 90:12 In their hands they shall bear thee up: lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Stone. He alludes to nurses. (Calmet) --- All these expressions are metaphorical, to shew the assistance given by angels, to remove the obstacles which impede our progress towards heaven.
Psalms 90:13 Thou shalt walk upon the asp and the basilisk: and thou shalt trample under foot the lion and the dragon.

Asp. Which kills in eight hours time at farthest, making the blood congeal.--- Basilisk. "The little king" of serpents. What is related of it seems fabulous. (Pliny, [Natural History?] 8:21.; Solin xxx.) (Calmet) --- Yet there might be some species known by this name, possessing fascinating qualities like the rattle-snake. (Berthier) --- The sight of it alone could not destroy a man; otherwise how could any account of it have been given? Hebrew ssel means a lion in Job, (Berthier) and phethen, "an asp," (Calmet) or basilisk. (Bochart) --- Dragon. Crocodile. (Calmet) --- The most noxious animals, both of sea and land, shall prove quite harmless to the true servants of God, when he intends to prove the truth of his religion, as he did in the cases of Daniel, and of the disciples of Christ, Mark xvi. If they be suffered to kill the saints here, it is in order that they may be glorified in heaven, ver. 15. (Haydock) --- The devil is styled an asp, etc. (Berthier) --- He sometimes attacks the Church, by craft, and at other times by open violence. But she [the Church] remains secure, (St. Augustine) and her children can only be preserved by continuing in her bosom. To know which is the true Church; "see, says St. Gregory, (Mor. 20:29.) which are the most recent sects." (Berthier) --- Methodists may now wrest this honour from the rest of Protestants. (Haydock)
Psalms 90:14 Because he hath hoped in me, I will deliver him: I will protect him, because he hath known my name.

Because. God speaks the rest. (Worthington) --- Known. In practice. (Calmet)
Psalms 90:15 He shall cry to me, and I will hear him: I am with him in tribulation, I will deliver him, and I will glorify him.

Tribulation. The just are not exempt from it. --- Glorify him, with eternal salvation.
Psalms 90:16 I will fill him with length of days; and I will shew him my salvation.

Days. Eternity alone can satisfy the heart. --- Salvation. Or Jesus, who promised to manifest himself, John 14:21, 25. (Berthier) --- Abraham saw him afar off; Simeon at hand, John 8:56., and Luke 2:30. God insures the just a long life in this world, and an eternal one in the next. (Calmet) --- That life is long enough which ends in happiness. (Haydock)
Psalms 91:0 God is to be praised for his wondrous works.

Psalms 91:1 A psalm of a canticle on the sabbath-day.

Day. The Jews say, that Adam sung this at his creation, (Chaldean) or that it refers to the reign of the Messias, which shall last one thousand years after this world is ended. (Kimchi) --- Others think it is a thanksgiving after the defeat of Sennacherib, (Ven. Bede) or Absalom. (Ferrand) --- It might be sung by the sons of Moses, who expected to be shortly delivered from Babylon, (Calmet) or by the people on the sabbath, (Berthier) though many of the Fathers think, that this word denotes "the repose of the life to come." The occasion or author of this psalm cannot be clearly ascertained. (Calmet) --- When we enjoy rest from labour, we ought particularly to praise God's works. (Worthington)
Psalms 91:2 It is good to give praise to the Lord: and to sing to thy name, O Most High.

Praise. Literally, "to confess," (Haydock) as we must be free from sin before we can worthily proclaim God's praises. (Eusebius) (St. Jerome) --- But here to confess means to praise, (Calmet) or give thanks. (Worthington)
Psalms 91:3 To shew forth thy mercy in the morning, and thy truth in the night:

Night. Of adversity, and at all times, (Berthier) as well as in prosperity. (Worthington) --- Morning and evening prayer must not be neglected. (Haydock) --- These times were particularly pointed out, Psalm 54:18.
Psalms 91:4 Upon an instrument of ten strings, upon the psaltery: with a canticle, upon the harp.

