1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Called to be an apostle,{ Ver. 1. Vocatus, kletos Apostolos. Also ver. 6. and 7. kletoi.|} or a called apostle. That is, not only having the name of an apostle, but having his call to this high function, and his mission from God. --- Separated unto the gospel of God. He means that he was separated from others, and appointed by the Holy Ghost to preach the gospel, as we read Acts 13:2. when the Holy Ghost to those of the Church at Antioch, said, Separate me Saul and Barnabas, for the work unto which I have taken them. (Witham)
Romans 1:2 Which he had promised before by his prophets in the holy Scriptures,

Which he had promised before, etc. That is, God before, in the Scriptures, promised the blessings, which are now come by the preaching of the gospel, and that they should come by his Son. (Witham)
Romans 1:3 Concerning his Son, who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh,

Who was made to him of the seed of David, according to the flesh. The sense is, that God promised, that he who was his true and only Son from eternity, should also become his son, as man; that the same son should be man, as well as God, when the word was made flesh, or when that divine person should be united to our human nature. Thus the same person, who was his only begotten Son from eternity, being made man, and of the seed of David, by his incarnation, was still his Son, both as God, and also as man. (Witham) --- The Greek text has not the particle ei, (to him) but only tou genomenou ek spermatos David. But St. Irenaeus, (lib. 3:chap. 18.) St. Ambrose, St. Jerome read, Qui factus est ei. And also St. Augustine in his unfinished exposition of the epistle to the Romans; though before in his book against Faustus, (lib. xi. Romans 14.) he reads it otherwise. (Calmet)
Romans 1:4 Who was predestinated the Son of God in power, according to the spirit of sanctification, by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead:

Who was predestined{ Ver. 4. Qui praedestinatus est. St. Chrysostom, om. a. p. 7. Ed. Sau. ti oun estin oristhentos; deichthentos, apophanthentos.|} the Son of God. The learned bishop of Meaux, Bossuet, in his second Pastoral Instruction, in which he condemned the French translation of Mons. Simon, (p. 127.) takes notice, that according to St. Paul, and the constant doctrine of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, Christ as man, or the human nature of Christ united to his divine person, was predestinated without any precedent merits, by a free and liberal predestination of God's goodness. (Witham) --- Christ, as man, was predestinated to be the Son of God; and declared to be so (as the apostle here signifies) first by power, that is, by his working stupendous miracles; secondly, by the spirit of sanctification, that is, by his infinite sanctity; thirdly, by his resurrection, or raising himself from the dead. (Challoner)
Romans 1:5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith, in all nations for his name,

By whom, that is by this same Jesus Christ, God and man, we, I and the rest of the apostles, have received this grace and apostleship, this mission and commission from him, of preaching his gospel, and teaching his doctrine. --- For obedience to the faith in all nations; that is, to bring all nations to the obedience and profession of his new law and doctrine. (Witham)
Romans 1:6 Among whom are you also the called of Jesus Christ:

Among whom are you also the called of Jesus. That is, you also are a part of those, who by his mercy, are called to this faith and belief in him. All beginning from those words in the third verse, who was made to him, etc. till the end of the sixth verse, are to be taken as within a parenthesis, which is not unusual in the style of St. Paul. Then he goes on after this long parenthesis. (Witham)
Romans 1:7 To all that are at Rome, the beloved of God, called to be saints. Grace to you, and peace from God, our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

To all that are at Rome...called to be saints. That is, who not only are named saints, but who by such a call from God, are to be sanctified by his grace, and to become holy, or saints. (Witham)
Romans 1:8 First I give thanks to my God, through Jesus Christ, for you all, because your faith is spoken of in the whole world.

In the whole world. That is, to all, or almost all the Roman empire. (Witham)
Romans 1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that, without ceasing, I make a commemoration of you

God is my witness. I call God to witness. It is an oath. (Witham)
Romans 1:10 Always in my prayers: beseeching, if by any means I may at length have a prosperous journey, by the will of God, in coming to you.

Romans 1:11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual grace, to strengthen you:

Romans 1:12 That is to say, that I may be comforted together in you, by that which is common to us both, your faith and mine.

Romans 1:13 And I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I have often purposed to come to you, (and have been hindered hitherto) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.

Romans 1:14 To the Greeks, and to the Barbarians, to the wise, and to the unwise, I am a debtor:

I am a debtor. That is, I am bound to preach the word of God to all. (Witham) --- By Greeks, in this place, are understood the Romans also, and by Barbarians, all other people who were neither Greeks nor Romans. The Greeks called all barbarians, who did not speak the Greek language, even the Latins themselves. But after the Romans became masters of the world, they were excepted, through policy, from the number of barbarians, and particularly after they began to cultivate the science of the Greeks. Graecia victa ferum victorem cepit, et artes Intulit agresti Latio. --- St. Paul says, that he is a debtor both to Greeks and barbarians, to the wise, the philosophers, those who pass for sages amongst the pagans, and to the simple, ignorant, unlettered class of mankind: not that he had received any thing at their hands, but because it was his duty, in quality of apostle, to address himself to the whole world, and preach to the great and to the small, to the learned and the unlearned. (Calmet)
Romans 1:15 So (as much as is in me) I am ready to preach the gospel to you also that are at Rome.

St. Paul was even anxious to go and deliver the word to the Romans. Hence Mat. Polus, in his reflections on this verse, puts the following words into the mouth of the Apostle: Lucifuga non sum: ostendi id Antiochiae, Athenis, Ephesi et Corinthi: paratus sum et in illa splendidissima urbe Roma ostendere.
Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel. For it is the power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, and to the Greek.

For it is the power of God unto salvation to every one; that is, it brings powerful helps to all, both Gentiles and Jews, in order to their salvation. --- To the Jew first, inasmuch as the gospel is to be first preached to the Jews. (Witham) --- The promises of salvation were first made to the Jews. Jesus Christ preached to the Jews only, and forbad his disciples, during his life-time, to preach to any other nation. And after his resurrection, when they had full powers to preach every where, they did not turn to the Gentiles, till the Jews had refused to hear them. A miracle was necessary to determine St. Peter to communicate the gospel to the uncircumcised; and St. Paul, in every place, first addressed himself to the Jew, and then to the Gentile. The apostle here sweetly endeavours, in an indirect manner, to silence the presumption of the Romans, who seemed to raise themselves above the Jews, and believed they had merited the grace of vocation to the faith. (Calmet)
Romans 1:17 For the justice of God is revealed therein from faith to faith: as it is written: *The just man liveth by faith.

Habacuc 2:4.; Galatians 3:11.; Hebrews 10:38.
For the justice of God. He does not here mean that justice, by which God is just in himself, but that justice, or sanctification, which he communicates to men, and by which they are justified and sanctified. --- From faith to faith. That is, by faith, and an increase in faith, inasmuch as, by increasing in faith, we advance in virtues; as it is written, (Habacuc 2:4.) the just man liveth by faith; including the love of God, hope, and other virtues. (Witham)
Romans 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven, against all impiety and injustice of those men that detain the truth of God in injustice.

For the wrath of God is revealed, etc. He begins to speak of the heathens, and of the wicked world, whose sins God punisheth from time to time with visible chastisements of plagues, famines, wars, etc. and that because they detain the truth of God in injustice, or in iniquity, that is, because they have not honoured God, even according to the knowledge which he has given them of him, especially their philosophers. (Witham)
Romans 1:19 Because that which is known of God is manifest in them. For God hath manifested it to them.

\f + \fr 1:19-20\ft That which is known of God. Or may be easily known of God, is manifest in them. The light of reason demonstrates to them the existence of one God, the maker and preserver of all things. This is made known to them from the creation of the world, or from the creatures in the world: the Creator may be discovered by the creatures, and as St. Chrysostom here says, every Scythian, every barbarian, may come to the knowledge of God by the wonderful harmony{ Ver. 20. St. Chrysostom, hom. ii. p. 20. tes panton armonias salpiggos, lamproteron booses.|} of all things, which proclaims the existence of God louder than any trumpet: but having known him, they did not glorify him; they acted contrary to their knowledge, abandoning themselves to idolatry, and the vain worship of many gods, and to all manner of vices and abominations against the light of reason. (Witham)
Romans 1:20 For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made: his eternal power also and divinity: so that they are inexcusable.

Romans 1:21 *Because that, when they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, or give thanks: but became vain in their thoughts, and their foolish heart was darkened:

Ephesians 4:17.
Romans 1:22 For professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.

Romans 1:23 *And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God, into the likeness of the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of four-footed beasts, and of creeping things.

Psalm 105:20.; Jeremias 11:10.
Romans 1:24 Wherefore God gave them up to the desires of their heart, *to uncleanness: to dishonour their own bodies among themselves.

Galatians 5:19.; Ephesians 4:19.; Ephesians 5:3.; Colossians 3:5.; 1 Thessalonians 2:3.; 1 Thessalonians 4:7.
Wherefore God gave them{ Ver. 24. to de paredoken, entautha eiasen esti.|} up, etc. That is, as St. Chrysostom says, permitted them, in punishment of their wilful blindness, to fall into the foulest, most shameful, and unnatural sins of uncleanness here described. (Witham)
Romans 1:25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie: and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

Romans 1:26 For this cause God delivered them up to shameful affections. For their women have changed the natural use into that use which is against nature.

God delivered them up. Not by being author of their sins, but by withdrawing his grace, and so permitting them, in punishment of their pride, to fall into those shameful sins. (Challoner)
Romans 1:27 And, in like manner the men also, leaving the natural use of the woman, have burned in their lusts one towards another, men with men working that which is filthy, and receiving in themselves the recompense which was due to their error.

Receiving in themselves the recompense...due to their error. That is, were justly punished for their wilful blindness and error, by which they had worshipped and adored creatures, instead of the Creator, idols instead of the one true God. (Witham)
Romans 1:28 And as they liked not to have God in their knowledge; God delivered them up to a reprobate sense, to do those things which are not convenient,

Romans 1:29 Being filled with all iniquity, malice, fornication, avarice, wickedness, full of envy, murder, contention, deceit, malignity, whisperers,

Being filled with all iniquity. He passeth to many other sins and crimes of the heathens. (Witham)
Romans 1:30 Detractors, hateful to God, contumelious, proud, haughty, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

Hateful{ Ver. 30. Deo odibiles. theostugeis.|} to God. The Greek may also signify, haters of God. (Witham) --- theostugeis means either haters of God, or hated by God. (Menochius) --- Disobedient to parents. The Greek literally signifies, Not listening to the advice of their parents; who rise up against them, and refuse to obey. (Calmet)
Romans 1:31 Foolish, dissolute, without affection, without fidelity, without mercy.

Dissolute, rude{ Ver. 31. asunthetous. See 2 Timothy 3:3.. aspondous, sine foedere.|} in their manners, and behaviour. Some, from the Greek, understand breakers of their word; but this would be the same as without fidelity, which we find afterwards in the same verse. (Witham)
Romans 1:32 Who, having known the justice of God, did not understand that they, who do such things, are worthy of death: and not only they who do them, but they also who consent to them that do them.

This passage in the present Greek versions is rather different from the Vulgate: but the text of the Vulgate is conformable to the most ancient Greek manuscripts, of which some are more than twelve hundred years old. Oitines to dikaioma tou theou epignontes ouk enoesan oti oi ta toiauta prassontes axioi thanatou eisin, ou monon de oi poiountes auta, alla kai oi suneudokountes tois prassousin. See Var. Lect. Mill. in hunc locum et Prolegom. 41. 42.
Romans 2:0 The Jews are censured, who make their boast of the law, and keep it not. He declares who are the true Jews.

Romans 2:1 Wherefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest.* For wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself: for thou dost the same things which thou judgest.

Matthew 7:2.
Wherefore thou art inexcusable, etc. He seems to give a general admonition to every one, both Jews and Gentiles, not to blame, judge, or condemn others, when perhaps he, or those of his religion, may be guilty of the like sins. Let him rather call to mind the just judgment of God, which, they that are sinners, cannot escape. Let him also reflect, that if God hath hitherto deferred to punish him, it hath been through the riches and abundance of his goodness, patience, and long-forbearance, or longanimity: that he must take care not to harden his heart any longer, lest he heap up to himself a fatal treasure at the day of judgment, when God will render to every one according to his works, and not according to his faith only, says St. Chrysostom, hom. V. (Witham)
Romans 2:2 For we know that the judgment of God is, according to truth, against them that do such things.

Romans 2:3 And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them who do such things, and dost the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?

Romans 2:4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and patience, and longsuffering?* knowest thou not that the benignity of God leadeth thee to penance?

Wisdom 9:24.; 2 Peter 3:2.
Romans 2:5 But according to thy hardness, and impenitent heart, thou treasurest up to thyself wrath, against the day of wrath, and revelation of the just judgment of God,

The apostle is evidently speaking to the converted Jews, and not to the Gentiles. For the Gentiles believed in certain judges in hell, who passed sentence on every one as soon as he departed out of life. This is what the learned call poetical theology, and considered as fabulous. But besides a particular judgment at the hour of death, the Hebrews believed in a general judgment of all men, or at least of all the just, in the valley of Jehosaphat; as may be seen in the prophets, and the books of Wisdom and Machabees. (Calmet)
Romans 2:6 *Who will render to every man according to his works:

Matthew 16:27.
Romans 2:7 To them indeed, who, according to patience in good work, seek glory, and honour, and incorruption, life everlasting:

Romans 2:8 But to them that are contentious, and who obey not the truth, but give credit to iniquity, wrath and indignation.

Romans 2:9 Tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man that worketh evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Greek.

\f + \fr 2:9-10\ft Of the Jew first, and also of the Greek. That is, God, as a just judge, will not have any respect to their persons, but punish or reward both Jews and Gentiles, according to their good or bad works. And salvation is now offered to both. (Witham)
Romans 2:10 But glory, and honour, and peace, to every one that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

Romans 2:11 *For there is no respect of persons with God.

Deuteronomy 10:17.; 2 Paralipomenon 19:7.; Job 34:19.; Wisdom 6:8.; Ecclesiasticus 15:35.; Acts 10:34.; Ephesians 6:9.; Colossians 3:25.; 1 Peter 1:17.
Romans 2:12 For whosoever have sinned without the law, shall perish without the law: and whosoever have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law.

Whosoever have sinned without the law. That is, without the written law of Moses, against their reason and conscience, etc. And also those who being Jews, have sinned under this written law, shall be judged, even with greater severity, for having transgressed against the known law. (Witham)
Romans 2:13 *For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.

Matthew 7:21.; James 1:22.
Romans 2:14 For when the Gentiles, who have not the law, do by nature those things that are of the law; these having not the law, are a law to themselves:

\f + \fr 2:14-15\ft When the Gentiles...do by nature, or naturally, that is, without having received any written law, these men are a law to themselves, and have it written in their hearts, as to the existence of a God, and their reason tells them, that many sins are unlawful: they may also do some actions that are morally good, as by giving alms to relieve the poor, honouring their parents, etc. not that these actions, morally good, will suffice for their justification of themselves, or make them deserve a supernatural reward in the kingdom of heaven; but God, out of his infinite mercy, will give them some supernatural graces, by which they come to know, and believe, that he will reward their souls for eternity. Such, says St. Chrysostom, were the dispositions of Melchisedech, Job, Cornelius the Centurion, etc. (Witham)
Romans 2:15 Who shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness to them, and their thoughts between themselves accusing, or excusing them,

Romans 2:16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

Romans 2:17 *But if thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God,

Apocalypse 11:9.
But if thou art called a Jew. In the common Greek copies, we read, behold, thou art a Jew, etc. St. Paul here turns his discourse particularly to the Jews, who valued themselves so much upon their law, their temple, and their ceremonies; and therefore are said to rest on the law, as if it were enough to be by profession a Jew. (Witham) --- But many manuscripts, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, St. Ambrose, Sedul., Theophylactus, etc. read it as in the Vulgate, ei su Ioudaios. (Calmet)
Romans 2:18 And knowest his will, *and approvest the things that are more profitable, being instructed by the law,

Philippians 1:10.
Romans 2:19 Art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them that are in darkness,

Romans 2:20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of infants, having the form of knowledge and of truth in the law.

Romans 2:21 Thou, therefore, that teachest another, teachest not thyself: thou that preachest that men should not steal, stealest:

Thou, therefore, that teachest another, teachest not thyself, etc. St. Chrysostom (hom. vi.) takes these sentences as so many interrogations; dost thou teach thyself? dost thou not steal? dost thou not commit adultery? etc. (Witham)
Romans 2:22 Thou that sayest, men should not commit adultery, committest adultery: thou that abhorrest idols, committest sacrilege:

Idols, etc. The Jews, at the time of our Saviour, were free from idolatry, to which their ancestors had been so prone for so long a time. But to this evil had succeeded another, scarcely less heinous, viz. sacrilege, and a profanation of holy things. The greater part of the high priests bought their office. The priests permitted in the temple itself a kind of traffic, which caused our Saviour to declare to them, that they had made the house of his Father a den of thieves. And to favour their own avarice, they taught that it was lawful to defraud their creditors, and refuse to their parents the necessary succour, in the case of vows to give to the temple. St. Paul does not here reproach them for the profanations of the temple which they committed in the last siege of Jerusalem, for it had not then taken place; but he knew full will the dispositions of their hearts, and the little regard they had for the most sacred things. (Calmet)
Romans 2:23 Thou that makest thy boast of the law, by the transgression of the law dishonourest God.

Romans 2:24 *(For the name of God, through you, is blasphemed among the Gentiles, as it is written.)

Isaias 52:5.; Ezechiel 36:20.
The apostle here only repeats the reproaches which the prophets had repeated so often before, that the Jews, by the contrast between their lives and the sanctity of their religion, had been the cause of that religion and worship being the ridicule and laughing-stock of the Gentile world. (Calmet) --- A reproach this, which also bears very heavy upon many Christians of the present day; who by their profession believe the truth of the one, holy, Catholic, and apostolic faith, and by their conduct belie the same, leading lives unworthy of pagans. (Haydock)
Romans 2:25 Circumcision profiteth indeed if thou keep the law: but if thou be a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

Circumcision profiteth indeed, inasmuch as it was ordained by Almighty God, as were also the precepts of the law, which were to be observed before the publishing of the new law of Christ. See Galatians 5:6. But it was never profitable to the transgressors of the law. Nay, the uncircumcised Gentiles, who have complied with those natural precepts, which are also commanded by the law of Moses, shall judge and condemn those, who received the written law, and at the same time were transgressors of it. (Witham)
Romans 2:26 If then the uncircumcised keep the ordinances of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be reputed for circumcision?

Shall not his uncircumcision (Literally, his praeputium [foreskin]) be reputed for circumcision? Nonne praeputium illius in circumcisionem reputabitur? e peritome sou akrobustia gegonen. A translation may adhere to the letter too much; this seems literal enough. (Witham)
Romans 2:27 *And shall not that which by nature is uncircumcision, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision art a transgressor of the law?

Matthew 12:42.
Romans 2:28 *For it is not he is a Jew, who is so outwardly: nor is that circumcision which is outwardly in the flesh:

Isaias 58.
Nor is that circumcision, which is outwardly in the flesh. St. Paul distinguisheth two sorts of circumcision; that which is made in the flesh, according to the letter of the law, which is an outward circumcision; and a more necessary circumcision of the heart, and of the spirit, by which a man's interior is reformed, and by which his vices and disorders are cut off. The first circumcision would never avail a man any thing without the second. (Witham)
Romans 2:29 But he is a Jew that is one inwardly: and the circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter: whose praise is not of men, but of God.

Romans 3:0 The advantages of the Jews. All men are sinners, and none can be justified by the works of the law, but only by the grace of Christ.

Romans 3:1 What advantage then hath the Jew, or what is the profit of circumcision?

What advantage then? etc. The apostle, not to offend the Jews, by insisting too long in reprehending them, turns his discourse to the advantages they have hitherto had above other nations. As first, that the words of God, those divine oracles, revelations, promises in the Scriptures, were credited or intrusted to them. And though some, or many of them have not believed God's promises, especially concerning their Messias; this hath not hindered God from being faithful to his word, in sending the Messias, and those blessings that were promised with him. For God is always true, or faithful in his promises, and therefore must needs be justified, or found just, when his proceedings are judged, that is, considered and examined. (Witham)
Romans 3:2 Much every way. First indeed, *because the words of God were committed to them.

Romans 9:4.
Romans 3:3 For what if some of them have not believed? *shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect? God forbid.

2 Timothy 2:13.
Romans 3:4 *But God is true: and every man a liar, as it is written: **that thou mayest be justified in thy words, and mayest overcome when thou art judged.

