1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

Presents commentary in a tabular format for ease of reading.Click to learn more.

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

In the beginning was the word:{ Ver. 1. Et Deus erat Verbum, kai theos en o logos. Logos was a word very proper to give all that should believe a right notion of the Messias, and of the true Son of God. Logos, according to St. Jerome, (Ep. ad Paulinum. tom. iv. part 2, p. 570. Ed. Ben.) signifies divers things; as, the wisdom of the Father, his internal word or conception; and, as it were, the express image of the invisible God. Here it is not taken for any absolute divine attribute or perfection; but for the divine Son, or the second Person, as really distinct from the other two divine Persons. And that by logos, was to be understood him that was truly God, the Maker and Creator of all things; the Jews might easily understand, by what they read and frequently heard in the Chaldaic Paraphrase, or Targum of Jonathan, which was read to them in the time of our Saviour, Christ, and at the time when St. John wrote his gospel. In this Paraphrase they were accustomed to hear that the Hebrew word Memreth, to which corresponded in Greek, logos, was put for him that was God: as Isaias xlv. 12, I made the earth; in this Targum, I, by my word, made the earth: Isaias xlviii. 13, My hand also hath founded the earth; in this Paraphrase, in my word I founded the earth: Genesis 3:8., They heard the voice of the Lord God; in the Paraphrase, the voice of the word of God. See Walton, prolog. xii, num. 18, p. 86.; Maldonatus on this place; Petavius, lib. vi. de Trin. John 1.; Dr. Pearson on the Creed, p. 11.; Dr. Hammond's note on St. Luke, ch. I, p. 203, etc. However, St. John shews us that he meant him who was the true God, by telling us that the world, and every thing that was made, was made by this word, or logos; that in this word was life; that he was in the world, and was the light of the world; that he had glory, as the glory of the only begotten of the Father, etc.|} or rather, the word was in the beginning. The eternal word, the increated[uncreated?] wisdom, the second Person of the blessed Trinity, the only begotten Son of the Father, as he is here called (ver. 14.) of the same nature and substance, and the same God, with the Father and Holy Ghost. This word was always; so that it was never true to say, he was not, as the Arians blasphemed. This word was in the beginning. Some, by the beginning, expound the Father himself, in whom he was always. Others give this plain and obvious sense, that the word, or the Son of God, was, when all other things began to have a being; he never began, but was from all eternity. --- And the word was with God; that is was with the Father; and as it is said, (ver. 18) in the bosom of the Father; which implies, that he is indeed a distinct person, but the same in nature and substance with the Father and the Holy Ghost. This is repeated again in the second verse, as repetitions are very frequent in St. John. --- And the word was God. This without question is the construction; where, according to the letter we read, and God was the word. (Witham) --- The Greek for the word is Logos, which signifies not only the exterior word, but also the interior word, or thought; and in this latter sense it is taken here. (Bible de Vence) --- Philo Judaeus, in the apostolic age, uses the word Logos, p. 823, to personify the wisdom and the power of God. Logos estin eikon Theou di ou sumpas o Kosmos edemiourgeito. By a similar metonymy, Jesus Christ is called the way, the truth, the life, the resurrection. --- And the word was God. Here the eternity and the divinity of the second Person are incontrovertibly established; or, we must say that language has no longer a fixed meaning, and that it is impossible to establish any point whatever from the words of Scripture. (Haydock)
John 1:2 The same was in the beginning with God.

The same was in the beginning with God. In the text is only, "this was in the beginning;" but the sense and construction certainly is, this word was in the beginning. (Witham)
John 1:3 All things were made by him: and without him was made nothing that was made.

All things were made by him,{ Ver. 3. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt: panta di autou egeneto: all things were made by him. Let not any one pretend that di autou, in this verse signifies no more than, that all creatures were made by the Word, or Son of God, ministerially, as if he was only the instrument of the eternal Father, and in a manner inferior to that by which they were created by the Father, the chief and principal cause of all things; of whom the apostle says, ex ou ta panta, ex ipso omnia. --- Origen, unless perhaps his writings were corrupted by the Arians, seems to have given occasion to this leptologia, as St. Basil calls it, to groundless quibbling and squabbling about the sense of the prepositions; when he tells us, (tom. ii, in Joan. p. 55. Ed. Huetii.) the di ou never has the first place, but always the second place, meaning as to dignity: oudepote ten proten choran echei to di ou, deuteran de aei. It is like many other false and unwarrantable assertions in Origen; as when we find in the same commentary on St. John, that he says only God the Father is called o Theos. Origen may perhaps be excused as to what he writes about di ou and ex ou, as if he spoke only with a regard to the divine processions in God, in which the Father is the first person, from whom proceeds even the eternal Son, the second person. But whatever Origen thought, or meant, whom St. Epiphanius calls the father of Arius, whose works, as then extant, were condemned in the fifth General Council; it appears that the Arians, in particular Aetius, of the Eunomian sect, pretended that ex ou had always a more eminent signification, and was only applied to the Father; the Father, said he, being the true God, the only principal efficient cause of all things; and di ou was applied to the word, or Son of God, who was not the same true God, to signify his interior and ministerial production, as he was the instrument of the Father. Aetius, without regard to other places in the Scripture, as we read in St. Basil, (lib. de Sp. S. ch. II. p. 293. Ed. Morelli. an. 1637) produced these words of the apostle: (1 Corinthians 8:6.) eis Theos, pater, ex ou ta panta ... kai eis kurios, Iesous Christos; di ou panta: unus Deus, Pater, ex quo omnia, ... et unus Dominus Jesus Christus; per quem omnia. He concluded from hence, that as the prepositions were different, so were the natures and substance of the Father and of the Son. --- But that no settled and certain rule can be built on these prepositions, and that di ou, in this third verse of the first chapter of St. John, has no diminishing signification, so that the Son was equally the proper and principal efficient cause of all things that were made and created, we have the authority of the greatest doctors, and the most learned and exact writers of the Greek Church, who knew both the doctrine of the Catholic Church, and the rules and use of the Greek tongue. --- St. Basil (lib. de Spir. S. ch. III. et seq.) ridicules this leptologian, which, he says, had its origin from the vain and profane philosophy of the heathen writers, about the difference of causes. He denies that there is any fixed rule; and brings examples, in which di ou is applied to the Father, and ex ou to the Son. --- St. Gregory of Nazianzus denies this difference, (Orat. xxxvii, p. 604. Ed. Morelli. Parisiis, ann. 1630) and affirms that ex ou, and di ou, in the Scripture, are said of all the three divine Persons. --- St. Chrysostom says the same; and brings examples, to shew it on this verse of St. John; and tells us expressly that di ou, in this verse, has no diminishing nor inferior signification: ei de to di ou nomizeis elattoseos einai, etc. --- St. Cyril of Alexandria, (lib. i. in Joan. p. 48.) makes the very same remark, and with the like examples. His words are: Quod si existiment (Ariani) per quem, di ou, substantiam ejus (Filii) de aequalitate cum Patre dejicere, ita ut minister sit potius quam Creator, ad se redeant insani, etc. --- St. Ambrose, a doctor of the Latin Church, (lib. ii. de Sp. S. 10. p. 212. 213. Ed. Par. an. 1586.) confutes, with St. Basil, the groundless and pretended differences of ex quo and per quem. --- I shall only here produce that one passage in Romans, (Chap. 11:36.) which St. Basil and St. Ambrose make use of, where we read: ex ipso, et per ipsum, et in ipso sunt omnia, (ex autou, kai di autou, kai eis auton ta panta) et in ipsum omnia. Now either we expound all the three parts of this sentence, as spoken of the Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, (as both St. Basil and St. Ambrose understand them) and then ex ou is applied to the Son; or we understand them of the Father, and di ou is applied to the first Person: or, in fine, as St. Augustine observes, (lib. i. de Trin. John 6.) we interpret them in such a manner, that the first part be understood of the Father, the second of the Son, the third of the Holy Ghost; and then the words that immediately follow in the singular number, to him be glory for ever, shew that all the three Persons are but one in nature, one God; and to all, and to each of the three Persons, the whole sentence belongs. --- Had I not already said more than may seem necessary on these words, I might add all the Greek bishops in the council of Florence, when they came to an union with the Latin bishops about the procession of the Holy Ghost. After many passages had been quoted out of the ancient Fathers, some of which had said that the Holy Ghost proceeded from the Father and the Son, ek tou patros, kai ek tou uiou, many others had asserted that he proceeded ek tou Patros dia tou uiou; Bessarion, the learned Grecian bishop, in a long oration, (Sess. 25.) shewed that di uiou was the same as ek tou uiou. The Fathers, said he, shew, deiknusin isodunamousan te ek ten dia. See tom. xiii. Conc. Lab. p. 435. All the others allowed this to be true, as the emperor John Paleologus observed. (p. 487.) And the patriarch of Constantinople, when he was about to subscribe, declared the same: esti to dia tou uiou, tauton to ek tou uiou. Can any one imagine that none of these learned Grecians should know the force and use of these two prepositions, in their own language?|} and without him was made nothing that was made. These words teach us, that all created being, visible, or invisible on earth, every thing that ever was made, or began to be, were made, produced, and created by this eternal word, or by the Son of God. The same is truly said of the Holy Ghost; all creatures being equally produced, created, and preserved by the three divine Persons as, by their proper, principal, and efficient cause, in the same manner, and by the same action: not by the Son, in any manner inferior to the Father; nor as if the Son produced things only ministerially, and acted only as the minister, and instrument of the Father, as the Arians pretended. In this sublime mystery of one God and three distinct Persons, if we consider the eternal processions, and personal proprieties, the Father is the first Person, but not by any priority of time, or of dignity; all the three divine Persons being eternal, or co-eternal, equal in all perfections, being one in nature, in substance, in power, in majesty: in a word, one and the same God. The Father in no other sense is called the first Person, but because he proceeds from none, or from no other person: and the eternal Son is the second Person begotten, and proceeding from him, the Father, from all eternity, proceeds now, and shall proceed from him for all eternity; as we believe that the third divine Person, the Holy Ghost, always proceeded without any beginning, doth now proceed, and shall proceed for ever, both from the Father and the Son. But when we consider and speak of any creatures, of any thing that was made, or had a beginning, all things were equally created in time, and are equally preserved, no less by the Son, and by the Holy Ghost, than by the Father. For this reason St. John tells us again in this chapter, (ver. 10.) that the world was made by the word. And our Saviour himself (John 5:19.) tells us, that whatsoever the Father doth, these things also in like manner, or in the same manner, the Son doth. Again the apostle, (Hebrews 1. ver. 2.) speaking of the Son, says, the world was made by him: and in the same chapter, (ver. 10.) he applies to the Son these words, (Psalm 101:26.) And thou, O Lord, in the beginning didst found the earth: and the heavens are the works of thy hands, etc. To omit other places, St. Paul again, writing to the Colossians, (Chap. 1:ver. 16, 17.) and speaking of God's beloved Son, as may be seen in that chapter, says, that in him all things were created, visible and invisible---all things were created in him, and by him, or, as it is in the Greek, unto him, and for him; to shew that the Son was not only the efficient cause, the Maker and Creator of all things, but also the last end of all. Which is also confirmed by the following words: And he is before all, and all things subsist in him, or consist in him; as in the Rheims and Protestant translations. I have, therefore, in this third verse, translated, all things were made by him, with all English translations and paraphrases, whether made by Catholics or Protestants; and not all things were made through him, lest through should seem to carry with it a different and a diminishing signification; or as if, in the creation of the world, the eternal word, or the Son of God, produced things only ministerially, and, in a manner, inferior to the Father, as the Arians and Eunomians pretended; against whom, on this very account, wrote St. Basil, lib. de spiritu Sto. St. Chrysostom, and St. Cyril, on this very verse; where they expressly undertake to shew that the Greek text in this verse no ways favours these heretics. The Arians, and now the Socinians, who deny the Son to be true God, or that the word God applies as properly to him as to the Father, but would have him called God, that is, a nominal god, in an inferior and improper sense; as when Moses called the god of Pharao; (Exodus 7:1.) or as men in authority are called gods; (Psalm 81:6.) pretend, after Origen, to find another difference in the Greek text; as if, when mention is made of the Father, he is styled the God; but that the Son is only called God, or a God. This objection St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, and others, have shewn to be groundless: that pretended significant Greek article being several times omitted, when the word God is applied to God the Father; and being found in other places, when the Son of God is called God. See this objection fully and clearly answered by the author of a short book, published in the year 1729, against Dr. Clark and Mr. Whiston, p. 64, and seq. (Witham) --- Were made, etc. Mauduit here represents the word: ---"1. As a cause, or principle, acting extraneously from himself upon the void space, in order to give a being to all creatures:" whereas there was no void space before the creation. Ante omnia Deus erat solus, ipse sibi et mundus et locus, et omnia. (Tertullian, lib. cont. Prax. ch. V.) And St. Augustine in Psalm cxxii. says: antequam faceret Deus Sanctos, ubi habitabat? In se habitabat, apud se habitabat. --- The creation of all things, visible and invisible, was the work of the whole blessed Trinity; but the Scriptures generally attribute it to the word; because wisdom, reason, and intelligence, which are the attributes of the Son, are displayed most in it. (Calmet) --- What wonderful tergiversations the Arians used to avoid the evidence of this text, we see in St. Augustine, lib. 3:de doct. Christ. John 2; even such as modern dissenters do, to avoid the evidence of This is my Body, concerning the blessed Eucharist. (Bristow)
John 1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of men.