Strings, upon. Hebrew, "on the hasor, and on the nabel, on the higaion with the cinnor." Yet the ten stringed instrument seems to have been the same with the psaltery, or nobol. (Haydock) --- Bellarmine thinks and is redundant, and was not in the copies of the Septuagint, or it is only explanatory, as we know that the psaltery had ten strings, Psalm 32:2., and 144:9. (Menochius) --- The matter is of small consequence. (Berthier) --- Eusebius seems to insinuate, that instruments were not used in the Church of his time. (Calmet) --- The observance of the commandments, and mortification, signified by the harp, are requisite. (Worthington)
Psalms 91:5 For thou hast given me, O Lord, a delight in thy doings: and in the works of thy hands I shall rejoice.

Rejoice. Admiring thy providence, (Calmet) or the Messias. "What are all things compared with thee, O Lord!" (St. Augustine; Conf. 10:4.)
Psalms 91:6 O Lord, how great are thy works! thy thoughts are exceedingly deep.

Deep. We cannot easily explain thy ways, (Menochius) in exalting some, and depressing thy people. (Calmet) (Romans 11:33.)
Psalms 91:7 The senseless man shall not know: nor will the fool understand these things.

Things. Pretended sages hence take occasion to blaspheme whatsoever things they know not, Jude 10. The wise adore God in silence, (Haydock) and confess, that the misery of the just here proves a future life, while the wicked prosper, to be more tormented. (Eusebius) --- Carnal men, who think only of present things, see not this. (Menochius)
Psalms 91:8 When the wicked shall spring up as grass: and all the workers of iniquity shall appear: That they may perish for ever and ever: 9 but thou, O Lord, art Most High for evermore.

Hebrews 3:7.; Hebrews 4:7.
Appear. Hebrew, "flourish." Still they are but as grass, (Haydock) short-lived, and of small utility. The just resembles the palm-tree, ver. 13. (Calmet)
Psalms 91:10 For behold thy enemies, O Lord, for behold thy enemies shall perish: and all the workers of iniquity shall be scattered.

Enemies. The Babylonians, (Calmet) or all the wicked at the last day. (Berthier) --- This shews God's power, and insures the exaltation of the just. (Menochius)
Psalms 91:11 But my horn shall be exalted like that of the unicorn: and my old age in plentiful mercy.

Mercy. Hebrew and some copies of the Septuagint have "oil," an emblem of mercy, Proverbs 21:20. (Berthier) --- "I shall be anointed with fresh oil." (Protestants) --- "My old age shall be like a verdant olive." (Houbigant) (Symmachus) --- Those who have a good conscience, expect final happiness. (Worthington)
Psalms 91:12 My eye also hath looked down upon my enemies: and my ear shall hear of the downfall of the malignant that rise up against me.

Me. I shall live to hear of the vengeance which God will take, Psalm 111:9. (Calmet) --- The just pray for sinners here; but must approve of God's judgment. (Berthier)
Psalms 91:13 The just shall flourish like the palm-tree: he shall grow up like the cedar of Libanus.

Palm-tree. Septuagint phoinix, means also a "Phoenician, or the Phoenix" bird, of which the ancients have said so much, Job 29:18., (Calmet) and of which Tertullian, (de Res. xiii.) and St. Ambrose, (de fid. Res.) seem to understand this passage. (Amama) --- But it must be explained in the sense of the Vulgate, as the Hebrew Tamar evinceth. This tree, and the cedar, were the most famous in those countries; the former for its fruit, and the latter for buildings and duration. The palm-tree will shoot forth again, after it has been cut down or burnt, (Pliny, [Natural History?] 13:14.) so the just will rise up from oppression. (Calmet)
Psalms 91:14 They that are planted in the house of the Lord, shall flourish in the courts of the house of our God.