John 3:33.; Psalm 115:11. --- ** Psalm 50:6.
God only is essentially true. All men in their own capacity are liable to lies and errors: nevertheless God, who is the truth, will make good his promise of keeping his Church in all truth. See St. John, 16:13. (Challoner) --- The Greek text has, "may God be true;" that is, may all men acknowledge him as such; let the whole world know, that he neither can be unfaithful to his word, nor his promises; and that, on the contrary, all men of themselves have but lies and vanity for their portion. --- That thou mayest be justified, etc. The particle that, is not casual in this place, but only marks the event. Thy conduct shews that thou art faithful and true to thy promises, and that, notwithstanding the judgments of men, thou art always unchangeable and infallible. Thou art victorious, when judged by them; thou shewest them the falsity and injustice of their judgments. (Calmet) --- And that the infidelity of man, so far from affecting the fidelity of God, will only serve to set it off in a more striking and clearer light. (Bible de Vence)
Romans 3:5 But if our injustice commend the justice of God, what shall we say? Is God unjust, who executeth wrath?

\f + \fr 3:5-6\ft But if our injustice, etc. St. Paul here puts this objection, that if men's sins and iniquities, make the justice of God commendable, that is, make his justice more apparent and known; if the truth of God, as to his promises, be more discovered, praised, and glorified by our lies, that is, by our sins, how then can God blame, or punish men for sins, which contribute more to his honour? May we not say, (as some falsely pretend St. Paul said) let us do evil things, that good things may come of them? The apostle answers in short both this objection, and the calumny against him. As to the first; that though men's sins give an occasion to God to shew his justice, and make known his divine perfections, yet this will not excuse them from being justly condemned, and punished, when God shall judge the wicked world; for if that were a sufficient plea, God could not judge and condemn the wicked: so that as St. Chrysostom { Ver. 6. St. Chrysostom on the words: how shall God judge the world? atopon atopo luei.|} observes, the apostle resolves their question, by asking another, and shews their reasoning absurd, by taking notice of another absurdity that follows from it. 2ndly. He tells them, they slander him, and his doctrine, by only telling them, they deserve to be condemned who say, let us do evil that good may come of it: the damnation, he says, of such men is just. (Witham)
Romans 3:6 (I speak according to man). God forbid: otherwise how shall God judge this world?

Romans 3:7 For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie, unto his glory: why am I also yet judged as a sinner?

Romans 3:8 And not rather (as we are slandered, and as some affirm that we say) let us do evil, that there may come good: whose damnation is just.

Romans 3:9 What then? Do we excel them? By no means. *For we have charged both Jews, and Greeks, that they are all under sin.

Galatians 3:22.; Romans 1:17.; Romans 11:9.
What then do we Jews excel the Gentiles? He again turns his discourse against the Jews, by shewing that they have been sinners, as well as the Gentiles, notwithstanding the particular favours God had done to them, and not to the Gentiles: this he proves out of the psalms; and (ver. 19.) he shews, that these things were spoken of them, who were under the law. (Witham)
Romans 3:10 As it is written: *There is not any man just:

Psalm 13:3.
There is not any man just, viz. by virtue either of the law of nature, or of the law of Moses; but only by faith and grace. (Challoner) --- The apostle here adduces a series of passages from the ancient Scripture, to convince both Jews and Gentiles, that not one amongst them was just, nor had any title to glory, on account of his good works. Not that a just man could not be found under the old law, or even before the law; an infinite number of passages of Scripture will shew the contrary: but he must be understood as speaking of man left to himself, as a son of Adam, conceived in sin, and brought forth a child of wrath. (Calmet) --- These crimes, enumerated by the apostle, are not mentioned as if found in each individual, but some of this black catalogue of crimes were found in one man; some in another; yet so that all had become infected with sin and iniquity, all had deserted the path of virtue. There was none just, none found, who feared or sought after God. (Estius) --- These texts of Scripture, though formerly, even before the times of St. Jerome and St. Augustine, they were found together in some Latin editions, viz. Psalm xiii. cannot be found united either in the Hebrew text, or Septuagint version, as St. Jerome affirms, in Praef. lib. xvi. commentar. in Isai. This, he says, all the Greek commentators allow. He says, that those who were ignorant of this apostle's art in uniting together the texts of different pasts of Scripture, upon finding no part where they were all together, placed them, without any authority, in that psalm whence the first part of the citation is taken. The words, an open sepulchre, are taken from Psalm xiii. (Hebrew text xiv.) the verse "Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues they have dealt deceitfully," from Psalm 5. "The venom of asps is under their lips," from Psalm cxxxix. "Whose mouth is full of curses and bitterness," from Psalm ix. "Their feet are swift," etc. as far as, there is no fear, from Isaias 59. "There is not the fear of God before their eyes," from Psalm xxxv. (Estius)
Romans 3:11 There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God.

Romans 3:12 All have turned out of the way; they are become unprofitable together: there is none that doth good, there is not so much as one.

Romans 3:13 *Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues they have dealt deceitfully: **The venom of asps is under their lips:

Psalm 5:11.; James 3:8. --- ** Psalm 139:4.
Romans 3:14 *Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness:

Psalm 9:7(28).
Romans 3:15 *Their feet are swift to shed blood:

Isaias 59:7.; Proverbs 1:16.
Romans 3:16 Destruction and misery are in their ways:

Romans 3:17 And the way of peace they have not known:

St. Augustine says, that by the law of actions, is understood, that which teaches us what we have to do: by the law of faith, is meant faith itself, which obtains for us grace of performing what the law requires. The law of actions, then, is the old law, which contains the precept; the law of faith is the new law, which gives assistance to fulfil the law. (De Spir. et Lit. ch. IV.)
Romans 3:18 *There is no fear of God before their eyes.

Psalm 35:2.
Romans 3:19 *Now we know that what things soever the law speaketh, it speaketh to them that are in the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be made subject to God:

Galatians 2:16.
And all the world may be made subject to God. That is, God permitted these sins in all men, that sanctification and salvation might be from Christ only, the Redeemer of all men, so that neither Jew nor Gentile should be justified, but by the free and liberal gift of his grace. See St. Chrysostom.{ Ver. 19. Ut subditus fiat omnis mundus Deo, upodikos genetai. o upodikos kurios legetai, o me dunameos archein eauto pros apologian, alla tes eterou deomenos boethei.|} (Witham) --- That the Jews might not say that these passages were to be understood of Gentiles, the apostle here assures them that they must be understood in the first place of the Jews themselves; for what the law speaketh, it speaketh to those who are under the law. If the Jews, then, were so guilty, the guilt of the Gentiles was far more enormous. Thus is every mouth stopped, and all the world must confess itself guilty before God. Let none then glory in their good works. (Calmet)
Romans 3:20 Because by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified in his sight. For by the law is the knowledge of sin.

etc. To the end of this chapter, the apostle shews that the Jews cannot be truly justified, and sanctified by the works of the written law of Moses only; that a knowledge of sin, or of what is sinful, came by the law, but if they did not comply with the precepts of the law, this knowledge made them more guilty. Now, at the coming of Christ, the justice of God, that is, the justice by which he made others just, and justified them, cannot be had without faith in Christ, and by the grace of our Redeemer Jesus Christ, whom God hath proposed to all, both Gentiles and Jews, as a sacrifice of{ Ver. 25. Quem proposuit Deus propitiationem, ilasterion. Some read propitiatorium, as I find it in the Council of Trent, Session 6. cap. ii.|} propitiation for the sins of all mankind, by faith in his blood; that is, by believing in him, who shed his blood and died for us on the cross. It is he alone, (ver. 26.) that is the just one, and the justifier of all. And as to this, there is no distinction. The Gentiles are justified and sanctified without the written law, and the Jews who have been under the law, cannot partake of the justice of God, that is, cannot be justified, sanctified, or saved, but by the faith and grace of Christ Jesus. St. Paul does not pretend that the virtue of faith alone will justify and save a man; nothing can be more opposite to the doctrine of the gospel, and of the apostles in many places, as hath been observed, and will be shewn hereafter. He tells us in this chapter (ver. 20. and 28.) that man is justified without the works of the written law: and he teaches us, that no works of the law of Moses, nor any works that a man does by the law of nature, are sufficient to justify a man, and save him of themselves, that is, unless they be joined with faith, and the grace of God. And when he seems to say, that men are justified or saved by faith, or by believing, as he says of Abraham in the next chapter, (ver. 3. and 5.) he never says (as some both ancient and later heretics have pretended) that faith alone is sufficient. And besides by faith, he understands the Christian faith and doctrine of Christ, as opposite to the law of Moses, to circumcision, and the ceremonies of that law, as it evidently appears by the design of the apostle, both in this epistle and in that to the Galatians. He teaches us in this epistle (chap. 2:6.) that God will judge every man according to his works: (chap. 2:13.) that "not the hearers of the law," but the doers, shall be justified. See also Romans 6. He tells the Galatians (chap. 5. ver. 6.) that the faith, by which they must be saved, must be a faith working by charity. He also tells the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 7:19.) that circumcision is nothing, nor uncircumcision, but the keeping of the commandments of God. That though a man should have a faith, that so he could remove mountains, it would avail him nothing without charity. How often does he tell us that they who commit such and such sins, shall not inherit or possess the kingdom of God? Does not St. James tell us, that faith without good works is dead? See Romans 2:Of this more hereafter. (Witham)
Romans 3:21 But now without the law the justice of God is made manifest: being witnessed by the law and the prophets.

Romans 3:22 Even the justice of God, by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all that believe in him: for there is no distinction:

Romans 3:23 For all have sinned, and do need the glory of God.

Romans 3:24 Being justified gratis by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,

Romans 3:25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to the shewing of his justice, for the remission of past sins,

Romans 3:26 Through the forbearance of God for the shewing of his justice in this time: that he himself may be just, and the justifier of him who is of the faith of Jesus Christ.

Romans 3:27 Where is then thy boasting? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No: but by the law of faith.

Romans 3:28 For we account a man to be justified by faith without the works of the law.

Romans 3:29 Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also.

The apostle here tells us that all men are the creatures of God Almighty, and destined to eternal happiness. Neither was it necessary to be incorporated with the Jews by circumcision, to be made partakers of the justice of God. (Estius)
Romans 3:30 For it is one God who justifieth circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.

God who justifieth circumcision, and also the uncircumcised by faith; that is, by the faith and religion of the new law, or by a faith working by charity, and joined with good words proceeding from faith. See the Council of Trent, Session 6. cap. viii. "When the apostle says, that a man is justified by faith, and gratis, according to the perpetual consent of the Catholic Church, we are said to be justified by faith, because faith is the beginning and foundation of man's salvation, and the root of his justification, without which we cannot please God, nor be made his sons; and we are said to be justified gratis, because nothing of those things which go before justification, whether faith or works, are meritorious of the grace of justification." (Witham)
Romans 3:31 Do we then destroy the law through faith? God forbid: but we establish the law.

Do we then destroy the law through faith? No: but we establish the law. See the words of Christ: (Matthew 5:17.) 1. Because the figures and types of the law of Moses, and the predictions of the prophets, are fulfilled. 2. Because Christians are now taught to fulfil the moral precepts, and the chief part of the law, with greater perfection, in the spirit of faith, charity, etc. (Witham)
Romans 4:0 Abraham was not justified by works done, as of himself: but by grace, and by faith; and that before he was circumcised. Gentiles by faith are his children.

Romans 4:1 What shall we say, then, that Abraham hath found, who is our father according to the flesh.

The apostle proves what he had advanced in the last chapter, that the Jews cannot be justified by the works of the written law, nor by any works, unless joined with faith in the Messias, their Redeemer. This he shews by the example of Abraham, who is said to have been justified by believing; 2. and this was before he was circumcised; 3. and long before the law of Moses. Justification was then given without the works of that law. --- What advantage shall we say, then, that Abraham hath found, who is our father according to the flesh? This seems the true construction and sense: rather than what did he find according to the flesh, as some expound it. (Witham)
Romans 4:2 For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath glory, but not with God.

If Abraham were justified by works, or by his own works, he might have glory, and be commended by men, who judge only according to outward appearances; but not with God: that is, he could not be truly justified, so as to deserve a reward in heaven, without faith and the grace of God. (Witham) --- Not with God. Whatever glory or applause such works might procure from men, they would be of no value in the sight of God. (Challoner)
Romans 4:3 For what saith the Scripture? *Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice.

Genesis 15:6.; Galatians 3:6.; James 2:23.
For what saith the Scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice.{ Ver. 3. Et reputatum est illi ad justitiam, kai elogisthe auto eis dikaiosunen. The Greek word is sometimes translated in the Vulgate Latin, by imputare, or accepto ferre.|} The Scripture, therefore, teacheth us that he became just by his faith. And as he had this faith by the grace of God, grace was the cause of his justification, and not any works without grace. And when it is said, it was reputed to him, we must not understand an imputation of being just without a true and interior justice: for to be reputed just in the sight of God, who sees the heart, and sanctifies the soul by his interior grace, is the only true justice that can make a man acceptable to God. As not to have our sins imputed in the sight of God, is to have them forgiven, and to be free from our sins. (Witham) --- Reputed, etc. By God, who reputeth nothing otherwise than it is. However, we may gather from this word, that when we are justified, our justification proceedeth from God's free grace and bounty; and not from any efficacy which any act of ours could have of its own nature, abstracting from God's grace. (Challoner)
Romans 4:4 Now to him that worketh, the reward is not reckoned according to grace, but according to debt.

Now to him that worketh, etc. a reward may be looked upon as due for his works, and not bestowed upon him as a free gift; but when it is said he believed and was justified, (this belief or faith was always a liberal gift of God) and when no mention is made of his works, it appears that such a justification and sanctification are not from the works of the written law, nor from any works he could do of himself, but that they are according to the purpose, or decree of grace. (Witham) --- Such a man, says the apostle, challenges his reward as a debt, due to his own performance; whereas he who worketh not, that is, who presumeth not upon any works done by his own strength; but seeketh justice through faith and grace, is freely justified by God's grace. (Challoner)
Romans 4:5 But to him that worketh not, yet believeth in him that justifieth the impious, his faith is reputed to justice, according to the purpose of the grace of God.

Abraham, before his vocation, was an idolater, according to Josephus; (Jewish Antiquities, lib. 1:chap. + \fr 4:5\ft Abraham, before his vocation, was an idolater, according to Josephus; (Jewish Antiquities, lib. 1: ch. VIII.) according to some of the Rabbins, and as the Scripture itself seems to insinuate, Josue 24.; Isaias 43.; Wisdom 10.; Judith 5.; Judith 8.) according to some of the Rabbins, and as the Scripture itself seems to insinuate, Josue 24.; Isaias 43.; Wisdom 10.; Judith 5. He did not then merit his vocation to the faith by his works. But when God had called him, and made him depart from his country, when he promised to him an innumerable posterity, Abraham believed in his promises, and it was reputed to him unto justice, that his faith and his justice were the pure gift of God. His faith was not a dead and speculative faith only, but an active faith, a faith animated by charity, as appears from the sequel of his life. (Calmet) Abraham, before his vocation, was an idolater, according to Josephus; (Jewish Antiquities, lib. 1:chap. + \fr 4:5\ft Abraham, before his vocation, was an idolater, according to Josephus; (Jewish Antiquities, lib. 1: ch. VIII.) according to some of the Rabbins, and as the Scripture itself seems to insinuate, Josue 24.; Isaias 43.; Wisdom 10.; Judith 5.; Judith 8.) according to some of the Rabbins, and as the Scripture itself seems to insinuate, Josue 24.; Isaias 43.; Wisdom 10.; Judith 5. He did not then merit his vocation to the faith by his works. But when God had called him, and made him depart from his country, when he promised to him an innumerable posterity, Abraham believed in his promises, and it was reputed to him unto justice, that his faith and his justice were the pure gift of God. His faith was not a dead and speculative faith only, but an active faith, a faith animated by charity, as appears from the sequel of his life. (Calmet)
Romans 4:6 As David also termeth the blessedness of a man, to whom God reputeth justice without works:

As David, etc. That is, David accounted a man happy in being justified by God's grace, and not by his own works, when he said: Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven by the mercies of God, and whose sins are covered; that is, covered so as to be no more, even in the sight of God. (Witham)
Romans 4:7 Blessed are they, whose *iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.

Psalm 31:1.
Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. That is, blessed are those who, by doing penance, have obtained pardon and remission of their sins, and also are covered; that is, newly clothed with the habit of grace, and vested with the stole of charity. (Challoner) --- When it is said that the sins of man are covered, we must not imagine that they still remain, but on account of the goodness of God will not be punished, as the Lutherans contend; for the justice of God could not suffer this: but by it we must understand that they are entirely blotted out, and neither exist, nor are considered any longer by God. Still, we must not conclude that man is blessed, as soon as sin is remitted; since the same psalmist, in another place, ascribes happiness to man when he walks in the law of the Lord, and when he keeps judgment and does justice. (Psalms i; cv; and cviii.) And our Saviour says, If you know these things, blessed shall you be if you do them. (St. John xiii.) (Estius) --- Moreover, if sins were never blotted out, but only covered, why did the royal prophet pray to the Almighty, saying: blot out all mine iniquities; and in different parts of the 50th psalm and psalm cviii, speaking of the egregious sinner, he says: let the sin of his mother not be blotted out; which would mean nothing at all, if sins were never blotted out? (Haydock)
Romans 4:8 Blessed is the man, to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin.

Blessed is the man to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin. That is, blessed is the man who hath retained his baptismal innocence, that no grievous sin can be imputed to him. And likewise, blessed is the man who, after falling into sin hath done penance, and leads a virtuous life by frequenting the sacraments necessary for obtaining the grace to prevent a relapse, that sin is no more imputed to him. (Challoner)
Romans 4:9 This blessedness, then, doth it abide in the circumcision only, or in the uncircumcision also? For we say that faith was reputed to Abraham unto justice.

This blessedness, by which a man's sins are forgiven, and his soul truly justified, was promised, and is given to the uncircumcised Gentiles, as well as to the circumcised Jews, by the faith and grace of Christ; as Abraham was justified, when he was in the state of uncircumcision. (Witham)
Romans 4:10 How then was it reputed? In circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.

In effect, Abraham received circumcision a year only before the birth of Isaac; whereas he had received the promises and justification more than 25 years before, when the Almighty caused him to depart from Mesopotamia. (Calmet) --- Therefore he was justified by faith and grace, which is common both to the circumcised and uncircumcised. (Menochius)
Romans 4:11 *And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the justice of the faith, which is in uncircumcision: that he might be the father of all the believers uncircumcised, that to them also it may be reputed to justice:

Genesis 17:10-11.
And he received, after he was justified, circumcision, as a seal of the justice of faith, which he had before when he believed. Circumcision, therefore, in Abraham, was as a seal and testimony of the justice which he had already by faith: though circumcision was chiefly given to Abraham and his posterity, as a sign or seal of that alliance which God made with Abraham, and his seed, to shew he had made choice of them for his elect people. (Witham)
Romans 4:12 And might be the father of circumcision, not to them only that are of the circumcision, but to them also who follow the steps of the faith, that our father Abraham had, and being as yet uncircumcised.

And might be the father of circumcision. The apostle here tells them that Abraham is the father of all true believers, uncircumcised as well as circumcised, and all that believe in Christ, his seed, in whom God promised to bless all nations, are the spiritual sons of Abraham, and partake of the blessings promised to him in his posterity: nor can the circumcised be his true and spiritual children, unless they follow the footsteps of his faith, by which he was justified, when he believed the promises which God made to him before that circumcision was instituted; to wit, that he and Sara should have a son, when they were naturally past the age of having children, and that in his posterity all the world should be blessed, that is, in Christ. (Witham)
Romans 4:13 *For not through the law was the promise to Abraham or to his seed, that he should be heir of the world, but through the justice of faith.

Galatians 3:18.; Hebrews 11:9.
Of the world, etc. By the world, some understand the land of Chanaan, which is sometimes meant by the whole earth, particularly in the times of David and Solomon, when they ruled over the neighbouring nations. But others think that the apostle alludes to the passage of Genesis, where the Almighty promises that in his (Abraham's) seed, all the nations of the earth should be blessed; which promise extends much beyond the narrow limits of Chanaan. In fine, it may be understood in a spiritual sense, of his dignity of father of all the faithful; which makes him, in a manner, master of the whole world, since his spiritual children, spread through the whole world, have the universe for their inheritance. (Calmet) --- Postula a me, et dabo tibi Gentes haereditatem tuam et possessionem tuam terminos terrae. (Psalm 2:8.) (Haydock) --- It was by Christ that Abraham was to be heir of the world, in as much as the spiritual kingdom of Christ should be spread over all the world. And this of one who was of the seed of David, being heir of the world, was not by the law, or by virtue of the law, which was not given to Moses till 400 years after. (Witham)
Romans 4:14 For if they who are of the law, be heirs: faith is made void, the promise is made of no effect.

For if they, who are of the law, be heirs: faith is made void, the promise is made of no effect. That is, if the Jews, who are under the law, are the only heirs of the blessings promised, it will follow that the faith which Abraham had before the circumcision, and before the law, was of no value, which I have shewn to be false. And, secondly, it will follow that the promise made to him, that in him all nations should be blessed, is also null. (Witham)
Romans 4:15 For the law worketh wrath. For where there is no law, there is no transgression.