In him: that is in this word, or Son of God, was life; because he gives life to every living creature. Or, as Maldonatus expounds it, because he is the author of grace, which is the spiritual life of our souls. --- And the life was the light of men, whether we expound it of a rational soul and understanding, which he gives to all men; or of the spiritual life, and those lights of graces, which he gives to Christians. (Witham)
John 1:5 And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.

And the light shineth, or did shine, in darkness. Many understand this, that the light of reason, which God gave to every one, might have brought them to the knowledge of God by the visible effects of his Providence in this world: but the darkness did not comprehend it, because men, blinded by their passions, would not attend to the light of reason. Or we may again understand it, with Maldonatus, of the lights of grace, against which obstinate sinners wilfully shut their eyes. (Witham)
John 1:6 *There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.

Matthew 3:1.; Mark 1:4.
John 1:7 This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the light, that all men might believe through him.

That all men might believe through him; that is by John the Baptist's preaching, who was God's instrument to induce them to believe in Jesus the Christ, or the Messias, their only Redeemer. (Witham)
John 1:8 He was not the light, but was to bear witness of the light.

\f + \fr 1:8-9\ft He; that is John the Baptist, was not the true light: but the word was the true light. In the translation, it is necessary to express that the word was the true light, lest any one should think that John the Baptist was this light. (Witham)
John 1:9 *That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into this world.

John 3:19.
John 1:10 He was in the world, *and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.

Hebrews 11:3.
He was in the world, etc. Many of the ancient interpreters understand this verse of Christ as God, who was in the world from its first creation, producing and governing all things: but the blind sinful world did not know and worship him. Others apply these words to the Son of God made man; whom even God's own chosen people, the Jews, at his coming, refused to receive and believe in him. (Witham)
John 1:11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not.

His own. This regards principally the Jews. Jesus came to them as into his own family, but they did not receive him. It may likewise be extended to the Gentiles, who had groaned so long a time in darkness, and only seemed to wait for the rising sun of justice to run to its light. They likewise did not receive him. These words, though apparently general, must be understood with restriction; as there were some, though comparatively few, of both Jews and Gentiles, who embraced the faith. (Calmet)
John 1:12 But as many as received him, he gave to them power to be made the sons of God, to them that believe in his name.

He gave to them power to be made the adoptive sons of God, and heirs of the kingdom of heaven. They are made the children of God by believing and by a new spiritual birth in the sacrament of baptism, not of blood; (literally, not of bloods) not by the will, and desires of the flesh, not by the will of men, nor by human generation, as children are first born of their natural parents, but of God, by faith and divine grace. (Witham)
John 1:13 Who are born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

John 1:14 *And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us: and we saw his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

Matthew 1:16.; Luke 2:7.
And the word was made flesh. This word, or Son of God, who was in the beginning, from all eternity, at the time appointed by the divine decrees, was made flesh, that is became man, by a true and physical union of his divine person, (from which the divine nature was inseparable) to our human nature, to a human soul, and a human body, in the womb, and of the substance, of his virgin Mother. From the moment of Christ's incarnation, as all Christians are taught to believe, he that was God from eternity, became also true man. In Jesus Christ, our blessed Redeemer, we believe one divine Person with two natures, and two wills; the one divine, the other human: by which substantial union, one and the same Person became truly both God and man; not two persons, or two sons, as Nestorius, the heretic, pretended. By this union, and a mutual communication of the proprieties of each nature, it is true to say, that the Son of God, remaining unchangeably God, was made man; and therefore that God was truly conceived and born of the virgin Mary, who, on this account, was truly the Mother of God: that God was born, suffered, and died on the cross, to redeem and save us. The word, in this manner made man, dwelt in us, or among us, by this substantial union with our human nature, not morally only, nor after such a manner, as God is said to dwell in a temple; nor as he is in his faithful servants, by a spiritual union, and communication of his divine graces; but by such a real union, that the same person is truly both God and man. --- And we saw his glory, manifested to the world by many signs and miracles; we in particular, who were present at his transfiguration. (Matthew xvii.) --- Full of grace and truth. These words, in the construction, are to be joined in this manner: the word dwelt in us, full of grace and truth; and we have seen his glory, etc. This fulness of grace in Christ Jesus, infinitely surpassed the limited fulness, which the Scripture attributes to St. Stephen, (Acts 6:8.) or to the blessed virgin Mother: (Luke 1:28.) they are said to be full of grace, only because of an extraordinary communication and greater share of graces than was given to other saints. But Christ, even as man, had a greater abundance of divine graces: and being truly God as well as man, his grace and sanctity were infinite, as was his person. --- As of the only begotten of the Father.{ Ver. 14. Gloriam quasi Unigeniti, os monogenous. St. Chrysostom says, the word quasi, os, does no ways here diminish, be even confirms and increases the signification; as when we say of a king, that he carries himself like a king. To de os entauthen ouch omoioseos estin, alla bebaioseos.|} If we consider Christ in himself, and not only as he was made known to men by outward signs and miracles, St. Chrysostom and others take notice that the word as, no ways diminisheth the signification; and that the sense is, we have seen the glory of him, who is truly from all eternity the only begotten Son of the Father: who, as the Scriptures assure us, is his true, his proper Son, his only begotten, who was sent into the world, who descended from heaven, and came from the Father, and leaving the world, returned where he was before, returned to his Father. We shall meet with many such Scripture texts, to shew him to be the eternal Son of his eternal Father; or to shew that the Father was always his Father, and the Son always his Son: as it was the constant doctrine of the Catholic Church, and as such declared in the general council of Nice, that this, his only Son, was born or begotten of the Father before all ages ... God from God, the true God from the true God. It was by denying this truth, "that the Son was the Son always, and the Father always, and from all eternity, the Father;" that the blaspheming Arius began his heresy in his letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia, against his bishop of Alexandria, St. Alexander. See the letter copied by St. Epiphanius, Haer. 69. p. 731. Ed. Petavii. (Witham) --- Dwelt among us. In a material body, like ours, clothed with our nature. He is become mortal, and like us in every thing, but sin and concupiscence. The Greek literally translated, is, he has pitched his tent amongst us, like a stranger and passenger, who makes no long stay in one place. The body in Scripture, is sometimes called a tent or tabernacle, in which the soul dwells, as 2 Peter 1:14. (Calmet)
John 1:15 John beareth witness of him: and crieth out, saying: This was he of whom I spoke, He that shall come after me, is preferred before me, because he was before me.

Is preferred before me.{ Ver. 15 and 27. Ante me factus est, emprosthen mou gegonen, is preferred before me: St. Chrysostom says, he is lamproteros, entimoteros, illustrios, honorabilior.|} Literally, is made before me. The sense, says St. Chrysostom is, that he is greater in dignity, deserves greater honour, etc. though born after me, he was from eternity. (Witham)
John 1:16 *And of his fulness we all have received, and grace for grace.

1 Timothy 6:17.
And of his fulness we all have received; not only Jews, but also all nations. --- And grace for grace.{ Ver. 16. Gratiam pro gratia, charin anti charitos, gratiam; so Job 2:4. pellem pro pelle, that is omnem pellem.|} It may perhaps be translated grace upon grace, as Mr. Blackwall observes, and brings a parallel example in Greek out of Theognis, p. 164. It implies abundance of graces, and greater graces under the new law of Christ than in the time of the law of Moses; which exposition is confirmed by the following verse. (Witham) --- Before the coming of the Messias all men had the light of reason. The Greeks had their philosophy, the Jews the law and prophets. All this was a grace and favour bestowed by God, the author of all good. But since the word was made flesh, God has made a new distribution of graces. He has given the light of faith, and caused the gospel of salvation to be announced to all men; he has invited all nations to the faith and knowledge of the truth. Thus he has given us one grace for another; but the second is infinitely greater, more excellent, and more abundant than the first. The following verse seems to insinuate, that the evangelist means the law by the first grace, and the gospel by the second. Compare likewise Romans 1:17. The Jews were conducted by faith to faith; by faith in God and the law of Moses, to the faith of the gospel, announced by Christ. (Calmet)
John 1:17 For the law was given by Moses, grace and truth by Jesus Christ.

John 1:18 *No man hath seen God at any time: the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

1 Timothy 6:16.; 1 John 4:12.
No man hath seen God. No mortal in this life by a perfect union and enjoyment of him. Nor can any creature perfectly comprehend his infinite greatness: none but his only begotten divine Son, who is in the bosom of his Father, not only by an union of grace, but by an union and unity of substance and nature; of which Christ said, (John 14:11.) I am in the Father, and the Father in me. (Witham)
John 1:19 And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites to him, to ask him: Who art thou?

The Jews sent, etc. These men, who were priests and Levites, seem to have been sent and deputed by the sanhedrim, or great council at Jerusalem, to ask of John the Baptist, who was then in great esteem and veneration, whether he was not their Messias; who, as they knew by the predictions of the prophets, was to come about that time. John declared to them he was not. To their next question, if he was not Elias? He answered: he was not: because in person he was not; though our Saviour (Matthew 11:14.) says he was Elias: to wit, in spirit and office only. Their third question was, if he was a prophet? He answered, no. Yet Christ (Matthew xi.) tells us, he was a prophet, and more than a prophet. In the ordinary acceptation only, they were called prophets who foretold things to come: John then, with truth, as well as humility, could say he was not a prophet; not being sent to foretell the coming of the Messias, but to point him out as already come, and present with the Jews. (Witham)
John 1:20 And he confessed, and did not deny: and he confessed: I am not the Christ.

John 1:21 And they asked him: What then? Art thou Elias? and he said: I am not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered: No.

John 1:22 They said therefore to him: Who art thou, that we may give an answer to them that sent us? What sayest thou of thyself?

John 1:23 He said: *I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness: Make straight the way of the Lord, as the prophet, Isaias, said.

Isaias 40:3.; Matthew 3:3.; Mark 1:3.; Luke 3:4.
The voice of one crying in the wilderness. See Matthew 3:3.; Mark 1:3.; Luke 3:4.; and Isaias 40:3. by all which John was his immediate precursor. (Witham)
John 1:24 And they that were sent, were of the Pharisees.

John 1:25 And they asked him, and said to him: Why then dost thou baptize, if thou be not Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet?

John 1:26 John answered them, saying: *I baptize with water: but there hath stood one in the midst of you, whom you know not.

Matthew 3:11.
Hath stood. St. John the Baptist, by these words, which he spoke to the priests and Levites, sent to him by the Pharisees, did not mean to tell them, that Jesus was either at the present time standing amongst them, or that he had ever been in the presence of the self same people; but they may be understood two different ways, either with regard to his divinity; and in that sense, Jesus was always by his divine presence amongst them; or in regard to his humanity; either that he lived in the same country, and among their countrymen, or, that he stood actually amongst them, because Jesus was accustomed yearly to go up to Jerusalem on the festival of the Pasch. (Denis the Carthusian)
John 1:27 * The same is he that shall come after me, who is preferred before me: the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to loose.

Mark 1:7.; Luke 3:16.; Acts 1:5.; Acts 11:16.; Acts 19:4.
John 1:28 These things were done in Bethania beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing.

John 1:29 The next day John saw Jesus coming to him, and he saith: Behold the lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sins of the world.

Behold the Lamb of God. John the Baptist let the Jews know who Jesus was, by divers testimonies. 1st, By telling them he was the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin, or sins of the world, who was come to be their Redeemer, and to free mankind from the slavery of sin; 2ndly, that he was greater than he, and before him, though born after him; 3rdly, that God had revealed to him that Jesus was to baptize in the Holy Ghost; 4thly, that he saw the Spirit descending upon him from heaven, and remaining upon him; 5thly, that he was the Son of God, ver. 34. (Witham) --- Who taketh away. It was only a being like Christ, in whose person the divine and human natures were united, that could effectually take away the sins of the world. As man, he was enabled to suffer; and as God, his sufferings obtained a value equal to the infinite atonement required. (Haydock)
John 1:30 This is he of whom I said: After me cometh a man, who is preferred before me, because he was before me.

John 1:31 And I knew him not, but that he may be made manifest in Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.

John 1:32 And John gave testimony, saying: *I saw the Spirit coming down as a dove from heaven, and he remained upon him.

Matthew 3:16.; Mark 1:10.; Luke 3:22.
John 1:33 And I knew him not; but he, who sent me to baptize with water, said to me: He upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.

John 1:34 And I saw: and I gave testimony, that this is the Son of God.

John 1:35 Again, the following day, John stood, and two of his disciples.

John 1:36 And looking upon Jesus, walking, he saith: Behold the lamb of God.

John 1:37 And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.

John 1:38 And Jesus turning, and seeing them following him, saith to them: What seek you? They said to him: Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, master) where dwellest thou?

John 1:39 He saith to them: Come and see. They came, and saw where he abode, and they staid with him that day: now it was about the tenth hour.

Staid with him that day. Yet they did not continually remain with him, as his disciples, till he called them, as they were fishing. See the annotations, Matthew 4:18. (Witham)
John 1:40 And Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who had heard of John, and followed him.

John 1:41 He first findeth his own brother, Simon, and saith to him: We have found the Messias; which is, being interpreted, the Christ.

John 1:42 And he brought him to Jesus. And Jesus looking upon him, said: Thou art Simon, the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is interpreted, Peter.

Thou art Simon, the son of Jona, or of John. Jesus, who knew all things, knew his name, and at the first meeting told him he should hereafter be called Cephas, or Petrus, a rock, designing to make him the chief or head of his whole Church. See Matthew 16:18. (Witham) --- Cephas is a Syriac word, its import is the same as rock or stone. And St. Paul commonly calleth him by this name: whereas others, both Greeks and Latins, call him by the Greek appellation, Peter; which signifies exactly the same thing. Hence St. Cyril saith, that our Saviour, by foretelling that his name should be now no more Simon, but Peter, did by the word itself aptly signify, that on him, as on a rock most firm, he would build his Church. (Lib. 2:chap. 12. in Joan.)
John 1:43 On the following day he would go forth into Galilee, and he findeth Philip. And Jesus saith to him: Follow me.