Courts. In the Church triumphant, as well as in the militant. (Worthington) --- The piety of the faithful induces strangers to embrace the truth. (Berthier)
Psalms 91:15 They shall still increase in a fruitful old age: and shall be well treated,

Well treated. Or affected. (Worthington) --- Bene patientes, eupathountes, "flourishing," (Grotius) tranquil, (St. Augustine) or in a prosperous condition. (Berthier) --- Erasmus, to shew the utility of consulting the originals, informs us, what a multiplicity of authors he consulted in vain, to know the import of this word. (Amama) --- "They shall be fat and covered with leaves," (St. Jerome) alluding to the aforesaid comparison.
Psalms 91:16 that they may shew, That the Lord, our God, is righteous, and there is no iniquity in him.

In him. The general judgment will set this in the clearest light. At present, the ways of Providence may be mysterious, ver. 6. (Haydock)
Psalms 92:0 The glory and stability of the kingdom; that is, of the Church of Christ.

Psalms 92:1 The Lord hath reigned, he is clothed with beauty: the Lord is clothed with strength, and hath girded himself. For he hath established the world which shall not be moved.

Founded. Septuagint, "inhabited." This title occurs not in Hebrew (Theodoret) nor are the copies of the Septuagint uniform, which shews that it is a later insertion, intimating perhaps, that it was sung on Friday, when the works of creation were completed, (Berthier) and the world redeemed. (Worthington) --- It seems to refer to the translation of the ark, (Muis; 1 Paralipomenon 16:30.) and the establishment of the Church, the house of God, though the universe may be so styled, (Berthier) or it speaks of the return from captivity, (Ven. Bede) as well as the preceding and following psalms. --- Himself. As if to perform some great work, the liberation of his people from the captivity of Babylon, and of the devil, (Calmet) or to create the world. (Berthier) --- Established. "Weighed." (Houbigant) --- Moved, or disturbed in the order established by him. (Haydock) --- This does not prove that the earth moves not on its own axis daily, and round the sun every year. (Berthier) --- The Church shall not fail, (Menochius) which Christ has redeemed by his own blood, and with great power. In it He reigns, and will draw all to himself, John 12:31. (Worthington)
Psalms 92:2 Thy throne is prepared from of old: thou art from everlasting.

Of old. Literally, "that time," ex tunc, (Worthington) alluding to some distant period, Isaias 16:13. (Calmet) --- God's throne is established over creatures, as soon as they exist. (Haydock) --- Yet he is eternal, (Menochius) as Christ is likewise. At his ascension, He placed his sacred humanity on the throne. (Calmet) --- His kingdom, the Church, continues for ever. (Worthington)
Psalms 92:3 The floods have lifted up, O Lord, the floods have lifted up their voice. The floods have lifted up their waves,

Floods. The apostles, (Eusebius; St. Augustine) or persecutors. (Worthington) --- Waves. This sentence is not in the Roman Septuagint, etc. (Calmet) --- But it is in the Alexandrian and Aldine editions. Storms and tides fill all with awe and astonishment. (Calmet) --- The motion of waters, when they were first confined to their channels, and the persecutions of the Church, and rebellions against God, are described. (Menochius)
Psalms 92:4 with the noise of many waters. Wonderful are the surges of the sea: wonderful is the Lord on high.

On high. In heaven, more to be admired than all the phenomena of nature, and more powerful than all the vast armies of the Babylonians, Isaias 40:15. (Calmet) --- The conversion of many nations, (Apocalypse 17:5.) is the work and glory of God, (Haydock) and his preserving the Church in the midst of the most violent attacks, shews his power. (Worthington)
Psalms 92:5 Thy testimonies are become exceedingly credible: holiness becometh thy house, O Lord, unto length of days.