For the law worketh wrath, not of itself, nor by the intention of the lawgiver, but in as much as it is the occasion of greater punishments, when persons transgress it knowingly. (Witham) --- The law abstracting from faith and grace, worketh wrath occasionally, by being an occasion of many transgressions, which provoke God's wrath. (Challoner)
Romans 4:16 Therefore it is of faith, that according to grace the promise might be firm to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all,

There are two kinds of children of Abraham, to whom alone these promises are made; the one is according to the flesh, the other according to the spirit. The former of these had no more part in the promises made to him and his seed than the Gentiles, unless they imitated the fidelity and obedience of their father. (Calmet) --- It is in this sense of spiritual father, that the [Catholic] priest at the altar, speaking in the name of the faithful, calls Abraham our patriarch. (Estius)
Romans 4:17 (As it is written, *I have made thee a father of many nations) before God, whom he believed, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things that are not, as those that are.

Genesis 17:4.
Romans 4:18 Who, against hope, believed in hope, that he might be made the father of many nations, according to that which was said to him: *So shall thy seed be.

Genesis 15:5.
Who, against hope, believed in hope, or with hope. That is, Abraham, against all probability of human hopes, still hoped in God, says St. Chrysostom, that he should have a son by Sara: and in this, he was not weak in faith. Therefore it, that is, is great faith, was imputed to him unto justice: and also our faith shall be imputed to us unto justice, or make us truly just, by believing in Christ, etc. (Witham)
Romans 4:19 And he was not weak in faith: neither did he consider his own body now dead, whereas he was almost a hundred years old, nor the dead womb of Sara.

Effete, through old age, nenekromenon.
Romans 4:20 In the promise also of God he staggered not by distrust: but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God:

Romans 4:21 Most fully knowing that whatsoever he has promised, he is able also to perform.

Romans 4:22 And therefore it was reputed to him unto justice.

Romans 4:23 Now it is not written only for him, that it was reputed to him unto justice:

Romans 4:24 But for us also, to whom it shall be reputed, if we believe in him, *that raised up Jesus Christ, our Lord, from the dead,

1 Peter 2:21.
Romans 4:25 *Who was delivered up for our sins, and rose again for our justification.

Isaias 53:6.; 1 Peter 1:3.
The eternal Father delivered his Son to death, to expiate our offences; he raised him from the dead for our justification. His death is our redemption; his resurrection is the principal object of our faith. Our faith in the resurrection, is imputed unto justice, as was the faith of Abraham in the promises of God. The apostle here seems to refer our faith and justification only to the resurrection, not to the exclusion of other mysteries of religion, which are all, and every one of them, the objects of our faith. But the resurrection is, as it were, the zeal and consummation of the rest; it eminently includes in itself all the others. (Calmet)
Romans 5:0 The grounds we have for hope in Christ. Sin and death came by Adam: grace and life by Christ.

Romans 5:1 Therefore, being justified by faith, let us have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ.

The apostle proceeds in this chapter to shew how great a benefit it is to be truly justified by the coming of Christ. --- Let us have { Ver. 1. Pacem habeamus. In the common Greek copies we read echomen, habemus. But in other manuscripts echomen, as St. Chrysostom must have read by his commentary, meke[] amartanomen. etc.|} peace with God. That is, says St. Chrysostom, by laying aside all contentions. Or let us have peace with God by sinning no more. And this peace we may have under the greatest tribulations, which conduce to our greater good, to an increase in virtues, in patience, in hope, in the love of God, etc. (Witham)
Romans 5:2 *By whom also we have access through faith into this grace, wherein we stand, and glory in the hope of the glory of the sons of God.

Ephesians 2:18.
Romans 5:3 And not only so, but we glory also in tribulations: *knowing that tribulation worketh patience:

James 1:3.
We glory in spirit in the afflictions, oppression, and persecution, which we suffer as Christians, esteeming them a great blessing. Thus the apostles went rejoicing from before the council, because they had been thought worthy to suffer disgrace for the name of Jesus. (Acts v.) And St. James (James 1.) says: Think it the greatest joy when you fall into various temptations: (that is, tribulations) for these sufferings greatly serve to confirm the elect in the hopes which they have of enjoying the glory of the world to come. (Estius)
Romans 5:4 And patience trial, and trial hope;

Romans 5:5 *And hope confoundeth not: because the charity of God is poured out into our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us.

Psalm 22:6.
God having prevented us with his gifts when we did not at all deserve them, having showered upon us the blessings of faith, charity, patience, and fidelity, we cannot but have the greatest confidence that after this pledge and assurance of his good will towards us, he well finish the work he has begun, and bring us to his heavenly kingdom. (Calmet) --- Not only the gift of the Holy Spirit, but the Spirit himself, is given to us, who resides in our soul as in his own temple, who sanctifies it, and makes it partaker of his divine love. (Menochius)
Romans 5:6 For why did Christ, when as yet we were weak, according to the time, *die for the ungodly?

Hebrews 9:14.; 1 Peter 3:18.
etc. Why did Christ...die for the ungodly? He shews Christ's great mercy and love for mankind, that he would die for us, who were sinners, and consequently his enemies. How few are there that will lay down their lives for a just man, or for a just cause? --- Perhaps for a good man. That is, for another, who has been good to him, his friend or benefactor, we may find one that will expose or lay down his life. But Christ, in due time, appointed by the divine decree, died for sinners, for us all. And if we have been reconciled to God, and justified by his death; now being made the children of God, and his friends, we may with greater confidence hope to be saved. (Witham) --- The text of the Greek is as follows: For when we were weak, he gave us our Lord Jesus Christ to redeem us; shewing how much God loved us, to perform such stupendous acts of love in our behalf. But the reading of the Vulgate is conformable to St. Irenaeus, (lib. 3:chap. 18.) and to the commentaries of this epistle, which have been published under the name of St. Ambrose, and St. Jerome. (Calmet) --- St. Augustine says, those whom the apostle first calls weak, he afterwards calls impious, hos dixit infirmos quos impios. (Ep. lix. ad Paulinum.) --- St. Jerome, and other fathers and commentators, explain the Greek text of this verse as follows: Scarcely would any one die for a just cause; for who would ever think of dying in defence of injustice? Others explain it thus: Scarcely a single man would die for one that was wicked and unjust: for we can hardly find a person ready to lay down his life for a good man; his friend and benefactor, who has been kind to him. (Calmet)
Romans 5:7 For scarce for a just man will one die: yet perhaps for a good man some one would venture to die.

Romans 5:8 But God commendeth his charity towards us; because when as yet we were sinners, according to the time,

Romans 5:9 Christ died for us: much more, therefore, being now justified by his blood, shall we be saved from wrath through him.

Romans 5:10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son: much more being reconciled, shall we be saved by his life.

Romans 5:11 And not only so: but also we glory in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received reconciliation.

Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death, and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned.

As by one man...in whom { Ver. 12. In quo omnes peccaverunt, eph o pantes emarton. If it agreed with sin, in the Greek it must have been eph es.|} all have sinned. That is, in which man all sinned, (not in which death all sinned) as it must be the construction by the Greek text: so that these words are a clear proof of original sin against the Pelagian heretics, as St. Augustine often brings them. Nor does St. Chrysostom deny original sin, though in this place he expounds it that all by Adam's sin were made guilty of death and punishments. But how could they deserve these, had they not sinned in Adam? (Witham)
Romans 5:13 For until the law, sin was in the world: but sin was not imputed, when the law was not.

\f + \fr 5:13-14\ft Until the law, sin was in the world. That is, from Adam's fall, both original sin and actual sins truly infected all mankind. (Witham) --- Not imputed. That is, men knew not, or made no account of sin; neither was it imputed to them, in the manner it was afterwards, when they transgressed the known written law of God. (Challoner) --- All were conceived and born in sin, in what we call original sin, and liable to death, even infants, who were not come to the use of reason, and consequently could not sin after the similitude of the transgression of Adam, or by imitating his sin, but were born in sin: and besides this, all manner of actual sins, which men committed by their own perverse will, reigned every where in the world. But before the law these sins were not imputed, that is, were not declared sins, that deserved such punishments as were ordained by the law. --- Adam, who is a figure of him that was to come. That is, of Christ, whom the apostle calls the last Adam, 1 Corinthians 15:45. But he was a figure by contraries. By the first Adam, sin and death entered into the world; by Christ, justice and life. (Witham)
Romans 5:14 But death reigned from Adam unto Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of the transgression of Adam, who is a figure of him that was to come.

Romans 5:15 But not as the offence, so also is the gift: for if by the offence of one, many have died: much more the grace of God, and the gift in the grace of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

etc. But not as the offence, so also is the gift, or the benefits which mankind receive by their Redeemer, Jesus Christ. For St. Paul here shews that the graces which Christ came to bestow upon men, and offers to all, are much greater than the evils which the sin of one man, Adam, caused. 1. Because, if by the offence of that one man, Adam, many, that is all died by original sin that descended from Adam, (the blessed Virgin mother by a special privilege being always excepted) much more the grace of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many,{ Ver. 15. Abundavit in plures; Greek eis tous pollous, in multos; so that it is not to be taken comparatively for more, but absolutely for many, or for all; because all here are many, as in other places.|} the comparison does not imply that more in number receive the grace of Christ, than were infected with sin; but that they who receive the graces which are offered to all, receive greater benefits than were the damages caused by the sin of Adam. For the judgment indeed was by one unto condemnation, or so as to make all guilty of one sin, that is, of original sin; and for other actual sins, men committed them by their own proper will; whereas the grace of Christ justifies men from many sins; that is, also from all sins which they have committed by their own malice. 2. Because by it, that is, by the offence of one man, death reigned in the world, and made all men liable to damnation; yet now by the incarnation of Christ, (which would not have been, had not Adam sinned) all they who are justified by the grace of their Redeemer, have Christ God and man for their head: he is become the head of that same mystical body which is his Church: they are exalted to the dignity of being the brothers of Christ, the Son of God; they are made joint heirs with him of the kingdom of heaven, and so by the grace of Christ have a greater dignity in this world, and shall be exalted to a greater and more eminent degree of glory in the kingdom of his glory for all eternity; which hath given occasion to the Church, in her liturgy, to cry out, as it were with a transport of joy, O happy fault, which hath procured us such and so great a Redeemer! See St. Chrysostom,{ Ver. 19. See St. Chrysostom, hom. x. p. 73. Ed Savil. eis uiothesian echthemen ... kai egenometha adelphoi tou monogenous, etc.|} hom. X. (Witham)
Romans 5:16 And not as it was by one sin, so also is the gift: for the judgment indeed was by one unto condemnation: but the grace is of many offences, unto justification.

Romans 5:17 For if by one man's offence, death reigned through one: much more they who receive abundance of grace, and of the gift, and of justice, shall reign in life, through one, Jesus Christ.

Romans 5:18 Therefore, as by the offence of one, unto all men to condemnation: so also by the justice of one, unto all men unto justification of life.

Romans 5:19 *For as by the disobedience of one man, many were made sinners: so also by the obedience of one, many shall be made just.

Philippians 11:8-9.
Romans 5:20 Now the law entered in, that sin might abound. But where sin abounded, grace hath abounded more.

\f + \fr 5:20-21\ft Now the law entered in. Not that the law was designed for that end; but the word that, as in many other places, so here expresseth only the consequence that followed, when sinners occasionally became more guilty by the knowledge of the law, and the precepts given. St. Chrysostom takes notice that it is not said the law was given, but only that it entered in, as it were by the by, and only for a certain time, till our happy redemption, reconciliation, and justification by Jesus Christ. (Witham) --- That sin might abound. Not as if the law were given purposely for sin to abound; but that it so happened, through man's perversity, taking occasion of sinning more, from the prohibition of sin. (Challoner) --- Where sin abounded. Grace abounded in the elect; for the apostle does not say that grace abounded in every place where iniquity had abounded; but he says indefinitely where, that is, in many places where sin abounded, grace hath abounded also. (Estius) --- The Jews and Gentiles having become sensible of their weakness and misery, the Almighty, in his mercy, sent his only Son to enrich both the one and the other with his graces. The Gentiles were in the more deplorable case, and received the greatest abundance of grace; as may be seen from the great number of conversions wrought amongst them in so short a time in every part of the world. (Calmet) --- In the Greek it is pareiselthe, entered in by stealth, as it were, and for a time, till the preaching of the gospel. (Menochius)
Romans 5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, so also grace might reign by justice, unto everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Romans 6:0 The Christian must die to sin, and live to God.

Romans 6:1 What shall we say, then? shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?

Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? He puts and rejects the same objection as before. (Chap. 3:7.) And having set forth in the last chapter the grace and advantages by Christ's coming, he now exhorts them to avoid sinning, and live in the grace of God. (Witham)
Romans 6:2 God forbid. For how shall we that are dead to sin, *live any longer therein?

2 Peter 2:22.
Dead to sin, etc. We are then dead to sin when we neither live in sin by serving it, nor sin lives in us by reigning; in this case, how can we still live in it by yielding to its desires? St. Augustine (ch. VI. de spiritu et litera) thus explains the passage: when grace has caused us to die to sin; if we live again in it, we must be exceedingly ungrateful to grace. (Estius)
Romans 6:3 Know you not that all we, who are baptized in Christ Jesus, are baptized in his death?

etc. We...are baptized in his death. Greek, unto his death. The apostle here alludes to the manner of administering the sacrament of baptism, which was then done by immersion or by plunging the person baptized under the water, in which he finds a resemblance of Christ's death and burial under ground, and of his resurrection to an immortal life. So must we after baptism rise to lead a quite different life: having been also, when we were baptized and made Christians, planted as branches ingrafted in Christ, let us endeavour to bring forth the fruits of a virtuous life. (Witham) --- Old man...body of sin. Our corrupt state, subject to sin and concupiscence, coming to us from Adam, is called our old man, as our state, reformed in and by Christ, is called the new man. And the vices and sins which then ruled in us, are named the body of sin. (Challoner) --- The old and sinful man we must look upon as crucified with him, and the body of sin, or our sinful body, destroyed. We must look upon ourselves as dead to sin, and that we must sin no more, as Christ being once risen, dies no more. (Witham)
Romans 6:4 *For we are buried together with him by baptism unto death: that as Christ is risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, **so we also may walk in newness of life.

Galatians 3:27.; Colossians 2:12. --- ** Ephesians 4:13.; Hebrews 12:1.; 1 Peter 2:1.; 1 Peter 4:2.
Romans 6:5 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, in like manner we shall be also of his resurrection.

Romans 6:6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin may be destroyed, and that we may serve sin no longer.

Romans 6:7 For he that is dead, is justified from sin.

He that is dead is justified from sin.{ Ver. 7. Is justified from sin, justificatus est a peccato; dedikaiotai apo tes amartias. Dikaioo est vocabulum forense. See Cornelius a Lapide, Estius, etc.|} Some translate, is freed from sin: this is true; but perhaps it is better to retain the word justified, which is observed to be a law-word used in courts of justice, where to be justified is to be acquitted, so that a man cannot be questioned again on that account; and so are sinners, when their sins are forgiven. (Witham)
Romans 6:8 Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall live also together with Christ:

Romans 6:9 Knowing that Christ rising again from the dead, dieth now no more, death shall no more have dominion over him.

Romans 6:10 For in that he died to sin, he died once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God:

For in that he died to sin. But the sense must be for sins, or to destroy other men's sins, he himself being incapable of sinning. (Witham)
Romans 6:11 So do you also reckon yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus, our Lord.

Romans 6:12 Let not sin, therefore, reign in your mortal body, so as to obey the lusts thereof.

Let not sin, therefore, reign, etc. He compares sin and justice to two kings, or generals, under one of which every man fights in this world. Sin is the tyrant, under which fight the wicked, and make their minds and their members the instruments, or arms of iniquity to sin, when they follow and yield to their disorderly lusts. But he exhorts them to live so as to make the powers of their souls, and their members, instruments or arms of justice to God, to fight under God, their lawful king, and under the banner of his justice. (Witham)
Romans 6:13 *Neither yield ye your members as instruments of iniquity unto sin: but present yourselves to God as those that are alive from the dead: and your members as instruments of justice unto God.

Colossians 3:5.
Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for you are not under the law, but under grace.

You are not under the law of Moses, as some of you were before: but now you are all under grace, or the law of grace, where you may find pardon for your sins. But take care not to abuse this grace of pardon offered you, nor multiply your sins, and defer your conversion, as some may do, by presuming, that after all, by the merits of Christ, you can find pardon. This, says Tertullian, is the greatest ingratitude, to continue wicked, because God is good. Reflect that you make yourselves servants of him whom you obey. By yielding to your passions, you become slaves to sin. If you keep your obedience to the law of Christ, and to his doctrine, the form of which you have delivered to you by the gospel, you are the happy servants of justice, and the servants of God, who is justice itself. (Witham)
Romans 6:15 What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid.

Romans 6:16 *Know you not, that to whom you yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants you are whom you obey, whether it be of sin, unto death, or of obedience, unto justice.

John 8:34.; 2 Peter 2:19.
Romans 6:17 But thanks be to God, that you were the servants of sin, but have obeyed from the heart, unto that form of doctrine, into which you have been delivered.

Thanks be to God, etc. He thanks God, not because they had been in sin, but because after having been so long under the slavery of sin, they had now been converted from their heart, and with their whole strength gave themselves to that form of doctrine to which they had been conducted by the gospel. He returns God thanks for their obedience to the faith, because this obedience of the human will is the work and gift of God, that so no one may glory in his sight. (Ephesians ii.) (Estius)
Romans 6:18 Being then freed from sin, you are become the servants of justice.

Romans 6:19 I speak a human thing, because of the infirmity of your flesh: for as you have yielded your members to serve uncleanness, and iniquity unto iniquity: so now yield your members to serve justice unto sanctification.

I speak a human thing,{ Ver. 19. Humanum dico, anthropinon lego; Romans 3:6. Secundum hominem, kat anthropon. See St. Chrysostom, hom. xii.|} or I am proposing to you what is according to human strength and ability assisted by the grace of God, with a due regard to the weakness and infirmity of your flesh. The sense, according to St. Chrysostom is this, that the apostle having told them they must be dead to sin, lead a new life, etc. he now encourages them to it, by telling them, that what is required of them is not above their human strength, as it is assisted by those graces which God offers them, and which they have received. Where we may observe that these words, I speak a human thing, are not the same, nor to be taken in the same sense, as Romans 3:6. when he said, I speak after a human way, or I speak like men. (Witham) --- What I ask of you, Christian Romans, is, that you so earnestly labour for your sanctification as to improve daily in virtue, as formerly you plunged every day deeper and deeper into vice. (Menochius)
Romans 6:20 For when you were the servants of sin, you were free from justice.

\f + \fr 6:20-22\ft You were free from justice; that is, says St. Chrysostom, you lived as no ways subject to justice, nor obedient to the law and precepts of God: an unhappy freedom, a miserable liberty, worse than the greatest slavery, the end of which is death, eternal death: of which sins with great reason you are now ashamed, when you are become the servants of God, and obedient to him, for which you will receive the fruit and reward of everlasting life in heaven. (Witham)
Romans 6:21 What fruit, therefore, had you then in those things, of which you are now ashamed? For the end of them is death.

Romans 6:22 But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, you have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end everlasting life.

Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death. But the grace of God, everlasting life, in Christ Jesus, our Lord.

For the wages, which the tyrant sin gives to his soldiers and slaves, is eternal death; but the wages, the pay, the reward, which God gives to those that fight under him, is everlasting life; which, though a reward of our past labours, as it is often called in the Scriptures, is still a grace,{ Ver. 23. Gratia Dei, vita aeterna; that is, in construction, vita aeterna, est gratia Dei.|} or free gift; because if our works are good, or deserve a reward in heaven, it is God's grace that makes them deserve it. For, as St. Augustine says, when God crowns our works, he crowns his own gifts. (Witham)
Romans 7:0 We are released by Christ from the law, and from the guilt of sin: though the inclination to it still tempt us.

Romans 7:1 Know you not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law) that the law hath dominion over a man as long as it liveth?

As long as it liveth; or, as long as he liveth. (Challoner) --- This seems the literal construction, rather than as long as he, the man, liveth. For St. Paul here compares the law (which in the Greek is in the masculine gender) to a husband, whom a wife cannot quit, nor be married to another, as long as the husband liveth, without being an adulteress: but if the husband be dead, (as the law of Moses is now dead, and no longer obligatory after the publishing of the new law of Christ) the people that were Jews, and under the Jewish law, are now free from that former husband, to wit, the written law of Moses. Nay, this people also are become dead to the law, (ver. 4.) because the law itself is dead by the body of Christ, or, as in the Greek, by reason of the body of Christ offered and sacrificed for you, and for all on the cross: so that now you must look upon yourselves as spiritually married to him: which agrees with what follows, that you may belong to another, (in the Greek, to another husband) to Christ, who is risen from the dead, and is now the spouse of your souls. (Witham)
Romans 7:2 *For the woman that hath a husband, whilst her husband liveth, is bound to the law: but if her husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.