John 1:44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.

John 1:45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and said to him: We have found him of whom *Moses in the law, **and the prophets did write, Jesus, the son of Joseph, of Nazareth.

Genesis xlix 10.; Deuteronomy 18:18.; Isaias 40:10.; Isaias 14:8.; Jeremias 23:5.; Ezechiel 34:23.; Ezechiel 37:24.; Daniel 9:24-25.
John 1:46 And Nathanael said to him: Can any thing of good come from Nazareth? Philip saith to him: Come and see.

Can any thing of good come from Nazareth? Nathanael did not think it consistent with the predictions of the prophets, that the Messias, who was to be the Son of David, and to be born at Bethlehem, should be of the town of Nazareth; which he did not imagine could be the place of Jesus's birth. But when he came to Jesus, and found that he knew the truth of things done in private, and in his absence, he professed his belief in Jesus in these words: Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou art the king of Israel. We may here take notice, with Dr. Pearson, on the second article of the Creed, that the Jews, before the coming of Christ, were convinced that he was to be the Son of God; (though they have denied it since that time) for they interpreted, as foretold of their Messias, these words: (Psalm 2:7.) The Lord said to me, thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee: and this is what Nathanael here confessed. The same is confirmed by the famous confession of St. Peter, (Matthew 16:16.) Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God; by the words of Martha, (John 11:27.) I have believed that thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God, who art come into the world: In fine, by the question which the Jewish priest put to our Saviour, (Matthew 26:63.) I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ the Son of God. See also (John 6:70.; John 20:31.) (Witham)
John 1:47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him: and he saith of him; Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile.

John 1:48 Nathanael said to him: Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered, and said to him: Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee.

John 1:49 Nathanael answered him, and said: Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou art the king of Israel.

John 1:50 Jesus answered, and said to him: Because I said to thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, thou believest: greater things than these shalt thou see.

Greater things than these. Greater miracles and proofs that I am the Messias, and the true Son of God. (Witham)
John 1:51 And he saith to him: Amen, amen, I say to you, you shall see the heaven opened, and the Angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

You shall see the heaven open, etc. It is not certain when this was to be fulfilled: St. Chrysostom thinks at Christ's ascension; others refer it to the day of judgment. (Witham)
John 2:0 Christ changes water into wine. He casts the sellers out of the temple.

John 2:1 And the third day there was a marriage in Cana, of Galilee: and the mother of Jesus was there.

The Mother of Jesus was present. It is supposed she was then a widow, since in all the rest of the history of Jesus, not a single word occurs respecting St. Joseph. (Calmet)
John 2:2 And Jesus also was invited, and his disciples, to the marriage.

John 2:3 And wine failing, the mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine.

They have no wine. The blessed virgin Mother was not ignorant of the divine power of her Son, and that the time was come when he designed to make himself known to the world. She could not make her request in more modest terms. (Witham)
John 2:4 Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is it to me and to thee? my hour is not yet come.

Some of the Fathers have spoken without sufficient precaution on this action of the blessed Virgin; supposing she was actuated by some inclination to vanity, in begging her Son to perform a miracle on this occasion; that some of the glory of it might accrue to her, and that on this account our Saviour answers her with severity, saying, Woman, (not Mother) what is it to thee or me. Other Fathers, with more reason, attribute the interference of the blessed Virgin to her charity and compassion for the new married couple. Whatever turn be given to our Saviour's answer, it must be acknowledged it has in it the appearance of something severe. But the Fathers have explained it with mildness, observing that our Saviour only meant to say, Mother, what affair is it of ours if they want wine? Ought we to concern ourselves about that? Others think that he wished, by these words, to let his Mother know that she must not forestall the time appointed by the heavenly Father, as if her demand were unseasonable and out of time. But most of the Fathers and best commentators understand, that he speaks here not as man and Son of Mary, but as God; and in that quality, he observes to his Mother, I have nothing in common with you. It is not for you to prescribe when miracles are to be performed, which are not to be expected in compliance with any human respect. I know when my power is to be manifested for the greater glory of God. (Calmet) ---See the like forms of speech, Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; etc. --- My hour is not yet come. It is not yet time. He waited till the wine was quite done, lest any should believe that he had only increased the quantity, or had only mixed water with the wine. He would have his first miracle to be incontestable, and that all the company should be witnesses of it. (St. Augustine, et alii patres passim. --- Christ's first miracle in the New Testament, was a kind of transubstantiation in changing water into wine; the first miracle Moses performed when sent to the Jews, was transubstantiation. (Exodus iv.) The first Moses and Aaron performed, when sent to the Egyptians, was transubstantiation. (Exodus vii.)
John 2:5 His mother saith to the waiters: Whatsoever he shall say to you, do ye.

John 2:6 Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures a-piece.

Two or three measures,{ Ver. 6. Metretas binas vel ternas, ana metretas duo e treis. See Walton's preface to his first volume, p. 42, and others, de ponderibus et mensuris.|} called metreta. Both the Latin and Greek text, by the derivation, may signify a measure in general, according to the Rhemish translation: but metreta was a particular measure of liquids: yet, not corresponding to our firkins, I could not think it proper with the Protestant and M. N. to put two or three firkins. (Witham)
John 2:7 Jesus saith to them: Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.

John 2:8 And Jesus saith to them: Draw out now, and carry to the chief steward of the feast. And they carried it.

John 2:9 And when the chief steward had tasted the water made wine, and knew not whence it was, but the waiters knew who had drawn the water, the chief steward calleth the bridegroom,

John 2:10 And saith to him: Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: But thou hast kept the good wine until now.

When men have well drank,{ Ver. 10. When they have drank well: cum inebriati fuerint, otan methusthosi. See Legh. Crit. Sac. on the word methuo.|} or plentifully; this is the literal sense: nor need we translate, when they are drunk, being spoken of such company, where our Saviour, Christ, his blessed Mother, and his disciples, were present. See (Genesis 43:34.; 1 Machabees 16:16.), where the same word may be taken in the same sense. (Witham)
John 2:11 This beginning of the miracles did Jesus in Cana, of Galilee: and he manifested his glory, and his disciples believed in him.

This was the first miracle which Jesus had performed in public, and to manifest his glory; but Maldonatus is of opinion that he had before wrought many miracles, known to the blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; which gave her the confidence to ask one now. This opinion is no way contrary to the evangelist. His disciples believed in him. They had believed in him before or they would not have followed him. This confirmed their faith. (Calmet)
John 2:12 After this, he went down to Capharnaum, he and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and they remained there not many days.

John 2:13 And the Pasch of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem:

John 2:14 And he found in the temple those that sold oxen, and sheep, and doves, and the changers of money sitting.

John 2:15 And when he had made as it were a scourge of little cords, he drove them all out of the temple, the sheep also and the oxen, and he poured out the changers' money, and the tables he overthrew.

He drove them all out of the temple. According to St. Chrysostom (hom. lxvii. in Matt.) this casting out was different from that which is there related, (Matthew 21:12.) (Witham) --- How could the Son of the carpenter, Joseph, whose divinity was yet unknown to the people, succeed in expelling so great a multitude from the temple! There was undoubtedly something divine in his whole conduct and appearance, which deterred all from making resistance. The evangelist seems to insinuate this by putting these words: "The house of my Father," into our Saviour's mouth, which was making himself immediately the Son of God. This made Origen consider this miracle, in overcoming the unruly dispositions of so many, as a superior manifestation of power to what he had shewn in changing the nature of water at Cana. (Haydock) --- Jesus Christ here shews the respect he requires should be shewn to the temple of God; and St. Paul, speaking of the profaners of God's Church, saith: If any man defile the temple of God, him will God destroy. (1 Corinthians 3:17.) Which in a spiritual sense may be understood of the soul of man, which is the living temple of the living God. (Haydock)
John 2:16 And he said to them that sold doves: Take these things hence, and make not the house of my Father a house of traffic.

John 2:17 And his disciples remembered that it was written: *The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up.

Psalm 68:10.
John 2:18 The Jews therefore answered, and said to him: What sign dost thou shew to us, seeing thou dost these things?

John 2:19 Jesus answered, and said to them: *Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

Matthew 26:61.; Matthew 27:40.; Mark 14:58.; Mark 15:29.
John 2:20 The Jews then said: Six and forty years was this temple in building, and wilt thou raise it up in three days?

Six and forty years, etc. This many understand of the time the second temple was building, from the edict of Cyrus to the sixth year of Darius Hystaspes. Others, of the enlarging and beautifying the temple, which was begun by Herod the great, forty-six years before the Jews spoke this to our Saviour. (Witham) --- Interpreters are much embarrassed by these words; as the building of the temple, which then existed, had been finished in much less than 46 years. Herod renewed the temple from the foundations, and spent in that work only nine years and a half. It was begun 46 years before the first Pasch at which our Saviour appeared. (Usher, ad an. Mundi 3987.) --- But this prince, according to Josephus, continued to make new building and embellishments to the very time in which the Jews uttered these words: it is now 46 years, etc.
John 2:21 But he spoke of the temple of his body.

John 2:22 When, therefore, he was risen again from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, *and they believed the Scripture, and the word that Jesus had said.

Psalm 3:6.; Psalm 56:9.
John 2:23 Now when he was at Jerusalem, at the Pasch, upon the festival day, many believed in his name, seeing his miracles, which he did.

John 2:24 But Jesus did not trust himself to them, because he knew all men.

Trust himself to them. The Fathers generally understand these words, to them, to refer to those who believed in him, mentioned in the preceding verse. Though they believed in him, he did not trust himself to them, because he knew them. He knew their weakness, their inconstancy, their unsteadiness. He knew they would abandon him on the first occasion; and that his passion, his cross, his doctrines, would be a subject of scandal. St. Augustine compares these first believers to catechumens. They believe in Christ, confess his name, and sign their foreheads with his cross: but Jesus Christ does not trust himself to them; he does not trust to them the knowledge of his mysteries; he does not reveal to them the secrets of his religion. (Calmet) --- The catechumens were not allowed to be present at the holy mysteries of the sacrifice of the mass, but went out after the instruction of the gospel; whence the first part of the mass was frequently called the mass of the catechumens.
John 2:25 And because he needed not that any should give testimony of man: for he knew what was in man.

John 3:0 Christ's discourse with Nicodemus. John's testimony.

John 3:1 And there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.

John 3:2 This man came to Jesus by night, and said to him: Rabbi, we know that thou art come a teacher from God: for no man can do these miracles, which thou dost, unless God be with him.

By night. Nicodemus was at this time weak in faith, and therefore did not wish to endanger himself by coming to our Saviour in open day, when the enemies of Christ could see him. For many (as this evangelist informs us in John 12:42.) of the chief men also believed in him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess, that they might not be cast out of the Synagogue. (St. Chrysostom) --- It appears from this verse that Jesus Christ wrought many miracles, even in the first year of his preaching: though not very publicly, and amidst the crowd. However, few of those which he performed in Judea are noticed by the evangelist.
John 3:3 Jesus answered and said to him: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

John 3:4 Nicodemus saith to him: How can a man be born, when he is old? can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born again?

John 3:5 Jesus answered: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

Unless a man be born again of water, and the Holy Ghost. Though the word Holy be now wanting in all Greek copies, it is certainly the sense. The ancient Fathers, and particularly St. Augustine in divers places, from these words, prove the necessity of giving baptism to infants: and by Christ's adding water, is excluded a metaphorical baptism. See also (Acts 8:36.; Acts 10:47.; Titus 3:5.) (Witham) --- Except a man be born again. That is, unless you are born again by a spiritual regeneration in God, all the knowledge which you learn from me, will not be spiritual but carnal. But I say to you, that neither you nor any other person, unless you be born again in God, can understand or conceive the glory which is in me. (St. Chrysostom)
John 3:6 That which is born of the flesh, is flesh: and that which is born of the spirit, is spirit.

John 3:7 Wonder not that I said to thee, you must be born again.

John 3:8 The Spirit breatheth where he will, and thou hearest his voice; *but thou knowest not whence he cometh, nor whither he goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

Psalm 134:7.
The Spirit breatheth where he will. The Protestant translation has the wind: and so it is expounded by St. Chrysostom and St. Cyril on this verse; as if Christ compared the motions of the Holy Ghost to the wind, of which men can give so little account, whence it comes, or whither it goes. Yet many others, as St. Augustine, St. Ambrose and St. Gregory, understand this expression of the Holy Ghost, of whom it can only be properly said, that he breatheth where he will. (Witham)
John 3:9 Nicodemus answered, and said to him: How can these things be done?

John 3:10 Jesus answered, and said to him: Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things?

And knoweth not these things. That is, of baptism given by in a visible manner, and you understand not, how will you comprehend greater and heavenly things, if I speak of them? (Witham) --- Many passages, both in the law and the prophets, implied this doctrine of regeneration; for what else can be the meaning of the circumcision of the heart, commanded by Moses; (Deuteronomy 10:16.) of the renewal of a clean and right spirit, prayed for by David; (Psalm l.) of God's giving his people a new heart and a new spirit. (Ezechiel 36:26.; etc.) But the Pharisees, taken up with their rites and traditions, paid little attention to spiritual things of greater moment.
John 3:11 Amen, amen, I say to thee: that we speak what we know, and we testify what we have seen, and you receive not our testimony.