Credible. St. Jerome, "faithful." --- Protestants, "very sure." (Haydock) --- A person must shut his eyes not to see the prophecies fulfilled concerning Christ, and his Church. (Eusebius) --- The majesty of God should strike us with a holy fear, and teach us to observe his commandments, and to behave with the utmost respect in his house, (Calmet) which is the whole world, or the society of the faithful. (Berthier) --- Articles of faith are perfectly credible to those whose hearts are moved by grace, (Worthington) though they cannot be understood. (Haydock) --- All the members of the Church should carefully approve themselves to God, who is her spouse, (Worthington) and protector, (Menochius) to the end of the world. (Worthington) --- Days. Since thy power and fidelity are so great, suffer not thy temple to be any longer in ruins, or profaned. (Calmet)
Psalms 93:0 God shall judge and punish the oppressors of his people.

Psalms 93:1 The Lord is the God, to whom revenge belongeth: the God of revenge hath acted freely.

Himself. This intimates, that he was inspired to write. --- Week. Wednesday, on which day Judas sold our Saviour, and his punishment is here foretold. (Worthington) --- "The title is not in Hebrew" and has been added since the times of the Septuagint. (Theodoret) --- It refers to the persecutions of David, (Jansenius) or to the captives, (Calmet) or it contains an important instruction on Providence, and on the judgment which Christ will pronounce. (Berthier) --- Freely. Hebrew, "Lord God of vengeance, God of vengeance, shine forth." (Haydock) --- This agrees better with the sequel. To appear or act freely have the same meaning. (Berthier) --- God executes judgment publicly, and without restraint. (Menochius) --- To Him revenge belongs, Deuteronomy 32:35., Romans 12:20., and Nahum 2:(Haydock) --- It is time to punish the haughty Babylon. (Calmet) --- God more usually take the title of merciful. But he is equally just, and will respect no dignity or power, but the merits of each one. (Worthington)
Psalms 93:2 Lift up thyself, thou that judgest the earth, render a reward to the proud.

Psalms 93:3 How long shall sinners, O Lord, how long shall sinners glory?

Psalms 93:4 Shall they utter, and speak iniquity: shall all speak who work injustice?

Psalms 93:5 Thy people, O Lord, they have brought low: and they have afflicted thy inheritance.

Psalms 93:6 They have slain the widow and the stranger: and they have murdered the fatherless.

Fatherless. Septuagint places this after widow, and have here the stranger, or "proselyte," (Haydock) including those who were circumcised, or had only renounced idolatry. --- Jeremias and Ezechiel describe the cruelty of the Chaldeans. (Calmet) --- Similar acts of impious rage are but too visible in all ages. (Haydock)
Psalms 93:7 And they have said: The Lord shall not see: neither shall the God of Jacob understand.

Of Jacob. A wretched people in captivity. This is spoken insultingly, he knows not, or cannot hinder, their distress, Psalm 13:1., and 72:6. (Calmet) --- The insolence and cruelty of infidels are reprobated.
Psalms 93:8 Understand, ye senseless among the people: and you fools, be wise at last.

Fools. Who talk in this manner, (Haydock) whether you really believe, that God is thus ignorant and inactive; or you only act as if you did. (Berthier) --- There are but few of the former description. But very many, even among Christians, act as if they admitted no Providence. (Worthington)
Psalms 93:9 He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? or he that formed the eye, doth he not consider?

Consider? He does not say, "hath he not eyes?" lest any might attribute members to God. (St. Jerome) "In evil works, mankind thou mayst deceive, Thy hidden thoughts the gods above perceive." (Theognis.) Ou leseis de Theous oude logizomenos. --- Thales being asked, if the actions of men were unknown to the gods, replied, "not even their thoughts." (Val. Max. 7:2.) (Haydock) --- It seems those whom the psalmist attacks, denied the interference of God in human affairs, though they allowed that he created all. (Haydock) --- Hence he justly stigmatizes them as fools, and inconsistent. (Berthier) --- It is impossible that God should be ignorant of our actions, since he knows our most secret thoughts. (Worthington)
Psalms 93:10 He that chastiseth nations, shall he not rebuke: he that teacheth man knowledge?