1 Corinthians 7:39.
Romans 7:3 Wherefore, whilst her husband liveth, she shall be called an adulteress, if she be with another man: but if her husband be dead, she is free from the law of her husband: so that she is not an adulteress, if she be with another man.

Romans 7:4 Therefore, my brethren, you also are become dead to the law, by the body of Christ: that you may belong to another, who is risen again from the dead, that we may bring forth fruit to God.

Romans 7:5 For when we were in the flesh, the passions of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members, to bring forth fruit unto death.

For when we were in the flesh; that is lived according to the flesh, the passions of sins, which were by the law: he does not say, as St. Chrysostom observes, that they were caused by the law, but only were by it, meaning that they were occasioned by the knowledge of the law, but properly caused by ourselves, and our corrupt inclinations, that were wrought in our members, rather than did work. (Witham)
Romans 7:6 But now we are loosed from the law of death, wherein we were detained, so that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.

But now are loosed from the law of death, by which many understand from the law of Moses; so called, because it could not of itself give the life of grace, and occasioned death. Others expound these words, free from the law of death, that is, from sins, which before they had been guilty of, and which made them deserve eternal death. (Witham)
Romans 7:7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. But I did not know sin, but by the law: for I had not known concupiscence, if the law had not said: *Thou shalt not covet.

Exodus 20:17.; Deuteronomy 5:21.
Is the law (of Moses) sin? God forbid. The apostle declares, that the law itself was far from being sinful; on the contrary, that it was good, spiritual, holy: but, saith he, I should not know concupiscence to be sinful, unless the law said: thou shalt not covet: by which it is made known to every one, that sins of thought consented to, and evil desires, are sins. (Witham)
Romans 7:8 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law, sin was dead.

Sin, taking occasion. Sin, or concupiscence, which is called sin, because it is from sin, and leads to sin, which was asleep before, was awakened by the prohibition; the law not being the cause thereof, nor properly giving occasion to it: but occasion being taken by our corrupt nature to resist the commandment laid upon us. (Challoner) --- Sin. The apostle here calls concupiscence by the name of sin; because it is the consequence and punishment of it, and drags us along to sin. This takes occasion from the precept of the law to induce us to transgress it; for we are naturally inclined to do what is forbidden. --- Nitimur in vetitum --- which is the offspring of a disorderly love of liberty and independence. Without the law sin was dead, because concupiscence had nothing to rouse and trouble it. It was like a torrent which rolled rapidly, without resistance in its channel, but as soon as the law came and put an obstacle, it began to spread itself far and wide, and commit the strangest ravages. Or it may be explained thus: without the law sin was dead; not being known to the world, and not imputed to us as a transgression. He speaks here of the transgressions of the written law, not of the law of nature, of which each one has a sufficient knowledge to render him inexcusable, whenever he transgresses it. (Calmet) --- Without the law sin was dead; that is, many sins were so little known, that before the written law they seemed no sins; not but that, at all times, reason and conscience shewed many things to be sinful and ill done, so that whosoever acted against these lights could not be excused. See what St. Paul says of the heathen philosophers, Romans 1:(Witham)
Romans 7:9 And I lived some time without the law. But when the commandment came, sin revived,

etc. I lived some time without the law; that is without the knowledge of the law. This some understand of St. Paul in the time of his childhood, before he came to the knowledge of what was forbidden by any law. But the exposition, which agrees with the rest of this chapter, is this; that St. Paul, though he seems to speak of himself, yet represents the condition of any person that lived before the written law was given: but when the commandment came, after that the written law was given, and its precepts came to my knowledge, then sin revived, by giving me a perfect knowledge: and by transgressing those precepts, I became more guilty and without excuse. --- I died: that is became guilty by transgression of the known law, and guilty of eternal death: and the commandments or precepts, which were unto life, which were good in themselves, and designed to direct me what I was to do, and what I was to avoid in order to obtain eternal life, were found to be unto death to me, but by my own fault; and occasionally only, from the commandments of the law and the knowledge of them, when with full knowledge I transgressed them. Thus I was seduced by sin, which with it brought death, though the law and the commandment (ver. 12) were in themselves holy, and just, and good. They could not but be good, as St. Chrysostom says, their author being the true God, and not any evil principle or cause, that was the author of evils, as the impious Manicheans pretended. We might as well, says St. Chrysostom, find fault with the tree of life [the tree of knowledge of good and evil?] and the forbidden fruit in Paradise, which was not the cause, but only the occasion of our misery, when Adam eat of it. It cannot then be said, that that which was good, (to wit, the law ) was made death to me, or the cause of my death; but sin, and my unresisted sinful inclinations, that it might appear sin, or that it might evidently appear how great an evil sin is, by that which is good, (that is, by the transgression of the law which is good) wrought and brought death to me, that by the occasion of the precepts given and known, sin might become sinful above measure. He speaks of sin as it were of a certain person; and the sense is, that sin, which was in my corrupt nature, might become sinful above measure, when it led me into all manner of disorders and excess, which I yielded to. (Witham)
Romans 7:10 And I died: and the commandment, that was ordained to life, the same was found to be unto death to me.

Romans 7:11 For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, seduced me, and by it killed me.

Romans 7:12 *Wherefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.

1 Timothy 1:8.
Romans 7:13 Was that then which is good, made death to me? God forbid. But sin, that it may appear sin, by that which is good, wrought death in me: that sin, by the commandment, might become sinful above measure.

That it may appear sin, or that sin may appear; viz. to be the monster it is, which is even capable to take occasion from that which is good to work death. (Challoner)
Romans 7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin.

I am carnal, sold under sin, a slave subject to sinful inclinations, which are only properly sins when they are consented to by our free-will. There has been a great dispute both among the ancient and later interpreters, whether St. Paul from this verse to the end of the chapter speaks of a person remaining in sin, either under the law of nature or of the written law, (which was once the opinion of St. Augustine) or whether he speaks of a person regenerated by baptism, and in the state of grace in the new law, and even of himself when he was a faithful servant of God. This is the opinion of St. Augustine in many of his later writings against the Pelagians, for which he also cites St. Hilary, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, and St. Ambrose. It is also the opinion of St. Jerome, (Ep. ad Eustochium de custod. Virg.) of St. Gregory the great, of Ven. Bede, and the more approved opinion, according to which the apostle here by sin does not understand that which is properly speaking a sin, or sinful, but only speaks of sin improperly such, that is of a corrupt inclination, of a rebellious nature corrupted by original sin, of a strife betwixt the spirit and the flesh, which remains for a trial in the most virtuous persons: of which see again St. Paul, Galatians 5:17. We may take notice that the apostle before spoke of what he was and what he had been, but now speaks in the present time of what he is, and what he doth. (Witham) --- The law is styled spiritual: 1st, because it prescribes what appertains to the spirit, and to the spiritual man: that is to follow virtue and shun vice: 2nd, because it directs man to the worship of God, which is spirit and truth: 3rd, because it cannot be fulfilled by spiritual men, unless by spirit and grace: 4th, because it directs the spirit of man and disposes him properly towards God, towards his neighbour, and towards himself: and lastly, because the law spiritually received and understood, leads and prepares men for the evangelical law, which is the law of grace and spirit. (Menochius)
Romans 7:15 For that which I work, I understand not. For I do not that good which I will, but the evil which I hate, that I do.

For that which I work, I understand not. To know, or understand is often, in the style of the Scriptures, the same as to approve or love: so the sense here is: I approve not what I do, that is, what happens to me in my sensitive part, in my imagination, or in the members of my body, which indeed the just man rather suffers than does; and this is the sense, by what immediately follows, the evil which I hate, that I do, that is that I suffer, being against my will; and I do that which I would not. (Witham) --- I do not that good which I will, etc. The apostle here describes the disorderly motions of passion and concupiscence; which oftentimes in us get the start of reason, and by means of which even good men suffer in the inferior appetite what their will abhors: and are much hindered in the accomplishment of the desires of their spirit and mind. But these evil motions, (though they are called the law of sin, because they come from original sin, and violently tempt and incline to sin) as long as the will does not consent to them, are not sins, because they are not voluntary. (Challoner)
Romans 7:16 If, then, I do that which I will not, I consent to the law, that it is good.

Romans 7:17 Now, then, it is no more I that do it; but sin that dwelleth in me.

\f + \fr 7:17-18\ft Now then it is no more I that do it: To will good is present with me. These expressions all shew that he speaks of temptations that affect the sense only, the imagination, or the members of the body, but to which the mind and the will give no consent, but retain an aversion to them; and so long they never can be truly and properly sins, which must be with full deliberation and consent. (Witham) --- The apostle here means to say, that he knew by experience that evil and not good dwelt within him, according to the flesh. He does not contradict this passage when he says elsewhere, that our members are the temples of the Holy Ghost: (1 Corinthians 3:6.[16.?] etc.) for good cannot be found in our flesh, inasmuch as it is corrupted by sin; whence our Saviour says, "What is born of flesh, is flesh." (John iii.) But good is in our body, when our members under the influence of the soul, renewed by the Holy Ghost residing in it, are employed in good works. The meaning of this passage is, that although now healed and renewed by grace, he could have a perfect desire of doing good; yet still on account of the evil of concupiscence dwelling in his flesh, he found not himself able to perform all the good he wished, because concupiscence was always urging him on to evil against his will. (Estius)
Romans 7:18 For I know that there dwelleth not in me, that is to say, in my flesh, that which is good. For to will, is present with me; but to accomplish that which is good, I find not.

Romans 7:19 For the good which I will, I do not: but the evil which I will not, that I do.

Romans 7:20 Now if I do that which I will not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.

Romans 7:21 I find then a law, that when I have a will to do good, evil is present with me.

Romans 7:22 For I am delighted with the law of God, *according to the inward man:

1 Peter 3:4.
I am delighted with the law of God according to the inward man. As long as the inward man, or man's interior, is right, all is right. --- (I perceive another law in my members, fighting, and different from the law of my mind: this is true in any man just striving against and resisting temptations, but not of the sinner, whose mind also and will consent to them. A man can never lose God's favour and grace, unless his mind and interior consent. --- These hold me as it were captive in the law of sin, or sinful inclinations, but which are in the members only. I cry out, who shall deliver me from the body of this death, from this mortal body with its sinful lusts, which if consented to would bring death to the soul? Nothing but the grace of Jesus Christ can secure me from such temptations, and by freeing me from this body, can make me perfectly happy; which cannot be hoped for in this life. But I have still this greatest of consolations, that I myself, with my mind and will, still serve God, and remain firm in obedience to his laws; but with the flesh, or in the flesh, I am subject to the law of sin, that is of sinful inclinations. --- We must avoid here two heretical errors; that of those late pretended reformers, who denying man's free will, hold the commandments of God impossible, even to a just man. See also the first heretical proposition of Jansenius. Next we must detest the late abominable error of those called Quietists, who blushed not to say that a man might yield and abandon himself to the most shameful disorders of the flesh, pretending that it was not they themselves, but sin and the devil that caused these abominations in their flesh. St. Augustine foresaw this frivolous excuse: (lib. 1:de. nup. and Concup. ch. XXVIII.) "That man (saith he) is in a grievous mistake, who, consenting to the concupiscence of the flesh, and to do what the flesh prompts him to, thinks he can still say: It is not I that do that," etc. (Witham)
Romans 7:23 But I see another law in my members, fighting against the law of my mind, and captivating me in the law of sin, that is in my members.

Romans 7:24 Unhappy man that I am: who shall deliver me from the body of this death?

Romans 7:25 The grace of God, by Jesus Christ our Lord. Therefore, I myself, with the mind, serve the law of God: but, with the flesh, the law of sin.

Romans 8:0 There is no condemnation to them, who being justified by Christ, walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit. Their strong hope, and love of God.

Romans 8:1 There is, therefore, now no condemnation to them who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not according to the flesh.

Notwithstanding this law of sin opposing the law of the spirit, and endeavouring to captivate us to sin, we can, by the succour of the grace of Jesus Christ, preserve ourselves from sin and damnation, by resisting sin, and attaching ourselves strongly to Jesus Christ, by faith and charity. Concupiscence is not sin. And they who have received a spiritual birth in Jesus Christ by baptism, and have remained faithful to the grace of their justification, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit, shall receive a recompense proportionate to their combats and labours. (Calmet)
Romans 8:2 For the law of the spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, hath freed me from the law of sin, and of death.

The law of the spirit of life, in Christ Jesus. That is, the new law, by which the Holy Ghost, or the spirit of life is given, hath delivered me from the law of sin and of death: that is, from the slavery of sin, that causeth death: though some think that the law of Moses may be here called the law of death, and of sin, because it occasionally brought death upon such as transgressed the known law. (Witham)
Romans 8:3 *For what the law could not do, in that it was weak, through the flesh: God sending his own Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh, even of sin, condemned sin in the flesh,

Acts 15:10.; Hebrews 9:15.
For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, not in sinful flesh, (because the Son of God could not sin) hath now done; even of sin hath condemned sin in the flesh. That is, in or by his flesh, which was offered on the cross, hath condemned the tyrant sin, as guilty of so many sins, and hath destroyed his tyranny, where the apostle speaks of sin, as it were of a certain person or tyrant. (Witham)
Romans 8:4 That the justification of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit.

That the justification of the law. That is, that was aimed at, but never attained to, by the written law, might now be fulfilled in us; that is, that we, by the grace of Christ, may be enabled to fulfil and comply with the law, and its moral precepts, by walking according to the spirit of Christ. (Witham)
Romans 8:5 For they who are according to the flesh, relish the things that are of the flesh: but they who are according to the spirit, mind the things which are of the spirit.

etc. For they who are according to the flesh. That is, who live according to the false, vain, and deceitful maxims and customs of carnal men, which he also calls the prudence of the flesh: and this prudence he calls death, as leading men to eternal death. Such carnal men relish nothing else but such pleasures. But they who are and live according to the spirit, mind the things which are of the spirit, fix their hearts on the things that belong to God, and his service; and this wisdom of the spirit, in which they experience much greater pleasure, leads them to eternal life, and to eternal peace in the enjoyment of God. The false wisdom of the flesh is an enemy of God, cannot be subject to the law of God, because the maxims of the flesh, and of the world, are so opposite to those of the gospel, and to the doctrine of Christ. (Witham) --- They who are subject to the flesh, by having their affections fixed on the things of the flesh, that is, carnal men, whilst they are such, cannot please God: for this prudence of the flesh makes them the enemies of God. (Estius) --- If Christ, or the spirit of Christ, which he also (ver. 9.) calls the spirit of God, as being one and the same, dwell in you, and direct you, the body indeed is dead because of sin; that is, is mortal, and liable to death, the consequence of Adam's sin; but the spirit and the soul liveth by the life of grace, by reason of justification: that is, because she hath been justified and sanctified by the merits of Christ. And the spirit of God, who raised Jesus to life, will also raise all who remain sanctified by the grace of Christ to a happy resurrection. (Witham)
Romans 8:6 For the wisdom of the flesh is death: but the wisdom of the spirit is life and peace.

Romans 8:7 Because the wisdom of the flesh is an enemy to God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither can it be.

Romans 8:8 And they who are in the flesh, cannot please God.

Romans 8:9 But you are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

Romans 8:10 And if Christ be in you, the body, indeed, is dead, because of sin, but the spirit liveth, because of justification.

Romans 8:11 *And if the Spirit of him, who raised up Jesus from the dead, dwell in you: he that raised up Jesus Christ from the dead, shall quicken also your mortal bodies, because of his spirit dwelling in you.

Acts 3:15.; Acts 4:18.; Acts 5:30.; and 13:38.; Romans 4:24.; 1 Corinthians 6:14.
Romans 8:12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.

Romans 8:13 For if you live according to the flesh, you shall die: but if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the flesh, you shall live.

Romans 8:14 For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.

etc. They are the sons of God, by this new grace of adoption, by which also they call God, Abba; that is to say, Father, whereas under the former law of Moses, God rather governed his people by fear; they were his servants, we are his sons; and if sons, also the heirs of God, with the promise of an eternal inheritance in his kingdom, provided we suffer for Christ's sake, as he suffered for us. And surely the short sufferings in this world have no proportion, nor can be put in balance with the future endless glory, which is promised and prepared for us in heaven. (Witham) --- Abba is a Syriac word, which signifies my father. This is properly the word of free and noble children; for amongst the Hebrews, the children of slaves were not allowed to call their fathers Abba, nor their mothers Imma. This kind of expression was very rarely used under the old law. The Hebrews called the Almighty their Lord, their God, their Salvation, their King, their Protector, their Glory, etc. but seldom their father, scarcely ever, except in the case of Solomon, who was a particular figure of the Messias, the true Son of God. On this account God said to him: "He shall call me Father and God; and I will be to him a Father, and will treat as my first-born." But it is the property of the Christian to call the Almighty his Father with confidence indeed, yet tempered with a filial awe; remembering at the same time that he is his judge. (Calmet) --- Mat. Polus says that not any one of the just dared to call God, my Father, before the coming of Christ, as this favour was reserved for the time of the gospel. (In this location.) (Haydock) --- St. Chrysostom{ Ver. 15. Abba (Pater) St. Chrysostom, hom. XIV. p. 115. oude euchomenous outos, etc.|} takes notice, that God was also called the Father of the Israelites, and they his children, in the Old Testament, when God rather governed his people by fear of punishments, and promises of temporal blessings, but not in that particular manner as in the new law. (Witham) --- The Spirit himself, etc. By the inward motions of divine love, and the peace of conscience, which the children of God experience, they have a kind of testimony of God's favour; by which they are much strengthened in the hope of their justification and salvation; but yet not so as to pretend to an absolute assurance, which is not usually granted in this mortal life: during which we are taught to work out our salvation with fear and trembling. (Philippians 2:12.) And that he who thinketh himself to stand, must take heed lest he fall. (1 Corinthians 10:12.) See also Romans 11:20, 21, 22. (Challoner) --- He hath given to us, says St. John, (chap. 1:12.) the power, or dignity, of being the sons of God. Christ taught us to pray, and to begin our prayers with our Father, etc. (Matthew 6:9.) (Witham)
Romans 8:15 *For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear: but you have received the spirit of **adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba, (Father.)

2 Timothy 1:7. --- ** Galatians 4:5.
Romans 8:16 For the Spirit himself giveth testimony to our spirit, that we are the sons of God.

Romans 8:17 And if sons, heirs also: heirs indeed of God, and joint-heirs with Christ: yet so if we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified with him.

Romans 8:18 For I reckon, that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory to come, that shall be revealed in us.

Romans 8:19 For the expectation of the creature waiteth for the revelation of the sons of God.

The expectation{ Ver. 19. Expectatio creaturae, e gar apokaradokia. St. Chrysostom, hom. XIV. p. 119. apokaradokia gar e sphodra prosdokia estin, intenta et sollicita expectatio. See Mr. Legh, Crit. Sac.|} of the creature. He speaks of the corporal creation, made for the use and service of man; and, by occasion of his sin made subject to vanity, that is, to a perpetual instability, tending to corruption and other defects; so that by a figure of speech, it is here said to groan and be in labour, and to long for its deliverance, which is then to come, when sin shall reign no more; and God shall raise the bodies, and united them to their souls, never more to separate, and to be in everlasting happiness in heaven. (Challoner) --- Waiteth for the revelation of the sons of God. That is, for the time after this life, when it shall be made manifest that they are the sons of God, and heirs of the kingdom of his glory. Several interpreters understand all creatures whatsoever, even irrational and inanimate creatures of this world, which are represented as if they had a knowledge and sense of a more happy condition, of a new unchangeable state of perfection, which they are to receive at the end of the world. See 2 Peter 1:13; Apocalypse 21:1. Now every insensible creature is figuratively brought in groaning like a woman in labour, waiting, and wishing for that new and happy state; but in the mean time unwillingly made subject to vanity, that is to these changeable imperfections of generations and corruptions, which then they shall be delivered from. (Witham) --- The creature, etc. The creatures expect with impatience, and hope with confidence, to see a happy change in their condition; they flatter themselves that they will be delivered from the captivity of sin, to which man has reduced them, and enter into the liberty of the glory of the sons of God. Not that the inanimate creation will really participate the happiness and glory of the elect; although in some sense they may be said to have part in it, since they will enter into a pure, incorruptible and perfect state to the end of ages. They will no longer be subject to those changes and vicissitudes which sin has brought upon them; nor will sinful man any longer abuse their beauty and goodness in offending the Creator of all. St. Ambrose and St. Jerome teach that the sun, moon, and stars will be then much more brilliant and beautiful than at present, no longer subject to those changes they at present suffer. Philo and Tertullian teach that the beasts of prey will then lay aside their ferocity, and venomous serpents their poisonous qualities. (Calmet) --- Other, by the creature or creatures, understand men only, and Christians, who groan under miseries and temptations in this mortal life, amidst the vanities of this world, under the slavery of corruption; who having already (ver. 23.) received the first-fruits of the Spirit,{ Ver. 23. Redemptionem corporis, that is complete happiness, says St. Chrysostom, p. 119. toutesti ten apertismenen doxan.|} the grace of God in baptism, have been made the children of God, and now, with expectation and great earnestness, wait and long for a more perfect adoption of the sons of God: for the redemption of their bodies, when the bodies, as well as the souls of the elect, shall rise to an immortal life, and complete happiness in heaven. (Witham)
Romans 8:20 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him, that made it subject in hope:

Romans 8:21 Because the creature also itself shall be delivered from the servitude of corruption, into the liberty of the glory of the children of God.