We speak what we know. It may perhaps be asked here, why Christ speaks in the plural number? To this we must answer, that it is the only Son of God, who is here speaking, showing us how the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father, and the Holy Ghost proceeding from both. (St. Thomas Aquinas)
John 3:12 If I have spoken to you earthly things, and you believe not: how will you believe if I shall speak to you heavenly things?

John 3:13 And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended from heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven.

No man hath ascended---but he that descended from heaven, the Son of man, who is in heaven. These words, divers times repeated by our Saviour, in their literal and obvious sense, shew that Christ was in heaven, and had a being before he was born of the Virgin Mary, against the Cerinthians, etc. That he descended from heaven: that when he was made man, and conversed with men on earth, he was at the same time in heaven. Some Socinians give us here their groundless fancy, that Jesus after his baptism took a journey to heaven, and returned again before his death. Nor yet would this make him in heaven, when he spoke this to his disciples. (Witham)
John 3:14 *And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up:

Numbers 21:9.
This comparison of the serpent lifted up in the desert, upon which whoever looked was immediately cured from the bite of the fiery serpents, is a figure of the crucifixion of Christ on Calvary. And we remark, that our divine Saviour makes use of these words, the Son of man must be lifted up or exalted; (exaltari) by which form of expression he would teach us, that he does not consider the cross as a disgrace, but as a glory; (Theophylactus and St. Chrysostom) and moreover, that as the Israelites, bitten by the fiery serpents, were cured by looking upon the brazen serpent, so are Christians cured by looking up with an active faith, replete with love and confidence, on Jesus Christ crucified.
John 3:15 That whosoever believeth in him, may not perish, but may have life everlasting.

John 3:16 *For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son: that whosoever believeth in him, may not perish, but may have life everlasting.

1 John 4:9.
\f + \fr 3:16-17\ft Give his only begotten Son---God sent not his Son into the world. He was then his Son, his only begotten Son, before he sent him into the world. He was not, therefore, his Son, only by the incarnation, but was his Son from the beginning, as he was also his word from all eternity. This was the constant doctrine of the Church, and of the Fathers, against the heresy of the Arians, that God was always Father,{ Ver. 16, 17. Aei Theos, aei uios; ama pater, ama uios. Arius began his heresy by denying this, as it appears in his letter to Eusebius, of Nicomedia, in St. Epiphanius, haer. 69, p. 731.|} and the Son always the eternal Son of the eternal Father. See note on John 1:ver. 14. (Witham) --- The world may be saved. Why, says St. Augustine, is Christ called the Saviour of the world, unless from the obligation he took upon himself at his birth? He has come like a good physician, effectually to save mankind. The man, therefore, destroys himself, who refuses to follow the prescriptions of his physician. (St. Augustine)
John 3:17 For God sent not his Son into the world, to judge the world, but that the world may be saved by him.

John 3:18 He that believeth in him is not judged: but he that doth not believe, is already judged: because he believeth not in the name of the only begotten Son of God.

Is not judged. He that believeth, viz. by a faith working through charity, is not judged; that is, is not condemned; but the obstinate unbeliever is judged; that is, condemned already, by retrenching himself from the society of Christ and his Church. (Challoner)
John 3:19 And this is the judgment: *because the light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil.

John 1:9.
The judgment. That is, the cause of his condemnation. (Challoner)
John 3:20 For every one that doth evil hateth the light, and cometh not to the light, that his works may not be reproved.

John 3:21 But he that doth truth, cometh to the light, that his works may be made manifest, because they are done in God.

John 3:22 After these things, Jesus and his disciples came into the land of Judea: and there he abode with them, *and baptized.

John 4:1.
And baptized. Not Christ himself, but his disciples. See John 4:2. (Witham)
John 3:23 And John also was baptizing in Ennon, near Salem; because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.

Salem. A town situated upon the river Jordan, where formerly Melchisedech reigned. (Ven. Bede)
John 3:24 For John was not yet cast into the prison.

John 3:25 And there arose a question between some of John's disciples of John and the Jews, concerning purification.

John 3:26 And they came to John, and said to him: Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan, *to whom thou gavest testimony, behold he baptizeth, and all men come to him.

John 1:19.
John 3:27 John answered, and said: A man cannot receive any thing unless it be given him from heaven.

John 3:28 You yourselves do bear me witness, *that I said, I am not the Christ; but that I am sent before him.

John 1:25.
John 3:29 He that hath the bride, is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with joy, because of the bridegroom's voice. This my joy, therefore, is fulfilled.

He of whom you complain is the bridegroom, and I am the friend of the bridegroom, sent before to prepare his bride; that is, to collect for him a Church from all nations. (Alcuin.) --- The servants of the bridegroom do not rejoice in the same manner as his friends: I am his friend, and I rejoice with very great joy, because of the bridegroom's voice. He must increase, and I must decrease; by which words the great precursor demonstrates to the world, that not the least envy with regard to his divine Master rankles in his heart; but on the contrary, that he should be happy to see all his followers desert him, to run to Jesus Christ. (St. Chrysostom)
John 3:30 Him must increase, but I must decrease.

He (Christ) must increase, not in virtue and perfection, with which he is replenished, but in the opinion of the world, when they begin to know him, and believe in him: and in like manner, I must be diminished, when they know how much he is above me. (Witham)
John 3:31 He that cometh from above, is above all. He that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh. He that cometh from heaven is above all.

He that cometh from above, meaning Christ. He that is of the earth, meaning himself, is from the earth,{ Ver. 31. Qui est de terra, de terra est, o on ek tes ges, ek tes ges esti, kai ek tes ges lalei. et de terra loquitur.|} is earthly, is but a frail and infirm man; and so speaketh as from the earth: this seems rather the sense, than that he speaketh of, or concerning the earth. See the Greek text. (Witham)
John 3:32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.

What he hath seen and heard. The meaning is not by his senses, but what he knows for certain, having the same knowledge as his eternal Father. See John 5:19. And no one; that is but few now receive his testimony. (Witham)
John 3:33 He that hath received his testimony, hath attested by his seal that *God is true.

Romans 3:4.
He that hath received his testimony. These following words to the end of the chapter, seem to be the words of St. John the Baptist, rather than of the evangelist. The sense is, whosoever hath believed, and received the doctrine of Christ, hath attested as it were under his hand and seal, that God is true, and hath executed his promise concerning the Messias. (Witham)
John 3:34 For he whom God hath sent, speaketh the words of God: for God doth not give the Spirit by measure.

Doth not give the Spirit by measure. Christ, even as man, has a plenitude of graces. See chapt. 1:ver. 14. And all things, all creatures, both in heaven and earth, are given into his hands, and made subject to him, as man. See 1 Corinthians 15:26. (Witham)
John 3:35 The Father loveth the Son: and he hath given all things into his hand.

The Father loveth the Son. The Father loveth John, loveth Paul, yet he hath not given all things into their hands. The Father loveth the Son, not as a lord does his servants, not as an adopted Son, but as his only begotten Son; therefore hath he given all things into his hands, that as the Father is, so may the Son be. (St. Augustine)
John 3:36 *He that believeth in the Son hath life everlasting: but he that believeth not the Son, shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.

1 John 5:10.
The divinity of the Son is in this chapter proved as clearly as in 1 John 5:7. "There are three who give testimony in heaven; the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one." Which verse is entirely omitted by Luther in his version; for which omission he is severely reproved by Keckerman. But while Catholics and Protestants deduce from this and many other places in Scripture, the divinity of Jesus Christ, as an indubitable and irrefragable consequence, how may learned Arians, Socinians, and Unitarians read the same texts, and deduce quite contrary consequences? How clearly does this prove that the Bible only cannot prove the exclusive rule of faith. With reason does the Cambridge divinity professor, Dr. Herbert Marsh, ask in his late publication on this subject, p. 18, "Are all Protestants alike in their religion? Have we not got Protestants of the Church of England, Protestants of the Church of Scotland, Protestants who hold the profession of Augsburgh? Have we not both Arminian and Calvinistic Protestants? Are not the Moravians, the Methodists, the Baptists, the Quakers, and even the Jumpers, the Dunkers, the Swedenborgians, all Protestants? Since, then Protestantism assumes so many different forms, men speak quite indefinitely, if they speak of it without explaining the particular kind which they mean. When I hear of a Swedish or a Danish Protestant, I know that it means a person whose religion is the Bible only, as expounded by the Synod of Dort. In like manner a Protestant of the Church of England, is a person whose religion is the Bible only; but the Bible as expounded by its Liturgy and Articles. How, therefore, can we know, if we give the Bible only, what sort of Protestantism well be deduced from it?" --- In the same publication, Dr. Herbert Marsh, p. 21, adds, "Protestants of every description, however various and even opposite in their opinions, claim severally for themselves the honour of deducing from the Bible irrefragable and indubitable consequences. The doctrine of conditional salvation is an indubitable consequence to the Arminian. The doctrine of absolute decree, an indubitable consequence to the Calvinist. The doctrines of the trinity, the atonement and the sacraments, which the Church of England considers as indubitable consequences of the Bible, would not be so, if the Unitarians and Quakers were right in the consequences which they draw from the Bible. But the consequences which they deduce appear indubitable to them." This the professor properly styles protestantism in the abstract, or generalized, and nearly allied to apostacy from Christianity: a system, p. 16, "by which many a pilgrim has lost his way between the portal of the temple and the altar---disdaining the gate belonging only to the priests, and approaching at once the portals of the temple, they have ventured without a clue, to explore the inmost recesses; and have been bewildered in their way, till at length they have wandered to the devious passage, where Christianity itself becomes lost from the view." See his Inquiry into the consequences of neglecting to give the Prayer-Book with the Bible.
John 4:0 Christ talks with the Samaritan woman. He heals the ruler's son.

John 4:1 When, therefore, Jesus understood that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus maketh more disciples, and *baptizeth more than John,

John 3:22.
This knowledge which the Pharisees had of our Saviour's making so many disciples, and baptizing such members, could not prevail upon them to follow him for their salvation; otherwise Christ would not have departed out of Judea. Jesus knew full well that this, their knowledge, would not work their conversion, but only stir up their envy, and excite them to persecute him; and therefore he retired. He could indeed have remained amongst them in security, had he chosen to exercise his power; but he would not: that so he might leave an example to his faithful servants, teaching them to flee from the rage of their cruel persecutors. (St. Augustine)
John 4:2 (Though Jesus himself did not baptize, but his disciples,)

St. Chrysostom thinks that this baptism, given by the disciples of Christ, did not at all differ from the baptism of St. John the Baptist; both, in his opinion, being used to prepare the people for Christ; but Alcuin interprets it otherwise. Some will ask, says he, whether the Holy Ghost was given by this baptism, since it is said the Holy Ghost was not yet given because Jesus was not yet glorified? To this we answer: that the Holy Ghost was given, though not in that manifest manner as after the ascension; for as Christ, as man, had always the Holy Ghost residing within him, and yet after his baptism received the Holy Ghost, coming upon him in a visible manner, in the shape of a dove; so before the manifest and public descent of the Holy Ghost, all the saints were his hidden temples. (St. Thomas Aquinas)
John 4:3 He left Judea, and departed again into Galilee.

John 4:4 And it was necessary he should pass through Samaria.

John 4:5 He cometh, therefore, to a city of Samaria which is called Sichar; near the piece of land *which Jacob gave to his son Joseph.

Genesis 33:19.; Genesis 48:22.; Josue 24:32.
This is what Jacob gave to his son Joseph, when calling him to him just before he died, he said: (Genesis xlviii. ver. 22.) I give thee a portion above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorrhite, with my sword and bow. (Theophylactus) --- It was thirty-six miles from Jerusalem, and the same place as Sichem, (Genesis xxxiv.) the capital of Samaria, now called Neplosa.
John 4:6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus, therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well. It was about the sixth hour.

John 4:7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water. Jesus saith to her: Give me to drink.

John 4:8 (For his disciples were gone into the city, to buy food.)

John 4:9 Then that Samaritan woman saith to him: How dost thou, being a Jew, ask of me to drink, who am a Samaritan woman? For the Jews do not communicate with the Samaritans.

John 4:10 Jesus answered, and said to her: If thou didst know the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink: thou perhaps wouldst have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.

Thou didst know the gift of God; that is the favour now offered thee by my presence, of believing in me. --- And he would have given thee living water, meaning divine graces; but the woman understood him literally of such water as was there in the well. (Witham)
John 4:11 The woman saith to him: Sir, thou hast nothing wherein to draw, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou living water?

John 4:12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle?

The Samaritan woman says, our father Jacob; because the Samaritans claimed lineage from Abraham, who was himself a Chaldean; and they; therefore, called Jacob their father, because he was Abraham's grandson. (St. Chrysostom) --- Or she calls him their father because they lived under the law of Moses, and were in possession of that spot of ground which Jacob had bequeathed to his son Joseph. (Ven. Bede)
John 4:13 Jesus answered, and said to her: Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but he that shall drink of the water that I shall give him, shall not thirst for ever.

Shall thirst again. After any water, or any drink, a man naturally thirsts again; but Christ speaks of the spiritual water of grace in this life, and of glory in the next, which will perfectly satisfy the desires of man's immortal soul for ever.
John 4:14 But the water that I shall give him, shall become in him a fountain of water, springing up into life everlasting.

John 4:15 The woman saith to him: Sir, give me this water, that I may not thirst, nor come hither to draw.

Sir, give me this water. The woman, says St. Augustine, does not yet understand his meaning, but longs for water, after which she should never thirst. (Witham)
John 4:16 Jesus saith to her: Go, call thy husband, and come hither.

Call thy husband. Christ begins to shew her that he knows her life, to make her know him and herself. (Witham)
John 4:17 The woman answered, and said: I have no husband. Jesus said to her: Thou hast said well, I have no husband:

John 4:18 For thou hast had five husbands: and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband. This thou hast said truly.

John 4:19 The woman saith to him: Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet.

John 4:20 Our fathers adored on this mountain, and you say *that at Jerusalem is the place where men must adore.

Deuteronomy 12:5.
Our fathers adored on this mountain, etc. She means Jacob and the ancient patriarchs, whom the Samaritans called their fathers; and by the mountain, that of Garizim, where the Samaritans had built a temple, and where they would have all persons adore, and not at Jerusalem; now she had a curiosity to hear what Christ would say of these two temples, and of the different worship of the Jews and of the Samaritans. (Witham) --- Sichem was at the foot of Mount Garizim. The Samaritans supposed the patriarchs had exercised their religious acts on this mountain. (Bible de Vence) --- Josephus (Antiquities, lib. xiii. John 6.) gives the dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans. Both parties referred themselves to the arbitration of king Ptolemy Philometer, who gave judgment in favour of the Jews, upon their stating the antiquity of their temple, and the uninterrupted succession of the priesthood, officiating there throughout all ages. In this controversy, the intelligent reader will see some resemblance to that which subsists between Catholics and Protestants. See Dr. Kellison's Survey of the New Religion, p. 129. --- The woman in this place must mean offering sacrifice, for adoration was never limited to any particular place. It is clear from 3 Kings 9:3. from 2 Paralipomenon 7:12. that God had chosen the temple of Jerusalem; but the Samaritans rejected all the books of Scripture, except the Pentateuch of Moses. The schism was begun by Manasses, a fugitive priest, that he might hold his unlawful wife thereby, and obtain superiority in schism; which he could not do whilst he remained in the unity of his brethren. How forcibly do these circumstances remind us of a much later promoter of schism, king Henry VIII. It is true the Protestants appeal to the primitive Christians, as the Samaritans appealed to the patriarchs, but in the argument both must stand or fall by the incontrovertible proof of continual succession.
John 4:21 Jesus saith to her: Woman, believe me, that the hour cometh when you shall neither on this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, adore the Father.

John 4:22 *You adore that which you know not: we adore that which we know: for salvation is of the Jews.

4 Kings 17:41.
The Israelites, on account of their innumerable sins, had been delivered by the Almighty into the hands of the king of Assyria, who led them all away captives into Babylon and Medea, and sent other nations whom he had collected from different parts, to inhabit Samaria. But the Almighty, to shew to all nations that he had not delivered up these his people for want of power to defend, but solely on account of their transgressions, sent lions into the land to persecute these strangers. The Assyrian king upon hearing this, sent them a priest to teach them the law of God; but neither after this did they depart wholly from their impiety, but in part only: for many of them returned again to their idols, worshipping at the same time the true God. It was on this account that Christ preferred the Jews before them, saying, that salvation is of the Jews, with whom it was the chief principle to acknowledge the true God, and hold every denomination of idols in detestation; whereas, the Samaritans by mixing the worship of the one with the other, plainly shewed that they held the God of the universe in no greater esteem than their dumb idols. (St. Chrysostom in St. Thomas Aquinas)
John 4:23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true adorers shall adore the Father in spirit and in truth. For the Father also seeketh such to adore him.

Now is the time approaching, when the true adorers shall adore the Father in spirit and in truth, without being confined to any one temple or place; and chiefly in spirit, without such a multitude of sacrifices and ceremonies as even the Jews now practise. Such adorers God himself (who is a pure spirit) desires, which they shall be taught by the Messias. (Witham) --- Our Lord foretells her that sacrifices in both these temples should shortly cease, giving her these three instructions: 1. That the true sacrifice should be limited no longer to one spot or nation, but should be offered throughout all nations, according to that of Malachias 1:11. 2. That the gross and carnal adoration by the flesh and blood of beasts, not having in them grace, spirit, and life, should be taken away, and another sacrifice succeed, which should be in itself invisible, divine, and full of life, spirit, and grace; 3. That this sacrifice should be truth itself, whereof all former sacrifices were but shadows and figures. He calleth here spirit and truth that which, in the first chapter, (ver. 17) is called grace and truth. Now this is not more than a prophecy and description of the sacrifice of the faithful Gentiles in the body and blood of Christ; for all the adoration of the Catholic Church is properly spiritual, though certain external objects be joined thereto, on account of the state of our nature, which requireth it. Be careful then not to gather from Christ's words that Christian men should have no use of external signs and offices towards God; for that would take away all sacrifice, sacraments, prayers, churches and societies. etc. etc. (Bristow)
John 4:24 *God is a spirit, and they that adore him, must adore him in spirit and in truth.

1 Corinthians 3:17.
John 4:25 The woman saith to him: I know that the Messias cometh (who is called Christ); therefore when he is come, he will tell us all things.

I know that the Messias cometh. So that even the Samaritans, at that time, expected the coming of the great Messias. (Witham)
John 4:26 Jesus saith to her: I am he, who am speaking with thee.

Jesus saith to her: I am he. Christ was pleased to own this truth in the plainest terms to this Samaritan woman, having first by his words, and more by his grace, disposed her heart to believe it. (Witham)
John 4:27 And immediately his disciples came: and they wondered that he talked with the woman. Yet no man said: What seekest thou, or why talkest thou with her?

His disciples ... wondered, etc. They admired his humility, finding him discoursing with a poor woman, especially she being a Samaritan. (Witham)
John 4:28 The woman, therefore, left her water-pot, and went away into the city, and saith to the men there:

John 4:29 Come, and see a man who hath told me all things that I have done. Is not he the Christ?

The Samaritans looked for the Messias, because they had the books of Moses, in which Jacob foretold the world's Redeemer: The sceptre shall not depart from Juda, nor a leader from his thigh, until he come that is to be sent. (Genesis 49:10.) And Moses himself foretold the same: God will raise to thee a prophet of the nations, and of thy brethren. (Deuteronomy 18:15.) (St. Chrysostom in St. Thomas Aquinas)
John 4:30 They went therefore out of the city, and came to him.

John 4:31 In the mean time the disciples prayed him, saying: Rabbi, eat.

John 4:32 But he said to them: I have meat to eat which you know not of.

John 4:33 The disciples, therefore, said one to another: Hath any man brought him any thing to eat?

John 4:34 Jesus saith to them: My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, that I may perfect his work.

My meat is to do the will of him that sent me. Such ought to be the disposition of every one who, as a minister of Christ and his Church, is to take care of souls. (Witham)
John 4:35 Do not you say, there are yet four months, and then the harvest cometh? Behold I say to you, lift up your eyes, and see the countries, *for they are white already to harvest.

Matthew 9:37.; Luke 10:2.
For they are white already to harvest. The great harvest of souls was approaching, when Christ was come to teach men the way of salvation, and was to send his apostles to convert all nations. They succeeded to the labours of the prophets, but with much greater advantages and success. And to this is applied that common saying, that one soweth and another reapeth. (Witham)
John 4:36 And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life everlasting: that both he that soweth, and he that reapeth, may rejoice together.

John 4:37 For in this is the saying true: that it is one man that soweth, and it is another that reapeth.

John 4:38 I have sent you to reap that in which you did not labour: others have laboured, and you have entered into their labours.

By these words our Saviour testifies to his disciples, that the prophets had sown the seed in order to bring men to believe in Christ. This was the end of the law, this the fruit which the prophets looked for to crown their labours. He likewise shews that he himself that sent them, likewise sent the prophets before them; and that the Old and New Testament are of the same origin, and have the same design. (St. Chrysostom in St. Thomas Aquinas)
John 4:39 Now of that city many of the Samaritans believed in him, for the word of the woman giving testimony: that he told me whatsoever I have done.

John 4:40 So when the Samaritans were come to him, they desired that he would stay there. And he staid there two days.

John 4:41 And many more believed in him, because of his own word.

John 4:42 And they said to the woman: We now believe, not for thy saying; for we ourselves have heard him, and know that this is indeed the Saviour of the world.

This is indeed the Saviour of the world. These Samaritans then believed that Jesus was the true Messias, sent to redeem the world. (Witham)
John 4:43 Now, after two days, he departed thence; and went into Galilee.

John 4:44 *For Jesus himself gave testimony that a prophet hath no honour in his own country.

Matthew 13:57.; Mark 6:4.; Luke 4:24.
For Jesus himself gave testimony, etc. The connexion and reason given here by the word for, is obscure, when it is said, Jesus went into Galilee and gave testimony that a prophet hath no honour in his own country. One would think this should not be a reason for his going into Galilee, but rather why he should not go thither. St. Cyril,{ Ver. 44. St. Cyril, in Joan. p. 202. Interjacentem Nazareth praeterit, paratrechei ten Nazareth dia tou mesou keimenen. St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxiv. in Joan. tom. 8, p. 203. quare addidit, quia, gar, quod non in Capharnaum, sed in Galileam, et in Cana abiit.|} and also St. Chrysostom distinguish different parts of Galilee; and say that when Jesus went into Galilee, the meaning is, that he would not at that time go to Nazareth, where he was bred, nor to Capharnaum, where he had lived for a time, but went to Cana, and those other parts of Galilee; and that the word for only gives the reason of this, that he would not go to Nazareth or Capharnaum, because no prophet is honoured in his own country. And for the same reason he again said to the ruler: (ver. 48) Unless you see signs and wonders you believe not: whereas the Samaritans, from whom he was now coming, readily believed without such miracles. (Witham)
John 4:45 *Then, when he was come into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having seen all the things he had done at Jerusalem on the festival day: for they also went to the festival day.

Matthew 4:12.; Mark 1:14.; Luke 4:14.
John 4:46 He came again, therefore, into Cana of Galilee, *where he made the water wine. And there was a certain ruler whose son was sick at Capharnaum.

John 2:9.
John 4:47 He having heard that Jesus was come from Judea into Galilee, went to him, and prayed him to come down and heal his son; for he was at the point of death.

John 4:48 Jesus therefore said to him: Unless you see signs and wonders, you believe not.

John 4:49 The ruler saith to him: Lord, come down before that my son die.

John 4:50 Jesus saith to him: Go thy way; thy son liveth. The man believed the word which Jesus said to him, and went his way.

John 4:51 And as he was going down, his servants met him: and they brought word, saying: that his son lived.

John 4:52 He asked, therefore, of them the hour wherein he grew better. And they said to him: Yesterday, at the seventh hour, the fever left him.

John 4:53 The father, therefore, knew that it was at the same hour that Jesus said to him: Thy son liveth: and himself believed, and his whole house.

Thy son liveth; that is thy son is recovered, at this very moment. (Witham)
John 4:54 This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when he was come out of Judea into Galilee.

John 5:0 Christ heals on the sabbath the man languishing thirty-eight years; his discourse upon this occasion.

John 5:1 After *these things there was a festival day of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

about the year A.D. 31. Observe here the malice of the Pharisees; they were more hurt at the cure of the sick man, than at the violation of the sabbath. Therefore, they ask not, Who healed you; but, as if they wished to keep that out of sight, Who told you to take up you bed? (St. Chrysostom) --- But he answers: The same who healed me: Why should I not receive orders from him from whom I have received my health? (St. Augustine) --- By the festival, mentioned in ver. 1, is generally understood the Passover; and this was the second from the commencement of Christ's ministry. St. Matthew calls it by this name, John 26:5; St. Mark, John 14:2. and 15:6; and St. Luke, John 23:17. For the first Passover, see above, John 2:13; for the third, John 6:4; for the fourth and last, Matthew 26:17. The first three are only mentioned by St. John, the fourth by all the evangelists.
John 5:2 Now there is at Jerusalem a pond, called Probatica, which in Hebrew is named Bethsaida, having five porches.

Now there is at Jerusalem a pond, called Probatica.{ Ver. 2. Probatica piscina: some Greek copies, probatike kolumbetra. But in the common copies, epi te probatike kolumbetra, that is propè piscinam, etc. Kolumbetra signifies lavacrum. See Legh's Crit. Sacra.|} Some translate, the sheep-pond. It is true the Greek word signifies something belonging to sheep. But because the ancient Latin interpreter thought fit to retain the Greek, probatica, and also because of the different expositions, I have not changed the word. Some think it was so called, as being near the gate called the sheep-gate: others, as being near the sheep-market: others, because the sheep that were brought to be sacrificed, were washed in it; or, at least, that the blood and entrails of sheep and beast sacrificed, were thrown into it, or washed there. In the ordinary Greek copies we read thus: there is at, or near, the Probatica, a pond or fish-pond. In Hebrew it was called Bethsaida, a house for fishing: and in most Greek copies, Bethchesda, a house of mercy, (perhaps because of the cures done there) having five porches, covered and arched, for the convenience of the infirm that lay there, waiting for the motion of the water. (Witham) --- The word probaton, signifies a sheep. This pond is therefore called Probatica, because there the priests washed the sacrifices. (St. Augustine) --- In imitation of this sick man, if we wish to return God thanks for his favours, or to enjoy the pleasure of his company, we must fly the crowd of vain and wicked thoughts that continually tempt us; we must avoid the company of the wicked, and fly to the sanctuary, that we may render our hearts worthy temples of that God who vouchsafes to visit us. (Alcuin)
John 5:3 In these lay a great multitude of sick, of blind, of lame, of withered, waiting for the moving of the water.

John 5:4 And an Angel of the Lord descended at certain times into the pond: and the water was moved: And he that went down first into the pond after the motion of the water, was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he lay under.