Romans 8:22 For we know that every creature groaneth, and is in labour even till now.

Romans 8:23 And not only it, but ourselves also, who have the first-fruits of the spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption of the sons of God, the redemption of our body.

Romans 8:24 For we are saved by hope. But hope that is seen, is not hope: For what a man seeth, why doth he hope for?

etc. For we are saved by hope, as it is the will of God we should be, waiting and hoping with patience for the things which we have not seen, which neither the eye hath seen, nor the ear hath heard, etc. (1 Corinthians 2:9.) --- And the spirit also helpeth our infirmity...asketh for us with unspeakable groanings.{ Ver. 26. Postulat pro nobis, that is says St. Augustine, interpellare nos facit...nobisque interpellandi et gemendi inspirat affectum.|} If we understand this according to the common exposition, of the divine spirit of the Holy Ghost, the sense is, says St. Augustine, that the Holy Ghost maketh us ask: but we may understand the spirit of God and his grace, diffused in our souls, and in particular that gift of the Holy Ghost, called the spirit of prayer, given to the new Christians, which taught them what to ask, and how to pray. See St. Chrysostom. (Witham)
Romans 8:25 But if we hope for that which we see not: we wait for it with patience.

Romans 8:26 Likewise the spirit also helpeth our infirmity: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit himself asketh for us with unspeakable groanings.

Romans 8:27 And he that searcheth the hearts, knoweth what the Spirit desireth: because he asketh for the saints according to God.

Romans 8:28 And we know that to them that love God, all things work together unto good, to such as according to his purpose, are called to be saints.

To them that love God, all things work together unto good. All trials, temptations, afflictions, must be taken as coming from the hand of God, who ordains or permits them for the greater good of his elect. --- For the good of those, who, according to his purpose{ Ver. 28. Secundum propositum vocati sunt sancti, tois kata prothesin. See Romans 9:11. Ephesians 3:11. where in the Latin is secundum praefinitionem, and 2 Timothy 1:9. non secundum opera nostra, sed secundum propositum suum, et gratiam, where he speaks of God, sosantos emas...kata idian prothesin.|} are called the saints. Literally, according to purpose: but it seems certain that to translate his purpose, is only to give the literal sense, if we compare this place with other texts, both in the Greek and Latin, where the same words signify according to God's good will, or his eternal decree, and not according to the purpose, or will of men, as some expound it. (Witham)
Romans 8:29 For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be made conformable to the image of his Son: that he might be the first-born amongst many brethren.

For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be made conformable to the image of his Son, in suffering with Christ, in following his doctrine, in imitating his life. This foreknowledge of God, according to St. Augustine,{ Ver. 29 St. Augustine, de dono persev. Romans 18. praedestinatione Deus ea praescivit, quae fuerat ipse facturus. And again, Romans 14. Praedestinatio est praescientia et praeparatio beneficiorum, quibus certissimè liberantur quicunque liberantur. See Bellarmine and Petau, as to St. Augustine's opinion. But I never in these short notes touch upon any thing that regards the opinions in Catholic schools; my design being no more than a literal exposition of the text.|} is not merely a foreseeing of what men will do by the assistance and graces of God's ordinary providence, much less a foreseeing of what they will do by their own natural strength, as the Pelagian heretics pretended: but is a foreknowledge including an act of the divine will, and of his love towards his elect servants; (as to know in the Scriptures, when applied to God, is many times the same as to approve and love) God therefore hath foreseen or predestinated, or decreed that these elect, by the help of his special graces, and by the co-operation of their free-will, should be conformable to the image of his Son, that so his Son, even as man, might be the first-born, the chief, and the head of all that shall be saved. (Witham) --- God hath preordained that all his elect shall be conformable to the image of his Son. We must not here offer to dive into the secrets of God's eternal election: only firmly believe that all our good, in time and eternity, flows originally from God's free goodness; and all our evil from man's free will. (Challoner)
Romans 8:30 And whom he predestinated, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

And whom he predestinated, them he also called to the true faith and to his service, without any deserts in them, nay, when all mankind were guilty of eternal death, by original sin. --- And whom he called, them he also justified, by faith, by hope, by a love of him, and a true penance. --- And whom he justified, them he also glorified. That is, hath decreed to glorify. Yet not all who have been justified, but only his elect, who are under his special protection, and to whom he grants a perseverance in his grace to the end: so that the call to faith, their sanctification, their final perseverance, and glorification in heaven, are the effects of their free election and predestination. (Witham)
Romans 8:31 What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who is against us?

What shall we then say to these things? That is, though we live amidst temptations and afflictions in this life, we need not fear as long as we are faithful in the service of God, under his protection. --- If God be for us, who is against us, or who shall hinder us from being saved. (Witham)
Romans 8:32 *He that spared not even his own Son, but delivered him up for us all: how hath he not also, with him, given us all things?

Genesis 22:12.
He that spared not, etc. This is another argument for us to hope in the goodness of God, who hath so loved the world, that he hath delivered, and given his true and only Son for us all, to redeem all and every one, and has by his death obtained helps and graces by which we may all be saved. --- How hath he not also, with him, given us all things? That is, since he has given for us his only Son, how can we doubt, but that, with him, he will give us all gifts and graces? He hath given us, says St. Chrysostom, his Son himself, and how can we doubt of other blessings? (Witham)
Romans 8:33 Who shall lay any thing to the charge of the elect of God? God that justifieth,

\f + \fr 8:33-34\ft Who shall lay any thing to the charge of the elect of God? God who justifieth. Others read without an interrogation, it is God who justified us: the sense will scarce be different; for it is the same as to say, we need not fear that God will accuse us, since by his mercy he hath been pleased to die, and to rise again from death for us. (Witham)
Romans 8:34 Who is he that shall condemn? Christ Jesus who died, yea, who rose also again, who is at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.

Romans 8:35 Who then shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation? or distress? or famine? or nakedness? or danger? or persecution? or the sword?

etc. Who then, or what shall separate us from the love of Christ? Neither devils, nor men, nor any thing in nature, unless it be by our own fault, and unless we wilfully and sinfully leave God. --- I am sure. In the Greek, I am { Ver. 38. Certus sum, pepeismai, persuasus sum. No one has an absolute certainty that he shall be saved.|} fully persuaded, that nothing can separate us, etc. In fine, another argument to prove we ought to have a firm hope in God, is that Christ Jesus, who sits at the right hand of God, also intercedeth for us. Christ, as man, intercedeth, prayeth for us, is our advocate and chief mediator See Hebrews vii. Christ is truly said to pray for us in heaven, though it is not he custom of the Church to call upon him in this manner, "Christ pray for us;" because being God, as well as man, he has all things under his command. (Witham)
Romans 8:36 (As it is written: *For thy sake we are put to death, all the day long: we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.)

Psalm 43:23.
Romans 8:37 But in all these things we overcome, because of him that hath loved us.

Romans 8:38 For I am sure that neither death, nor life, nor Angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor might,

Romans 8:39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord.

So powerful and efficacious, so certain and unchangeable is the love of God, which conducts us to the kingdom of bliss, that no creature can separate us from it, either by making us cease to love him, or by frustrating our love of its effect, viz. life everlasting. (Estius)
Romans 9:0 The apostle's concern for the Jews. God's election is free, and not confined to their nation.

Romans 9:1 I speak the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost:

Romans 9:2 That I have great sadness, and continual sorrow in my heart.

Romans 9:3 *For I wished myself to be an anathema from Christ, for my brethren, who are my kinsmen according to the flesh,

Acts 9:2.; 1 Corinthians 15:9.
I wished myself to be an anathema from Christ.{ Ver. 3. Anathema esse a Christo, anathema einai apo tou Christou. From anathesthai. See anathema, and anathema in Legh's critic. sac. See St. Chrysostom, hom. xiv. p. 136. Ed. Sav. where he says, that to expound St. Paul, as if he wished to die for Christ's sake, is a childish exposition, not worthy of the great charity of St. Paul, that is deserves no confutation: ouk esti tauta, ouk esti....oude gar antilegein pros taouta axion. He thinks that St. Paul was willing to be separated, not from the love of Christ, (God forbid) but from the glory of the kingdom of heaven; Pag. 135. allotriothenai ouchi tes agapes autou, me genoito, alla tes apolauseos ekeines kai tes doxes.|} The word anathema, according to its derivation, signifies a thing separated or laid apart for some particular use. Hence it was put to signify things given and consecrated to God, which therefore used to be presented and hung up in temples. 2. The word also was applied to signify things whose destruction was resolved upon, that is, men or things separated for destruction, as sometimes, men deputed to be sacrificed to the gods to appease their anger. This signification was according to the Hebrew word cherem, and the Syriac word horma, as Numbers 21:3. He called the name of that place Horma, that is, anathema; because it was to be entirely destroyed. See 1 Machabees 5. Hence anathema was also used for a curse, and to anathematize, to curse. See Acts 23:14. The sense of this place is differently expounded. Tolet, by the word I wished, or I did wish, thinks that St. Paul might speak of the time before his conversion, when out of a false zeal, he wished to be separated from Christ, and from all Christians: and that he brings this to shew his brethren how zealous he had been for their religion. But this wish of St. Paul is generally expounded as proceeding from the great love and charity he had, when he was an apostle, for the conversion and salvation of his brethren, the Jews, who mostly remained obstinate and incredulous: and some will have it to be no more than a hyperbolical expression of his great love and affection for them. Others, with St. Jerome, ep. ad Algasiam, tom. 4:p. 203. Ed. Ben. think that by this way of speaking, St. Paul signifies himself willing to be sacrificed, by undergoing any death for their conversion: but St. Chrysostom (hom. xvi.) thinks this far short of the sublime charity of St. Paul; for by such a death, says he, he would not be separated from Christ, but would be a great gainer by it; since by that means he would soon be free from all the troubles and sufferings of a miserable life, and blessed with the company and enjoyment of Christ in the kingdom of his glory. He, and many others, think that St. Paul was so troubled and grieved to the heart at the obstinacy of the unbelieving Jews, at their blasphemies against Christ, and their eternal perdition, that an extraordinary charity and zeal for God's honour, and their salvation, made him wish even to endure a separation from Christ, and from the glory prepared for him in heaven, though not from the love, or from the grace of Christ. If this, says St. Chrysostom, seems incredible to us, it is because we are far from such heroic dispositions of the love of God, and of our neighbours. (Witham) --- The apostle's concern and love for his countrymen, the Jews, was so great, that he was willing even to suffer an anathema, or curse, for their sake; or any evil that could come upon him, without his offending God. (Challoner)
Romans 9:4 Who are Israelites, to whom belongeth the adoption of sons, and the glory, and the covenant, and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the promises:

\f + \fr 9:4-5\ft To whom belongeth the adoption of children. Literally, whose is the adoption. He mentions the favours which God had done to his people, the Jews. As, 1. That God had adopted them for his elect people. 2. That he had glorified them with so many miracles. 3. That he had made a particular covenant and alliance with them. 4. Given them a written law. 5. Prescribed the manner they should worship him. 6. Promises of divers blessings. 7. Who are from the Fathers. Literally, whose are the Fathers; that is who descended from the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, etc. 8. Of whose race, that is of the family of David, Jesus Christ, as man, was born. --- Who is over all things God,{ Ver. 5. Qui est super omnes Deus benedictus in saecula. Amen. o on ep ponton theos eulogetos eis tous aionas, Amen.|} blessed for ever. Amen. Though the apostles did not often, in express words, call Jesus Christ the God, lest the heathens, when they were not sufficiently instructed, should imagine that there were many gods, (as divers of the fathers take notice) yet here, and in several places, they clearly delivered the divinity of our Saviour, Christ. The Socinians might here observe, that the apostle calls him the God blessed for ever, and with the Greek article. (Witham)
Romans 9:5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom is Christ according to the flesh, who is over all things, God blessed for ever. Amen.

Romans 9:6 Not as though the word of God hath failed. For all are not Israelites that are of Israel:

\f + \fr 9:6-7\ft Not as though the word of God hath failed in his promises made to Abraham, and the patriarchs. The Jews pretended that the promises were made to them only, and to those that were of their race, and that the Gentiles were not to partake of them. St. Paul shews them their mistake, by telling them who are to be esteemed the true children of Abraham, and of the patriarchs, according to the promises which God made, and who are not. (Witham) --- All are not Israelites, etc. Not all, who are the carnal seed of Israel, are true Israelites in God's account: who, as by his free grace he heretofore preferred Isaac before Ismael, and Jacob before Esau, so he could, and did by the like free grace, election, and mercy, raise up spiritual children by faith to Abraham and Israel, from among the Gentiles, and prefer them before the carnal Jews. (Challoner) --- Neither are all they, who are of the seed of Abraham, his true spiritual children, to whom these promises were made: nor are all they who are descended from Isaac the children of these promises nor are all they true Israelites, to whom these blessings were promised, although they are descended from Israel; but only they who are the children of the patriarchs by faith in Jesus, the Messias, in whom God promised that he would bless all nations. (Witham)
Romans 9:7 Neither are all they, who are the seed of Abraham, children: *but in Isaac shall thy seed be called:

Genesis 21:12.
Romans 9:8 That is to say, not they who are the children of the flesh, are the children of God: but they *that are the children of the promise, are counted for the seed.

Galatians 4:28.
Romans 9:9 For this is the word of promise: *According to this time will I come: and Sara shall have a son.

Genesis 18:10.
To prove that the children of Abraham are the children of the promise, he adduces the passage of Scripture: "I will come in a year's time, and Sara shall have a son." (Genesis xviii.) This promised child was Isaac, the true son of the promise of God, and of the faith of Abraham; and not the son of the flesh, for Ismael was this as well as Isaac; but he was granted to the prayers of Abraham, a child of the grace and mercy of God. All the faithful, therefore, of whatever race or nation they may be, are in this sense the children of Abraham, by being gratuitously chosen by God, and by the fidelity in which they are imitators of Abraham. (Calmet)
Romans 9:10 And not only she: *but when Rebecca also had conceived at once, by Isaac, our father.

Genesis 25:24.
etc. And not only she (Sara) brought forth Isaac, who was the only child of Abraham, to whom the promises descended, though he was the father of Ismael, by Agar, and of all the Ismaelites. And lest the Jews should say that the Ismaelites, though descending from Abraham, according to the flesh, were not to be reputed as his children for another reason, because they came of Agar, who was only the handmaid of Sara; he brings them another example to which they could make no such reply; to wit, that Rebecca also at once had two sons of Isaac, Esau and Jacob; where, though Esau was the first-born, these promises were not reputed as made to him, and his descendants, the Idumeans, who were equally the descendants of Isaac, yet not the favourite people, nor the children of God, as the Jews saw very well. (Witham) --- Not yet born. By this example of these twins, and the preference of the younger to the elder, the drift of the apostle is, to shew that God, in his election, mercy, and grace, is not tied to any particular nation, as the Jews imagined, nor to any prerogative of birth, or any foregoing merits. For as, antecedently, to his grace, he sees no merit in any, but finds all involved in sin, in the common mass of condemnation; and all children of wrath; there is no one whom he might not justly leave in that mass; so that whomsoever he delivers from it, he delivers in his mercy: and whomsoever he leaves in it, he leaves in his justice. As when, of two equally criminal, the king is pleased out of pure mercy to pardon one, whilst he suffers justice to take place in the execution of the other. (Challoner) --- Nor had done any good or evil. God was pleased to prefer, and promise his blessings to the younger of them, Jacob, declaring that the elder shall serve the younger; that is, that the seed of the elder should be subject to that of the younger, as it happened afterwards to the Idumeans. And the prophet, Malachias, said of them, I have loved Jacob, but hated Esau, and turned his mountains into a desert, etc. --- That the purpose of God, his will, and his decree, (see Romans 8:28.) might stand according to election, might be, not according to any works they had done, or that he foresaw they would do, but merely according to his mercy. And though the preference which God gave to Jacob was literally true, as to temporal benefits; yet St. Augustine observes in divers places, that Jacob was a figure of the elect or predestinate, and Esau of the reprobate; and that as Jacob and his posterity was more favoured, purely by the mercy of God, without any merits on their side; so are God's elect, whom he has called, and to whom, according to his eternal purpose, he decreed to give eternal glory, and special graces to bring them thither. (Witham)
Romans 9:11 For when the children were not yet born, nor had done any good or evil, (that the purpose of God according to election might stand)

Romans 9:12 Not of works, but of him that calleth, it was said to her:

Romans 9:13 *That the elder shall serve the younger, as it is written: Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated.

Genesis 25:23.; Malachias 1:2.
Romans 9:14 What shall we say then? Is there injustice with God? God forbid.

What shall we say, then? Is there injustice with God, when he bestows special favours and benefits on some, and not on others? He answers, by no means. And he justifies almighty God's conduct, ver. 22. In the mean time, it is certain that there is no injustice in not giving what another has no right to: and besides all men having sinned, deserved punishment. If then, he shews mercy to some, it is an effect of his goodness and liberality only which they do not deserve. If he leaves others in their sins, they are only punished according to their deserts. His mercy shines upon his elect; and his divine justice is displayed against the wicked and the reprobate, but only according to what they have deserved. (Witham)
Romans 9:15 For he saith to Moses: *I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy: and I will shew mercy to whom I will shew mercy.

Exodus 33:19.
\f + \fr 9:15-16\ft I will have mercy, etc. Then it is not of him that willeth, etc. By these words he again teaches that God's call and predestination of those whom he has decreed to save, is not upon account of any works or merits in men, but only to be attributed to the mercy and goodness of God. See St. Thomas Aquinas on this ch. lect. 3:See St. Augustine, Encher. ch. XCVIII. Epis. 194. in the new Ed. Ep. 105. ad Sixtum de lib. Arbit. ch. XXV. etc. (Witham)
Romans 9:16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

Romans 9:17 For the Scripture saith to Pharao: *To this purpose have I raised thee up, that I may shew my power in thee: and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.

Exodus 9:16.
For the Scripture saith to Pharao, etc. St. Paul had shewn that there was no injustice in God by his giving special graces to the elect; now he shews that God cannot be accounted unjust for leaving the reprobate in their sins, or for punishing them as they deserve; for this purpose he brings the example of Pharao, who remained hardened against all the admonitions and chastisements of him and his kingdom. --- Have I raised thee up, placed thee king over Egypt; I have done so many miracles before thee, I have spared thee when thou deservedst to be punished with death, and at last shall punish thee with thy army in the Red Sea, that my name may be known over all the earth. (Witham)
Romans 9:18 Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth.