And an angel of the Lord.{ Ver. 4. Angelus Domini. The word kuriou, Domini, is found in several of the best Greek manuscripts though wanting in others. But that the cure was miraculous, see St. Chrysostom, om. ls. p. 207, tom. viii. Aggelos iatiken enetikei dunamin. St. Ambrose, lib. de initandis, ch. IV. St. Augustine (trac. XVII. in Joan.) credas hoc Angelica virtute ficri solere. St. Cyril on this place, Angeli descendentes de coelo piscinae aquam turbabant.|} In many Greek copies is now wanting, of the Lord; but at least the ancient Fathers, and interpreters, expound it of a true angel, and of a miraculous cure: so that I cannot but wonder that so learned a man as Dr. Hammond, should rather judge these cures to have been natural. By the angel, he would have us to understand a messenger sent from the temple, who was to stir up the blood, and the grosser and thicker parts from the bottom of the pond, and that these cures were made much after the same manner, as, in some cases, persons find a cure by being put into the belly of a beast newly opened. Into what extravagant interpretations are men of learning sometimes led by their private judgment! What scholar of Galen or Hippocrates, ever pretended that this was a certain and infallible cure for all manner of diseases? Yet here we read: that he who got first into this pond, after the motion of the water, was healed, whatsoever distemper he was seized with. The blind are particularly named: Is this a certain remedy that restores sight to the blind? (Witham) --- The effect produced could not be natural, as only one was cured at each motion of the waters. The longing expectation of the suffering patients, is a mark of the persevering prayer with which poor sinners should solicit the cure of their spiritual infirmities. (Haydock)
John 5:5 And there was a certain man there, that had been eight and thirty years under his infirmity.

Infirmity. The Greek, astheneia, signifies in its radical interpretation, a loss of strength: in this place it seems to denote a confirmed palsy.
John 5:6 Him when Jesus had seen lying, and knew that he had been now a long time, he saith to him: Wilt thou be made whole?

Wilt thou be made whole? No doubt but the poor man desired nothing more. Christ put this question, to raise him to a lively faith and hope. (Witham)
John 5:7 The infirm man answered him: Sir, I have no man when the water is troubled, to put me into the pond: for whilst I am coming, another goeth down before me.

John 5:8 Jesus saith to him: Arise, take up thy bed, and walk.

Arise, take up thy bed, and walk. The man found himself healed at that very moment, and did as he was ordered, though it was the sabbath-day. The Jews blamed him for it: he told them, that he who had healed him, bade him do so. And who it was he knew not, till Jesus finding him in the temple, said to him: (ver. 14.) Sin no more, lest some worse thing happen to thee. Upon this he went, not out of malice, but out of gratitude, and told the Jews that Jesus had cured him. (Witham)
John 5:9 And immediately the man was made whole: and he took up his bed, and walked. And it was the sabbath that day.

John 5:10 The Jews, therefore, said to him that was cured: *It is the sabbath; it is not lawful for thee to take up thy bed.

Exodus 20:11.; Jeremias 17:24.
John 5:11 He answered them: He that made me whole, he said to me: Take up thy bed, and walk.

John 5:12 They asked him, therefore: Who is that man that said to thee: Take up thy bed, and walk?

John 5:13 But he that was healed, knew not who it was. For Jesus went aside from the multitude that was standing in the place.

John 5:14 Afterwards Jesus findeth him in the temple, and saith to him: Behold, thou art made whole: sin no more, lest some worse thing happen to thee.

Sin no more, etc. By these words our Saviour shews, that his infirmity was sent in punishment of his sins. When our souls are covered with the leprosy of sin, we are frequently insensible of our misfortune; whereas, as soon as the body is attacked with sickness, though ever so inconsiderable, we are not to be pacified till the physician has been consulted, and some remedy applied to remove, if possible, the complaint. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxvii. in Joan.) --- Men are astonished that God, for so short a pleasure as is found in the perpetration of sin, should have decreed an everlasting punishment in the fire of hell; for they say, Shall I be punished for ever, for having indulged a sinful thought for a single moment? But their astonishment will cease, when they consider that punishments are not inflicted on sins in proportion to the length of time that was spent in their perpetration, but that they are proportioned to their malice. Now the malice of sin being infinite, aimed against the infinite majesty and infinite sanctity of God, the punishment, to be any ways commensurate, must be infinite. If, therefore, the sinner dies charged with the infinite debt of mortal sin unrepented of, as the time of mercy and repentance finishes with the present life, the sin must necessarily remain, God's hatred for sin must necessarily remain, and the punishment justly inflicted must necessarily continue. (Haydock) --- These words are applicable to every penitent sinner, when he returns from the tribunal of confession, and shew how careful he ought to be not to relapse into his former sins. "For he who after pardon sins again, is unworthy of mercy; who being cured, makes himself sick again, and who being cleansed, defiles himself again." (Tom. 2:St. Chrysostom, de lapsu prim. hom.)
John 5:15 The man went his way, and told the Jews that it was Jesus that had made him whole.

John 5:16 Thereupon, the Jews persecuted Jesus, because he did these things on the sabbath.

John 5:17 But Jesus answered them: My Father worketh until now, and I work.

My father worketh until now:{ Ver. 17. Pater meus usque modo operatur, ergazetai. See St. Chrysostom, om. le. on these words. St. Cyril, lib. II. in Joan. ch. VI. St. Augustine, trac. XVII. in Joan. etc.|} and I work. The Jews looked upon it of obligation to do nothing on the sabbath, because God is said to have rested the seventh day; on which account the rest on the seventh day was commanded. Christ puts them in mind, that though it be said he rested the seventh day, (that is, produced no more new kinds of creatures) yet that God may be said to work always, by preserving and continually governing the world: and I, saith he, do all things that he doth, I work with him, being one and the same in nature and substance with him: nay, even as man, I do nothing but what is conformable to his will; and so you need not fear that I break the sabbath. --- The Christian faith teacheth us, that Jesus Christ was both God and Man. The objections of the ancient and modern Arians, only shew that Christ was also truly a man, and that divers things which he speaks of himself, or which are said of him in the holy Scriptures, apply to him as man. Nothing is more certain, and agreed on by all. But at the same time we ought to take notice, that Christ has affirmed many things of himself, and many things are asserted of him in the Scriptures, which by no means could be applied to him unless he were also truly and properly one and the same God with his eternal Father. And these are the passages by which the Arians and Socinians might be convinced of their errors and blasphemies. (Witham) --- If Christ had not been the natural Son of God, these words, which he says in excuse of his seeming breach of the sabbath, would rather have increased the strength of their accusation. For no governor, when accused of any crime, excuses himself by saying the king does the same. But as the Son is equal to the Father, his excuse is a true one. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxvii. in Joan.) --- The rest God entered into after the creation, and which he was pleased to honour by that of the sabbath, is no hinderance to the operations of his power in the preservation of his works, nor to the operations of his grace in the sanctification of souls.
John 5:18 Hereupon, therefore, the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he did not only break the sabbath, but also said that God was his Father, making himself equal to God. Then Jesus answered, and said to them:

That God was his Father,{ Ver. 18. Patrem suum, or proprium suum patrem, ton patera idio.|} making himself equal to God. In divers places of the Old Testament, God is called the Father of the Israelites, and they his children: but here, and on several other occasions, the Jews very well saw, that he called God his Father in a quite different sense from that in which he could be said to be their Father; that his words made him equal to God, and that he made himself God. See John 10:33; John 19:7; Luke 22:70; etc. And therefore St. Augustine says on this verse: (Trac. xvii. in Joan.) Behold the Jews understand what the Arians do not. (Witham)
John 5:19 Amen, amen, I say unto you: the Son cannot do any thing of himself, but what he seeth the Father doing: for what things soever he doth, these the Son also doth in like manner.

The Son cannot do any thing of himself,{ Ver. 19. Non potest filius a se, etc. St. Chrysostom, om. le. (t. viii. p. 222.) a seipso nihil facit, neque pater a seipso facit, oude o pater aph eautou ti poion. See St. Cyril, lib. ii. in Joan. St. Augustine, trac. xvii. in Joan. on the same texts. St. Athanasius, orat. 2. cont. Arianos, tom. ii. p. 488. St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orat. XXXVI. 584. tom. I. Ed. Par. an. 1630. St. Ambrose (tom. II. in Ps. CXVIII.) Nihil a se facit filius: quia per unitatem operationis, nec filius sine patre facit, nec sine filio pater. St. Hilary, lib. vii. De Trin. P. 927. Ed. Ben. But St. Jerome (tom. IV. part 2, p. 521. Ed. Ben.) Non possum facere a meipso, objiciebant Ariani; sed respondet Ecclesia, ex persona hominis haec dici, etc. St. Jerome does not mean that he had a human or created person, as the Nestorians pretend; but that these words were spoken, or might be understood of Christ, inasmuch as his human nature was united to his divine person.|} but what he seeth the Father do. In like manner, (ver. 30.) Christ says, I can do nothing of myself. As I hear, so I judge. Again (Chap. 8:28.) I do nothing of myself; but as the Father hath taught me, I speak these things. All these, and the like expressions, may be expounded, with Maldonatus and Petavius, (lib. 2:de Trin. John 4.) of Christ, as man. But the ancient Fathers commonly allowed them to be understood of Christ as God, and as the true Son of God proceeding from him from all eternity; as when it is said, the Son cannot do any thing of himself, it is true, because the eternal Son is not of himself, but always proceeds from the Father. 2. Because the works of all the three Persons, by which all things are produced and preserved, are inseparable. 3. When it is said, that the Son doth nothing, but what he seeth the Father doing: that he heareth, as the Father hath taught him, or shewed to him: these expressions bear not the same sense as when they are applied to men, or to an inferior or a scholar, who learns of his master, and follows him; but here, says St. Augustine, to see, to hear, to be taught by the Father, is no more than to proceed from him, to do and produce by the same action, all that the Father doth and produceth. This is the general interpretation of the ancient Fathers: St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine. The words immediately following, confirm this exposition, when it is said: For what things soever he (the Father) doth, these also in like manner the Son doth, that is the very same things by an unity of nature, of will, and of action: nor could these words be true, unless the Son was the same true God with the Father. (Witham) --- This must be understood, that he cannot do any thing contrary to the will of the Father. He does not say, "The Son does nothing of himself, but the Son can do nothing of himself, in order to shew their likeness and perfect equality." For by saying this, he does not betray any want of power in the Son; but, on the contrary, shews his great power. For when we say that God cannot sin, we do not esteem it a want of power; so when the Son says he cannot do any thing of himself, his meaning is, that he cannot do any thing contrary to the will of the Father; which certainly is a great perfection. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xxxvii. in Joan.)
John 5:20 For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things which himself doth; and greater works than these will he shew him, that you may wonder.

Greater works than these will he (the Father) shew him, etc. These words may also, with Maldonatus be expounded of Christ, as man; but the ancient interpreters understand them of Christ, as God, in this sense, that the Father, and the Son, or the Father by the Son, will shew greater miracles hereafter done by Christ, that more persons may admire and believe. (Witham)
John 5:21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and giveth life: so the Son also giveth life to whom he will.

For as the Father ... giveth life, so also the Son giveth life to whom he will; where these words, to give life to whom he will, shew the power of the Son and of the Father to be equal. (Witham) --- Our Saviour here mentions the greater works he spoke of in the preceding verse; for it is much more wonderful that the dead should rise, than that the sick should recover their health. We are not to understand these words, as if they meant some were raised to life by the Father, and others by the Son; but that the Father raises those whom the Son raises. And lest any one should understand this, that the Father makes use of the Son as his minister, through whose means he raises the dead, he immediately adds, etc. (St. Augustine, Tract. xxi. in Joan.) --- We see the lovers of this temporal and perishable life, labour to the utmost of their power, I will not say to avoid death, but merely to prolong their frail existence. If, therefore, men labour with so much solicitude, if they strain every nerve to prolong their lives but for a few years; how foolish and blind to their interest must those be, who live in such a manner as to be deprived of the light of eternal day! (St. Augustine, De verb. Dni. Serm. 64.)
John 5:22 For neither doth the Father judge any man: but hath committed all judgment to the Son.

Neither doth the Father judge any man. It is certain that God is the Judge of all, by divers places of the holy Scriptures; and to judge, belongs both to the Father and to the Son, as they are the same God: so that when it is added, that the Father hath given all judgment to the Son,{ Ver. 22. Omne judicium dedit filio. St. Augustine expounds it (trac. xxi.) sed judicium manifestum. Pater occultus erit judex, filius manifestus, quià mani festè ad judicium veniet.|} this is meant of the exterior exercise of his judgment upon all mankind at the end of the world, in as much as Christ then will return, in his human body, to judge all men, even as man, in their bodies. (Witham)
John 5:23 That all men may honour the Son, as they honour the Father. He who honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father, who hath sent him.

John 5:24 Amen, amen, I say unto you, that he who heareth my word, and believeth him that sent me, hath life everlasting; and cometh not into judgment, but is passed from death to life.

Hath everlasting life. That is, a title to an eternal inheritance of glory, by believing in the Father, and in the Son, and also in the Holy Ghost, as we are taught to believe at our baptism. (Witham)
John 5:25 Amen, amen, I say unto you, that the hour cometh, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.

The hour cometh ... when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God. Though some understand this of the rising of Lazarus; others of those that rose with Christ at his resurrection: yet by these words, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, seems rather to be signified the general resurrection at the end of the world; and though it be said, that now is the hour, this may be spoken of the last age of the world; and, as St. John says, (1 John 2:18.) children, it is the last hour. In fine, some interpreters understand these words of a spiritual resurrection from sin, which Christ came to bring to the world. (Witham)
John 5:26 For as the Father hath life in himself; so he hath given to the Son also to have life in himself:

John 5:27 And he hath given him power to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man.