And whom he will, he hardeneth.{ Ver. 18. Et quem vult indurat. etc. St. Augustine, lib. de Gra. et Lib. Arb. Romans 23. Deus induravit cor Pharaonis, et ipse Pharao per Liberum Arbitrium. Quaerimus meritum obdurationis et invenimus: merito namque peccati, universa massa damnata est: nec obdurat Deus impertiendo malitiam, sed non impertiendo misericordiam:....quaerimus autem meritum misericordiae, nec invenimus: quia nullum est, ne gratia evacuetur, si non gratis donetur, sed meritis redditur. Obduratio Dei est, nolle miserere, etc. Pharao, says St. Chrysostom, was a vessel of anger, but this was from himself; kai par eautou.|} That is, permits to be hardened by their own malice, as it is divers times said in Exodus, that Pharao hardened his heart. God, says St. Augustine, is said to harden men's hearts, not by causing their malice, but by not giving them the free gift of his grace, by which they become hardened by their own perverse will. (Witham) --- Not by being the cause, or author of his sin, but by withholding his grace, and so leaving him in his sin, in punishment of his past demerits. (Challoner)
Romans 9:19 Thou wilt say, therefore, to me: Why doth he then find fault? For who resisteth his will?

etc. Thou wilt say, therefore, to me, etc. The apostle makes objection, that if God call some, and harden, or even permit others to be hardened, and no one resisteth, or can hinder his absolute will, why should God complain that men are not converted? St. Paul first puts such rash and profane men in mind, that is unreasonable and impertinent for creatures to murmur and dispute against God their Creator, when they do not comprehend the ways of his providence. --- O man, { Ver. 20. O homo, tu quis es? etc. The apostle, says St. Chrysostom, (p. 141.) does not say, that this cannot be answered, but that such questions are impertinent, because we cannot understand what God does, etc. ou legei oti adunaton toiauta luein, etc.|} who art thou that repliest against God? This might stop the mouths, and quiet the minds of every man, when he cannot comprehend the mysteries of predestination, of God's foreknowledge, his decrees and graces, or the manner of reconciling them with human liberty. He may cry out with St. Paul again, (chap. 11:33.) O the riches of the wisdom, and of the knowledge of God! how incomprehensible are his judgments, and how unsearchable his ways! --- Shall the thing formed, etc. Hath not the potter power, etc.{ Ver. 21. Annon potestatem habet figulus, etc.? St. Chrysostom (p. 142.) expressly takes notice, that we must not by this comparison pretend that man has not free-will, etc. entautha ou to autexousion anairon. etc.|} To teach men that they ought not to complain against God and his providence, when they cannot comprehend his works, he puts them in mind of their origin. Every one may say to God, with the prophet Isaias 6:48., Lord, thou art our Father, and we are but clay; thou art our Maker who framed us, and we are all of us the work of thy hands. Hath not the potter power as he pleaseth, out of the same lump of clay to make some vessels for honourable uses, and some for less honourable. St. Chrysostom observes very well, that this comparison must not be extended further than the apostle designed; which was to teach us, how submissive we ought to be to God, in what we do not understand; but we must not pretend from hence, nor from any expression in this chapter, as divers heretics have done, that as vessels of clay are destitute of free will and liberty, so are men. This is against the doctrine of the Catholic Church, and against the Scriptures, in many places. (Witham) --- The potter. This similitude is used, only to shew that we are not to dispute with our Maker: nor to reason with him why he does not give as much grace to one as to another: for since the whole lump of our clay is vitiated by sin, it is owing to his goodness and mercy that he makes out of it so many vessels of honour; and it is no more than just that others, in punishment of their unrepented sins, should be given up to be vessels of dishonour. (Challoner)
Romans 9:20 O man, who art thou that repliest against God? *Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it: Why hast thou made me thus?

Wisdom 15:7.; Isaias 45:9.; Jeremias 18:6.
Romans 9:21 Or hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?

Romans 9:22 And if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath, fitted for destruction,

\f + \fr 9:22-23\ft And if God, etc. He now gives the reason why God might, without any injustice, have mercy on some, and not on others; grant particular graces and favours to his elect, and not equally to all; because all mankind was become liable to damnation by original sin: the clay that all are made of, is a sinful clay; and as St. Augustine says, was become a lump and mass of damnation. Every one had sinned in Adam. Now, if out of this sinful lump and multitude God, to shew the richness of his glory, and superabundant mercy, hath chosen some as vessels of election, whom he hath decreed to save, and by special graces and favours to make partakers of his heavenly kingdom; and to shew his justice and hatred of sin, hath left others as vessels of his wrath and justice, to be lost in their sins, which for a time he bears patiently with, when they deserved present punishment, who can say that he hath done unjustly? (Witham)
Romans 9:23 That he might shew the riches of his glory upon the vessels of mercy, which he hath prepared unto glory.

Romans 9:24 Even us, whom also he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles,

etc. Whom also he hath called, etc. That is, he hath called some of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles, to be vessels of election, as he foretold by his prophet Osee 2:24. I will call them my people, that were not my people,...and I will make them the children of the living God. And as it was also foretold by the prophet Isaias, of all the numerous nation of the Jews, only a remnant shall be saved, by their obstinacy in not receiving, and refusing to believe in, their Messias. For finishing his word, and reducing it by his justice to a little, because the Lord will bring to pass his word reducing it to a small compass upon the earth. The sense and construction of this verse is equally obscure in the Greek and in the Latin text: the true sense seems to be, that finishing his word, or fulfilling his promises to Israel, those that are to be saved, will be reduced by his justice for their sins, to a few; because, though he bring to pass his word, and his promises, the saved among the Israelites will be reduced to a small compass, in comparison of the great number of the Gentiles. This exposition agrees with the rest of the text, and with what follows, and was foretold by Isaias, (chap. 1:9.) that unless the God of Sabaoth (of hosts) had, through his mercy, left them a seed, a small number, they would all in a manner have deserved to be utterly destroyed, like Sodom and Gomorrha. (Witham) --- What I say, shall come to pass, that in those places, viz. Greece, Italy, etc. where those who are strangers to the worship of the true God dwell, and have been called, on account of their profane worship, not my people. In those very places, they shall receive the true worship of God, and by this means shall become and be called the children of the living God. He is so particular as to place, lest the Jews should imagine that the Gentiles would be converted like their former proselytes, and either dwell in Judea, or repair to it at certain stated times. Thus the apostle repeats what Jesus Christ had before said to the Samaritan woman. The hour will come when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, shall you adore the Father. (Estius) (John iv.) --- A remnant. That is, a small number only of the children of Israel shall be converted and saved. How perversely is this text quoted for the salvation of men of all religions, when it speaks only of the converts of the children of Israel. (Challoner) --- St. Paul is here speaking of the reprobation of the Jews, and of the vocation of the Gentiles, and foretells that a remnant, or small number of the children of Israel shall be converted, and saved. In the sense of St. Paul, we sincerely hope, and confidently trust, that a remnant of all will be saved through a timely conversion. But we no where read, in the Old, or New Scriptures, that a remnant of all will be saved, as if it were a matter of indifference to what society or connexion a Christian was joined. (Haydock)
Romans 9:25 As he saith in Osee: *I will call the my people, that were not my people: and her beloved, that was not beloved: and her, that had not obtained mercy, one that hath obtained mercy.

Osee 2:24.; 1 Peter 2:10.
Romans 9:26 *And it shall be, in the place where it was said to them: you are not my people: there they shall be called the children of the living God.

Osee 1:10.
Romans 9:27 And Isaias crieth out concerning Israel: *If the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved.

Isaias 10:22.
Romans 9:28 For he shall finish his word, and cut it short in justice: because a short word shall the Lord make upon the earth.

Romans 9:29 And as Isaias foretold:* unless the Lord of sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been made as Sodom, and we had been like unto Gomorrha.

Isaias 1:9.
Romans 9:30 What then shall we say? That the Gentiles, who followed not after justice, have attained to justice: even the justice that is of faith.

\f + \fr 9:30-32\ft What then shall we say? Or what shall we conclude from these testimonies of the Scripture, but this paradox, as St. Chrysostom calls it, that they who sought for justice, or sanctification, found it not, and they who did not seek it, found it; that is, the Jews, who sought for this justice by the works of their law, which they magnified so much, have not attained to that law that could make them just; whereas the Gentiles, who had no such written law to confide in, have only sought to be justified by the faith and law of Christ, by which they have met with justice, and sanctification? (Witham) --- Behold what was wanting to the justice of the Jews! Scrupulous observers of the ceremonial law: esteeming too much their power, and pretended justice, they regarded the gospel and faith in Christ as of no advantage. Running in the path of the commandments with zeal, but without circumspection, they struck against Jesus Christ, who became to them a stumbling-block. They rejected him: they refused to believe. Thus did their works become dead works, without any fruit for eternity. (Calmet)
Romans 9:31 But Israel, by following after the law of justice, is not come to the law of justice.

Romans 9:32 Why so? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were of works: for they stumbled at the stumbling-stone;

Romans 9:33 As it is written: *Behold I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone, and a rock of scandal: and whosoever believeth in him, shall not be confounded.

Isaias 8:14.; Isaias 28:16.; 1 Peter 2:7.
Why then have not the Jews been justified? because they stumbled at the stumbling-stone: that is, the doctrine of Christ crucified has been a scandal to the Jews, at which being offended, they would not own him for their Messias. Yet whosoever believeth in him, and follows his law and doctrine, shall not be confounded, but obtain justification and salvation. (Witham)
Romans 10:0 The end of the law is faith in Christ: which the Jews refusing to submit to, cannot be justified.

Romans 10:1 Brethren, the will of my heart, indeed, and my prayer to God, is for them unto salvation.

Is for them. That is, for Israel, or the Israelites, named before. (Witham) --- After having said that the greatest part of Israel was cast off by the Almighty, the apostle, to shew that he meant not to insult or provoke them, here testifies that he sympathizes in their misery, and with groans prays in their behalf to the Lord, that he would vouchsafe to grant them understanding, and open their eyes to the truth. Thus, though tenderly affected towards his countrymen, still he could not dissemble the truth, or flatter them in their incredulity, and hardness of heart. (Calmet)
Romans 10:2 For I bear them witness, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.

According to knowledge, etc. The Jews ran with ardour in the paths of the law, but saw not whither they were going; they followed the law, but did not know whither it conducted them. (Calmet)
Romans 10:3 For they, not knowing the justice of God, and seeking to establish their own, have not submitted themselves to the justice of God.

The justice of God. That is, the justice which God giveth us through Christ; as, on the other hand, the Jews' own justice is that which they pretended to by their own strength, or by the observance of the law, without faith in Christ. (Challoner) --- Seeking to establish their own. That is, for justice, or to be justified by their works, or the works of their written law. (Witham)
Romans 10:4 For the end of the law is Christ, unto justice to every one that believeth.

Romans 10:5 For Moses wrote, that the justice which is of the law, *the man that shall do it, shall live by it.

Leviticus 18:5.; Ezechiel 20:11.
\f + \fr 10:5-7\ft Moses (Leviticus 18:12.[5.?]) wrote that the justice which is of the law....shall live by it. That is, shall have the recompense of a long temporal life, or even an everlasting life, by joining a faith in Christ their Redeemer, that was to come. But the justice which is of faith, speaketh thus, that is, Moses speaketh thus of it, (Deuteronomy xxx.) say not in thy heart, who shall ascend into heaven? etc. the apostle gives us the spiritual sense of the words, by adding, to bring Christ down, etc. The sense is, that it is now fulfilled in the new law, when Christ is come from heaven by his incarnation, and is also again risen from the abyss by his resurrection: and therefore,
Romans 10:6 But the justice which is of faith, speaketh thus: *Say not in thine heart: Who shall ascend into heaven? that is, to bring Christ down:

Deuteronomy 30:12.
Romans 10:7 Or who shall descend into the deep? that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.

Romans 10:8 But what saith the Scripture? *The word is near thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is the word of faith, which we preach:

Deuteronomy 30:14.
The word is near thee, is near to every one, who to be justified and saved, need but believe, and comply with the doctrine of the gospel which we preach, and make a confession or profession of it with his mouth; and then whether he hath been Jew or Gentile, he shall not be confounded. (Witham)
Romans 10:9 That if thou confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in thy heart that God hath raised him up from the dead, thou shalt be saved.

Thou shalt be saved. To confess the Lord Jesus, and to call upon the name of the Lord, (ver. 13.) is not barely the professing of a belief in the person of Christ: but moreover implies a belief of his whole doctrine, and an obedience to his law; without which the calling of him Lord will save no man. (St. Matthew 7:21.) (Challoner) --- This passage must be understood like many others of this apostle, of a faith accompanied by a good-will ready to perform what faith says must be practised; as it is required in this very place, that what we believe in the heart, we should confess with our mouth. (Estius)
Romans 10:10 For, with the heart, we believe unto justice: but, with the mouth, confession is made unto salvation.

Romans 10:11 For the Scripture saith: *Whosoever believeth in him, shall not be confounded.

Isaias 28:16.
Romans 10:12 For there is no distinction of the Jew and the Greek; for the same is Lord over all, rich to all that call upon him.

Romans 10:13 *For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

Joel 2:32.; Acts 2:21.
Romans 10:14 How then shall they call on him, in whom they have not believed? Or how shall they believe him, of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear, without a preacher?

etc. Or how shall they believe, etc. He shews the necessity of preachers, and that all true preachers must be sent, and have their mission from God. --- Who hath believed our report? { Ver. 16. Quis credidit auditui nostro? te akoe emon?|} Literally, our hearing? Some expound it thus: who hath believed the things we have heard from God, and which we have preached? The common interpretation is, who hath believed what he hath heard from us? (Witham)
Romans 10:15 And how can they preach, unless they be sent? as it is written: *How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, of them that bring glad tidings of good things?

Isaias 52:7.; Nahum 1:15.
Unless they be sent. Here is an evident proof against all new teachers, who have all usurped to themselves the ministry, without any lawful mission, derived by succession from the apostles, to whom Christ said, (John 20:21.) As my Father hath sent me, I also send you. (Challoner) --- The Almighty sends people to preach two different ways. The one is extraordinary by internal inspiration, as was that of John the Baptist, and all the other prophets; in which case, however, extraordinary proofs must be given that they are sent by God; and the other is ordinary, which is derived from Christ, and from the apostles and their successors, whom he has appointed to be his vicegerents on earth. (Estius)
Romans 10:16 But all do not obey the gospel. For Isaias saith: *Lord, who hath believed our report?

Isaias 53:1.; John 12:38.
Romans 10:17 Faith then cometh by hearing: and hearing by the word of Christ.

Romans 10:18 But I say: Have they not heard?* Yes, verily, their sound went forth over all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the whole world.

Psalm 18:5.
But I say, have they not heard? He puts an objection, and by his answer shews the Jews are inexcusable in not believing, since the gospel has been preached all the world over, and in places where the Jews were, as it was foretold: and also because the Gentiles every where have believed; which even excites you Jews to jealousy against them, as Moses foretold: (Deuteronomy 32:21.) that is, when you now see, that the Gentiles, whom you despised so much, by believing in Christ, have received the gifts of the Holy Ghost, of working miracles, of speaking tongues, of prophecy, etc. (Witham)
Romans 10:19 But I say: Hath not Israel known? First Moses saith: *I will provoke you to jealousy by that which is not a nation: by a foolish nation I will anger you.

Deuteronomy 32:21.
A people whom you have always despised, as not being worthy to be numbered amongst mankind, I will make my beloved people. I will enrich with my graces those whom you have contemned; I will give them the grace of adoption, thus to stir you up to jealousy and rage. And in effect, what greater rage ever was there, than that of the Jews against the converted Gentiles? In persecution, the Jews were always most busy. Thus were the Jews plainly informed of the truth of the gospel, by the Gentiles converted before their face. (Calmet)
Romans 10:20 But Isaias is bold, and saith: *I was found by them that did not seek me: I appeared openly to them that asked not after me.

Isaias 65:1.
Romans 10:21 But to Israel he saith: *All the day long I have spread forth my hands to a people, that believeth not, and contradicteth me.

Isaias 65:2.
After the preaching of Christ, and his apostles, after so many wonders wrought by our Saviour, he at last offers himself to the Jewish people, with stretched-out hands, and yet they cannot be induced to believe in him. They resist him as much as they can, thus verifying the prophecy of holy Simeon, that he should be set up as a sign to be contradicted. (Luke ii.) (Estius)
Romans 11:0 God hath not cast off all Israel. The Gentiles must not be proud; but stand in faith, and fear.

Romans 11:1 I say then: Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.

etc. St. Paul in this chapter endeavours to comfort the Jews, though the greatest part of them were rejected for their blindness; and to admonish the Gentiles, not to boast for being called and converted, but to persevere with humility, and the fear of God. --- God hath not cast away his people. That is, not all of them, nor hath he cast off those whom he foreknew, and decreed to save. --- The Scripture saith of Elias. He brings the example of Elias living among the ten tribes of Israel, when all the people were forbidden to go and adore in the temple of Jerusalem, when the altars of the true God were destroyed, and almost all in these tribes were fallen into idolatry, and worshipped Baal: he complains as if he were left alone in the worship of the true God. But the divine answer shewed him his mistake. I have reserved to myself seven thousand man, etc. Some take notice that seven is divers times put for a great number, as three and a half for a small number: however, besides these seven thousand, all in the kingdom of Juda remained firm in the worship of the true God. In like manner, a remnant is now saved by the election of grace, by God's free and liberal gift of divine grace. Some pretended reformers of the faith of the Church bring this as an argument, that the Church of God may fail, and fall into errors. It is sufficient to answer, that there is a wide difference betwixt the Jewish synagogue, which brought nothing to perfection, and the Church of Christ, which he built upon a rock, with which he has promised to be to the end of the world, and guide them by the Spirit of Truth. (Witham) --- This is very ill alleged by some against the perpetual visibility of the Church of Christ: the more, because however the number of the faithful might be abridged by the persecution of Jezebel in the kingdom of the ten tribes; the Church was at the same time in a most flourishing condition (under Asa and Josaphat) in the kingdom of Juda. (Challoner) --- Our separated brethren add to this text, as in Acts 19:35. the word image. They also cite it in proof of an invisible Church; but with no just grounds: for in Jerusalem the faith and worship were public to the whole world. Besides, the Christian Church rests on better promises than the synagogue. (Bristow) --- The Jews obtain not the justice they sought after, because they did not seek it as they ought; they expected to obtain it by their works, whereas it can only be had from grace. (Estius)
Romans 11:2 God hath not cast away his people, which he foreknew. Know you not what the Scripture saith of Elias; how he calleth on God against Israel?

Romans 11:3 *Lord, they have slain thy prophets, they have dug down thy altars: and I am left alone, and they seek my life.

3 Kings 19:10.
Romans 11:4 But what saith the divine answer to him? *I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed their knees to Baal.

3 Kings 19:18.
Romans 11:5 Even so then at this present time also, there is a remnant saved, according to the election of grace.

Romans 11:6 And if by grace, it it not now by works: otherwise grace is no more grace.

It is not now by works: otherwise grace is no more grace. The election of God, and the first grace at least, are always without any merits on our part; but if we speak of works done in a state of grace, and by the assistance of God's grace, we co-operate with the graces given, and by thus co-operating, we deserve and merit a reward in heaven. (Witham) --- If salvation were to come by works, done by nature, without faith and grace, salvation would not be a grace or favour, but a debt; but such dead works are indeed of no value in the sight of God towards salvation. It is not the same with regard to works done with and by God's grace; for to such works as these he has promised eternal salvation. (Challoner)
Romans 11:7 What then? that which Israel sought, he hath not obtained: but the election hath obtained it, and the rest have been blinded:

Romans 11:8 As it is written: *God hath given them the spirit of insensibility: eyes, that they should not see, and ears, that they should not hear, until this present day.

Isaias 6:9. Isaias 10:29.; Isaias 29:10.; Matthew 13:14.; John 12:40.; Acts 28:26.
God hath given them, etc. Not by his working, or acting in them; but by his permission, and by withdrawing his grace in punishment of their obstinacy. (Challoner) --- Permitted them (says St. Chrysostom) to fall into the spirit of insensibility. Literally, the spirit of { Ver. 8. Spiritum compunctionis; pneuma katanuxeos. In the Latin Vulgate, Isaias xxix. 10, the same Greek words are translated, spiritum soporis; the spirit of slumber. See Mr. Legh, Crit. Sacr. on the word katanusso. St. Chrysostom, om. ith. p. 163. katanuxin, entautha ten peri to cheiron exin tes psuches, etc. See Cornelius a Lapide. St. Chrysostom in the same place; katanugenai gar ouden eteron esti to empagenai, kai proselosthai.|} compunction. Compunction is not here taken, as in some spiritual writers, for a great sorrow for sins. In the Latin Vulgate (Isaias 6:9.) it is called the spirit of slumber, as in the Protestant translation. We cannot have a better judge of the sense of the word than St. Chrysostom, who tells us, that it signifies a habit of the soul, firmly fixed in evil, and an insensible disposition: as, saith he, persons under a pious compunction are not to be removed from their good resolutions; so the wicked, under a hardened compunction, are nailed, as it were, to vice. And that here this is the true sense, appears by the following words out of Isaias: he hath given them eyes that they should not see, etc. And also out of David, (Psalm 68:23.) let their table be made a snare, etc. We may understand the spiritual food of the word of God, and of the Scriptures; which by the blindness of this people, have served to their great condemnation. --- And a recompense, that is, for a just punishment of their obstinacy. --- And bow down their back always, a metaphor to represent the condition of such, as are under heavy oppressions. (Witham) --- Although by bending their back is literally understood the yoke of servitude and captivity, with which the Jews were oppressed at the destruction of Jerusalem; yet it seems more conformable to the apostle's meaning, when considered in a spiritual sense, and then it will signify the insensibility of the Jews, as to heavenly things, and their anxious solicitude for the things of the earth. This their avaricious and carnal disposition was so manifest, that the poet said of them--- O curvae in terram animae et coelestium inanes.--- (Estius)
Romans 11:9 And David saith: *Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling-block, and a recompense to them.

Psalm 68:23.
Romans 11:10 Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see: and bow down their back always.

Romans 11:11 I say then, have they so stumbled, that they should fall? God forbid. But by their offence, salvation is come to the Gentiles, that they may be emulous of them.