To execute judgment, because he is the Son of man; or, because, he is God made man, and is to come to judgment in a visible manner, to judge all men. (Witham)
John 5:28 Wonder not at this, for the hour cometh, wherein all that are in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of God.

John 5:29 *And they that have done good, shall come forth unto the resurrection of life: but they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of judgment.

Matthew 25:46.
Unto the resurrection of judgment. That is, condemnation. (Challoner)
John 5:30 I can do nothing of myself. As I hear, so I judge: and my judgment is just: because I seek not my own will, but the will of him that sent me.

I can do nothing of myself, etc. See ver. 19. St. Chrysostom also take notice, that it may be no less with truth said of the Father, that he can do nothing of himself, nor without his Son, nor both of them without the Holy Ghost; because both they, and their actions, are inseparable. (Witham)
John 5:31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.

If I bear witness of myself, etc. Christ tells the Jews elsewhere, (chap. 8:14.) that though he should bear witness of himself, it would be true. But the sense of the words in this place is: I could allow you, that if I only gave testimony of myself you might seem to have some reason to except against my testimony: but now besides my own words, you have had also the testimony of John the Baptist, who divers times witnessed that I am the Messias, and the Son of God, come to take away the sins of the world. 2. You have had the testimony of my eternal Father, particularly at my baptism. 3. You have yet a greater testimony, by the works and miracles wrought before your eyes, and at the same time foretold by the prophets. 4. The prophets, and the Scriptures, which you search, or which I remit you to, to search them diligently, these also bear witness concerning me. (Witham)
John 5:32 *There is another that beareth witness of me: and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true.

Matthew 3:17.; John 1:15.
John 5:33 You sent to John: and he gave testimony to the truth.

John 5:34 But I received not testimony from man: but I say these things that you may be saved.

John 5:35 He was a burning and a shining light. And you were willing, for a time, to rejoice in his light.

John 5:36 But I have a greater testimony than that of John. For the works which the Father hath given me to perfect: the works themselves, which I do, give testimony of me, that the Father hath sent me.

John 5:37 And the Father himself who hath sent me, *hath given testimony of me: neither have you heard his voice at any time, **nor seen his shape.

Matthew 3:17.; Matthew 17:5. --- ** Deuteronomy 4:12.
John 5:38 And you have not his word abiding in you: for whom he hath sent, him you believe not.

You do not observe the commandment he gave you. (Deuteronomy 18:15. 19.) of listening to the prophet He would send you.
John 5:39 Search the Scriptures, for you think in them to have life everlasting: and the same are they that give testimony of me:

Or, You search the Scriptures: (scrutamini; ereunate). It is not a command for all to read the Scriptures; but a reproach to the Pharisees, that reading the Scriptures as they did, and thinking to find everlasting life in them, they would not receive him to whom all those Scriptures gave testimony, and through whom alone they could have that true life. (Challoner) --- This hope is the cause and motive which leads to this study; and eternal life is the end they propose to themselves in it. Hence, from the context and mode of argumentation made use of, the indicative, you search, instead of the imperative mood, search ye, is best supported. Catholics are most unjustly accused of depriving the faithful of the use of the holy Scriptures. The council of Trent, (Session v., John 1:de reform.) makes this proviso; that in churches where there exists a prebendary, or benefice, set apart for lectures on sacred Scripture, the bishops, etc. shall compel those holding such benefice to expound the sacred Scriptures themselves, should they be equal to the duty; or, by a proper substitute, chosen by the bishop or local ordinary. Also in monasteries of monks, it is prescribed that if abbots neglect, let the bishops of the places compel their compliance; and in convents where studies can be conveniently prosecuted, let there be also a lecturer on Scripture appointed, to be chosen from the most able professors. Moreover, in public universities, where this most honorable and most necessary of all lectures has not been instituted, let the piety and charity of religious princes and governments provide for it; so that the Catholic faith may be defended and strengthened, and sound doctrine protected and propagated. And where the lecture has been instituted, but discontinued, let it be re-established. Moreover, no one was to be appointed to this office, whose life, morals, and learning had not been examined and approved by the bishop of the place, etc.
John 5:40 And you will not come to me that you may have life.

And you will not come to me. Christ now gives them reason why they do not receive him, and his doctrine, nor believe in him; because they are void of the love of God, full of self-love, envy, pride, seeking for praise and glory one from another. Hence you will not receive me, who come in the name of my Father, sent to redeem the world. But if another, such as false prophets, or even Antichrist himself, who will pretend to be the Messias, come in his own name, him you will receive. (Witham) --- It is proper to remark, that the testimonies here adduced all rise gradually one above another, and make a body of evidence that must leave the incredulous Jews without excuse: for they pay no regard to Jesus Christ himself, nor to John the Baptist, nor to the evidence of miracles, nor to the voice of God, nor to the Scriptures, nor even to Moses himself.
John 5:41 I receive not glory from men.

John 5:42 But I know you, that you have not the love of God in you.

John 5:43 I am come in the name of my Father, and you receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him you will receive.

John 5:44 How can you believe, who receive glory one from another: *and the glory which is from God alone, you do not seek?

1 Corinthians 4:3.
John 5:45 Think not that I will accuse you to the Father. There is one that accuseth you, Moses, in whom you trust.

John 5:46 For if you did believe Moses, you would perhaps believe me also; *for he wrote of me.

Genesis 3:15.; Genesis 22:18.; Genesis 49:10.; Deuteronomy 18:15.
John 5:47 But if you do not believe his writings: how will you believe my words?

John 6:0 Christ feeds five thousand with five loaves: he walks upon the sea, and discourses of the bread of life.

John 6:1 After this, *Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is that of Tiberias:

Matthew 14:13.; Mark 6:32.; Luke 9:10.
Galilee. St. John does not usually relate what is mentioned by the other evangelists, especially what happened in Galilee. If he does it on this occasion, it is purposely to introduce the subject of the heavenly bread, which begins ver. 37. He seems, moreover, to have had in view the description of the different passovers during Christ's public ministry. As he, therefore, remained in Galilee during the third passover, he relates pretty fully what passed during that time. We may also remark, that as the other three evangelists give, in the same terms, the institution of the blessed sacrament, St. John omits the institution, but gives in detail the repeated promises of Jesus Christ, relative to this great mystery.
John 6:2 And a great multitude followed him, because they saw the miracles which he did on them that were diseased.

John 6:3 Jesus therefore went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples.

John 6:4 Now the Pasch, the festival day *of the Jews, was near at hand.

about the year A.D. 32. From the circumstance of the passover, the number that followed Jesus was greatly increased. (Bible de Vence)
John 6:5 When Jesus, therefore, had lifted up his eyes, and seen that a very great multitude cometh to him, he said to Philip: Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?

Our Lord first said, (Matthew 14:16.) Give them to eat; but afterwards, accommodating himself to the weakness of his disciples, he says: Whence shall we buy bread? So there is no contradiction.
John 6:6 And this he said to try him: for he himself knew what he would do.

John 6:7 Philip answered him: Two hundred penny-worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one may take a little.

John 6:8 One of his disciples, Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, saith to him:

John 6:9 There is a boy here that hath five barley loaves, and two fishes; but what are these among so many?

John 6:10 Then Jesus said: Make the men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.

The text in St. Matthew adds: without counting the women and the children, who might possibly amount to an equal number.
John 6:11 And Jesus took the loaves: and when he had given thanks, he distributed to them that were sat down: In like manner also of the fishes, as much as they would.

In the Greek, there is this addition: He distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were sitting. The Syriac, and some Greek copies agree with the Vulgate.
John 6:12 And when they were filled, he said to his disciples: Gather up the fragments that remain, lest they be lost.

To make the miracle still more conspicuous to the multitude, Jesus Christ shewed, that not only their present wants were supplied, but that there remained as much, or more, after they had all been filled, than there had been at first presented to Him.
John 6:13 So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets, with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above to them that had eaten.

John 6:14 Then those men, when they had seen what a miracle Jesus had done, said: This is of a truth, the prophet that is to come into the world.

The Prophet indeed. That is, the Messias. (Witham)
John 6:15 When Jesus, therefore, perceived that they would come to take him by force, and make him king, *he fled again into the mountain himself alone.

Matthew 14:23.; Mark 6:46.
St. John here corrects what relates to Jesus, and then what relates to the disciples. For if we attend to the order of time, the apostles got into the boat before Jesus went to the mountain. But, in matters of this nature, it is usual for the historians to follow their own choice. (Polus, Synop. critic.)
John 6:16 And when evening was come, his disciples went down to the sea.

John 6:17 And when they had entered into a ship, they went over the sea to Capharnaum: and it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them.

John 6:18 And the sea arose, by reason of a great wind that blew.

John 6:19 When they had rowed therefore about five and twenty or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing near to the ship, and they were afraid.

Five and twenty or thirty furlongs. About three or four miles.
John 6:20 But he saith to them: It is I: be not afraid.

John 6:21 They were willing, therefore, to take him into the ship: and presently the ship was at the land to which they were going.

In (Matthew 14:26.; Mark 6:51.) we find that Jesus entered into the boat. St. John does not deny it; but he remarks a circumstance not noticed by the others: The vessel was presently at the land. (Bible de Vence)
John 6:22 The next day the multitude that stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other ship there but one, and that Jesus had not entered into the ship with his disciples, but that his disciples were gone away alone:

John 6:23 But other ships came in from Tiberias, near to the place where they had eaten the bread, the Lord giving thanks.

John 6:24 When the people, therefore, saw that Jesus was not there, nor his disciples, they took shipping, and came to Capharnaum, seeking for Jesus.

John 6:25 And when they had found him on the other side of the sea, they said to him: Rabbi, when camest thou hither?

John 6:26 Jesus answered them, and said: Amen, amen I say to you: you seek me, not because you have seen miracles, but because you did eat of the loaves, and were filled.

Christ did not return an express answer to their words, but he replied to their thoughts. For they seem to have put this question to him, that by flattering him, they might induce him to work another miracle, similar to the former; but Christ answers them not to seek for their temporal prosperity, but for their eternal welfare. The Church is daily filled, says St. Augustine, with those who come to petition for temporal advantages, that they may escape this calamity, obtain that advantage in their temporal concerns: but there is scarce one to be found who seeks for Christ, and pays him his adoration, through the pure love he bears him. (Maldonatus)
John 6:27 Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man will give you. *For him hath God the Father sealed.

Matthew 3:17.; Matthew 17:5.; John 1:32.
For him hath God the Father sealed. The sense seems to be, that Christ having wrought so many miracles in his Father's name, the Father himself hath thereby given testimony in his favour, and witnessed, as it were, under his seal, that Jesus is his true Son, whom he sent into the world. (Witham)
John 6:28 They said, therefore, to him: What shall we do, that we may work the works of God?

John 6:29 Jesus answered, and said to them: *This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he hath sent.

1 John 3:23.
John 6:30 They said, therefore, to him: What sign then dost thou shew that we may see, and may believe thee? what dost thou work?

What sign then dost thou shew? And foreseeing that he might, with great propriety, allege the recent miracle, they contrast it with what Moses performed in the desert. It is true, they say, you once fed 5,000 persons with five loaves; but our fathers, to the number of 600,000 did eat, not for once, but during forty years, manna in the desert; a species of food infinitely superior to barley bread. (Bible de Vence) See (Numbers 1:46.)
John 6:31 Our fathers did eat manna in the desert, as it is written: *He gave them bread from heaven to eat.

Exodus 16:14.; Numbers 11:7.; Psalm 77:24.; Wisdom 16:20.
Christ having declared that he was greater than Moses, (since Moses could not promise them bread which should never perish) the Jews wished for some sign by which they might believe in him; therefore they say: Our fathers did eat manna in the desert, but you have only given us bread; where then is the food that perishes not? Christ therefore answers them, that the food which Moses gave them, was not the true manna from heaven, but that it was only a figure of himself, who came down from heaven to give life to the world. (St. Augustine) --- St. Chrysostom observes, that the Jews here acknowledge Christ to be God, since they entreat Christ not merely to ask his Father to give it them; but, do thou thyself give it us.
John 6:32 Then Jesus said to them: Amen, amen, I say unto you: Moses gave you not bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.

Moses gave you not bread from heaven; that is the manna was not given to your forefathers by Moses, but by God's goodness. 2ndly, Neither came it from heaven, but from the clouds, or from the region of the air only. 3rdly, It did not make them that eat it live for ever; but they that spiritually eat me, the living bread; that is, believe in me, and keep my commandments, shall live for ever. --- Ver. 37, 44, and 66. No one can come to me, unless the Father draw him.{ Ver. 37. Nisi pater traxerit eum. St. Augustine, trac. 26, p. 495. noli te cogitare invitum trahi; trahitur animus et amore. ----------trahit sua quemque voluptas. Virg. Ecl. ii.|} These verses are commonly expounded of God's elect; who are not only called, but saved, by a particular mercy and providence of God. God is said to draw them to himself by special and effectual graces, yet without any force or necessity, without prejudice to the liberty of their free-will. A man, says St. Augustine, is said to be drawn by his pleasures, and by what he loves. (Witham)
John 6:33 For the bread of God is that which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life to the world.

A life of immortality and eternal happiness to all who worthily receive it.
John 6:34 Then they said to him: Lord, give us always this bread.