\f + \fr 11:11-15\ft Have they so stumbled, that they should fall? God forbid. That is, their fall is not irreparable, or so as never to rise again: but by their offending, salvation (through the liberal mercy of God) is come to the Gentiles, that they, the Jews, may be emulous of the Gentiles, and of their happiness, and so may be converted. (Witham) --- The nation of the Jews is not absolutely and without remedy cast off for ever; but in part only (many thousands of them having been at first converted) and for a time: which fall of theirs God has been pleased to turn to the good of the Gentiles. (Challoner) --- How much more the fulness of them? As if he should say, if the obstinacy of so many Jews seem to be an occasion upon which God, whose mercy calls whom he pleaseth, hath bestowed the riches of his grace on other nations; and while the glory of the Jews, the elect people of God, has been diminished, the Gentiles have been made happy: how much more glorious will be the fulness of them? that is, according to the common interpretation, will be the re-establishment and conversion of the Jews hereafter, before the end of the world? See St. Chrysostom, om. ith. p. 164; St. Hilary, in Ps. lviii; St. Jerome, in Romans 3:Osee. Habacuc iii.; St. Augustine, lib. xx. de Civ. Dei. ch. XXIX. --- Then (ver. 15.) the receiving of them into the Church, and their conversion to Christ, shall be like life from the dead, when the Jewish nation in general, shall rise from the death of sin, and their hardened infidelity, to the life of faith and grace. These things I speak to you, Gentiles, to honour and comply with my ministry of being your apostle: yet endeavouring at the same time, if by a pious emulation, or by any other way, I may be able to bring any of my flesh, or of my brethren, the Jews, to be saved by the faith of Christ. (Witham)
Romans 11:12 Now if the offence of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them, the riches of the Gentiles: how much more the fulness of them?

Romans 11:13 For I say to you, Gentiles: *As long, indeed, as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I will honour my ministry,

Acts 9:2. Acts 9:15.; Galatians 2:7.
Romans 11:14 If by any means I may provoke to emulation them who are my flesh, and may save some of them.

Romans 11:15 For if the loss of them be the reconciliation of the world: what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?

Romans 11:16 For if the first-fruit be holy, so is the mass also: and if the root be holy, so are the branches.

etc. If the first-fruit (see the Greek word) be holy, so also is the mass; so also the rest, the product that follows. He alludes to the offering made by the law of the first-fruit, which was to acknowledge that all good things were from God, and to bring a blessing upon the rest. --- If the root be holy, so are the branches. By the root, says St. Chrysostom, he understands Abraham, and the patriarchs, from whom all the Jewish nation proceeded, as branches from that root: and these branches are to be esteemed holy, not only because of the root they proceeded from, but also because they worshipped the true God. And if some, or a great part of these branches, have been broken, they may, as it is said, (ver. 23.) be ingrafted again. And you, Gentiles, ought to remember that, you were of yourselves a wild olive-tree: and it is only by the merciful call of God, that you have the happiness to be ingrafted upon the same root of the patriarchs; and so, by imitating the faith of Abraham, are become his spiritual children, and heirs of the promises, and by that means have been made partakers of the root, and of the sap, and fatness of the sweet olive-tree. Remember that you bear not the root, nor were you the root that was holy; but the root beareth you; and that being branches of a wild olive, you ought naturally still to bear bad fruit, though ingrafted on the root of a sweet olive. It is only by the mercies of God, if you bring forth good fruit. Do not then be high-minded, nor boast, but fear, and endeavour to continue in goodness; lest God also spare not you, but cut you off, as unprofitable branches. And let me tell you, as to the Jews, if they abide not still in unbelief, God is able to ingraft them again into their own olive-tree; and it seems more easy, that they, who are naturally branches of the sweet olive-tree, should bring forth good fruit, when they shall be ingrafted in their own olive-tree, being of the race of Abraham, to whom the promises were made. (Witham) --- We see here, that he who standeth by faith, may fall from it; and therefore must live in fear, and not in the vain presumption and security of modern sectaries. (Challoner) --- The apostle here exhorts the converted Gentiles, to fear lest they fall, and bring upon themselves a punishment similar to that of the Jews. The Jews were his chosen people, the children of the alliance; they have now been stripped of all; the same may also happen to you. You may fall into presumption and incredulity; if you remain firm, it is not by your own merits or works, but by faith, the pure gift of God. Neither faith, nor vocation, nor grace, are inadmissible. You may lose all; and therefore ought always to fear and live in humility. If God has not spared the natural branches, fear, lest he should not spare you. (ver. 21.) (Calmet) --- The Gentiles are here admonished not to be proud, nor to glory over the Jews; but to take occasion rather from their fall to fear and to be humble, lest they be cast off. Not that the whole Church of Christ can ever fall from him; having been secured by so many divine promises in holy writ; but that each one in particular may fall; and therefore all in general are to be admonished to beware of that, which may happen to any one in particular. (Challoner)
Romans 11:17 And if some of the branches be broken, and thou being a wild olive-tree, art ingrafted in them, and art made partaker of the root and of the fatness of the olive-tree,

Romans 11:18 Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast: thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.

Romans 11:19 Thou wilt say then: the branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.

Romans 11:20 Well: because of unbelief they were broken off. But thou standest by faith: be not high-minded, but fear.

Romans 11:21 For if God hath not spared the natural branches: he may not perhaps spare thee also.

Romans 11:22 See, therefore, the goodness, and the severity of God: towards them, indeed, that are fallen, the severity: but towards thee, the goodness of God, if thou continue in goodness, otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.

Romans 11:23 And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be ingrafted: for God is able to ingraft them again.

Romans 11:24 For if thou wert cut out of the wild olive-tree, which is natural to thee, and, contrary to nature, wert grafted into the good olive-tree: how much more shall they, that are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive-tree?

Romans 11:25 For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of this mystery, *(lest you should be wise in your own conceits) that blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles should come in,

Proverbs 3:7.; Isaias 5:21.
\f + \fr 11:25-26\ft I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of this mystery, this hidden truth of God's justice and mercy, that blindness in part hath happened in Israel, or to part of them, until the fulness of the Gentiles should come in, by the conversion of all nations: and then all Israel should be saved, when they shall submit to the faith of Christ: as it is written by the prophet Isaias, (lix. 20.) there shall come out of Sion he that shall deliver; that is, their Redeemer, Christ Jesus, who is indeed come already, but who shall then come to them by his powerful grace. This is my covenant with them. (Witham)
Romans 11:26 And so all Israel should be saved, as it is written: *There shall come out of Sion he that shall deliver, and shall turn away impiety from Jacob.

Isaias 59:20.
Romans 11:27 And this is to them my covenant: when I shall take away their sins.

Romans 11:28 According to the gospel, indeed, they are enemies for your sake: but according to election, they are most dear for the sake of the fathers.

According to the gospel, indeed, they are enemies for your sake. That is, enemies both to you, because they see the gospel preached and received by you, and enemies to God, because he has rejected them at present for their wilful blindness: yet according to election, God having once made them his elect, and because of their forefathers, the patriarchs, they are most dear for the sake of the fathers: for the gifts and the calling of God are without repentance, in as much as God is unchangeable, and his promises, made absolutely, cannot fail. (Witham)
Romans 11:29 For the gifts and the calling of God are without repentance.

Romans 11:30 For as you also in times past did not believe God, but now have obtained mercy, through their unbelief:

etc. As you also in times past did not believe God, but now have obtained mercy through their unbelief, which was an occasion of God's sending his preachers to you: but the cause of your salvation is God's mercy. --- That they also may obtain mercy. That is, God has permitted their incredulity, that being a greater object of pity, he may shew greater mercy in converting them by the free gift of his grace. --- For God hath concluded { Ver. 32. Conclusit omnia. pantas.|} all, that is, has permitted at different times, both Gentiles and Jews, to fall into a state of unbelief, that the salvation of all may be known to come, not from themselves, but as an effect of his mercy and grace. (Witham) --- He hath found all nations, both Jews and Gentiles, in unbelief and sin; not by his causing, but by the abuse of their own free-will; so that their calling and election are purely owing to his mercy. (Challoner)
Romans 11:31 So these also now have not believed for your mercy, that they also may obtain mercy.

Romans 11:32 For God hath concluded all in unbelief, that he may have mercy on all.

Romans 11:33 O the depth of the riches, of the wisdom, and of the knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are his judgments, and how unsearchable his ways!

\f + \fr 11:33-36\ft O the depth, etc. After he hath spoken of the mysteries of God's grace and predestination, of his mercy and justice, which we must not pretend to dive into, he concludes this part of his epistle, by an exclamation, to teach us submission of our judgment, as to the secrets of his providence, which we cannot comprehend. --- How incomprehensible are his judgments, etc. --- Who hath first given to him, and recompense shall be made him? That is, no one, by any merit on his part, can first deserve God's favours and mercy, by which he prevents us. --- For of him, from God, or from Jesus Christ, as God, and by him, who made, preserves, and governs all things, and in him, is our continual dependance: for in him we live, we move, and exist. In the Greek, it is unto him,{ Ver. 36. Et in ipso, kai eis auton.|} to signify he is also our last end. See the notes, John Romans 1:(Witham) --- All things are from God, as their first cause and creator; all things are by God, as the ruler and governor of the universe; and all things are in God, or (as the Greek has it) for God, because they are all directed to his honour and glory. For he hath made all things for himself. (Psalm xvi; St. Basil, lib. de Spiritu sto. Romans 5.)
Romans 11:34 *For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor?

Wisdom 9:13.; Isaias 40:13.; 1 Corinthians 2:16.
Romans 11:35 Or who hath first given to him, and recompense shall be made him?

Romans 11:36 For of him, and by him, and in him, are all things: to him be glory for ever. Amen.

Romans 12:0 Lessons of Christian virtues.

Romans 12:1 I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercy of God, *that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, pleasing to God, your reasonable service.

Philippians 4:18.
With this chapter St. Paul begins his second part, in which he gives us most excellent lessons of morality, after which every Christian should aim to form his life, and thus resemble Jesus Christ and his saints. (Haydock) --- That you present your bodies a living sacrifice. And how must this be done? says St. Chrysostom, hom. xx. Let the eye abstain from sinful looks and glances, and it is a sacrifice; the tongue from speaking ill, and it is a sacrifice, etc. --- Your reasonable service, or worship,{ Ver. 1. Rationabile obsequium, logiken latreian.|} from you; nothing being more reasonable, than for men to serve God with their souls and bodies, etc. (Witham)
Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be reformed in the newness of your mind: *that you may prove what is the good, and the acceptable, and the perfect will of God.

Ephesians 5:17.; 1 Thessalonians 4:3.
Take care, lest you imitate the practices of worldlings. Let your heart, your ambition, carry you to heaven: ever despise those things which the world admires, that every one may see by your actions that you are not of the society of worldlings, and have neither regard nor friendship for them. (Calmet) --- Transform yourselves into new men, by the renewal of your mind, that you may discern on all occasions, what is most perfect, most pleasing and acceptable to God. (Bible de Vence)
Romans 12:3 For I say, through the grace that is given me, to all that are among you, not to be more wise than it behoveth to be wise, but to be wise unto sobriety: *and according as God hath divided to every one the measure of faith.

1 Corinthians 12:11.; Ephesians 4:7.
To be wise unto sobriety. Not pretending to be more wise, or more knowing than you are. --- As God hath divided to every one the measure of faith. The sense by what follows is, that every one make the best use, for the glory of God, and the good of his neighbour, of the gifts and graces which he hath received together with the faith of Christ; that is of prophecy, or the gift of interpreting past prophecies, or of foretelling things to come, of exhorting, of ministering as to those functions which belong to the ministers of the gospel, etc. (Witham)
Romans 12:4 For as in one body we have many members, but all the members have not the same office:

Romans 12:5 So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one, members one of another.

Romans 12:6 And having gifts different, according to the grace that is given us, whether prophecy, according to the proportion of faith,

Romans 12:7 Or ministry, in ministering: or he that teacheth, in doctrine,

Romans 12:8 He that exhorteth in exhorting; he that giveth with simplicity; he that ruleth with solicitude, he that sheweth mercy with cheerfulness.

Romans 12:9 Love without dissimulation. *Hating that which is evil, adhering to that which is good:

Amos 5:15.
The apostle does not here prohibit that defence, by which a person, either by word or action, preserves himself from injury. This he could not condemn, since he had so often recourse to it himself, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles: and in the second [epistle] to Timothy, he writes: "In my first defence no one was with me." Be he only forbids that revenge which a person takes of his neighbour, by private means, without having recourse to legal authority. (Estius)
Romans 12:10 *Loving one another with brotherly love; in honour preventing one another:

Ephesians 4:3.; 1 Peter 2:17.
Romans 12:11 In solicitude not slothful: in spirit fervent: serving the Lord:

Romans 12:12 Rejoicing in hope: patient in tribulation: instant in prayer:

Romans 12:13 Communicating to the necessities of the saints: *pursuing hospitality.

Hebrews 13:2.; 1 Peter 4:9.
Communicating { Ver. 13. Communicantes; koinonountes. Koinonein is often used by St. Paul for making others sharers by giving to them.|} to the necessities of the saints. Making them partakers of what you have, by relieving them. (Witham)
Romans 12:14 Bless them that persecute you: bless, and curse not.

Romans 12:15 Rejoice with them that rejoice, weep with them that weep:

Romans 12:16 Being of one mind one towards another: not high-minded: but condescending to the humble. Be not wise in your own conceits:

Condescending to the humble, in the spirit of charity and sweetness. See Luke 2:48. (Witham)
Romans 12:17 Rendering to no man evil for evil: *providing things good, not only in the sight of God, but also in the sight of all men.

2 Corinthians 8:21.
Romans 12:18 *If it be possible, as much as is in you, have peace with all men.

Hebrews 12:14.
If it be possible,....have peace with all. That is, if it can be without prejudice to truth or justice, etc. And even when others wrong you, seek not to revenge yourselves, but leave your cause to God. Do good offices even to those that do evil to you. (Witham)
Romans 12:19 *Revenge not yourselves, my dearly beloved: but give place to wrath, for it is written: **Revenge is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord.

Ecclesiasticus 28:1.; Ecclesiasticus 2:3. --- ** Matthew 5. 39.
Give place to wrath. That we do, says St. Chrysostom, when we leave all to God, and endeavour to return good for evil. (Witham)
Romans 12:20 *But if thy enemy be hungry, give him to eat: if he thirst, give him drink: for, doing this, thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.

Deuteronomy 32:35.; Hebrews 10:30.
Thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. This figurative way of speaking is differently expounded. Some say, inasmuch as by this means thou shalt make him liable to greater punishments from God. Others, as St. Jerome and St. Augustine, by coals of fire, understand kindnesses and benefits, which shall touch the heart, and inflame the affections even of thy enemies, which shall make them sorry for what they have done, and become thy friends. (Witham)
Romans 12:21 *Be not overcome by evil, but overcome evil by good.

Proverbs 25:21.
This is the apostle's conclusion of the foregoing instructions. Be not overcome by the malice of thy enemy, so as to wish to revenge thyself, without leaving all to the just judgment of God; but overcome his malice by thy kindness. This is complied with, when upon occasion of injuries received we always make a return of kindness, and in proportion as the malice of our enemies increases, our spirit of benevolence should also increase. (Estius)
Romans 13:0 Lessons of obedience to superiors, and mutual charity.

Romans 13:1 Let *every soul be subject to higher powers: for there is no power but from God: and those that are, are ordained of God.

Wisdom 6:4.; 1 Peter 2:13.
Let every soul, or every one, be subject, etc.{ Ver. 1. Non est potestas, exousia, nisi a Deo. St. Chrysostom, om. kg. p. 189. ouk eipen, ou gar estin archon ei me upo tou theou, alla peri tou pragmatos dialegetai legon, ou gar estin exousia.|} The Jews were apt to think themselves not subject to temporal princes, as to taxes, etc. and lest Christians should misconstrue their Christian liberty, he here teacheth them that every one (even priests and bishops, says St. Chrysostom) must be subject and obedient to princes, even to heathens, as they were at that time, as to laws that regard the policy of the civil government, honouring them, obeying them, and their laws, as it is the will of God, because the power they act by is from God. So that to resist them, is to resist God. And every Christian must obey them even for conscience-sake. St. Chrysostom takes notice that St. Paul does not say that there is no prince but from God, but only that there is no power but from God, meaning no lawful power, and speaking of true and just laws. See hom. xxiii. (Witham)
Romans 13:2 Therefore he that resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God, and they that resist, purchase to themselves damnation.

Romans 13:3 For rulers are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good: and thou shalt have praise from the same.

Romans 13:4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, fear: for he beareth not the sword in vain. For he is the minister of God: and avenger to execute wrath upon him that doth evil.

Romans 13:5 Wherefore be subject of necessity, not only for wrath, but also for conscience-sake.

Romans 13:6 For therefore also you pay tribute: for they are the ministers of God, serving unto this purpose.

Romans 13:7 *Render, therefore, to all their dues: tribute, to whom tribute is due: custom, to whom custom: fear, to whom fear: honour, to whom honour.

Matthew 21:21.
Romans 13:8 Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth his neighbour, hath fulfilled the law.

\f + \fr 13:8-9\ft But that you love one another. This is a debt, says St. Chrysostom, which we are always to be paying, and yet always remains, and is to be paid again. --- He that loveth his neighbour, hath fulfilled the law. Nay, he that loves his neighbour, as he ought, loves him for God's sake, and so complies with the other great precept of loving God: and upon these two precepts (as Christ himself taught us, Matthew 22:40.) depends the whole law and the prophets. (Witham)
Romans 13:9 *For thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal: Thou shalt not bear false witness: Thou shalt not covet: and if there be any other commandment, it is comprised in this word: **Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Exodus 20:14.; Deuteronomy 5:18. --- ** Leviticus 19:18.; Matthew 22:39.; Mark 12:31.; Galatians 5:14.; James 2:8.
Romans 13:10 The love of our neighbour worketh no evil. Love, therefore, is the fulfilling of the law.

Love of the neighbour worketh no evil.{ Ver. 10. Dilectio proximi malum non operatur, that is dilectio non operatur malum proximi, vel proximo, e agape to plesion kakon ouk ergazetai.|} This, by the Latin, is the true construction; and not, love worketh no evil to the neighbour, as it might be translated from the Greek. (Witham)
Romans 13:11 And that knowing the time: that it is now the hour for us to rise from sleep: for now our salvation is nearer than when we believed.

Now our salvation is nearer than when we believed. Some will have the sense to be, that our salvation is now nearer, when the gospel is preached, and Christ offers us his graces, than when we believed the Messias was to come. Others expound it, that the more of our life is spent, we come nearer to the judgment of God, and to the salvation promised in heaven. (Witham)
Romans 13:12 The night is passed, and the day is at hand. Let us, therefore, cast off the works of darkness, and put on the armour of light.

The night is passed. That is, the night of sin and infidelity, in which you lived, before you began to serve Christ. (Witham) --- St. Paul is here addressing himself to Gentile converts. Before your conversion, you were in the darkness of infidelity: this time is past; now is the day, when the gospel has dissipated the darkness of idolatry, ignorance, and sin. Let us lay aside the works of darkness, by flying from sin, which hates the light, and seeks always to conceal itself; and let us put on the armour of light, the shield of faith, the breast-plate of justice, the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the spirit. (Calmet)
Romans 13:13 Let us walk honestly as in the day: *not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and impurities, not in contention and envy:

Luke 21:34.
Let us walk honestly as in the day. As men are accustomed to do in the light, without being afraid that their works come to light. --- Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering,{ Ver. 13. Non in cubilibus, me koitais, which may signify beds, chambers, or immodest actions.|} not in beds and impurities, not in immodest disorders. (Witham) --- The night of the present life full of darkness, of ignorance, and of sin, is already far advanced; and the day of eternity approaches: let us therefore cast off the works of darkness. (Bible de Vence)
Romans 13:14 *But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh in its concupiscences.

Galatians 5:16.; 1 Peter 2:11.
But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ. To put on, is a metaphor used in the Scripture; as when it is said, put on the new man, etc. And make not provision for the flesh in its concupiscenses. That is, do not take care, nor pamper and indulge your appetite in eating and drinking, so as to increase your disorderly inclinations, but keep them in due subjection. (Witham) --- The apostle does not forbid all care of the body, since he himself says in Ephesians 5. "No one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it." But he forbids that care of the flesh, by which the desires and concupiscences of the flesh are strengthened and encouraged. This those are guilty of, who are always indulging in delights and voluptuousness. (Estius) --- Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, that is, enter into his sentiments, imitate his virtues, and indulge not the flesh in its inordinate desires.
Romans 14:0 The strong must bear with the weak. Cautions against judging; and giving scandal.

Romans 14:1 Now him, that is weak in faith, take unto you; not in disputes about thoughts.

Not in disputes about thoughts.{ Ver. 1. Non in disceptationibus cogitationum, me eis diakriseis dialogismon. Non in condemnationem rationum vel cogitationum.|} That is, without blaming or condemning the thoughts, and reasonings (as it appears by the Greek) of those new converts, who had been Jews, and who were still of this opinion, that they ought to abstain from meats forbidden by the Jewish law, and observe the Jewish festival days. You must charitably bear with the weakness of such converts. (Witham) --- Be tender with him who is weak in faith; enter not into disputes with him, which only serve to extinguish charity, and create inveterate prejudices.
Romans 14:2 For one believeth that he may eat all things: but he that is weak, let him eat herbs.

Eat all things. Viz. without observing the distinction between clean and unclean meats, prescribed by the law of Moses: which was now no longer obligatory. Some weak Christians, converted from among the Jews, as we here gather from the apostle, made a scruple of eating such meats as were deemed unclean by the law: such as swine's flesh, etc. which the stronger sort of Christians did eat without scruple. Now the apostle, to reconcile them together, exhorts the former not to judge or condemn the latter, using their Christian liberty; and the latter to take care not to despise, or scandalize their weaker brethren, either by bringing them to eat what in their conscience they think they should not: or by giving them such offence, as to endanger the driving them thereby from the Christian religion. (Challoner) --- For one that is not so weak, but well instructed, believeth, is persuaded, that he may eat all things, the distinction of clean and unclean meats being no longer obligatory under the new law of Christ. He that is weak, and not convinced of this Christian liberty, let him eat herbs, or such things as he esteems not forbidden. It is likely some of them abstained many times from all manner of flesh, lest they should meet with what had been offered to idols, or lest something forbidden by the law might be mixed. (Witham)
Romans 14:3 Let not him that eateth, despise him that eateth not; and he that eateth not, let him not judge him that eateth: For God hath taken him to him.

\f + \fr 14:3-4\ft God hath taken him to him, that eats of any meats; he accounts him his servant, and will reward him as such. --- God is able to make him stand, and will justify him before his tribunal. (Witham)
Romans 14:4 *Who art thou that judgest another man's servant? To his own master he standeth, or falleth: and he shall stand: for God is able to make him stand.

James 4:13.
Romans 14:5 For one judgeth between day and day: and another judgeth every day: let every man abound in his own sense.

Between day, etc. Still observing the sabbaths and festivals of the law. (Challoner.) --- And another judgeth every day. That is, thinks every day to be taken away, that was to be kept, merely because ordered under the Jewish law. And now since both they who keep days, or do not keep them; and they who eat, or who abstain, do these things which a regard to God, and according to their conscience, let no one judge, or condemn the one party, nor the other; in these things, let every man abound in his own sense. It is without grounds that some would pretend from hence, that Christians cannot be bound to fast, or abstain from flesh on certain days. The apostle speaks only of the distinction of meats, called clean and unclean, and of fasts or feasts peculiar to the law of Moses. It does not follow from hence, that the Catholic Church hath not power to command days of fasting, and abstaining, for self-denial or humiliation. (Witham) --- The apostle here treats only of the subject in hand, viz. the Mosaic distinctions of clean and unclean meats: and in this he allows, for that present time, each one to follow his own private judgment. St. Chrysostom observes that St. Paul did not wish the weak to be left to their own judgment in this, as in a point of no consequence; but that they should wait for a time. The converts were not immediately prohibited their accustomed practices, but they were tolerated in them for a while, till fully instructed. This we see in many of the converts at Jerusalem, who were still observers of the Mosaic ordinances; this was tolerated, that the synagogue might be buried with honour. (Estius)
Romans 14:6 He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord: and he that eateth, eateth to the Lord: for he giveth thanks to God. And he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth thanks to God.

Romans 14:7 For none of us liveth to himself: and no man dieth to himself.

Romans 14:8 For whether we live, we live to the Lord: or whether we die, we die to the Lord. Therefore, whether we live, or whether we die, we are the Lord's.

Romans 14:9 For to this end Christ died, and rose again: that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living.

Romans 14:10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou despise thy brother? *For we shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ.

2 Corinthians 5:10.
Romans 14:11 For it is written: *As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me: and every tongue shall confess to God.

Isaias 14:24.; Philippians 2:10.
The apostle here gives a remarkable proof of the divinity of our Saviour. He could not possibly be more express. He had said in the preceding verse, that all men should appear before the tribunal of Christ; to prove this assertion, he adduces this testimony of the prophet Isaias: "As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bend before me, and every tongue shall confess to God." (Isaias 45.) Thus shall all acknowledge the power, the divinity, and sovereign dominion of Christ, by bending the knee; and by confessing to him, shall acknowledge him for the master and judge of all mankind. (Calmet)
Romans 14:12 Therefore every one of us shall render account for himself to God.

Romans 14:13 Let us not, therefore, judge one another any more: but judge this rather, that you put not a stumbling-block, or a scandal in your brother's way.

Romans 14:14 I know, and am confident, in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; but to him that thinketh any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

Nothing is unclean of itself. Because the law that made them unclean, is not now binding of itself, yet a man must not act against his conscience, neither must he, when he can avoid it, scandalize or offend the weak: nor cause divisions or dissensions. (Witham)
Romans 14:15 For if, because of thy meat, thy brother be grieved: thou walkest not now according to charity. *Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.

1 Corinthians 8:11.
St. Paul repeats this, in almost the same words, in (1 Corinthians 8.) and plainly gives us to understand, that Christ died for the salvation of all men, by supposing a Christian brother, for whom Christ had died, in danger of perishing by the scandal given by another. This supposition could never have been made, if the death of Christ was only offered up for the elect: but we here learn from St. Paul, that they for whom Christ shed his blood and suffered the death of the cross, may perish eternally; and therefore all, even the greatest reprobates, may be saved, if they effectually desire it, by virtue of the death of our divine Redeemer.
Romans 14:16 Let not then our good be evil spoken of.

Let not then our good, or which we have a Christian liberty to do with a good conscience, be evil spoken of, because of the disputes and quarrels you have about it. (Witham)
Romans 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink: but justice, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

The kingdom of God is not meat, etc. It does not consist in eating, nor in abstaining, both which may be done without sin, but in justice, peace, etc. (Witham)
Romans 14:18 For he, that in this serveth Christ, pleaseth God, and is approved of men.

Romans 14:19 Therefore let us follow after the things that are of peace: and keep the things that are of edification one towards another.

Romans 14:20 Destroy not the work of God for meat. *All things indeed are clean: but it is evil for that man who eateth through offence.

Titus 1:15.
Destroy not the work of God for meat. That is, do not hinder your brother's salvation, for whom, whoever he be, Christ died, who may be so offended at the liberty which you take, as to quit the Christian religion; or you may make him sin against God, by eating by your example against his weak conscience. (Witham)
Romans 14:21 *It is good not to eat flesh, and not to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother is offended, or scandalized, or made weak.

1 Corinthians 8:13.
Romans 14:22 Hast thou faith? Have it to thyself before God. Happy is he that condemneth not himself in that which he alloweth.

Hast thou faith? { Ver. 22. Tu fidem habes? upon which St. Chrysostom, om ks. p. 209. ou ten peri dogmaton (pistin) alla ten peri tes prokeimenes upotheseos.|} He doth not here mean, saith St. Chrysostom, a faith to believe divine truths. But art thou by faith persuaded in mind and conscience, that to eat meats formerly forbidden, is now lawful, have it within thyself, remain in this faith and conscience, but make it not appear, when it is prejudicial to thy weak brother. --- Happy is he that condemneth not himself, that maketh not himself liable to condemnation, by giving scandal, by using that liberty, which he is convinced is allowed. Or happy is he that acteth not against his conscience, by doing what he sees is allowed of by others, but which his conscience tells him he ought not to do. (Witham)
Romans 14:23 But he, that discerneth, if he eat, is condemned: because not of faith. For all that is not of faith, is sin.

He that discerneth, or who judgeth that he ought to abstain from such meats, if he eat, is self-condemned, because he acts not according to his faith. For whatever a man doth, and is not according to what he believeth he may do, or whatever is against a man's conscience, is sinful in him. It is a mistake of the sense of this place, to pretend that every moral action done by an infidel, must needs be a sin, as when he gives an alms to relieve the necessities of the poor. (Witham) --- Discerneth. That is, distinguisheth between meats, and eateth against his conscience, what he deems unclean. --- Of faith. By faith is here understood judgment and conscience: to act against which is always a sin. (Challoner)
Romans 15:0 He exhorts them to be all of one mind: and promises to come and see them.

Romans 15:1 Now we that are stronger, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.

etc. We that are stronger, etc. The apostle goes on with his exhortation not to scandalize, or offend such as are weak, and not well instructed in faith. He brings the example of Christ, who pleased not himself, who submitted himself to the law of circumcision, when he was above the law, who bore with the weakness and sins of others, their reproaches, their blasphemies, which he could not but hate, but this to gain their souls. (Witham)
Romans 15:2 Let every one of you please his neighbour unto good, to edification.

Romans 15:3 For Christ did not please himself, but as it is written: *The reproaches of them that reproached thee, fell upon me.

Psalm 68:10.
Romans 15:4 For what things soever were written, were written for our instruction: that, through patience, and the comfort of the Scriptures, we might have hope.

Romans 15:5 Now the God of patience, and of comfort, *grant you to be of one mind one towards another, according to Jesus Christ:

1 Corinthians 1:10.
Romans 15:6 That with one mind, and with one mouth, you may glorify God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Romans 15:7 Wherefore receive one another, as Christ also hath received you to the honour of God.

Receive one another, in the spirit of charity, peace, patience, as Christ also hath received you, and bore with your infirmities. (Witham) --- Mutually support each other for the glory of God: learn to practise a grand lesson of Christian morality, to bear and to forbear. (Haydock)
Romans 15:8 For I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made to the fathers.

Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision, who came both for the salvation of the Jews, and of the Gentiles, who preached and would have his gospel first preached to the Jews, for the truth of God to confirm the promises made to the fathers, that he, the Messias, should be sent for their salvation; but at the same time also for the salvation and conversion of the Gentiles, which he confirms by divers evident testimonies of the holy Scriptures. (Witham) --- He calls our Saviour the minister of circumcision, that is, of the Jews, because he appeared amongst them, dwelt amongst them, and himself preached amongst them. This was a privilege which the Gentiles did no enjoy, having never seen, nor heard Jesus Christ, since he confined his preaching to the strayed sheep of the house of Israel; and this, to accomplish the promises made to their fathers. (Calmet)
Romans 15:9 But that the Gentiles are to glorify God for his mercy, as it is written: *Therefore will I confess to thee, O Lord, among the Gentiles, and will sing to thy name.

2 Kings 22:50.; Psalm 17:5.
Romans 15:10 And again he saith: Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people.

Romans 15:11 And again: *Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles: and magnify him, all ye people.

Psalm 116:1.
Romans 15:12 And again Isaias saith: *There shall be a root of Jesse: and he that shall rise up to rule the Gentiles, in him the Gentiles shall hope.

Isaias 11:10.
Romans 15:13 Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing: that you may abound in hope, and in the power of the Holy Ghost.

Romans 15:14 And I myself also, my brethren, am assured of you, that you also are full of love, replenished with all knowledge, so that you are able to admonish one another.

Romans 15:15 But I have written to you, brethren, more boldly in some sort, as putting you in mind: because of the grace which is given me from God,

etc. I have written to you, brethren, more boldly, etc. St. Chrysostom admires with what mildness he addresses himself to them, yet puts them in mind, that he is the minister, and the apostle of the Gentiles, in which he may have reason to glory, or boast. --- Sanctifying the gospel of God, preaching it in a holy manner, that the Gentiles may be sanctified by it. (Witham) --- To be the minister of Jesus Christ among the nations, exercising in their regard the rite of sacrifice, as we read in the Greek, ierourgounta. --- For I dare not, I shall forbear to speak of any thing but my labours: I need not mention the power of miracles and wonders, which the Holy Ghost hath done by me in many places, from Jerusalem to Illyricum, in places where Christ had not been preached by others. And now having no more place, nor occasion to preach in these countries, when I begin my journey to Spain, etc. by which, it appears, he designed at least to go into Spain. (Witham)
Romans 15:16 That I should be the minister of Christ Jesus among the Gentiles; sanctifying the gospel of God, that the oblation of the Gentiles may be made acceptable, and sanctified in the Holy Ghost.

Romans 15:17 I have, therefore, glory in Christ Jesus towards God.

Romans 15:18 For I dare not to speak of any of those things which Christ worketh not by me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and by deed,

Romans 15:19 By the virtue of signs and wonders, in the power of the Holy Ghost; so that from Jerusalem, round about as far as unto Illyricum, I have spread the gospel of Christ.

Romans 15:20 And I have so preached this gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man's foundation; but as it is written:.

St. Paul does not mean to say, that he never preached where the gospel had before been announced; this would not have been true, for he preached at Damascus, where there were already Christians, whom he formerly wished to take in chains to Jerusalem; and again in this epistle he announces the truths of the gospel to the Romans already converted by the preaching of St. Peter. But he means to say, that on these occasions he acts not as an apostle, whose office it is to preach to infidels; but as one that waters, confirms, comforts, as he says in the beginning of this epistle: and this he did as occasion offered, as the subsequent verses shew, where he tells us his design in calling on the Romans, in his journey to Spain. (Estius)
Romans 15:21 *They to whom he was not spoken of, shall see, and they that have not heard, shall understand.

Isaias 52:15.
Romans 15:22 For which cause also I was hindered very much from coming to you, and have been kept away till now.

Romans 15:23 But now having no more place in these countries, and having a great desire these many years past to come to you,

Romans 15:24 When I shall begin to take my journey into Spain, I hope that as I pass, I shall see you, and be brought on my way thither by you, if first, in part, I shall have enjoyed you.

It is a matter of dispute, whether St. Paul ever executed this his design of visiting Spain. The proofs of the Spaniards, who consider it as certain, are by no means unanswerable. There remain no certain monuments of this journey of his. The proof taken from the words of St. Clement, who lived at Rome in the time of St. Paul, is not certain, since he only says, that St. Paul came to the very extremities of the west. It is a subject on which commentators appear pretty equally divided. (Calmet) --- There is an old tradition that St. Paul, in his journey to Spain, left three of his disciples in Gaul; Trophimus at Arles, Crescentius at Vienne, and Paul at Narbonne; but this very tradition is disputed. (Bible de Vence)
Romans 15:25 But now I shall go to Jerusalem, to minister to the saints.

\f + \fr 15:25-28\ft But I shall go to Jerusalem, etc. By this St. Paul is thought to have written this epistle at Corinth, where he was about to set forward for Jerusalem, with the charities collected in Achaia and Macedonia, for the poor Christians in Judea. This he calls to minister to the poor saints, or to be serviceable to them. And to exhort others to the like charitable contributions, he says, (ver. 27.) they are their debtors; that the converted Gentiles are debtors to the converts, who had been Jews, as having been made partakers of the promises, particularly made to the people of the Jews, and sharers of those spiritual blessings, which Christ promised to the Jews, but were also conferred upon the Gentiles. He looks upon it, therefore, reasonable, that they relieve the Jews in their temporal wants. The apostle says, he goes to consign to them this fruit, to deliver to them their contributions. (Witham)
Romans 15:26 For it hath pleased them of Macedonia, and Achaia, to make come contribution for the poor saints who are in Jerusalem.

Romans 15:27 For it hath pleased them: and they are their debtors. *For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they ought also in carnal things to minister to them.

1 Corinthians 9:11.
Romans 15:28 When, therefore, I shall have accomplished this, and consigned to them this fruit, I will come by you into Spain.

Romans 15:29 And I know, that when I come to you, I shall come in the abundance of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.

I know, by the Spirit of God revealing it to me, that God will give a blessing to my labours, when I come to you. That I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea, from the unbelieving Jews, foreseeing the persecution he should there meet with. That I may be refreshed with you, have comfort by finding peace and union among you. (Witham)
Romans 15:30 I beseech you, therefore, brethren, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the charity of the Holy Ghost, that you assist me in your prayers for me to God.

Romans 15:31 That I may be delivered from the unbelievers that are in Judea, and that the oblation of my service may be acceptable in Jerusalem to the saints;

Romans 15:32 That I may come to you with joy, by the will of God, and may be refreshed with you.

The word in the original signifies to combat with another, to teach us, that to beg the prayers of our friends will be of little assistance to us, if we do not join our prayer also, and labour, on our part, to the best of our power. (Calmet)
Romans 15:33 Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.

Romans 16:0 He concludes with salutations, bidding them beware of all that should oppose the doctrine they had learnt.

Romans 16:1 And I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is in the ministry of the church that is in Cenchrea:

I commend, etc. He concludes with a number of salutations, to show his affection for them. --- Phoebe, who is in the ministry, or employed in the ministry, as women, called diaconissae, used to be, privately instructing catechumens, assisting particularly at the baptizing of women, distributing charities, etc. (Witham)
Romans 16:2 That you receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints: and that you assist her in whatsoever business she shall have need of you. For she also hath assisted many, and myself also.

Romans 16:3 Salute *Prisca, and Aquila, my helpers in Christ Jesus,

Acts 18:2.; Acts 18:26.
Romans 16:4 (Who have for my life laid down their own necks: to whom not I only give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles)

It is not exactly known to what the apostle here refers. Origen thinks that they delivered the apostle from the snares of the Jews. Others, that they exposed themselves for him in the sedition raised at Corinth, or in that at Ephesus, when he was in such danger, on account of the outcry of the silversmiths. The obligations of the Churches of the Gentiles towards them must be understood of the hospitality, which these faithful servants of Christ exercised to all. (Calmet) --- Ton eauton trachelon upethekan, a proverbial expression, as in Latin, praebere cervices, caput objicere periculis, to support any thing, or person, that is in a sinking way, or in great danger.
Romans 16:5 And the church which is in their house. Salute Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first-fruits of Asia, in Christ.

This means the assembly of Christians, who probably resorted to the house of Prisca and Aquila, as to a place of retreat, and there held their religious assemblies. Or it may mean their family only, which was as regular and holy as an assembly of saints. The apostle, in another place, salutes the Church in the house of Nympha, and writing to Philemon, salutes the Church in his house. (1 Corinthians 16:19.)
Romans 16:6 Salute Mary, who hath laboured much among you.

Romans 16:7 Salute Andronicus, and Junias, my kinsmen and fellow-captives: who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.

Romans 16:8 Salute Ampliatus, most beloved to me in the Lord.

Romans 16:9 Salute Urbanus, our helper in Christ Jesus, and Stachys, my beloved.

Romans 16:10 Salute Apelles, approved in Christ.

Romans 16:11 Salute them that are of Aristobulus' household. Salute Herodion, my kinsman. Salute them that are of Narcissus' household, who are in the Lord.

Romans 16:12 Salute Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute Persis, the dearly beloved, who hath much laboured in the Lord.

Romans 16:13 Salute Rufus, elect in the Lord, and his mother and mine.

Romans 16:14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren that are with them.

Romans 16:15 Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympias: and all the saints that are with them.

Romans 16:16 Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ salute you.

Thus the primitive Christians express their concord and benevolence, as also their perfect equality. For it was customary with the Persians, and all oriental nations, to salute only their equals thus; though, to their inferiors, the presented their hand to be kissed. (St. Clem. Paedog. and Polus.)
Romans 16:17 Now I beseech you, brethren, to mark them who cause dissensions and offences, contrary to the doctrine which you have learned, and avoid them.

The apostle does not here say that these men caused scandals, contrary to the Scripture; but contrary to the doctrine delivered to them: this place, therefore, is an argument in favour of tradition. (Estius)
Romans 16:18 For they that are such, serve not Christ, our Lord, but their own belly: and by pleasing speeches, and good words, seduce the hearts of the innocent.

Romans 16:19 For your obedience is published in every place. I rejoice, therefore, in you. But I would have you to be wise in good, and simple in evil.

Romans 16:20 And may the God of peace crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

Romans 16:21 *Timothy, my fellow-labourer, saluteth you, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen.

Acts 16:1.
Romans 16:22 I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.

This Tertius was the amanuensis, or secretary of St. Paul, and wrote this epistle as St. Paul dictated. It is not on that account less divinely inspired than the rest. (Estius)
Romans 16:23 Caius, my host, and the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, saluteth you, and Quartus, a brother.

Romans 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

Romans 16:25 Now to him that is able to establish you, according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery kept secret from eternity,

\f + \fr 16:25-27\ft Now to him that is able, etc. These three last verses, in divers Greek copies, were found at the end of the 14th chapter, where we find them expounded by St. Chrysostom. --- According to the....mystery kept secret from eternity, now made manifest; he means the mystery of Christ's incarnation, and man's redemption, formerly revealed indeed to the prophets, but now made known to all nations, in order to bring all men to the obedience of the gospel, by embracing the faith and doctrine of Christ. (Witham)
Romans 16:26 (Which now is made manifest by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, for the obedience of faith) known among all nations;

Romans 16:27 To God, the only wise, through Jesus Christ, to whom be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.