St. Augustine with all the Fathers, believed that the Jews did not understand this in its proper sense; but only understood a material bread, of superior excellence to the manna, which would preserve their health and life for ever (St. Augustine); or at least, a far more delicious bread, which they were to enjoy during the whole course of their lives.
John 6:35 And Jesus said to them: I am the bread of life: *he that cometh to me, shall not hunger: and he that believeth in me, shall never thirst.

Ecclesiasticus 24:29.
John 6:36 But I said to you, that you also have seen me, and you believe not.

You demand this bread; behold it is before you, and yet you eat it not. I am the bread; to believe in me is to eat me. You see me, but you believe not in me. (St. Augustine) --- It is to this place that those words of St. Augustine are to be referred: "Why do you prepare your teeth and belly? believe in me, and you have eaten me." Words which do not destroy the real presence, of which he is not speaking in this verse. (Maldonatus, 35.) --- Jesus Christ leads them gradually to this great mystery, which he knows will prove a stumbling block to many. The chapter begins with the miraculous multiplication of the loaves; then Christ walking on the sea; next he blames the Jews for following him not through faith in his miracles, but for the loaves and fishes, and tells them to labour for that nourishment which perishes not, by believing in Him, whom the Father had sent; and then promises, that what their fathers had received in figure only, the manna, the faithful shall receive in reality; his own body and blood.
John 6:37 All that the Father giveth me, shall come to me: and him that cometh to me, I will not cast out:

John 6:38 Because I came down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him that sent me.

Christ does not say this as if he did not whatever he wished; but he recommends to us his humility. He who comes to me shall not be cast forth, but shall be incorporated with me, because he shall not do his own will, but that of my Father. And therefore he shall not be cast forth; because when he was proud, he did his own will, and was rejected. None but the humble can come to me. (St. Hilary and St. Augustine) --- An humble and sincere faith is essentially necessary to believe the great mysteries of the Catholic faith, by means of which we come to God and believe in God. (Haydock)
John 6:39 Now this is the will of the Father, that sent me: that of all that he hath given me, I should not lose thereof, but should raise it up again at the last day.

John 6:40 And this is the will of my Father, who sent me: that every one who seeth the Son, and believeth in him, may have everlasting life, and I will raise him up at the last day.

John 6:41 The Jews therefore murmured at him, because he had said: I am the living bread which came down from heaven.

I am the living bread, which came down from heaven. These Jews did not believe that Christ was the true and eternal Son of God, who came down from heaven, and was made flesh, was made man. He speaks of this faith in him, when he calls himself the living bread, the mystical bread of life, that came to give life everlasting to all true and faithful believers. In this sense St. Augustine said, (trac. xxv. p. 489) why dost thou prepare thy teeth and belly? only believe, and thou hast eaten; but afterwards he passeth to his sacramental and real presence in the holy sacrament. (Witham)
John 6:42 And they said: *Is not this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then saith he, I came down from heaven?

Matthew 13:55.; Mark 6:3.
John 6:43 Jesus, therefore, answered, and said to them: Murmur not among yourselves.

John 6:44 No man can come to me, except the Father, who hath sent me, draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.

Draw him. Not by compulsion, nor by laying the free-will under any necessity, but by the strong and sweet motions of his heavenly grace. (Challoner) --- We are drawn to the Father by some secret pleasure, delight, or love, which brings us to the Father. "Believe and you come to the Father," says St. Augustine, "Love, and you are drawn. The Jews could not believe, because they would not." God, by his power, could have overcome their hardness of heart; but he was not bound to do it; neither had they any right to expect this favour, after the many miracles which they had seen. (Calmet)
John 6:45 It is written in the prophets: *And they shall all be taught of God. Every one that hath heard of the Father, and hath learned, cometh to me.

Isaias 54:13.
Every one, therefore, that hath heard of the Father, and hath learned of him who I am, cometh to me by faith and obedience. As to others, when the Scripture says they are taught of God, this is to be understood of an interior spiritual instruction, which takes place in the soul, and does not fall under the senses; but not less real on that account, because it is the heart, which hears the voice of this invisible teacher.
John 6:46 *Not that any man hath seen the Father, but he, who is of God, he hath seen the Father.

Matthew 11:27.
John 6:47 Amen, amen, I say unto you: He that believeth in me, hath everlasting life.

Thus Jesus Christ concludes the first part of his discourse: "Amen, amen, he that believeth in me, hath everlasting life;" which shews that faith is a necessary predisposition to the heavenly bread.
John 6:48 I am the bread of life.

Because the multitude still insisted in begging for their corporal nourishment and remembering the food that was given to their fathers, Christ, to shew that all were figures of the present spiritual food, answered, that he was the bread of life. (Theophylactus) --- Here Jesus Christ proceeds to the second part of his discourse, in which he fully explains what that bread of life is, which he is about to bestow upon mankind in the mystery of the holy Eucharist. He declares then, in the first place, that he is the bread of eternal life, and mentions its several properties; and secondly, he applies to his own person, and to his own flesh, the idea of this bread, such as he has defined it.
John 6:49 *Your fathers did eat manna in the desert, and they died.

Exodus 16:13.
John 6:50 This is the bread which cometh down from heaven: that if any one eat of it, he may not die.

John 6:51 I am the living bread, which came down from heaven.

Christ now no longer calls the belief in him, or the preaching of the gospel, the bread that he will give them; but he declares that it is his own flesh, and that flesh which shall be given for the life of the world. (Calmet) --- This bread Christ then gave, when he gave the mystery of his body and blood to his disciples. (Ven. Bede)
John 6:52 If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread which I will give, is my flesh for the life of the world.

The bread which I will give, is my flesh for the life of the world.{ Ver. 52. Quomodo potest hic, etc. pos dunatai outos; St. Chrysostom, hom. xlv. in Joan. in the Greek, hom. xlvi. tom. 8, p. 272. otan gar e zetesis tou pos eiselthe, sunerchetai kai apistia. St. Cyril, lib. iv. in Joan. p. 359. Illud quomodo stultè de Deo proferunt, to pos anoetos epi theou legousin. --- Hoc loquendi genus omni scatere blasphemia, dusphemias apases. --- Judaicum verbum. to pos Ioudaikon rema. He takes notice how much the nature and power of God is above human capacity; he shews it by examples, and then concludes, (p. 360) De quibus miraculis si tuum illud quomodo subinde inferas, omni plane Scripturae Divinae fidem derogabis, ole pantelos apeitheseis theia graphe.|} In most Greek copies we read, is my flesh which I will give for the life of the world. Christ here promised what he afterwards instituted, and gave at his last supper. He promiseth to give his body and blood to be eaten; the same body (though the manner be different) which he would give on the cross for the redemption of the world. The Jews of Capharnaum were presently scandalized. How (said they) can this man give us his flesh to eat? But notwithstanding their murmuring, and the offence which his words had given, even to many of his disciples, he was so far from revoking, or expounding what he had said of any figurative or metaphorical sense, that he confirmed the same truth in the clearest and strongest terms. Amen, amen, I say to you, unless you eat, etc. And again, (ver. 56.) For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. I cannot omit taking notice of what St. Chrysostom and St. Cyril, in their commentaries on this place, have left us on these words, How can this man do this? These words which call in question the almighty and incomprehensible power of God, which hinder them, says St. Chrysostom, from believing all other mysteries and miracles: they might as well have said: How could he with five loaves feed five thousand men? This question, How can he do this? Is a question of infidels and unbelievers. St. Cyril says that How, or, How can he do this? cannot, without folly, be applied to God. 2ndly, he calls it a question of blasphemy. 3rdly, a Jewish word, for which these Capharnaites deserved the severest punishments. 4thly, He confutes them by the saying of the prophet Isaias, (lv. 9.) that God's thoughts and ways are as much above those of men, as the heavens are above the earth. But if these Capharnaites, who knew not who Jesus was, were justly blamed for their incredulous, foolish, blasphemous, Jewish saying, how can he give us his flesh to eat? much more blameable are those Christians, who, against the words of the Scripture, against the unanimous consent and authority of all Christian Churches in all parts of the world, refuse to believe his real presence, and have nothing to say, but with the obstinate Capharnaites, how can this be done? Their answers are the same, or no better, when they tell us that the real presence contradicts their senses, their reason, that they know it to be false. We may also observe, with divers interpreters, that if Christians are not to believe that Jesus Christ is one and the same God with the eternal Father, and that he is truly and really present in the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, it will be hard to deny but that Christ himself led men into these errors, which is blasphemy. For it is evident, and past all dispute, that the Jews murmured, complained, and understood that Christ several times made himself God, and equal to the Father of all. 2ndly, When in this chapter, he told them he would give them his flesh to eat, etc. they were shocked to the highest degree: they cried out, this could not be, that these words and this speech was hard and harsh, and on this very account many that had been his disciples till that time, withdrew themselves from him, and left him and his doctrine. Was it not then at least high time to set his complaining hearers right, to prevent the blasphemous and idolatrous opinions of the following ages, nay even of all Christian Churches, by telling his disciples at least, that he was only a nominal God, in a metaphorical and improper sense; that he spoke only of his body being present in a figurative and metaphorical sense in the holy Eucharist? If we are deceived, who was it that deceived us but Christ himself, who so often repeated the same points of our belief? His apostles must be esteemed no less guilty in affirming the very same, both as to Christ's divinity, and his real presence in the holy sacrament, as hereafter will appear. (Witham) --- Compare the words here spoken with those he delivered at his last supper, and you will see that what he promises here was then fulfilled: "this is my body given for you." Hence, the holy Fathers have always explained this chapter of St. John, as spoken of the blessed sacrament. See the concluding reflexions, below.
John 6:53 The Jews, therefore, disputed among themselves, saying: How can this man give us his flesh to eat?

Because the Jews said it was impossible to give them his flesh to eat, Christ answers them by telling them, that so far from being impossible, it is very necessary that they should eat it. "Unless you eat," etc. (St. Chrysostom) --- It is not the flesh of merely a man, but it is the flesh of a God, able to make man divine, inebriating him, as it were, with the divinity. (Theophylactus) See Maldonatus.
John 6:54 Then Jesus said to them: Amen, amen, I say to you: Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you.

Unless you eat ... and drink, etc. To receive both the body and blood of Christ, is a divine precept, insinuated in this text; which the faithful fulfil, though they receive but in one kind; because in one kind they receive both the body and blood, which cannot be separated from each other. Hence life eternal is here promised to the worthy receiving, though but in one kind: (ver. 52.) If any man eat of this bread he shall life for ever: and the bread which I will give, is my flesh for the life of the world: (ver. 58.) He that eateth me, the same also shall live by me: (ver. 59.) He that eateth this bread shall live for ever. (Challoner)
John 6:55 He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.

Jesus Christ, to confirm the notion his disciples had formed of a real eating of his body, and to remove all metaphorical interpretation of his words, immediately adds, "Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you. ... For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed;" which could not be so, if, as sectarists pretend, what he gives us in the blessed sacrament is nothing but a bit of bread; and if a figure, certainly not so striking as the manna.
John 6:56 *For my flesh, is meat indeed: and my blood, is drink indeed:

1 Corinthians 11:27.
John 6:57 He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him.

John 6:58 As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, the same also shall live by me.

As the living Father hath sent me, his only, his true Son, to become man; and I live by the Father, proceeding always from him; so he that eateth me, first by faith only, by believing in me; and secondly, he that eateth my body and blood, truly made meat and drink, though after a spiritual manner, (not in that visible, bloody manner as the Capharnaites fancied to themselves) shall live by me, and live for ever, happy in the kingdom of my glory. (Witham)
John 6:59 This is the bread that came down from heaven. Not as your fathers did eat manna, and died. He that eateth this bread, shall live for ever.

John 6:60 These things he said, teaching in the synagogue, in Capharnaum.

John 6:61 Many, therefore, of his disciples, hearing it, said: This saying is hard, and who can hear it?

If Christ had wished to say nothing else than that his disciples should be filled with his doctrine, that being his flesh and blood, it would not have been a hard saying; neither would it have shocked the Jews. He had already said as much in the former part of his discourse: but he goes on in still stronger terms, notwithstanding their complaints; and, as they were ignorant how he would fulfil his promise, they left him, (Calmet) and followed the example of the other unbelieving Jews, as all future sectarists have, saying: how can this be done?
John 6:62 But Jesus, knowing in himself, that his disciples murmured at this, said to them: Doth this scandalize you?

If you cannot believe that I can give you my flesh to eat, now that I am living amongst you, how will you believe, that, after my ascension, I can give you to eat my glorified and immortal flesh, seated on the right hand of the majesty of God? (Bible de Vence)
John 6:63 If then you shall see *the Son of man ascend up where he was before?

John 3:13.
If then you shall see, etc. Christ, by mentioning his ascension, by this instance of his power and divinity, would confirm the truth of what he had before asserted; at the same time, correct their gross apprehension of eating his flesh and drinking his blood, in a vulgar and carnal manner, by letting them know he should take his whole body living with him to heaven; and consequently not suffer it to be, as they supposed, divided, mangled, and consumed upon earth. (Challoner) --- The sense of these words, according to the common exposition, is this: you murmur at my words, as hard and harsh, and you refuse now to believe them: when I shall ascend into heaven, from whence I came into the world, and when my ascension, and the doctrine that I have taught you, shall be confirmed by a multitude of miracles, then shall you and many others believe. (Witham)
John 6:64 It is the spirit that quickeneth: the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I have spoken to you, are spirit and life.

The flesh profiteth nothing. Dead flesh, separated from the spirit, in the gross manner they supposed they were to eat his flesh, would profit nothing. Neither doth man's flesh, that is to say, man's natural and carnal apprehension, (which refuses to be subject to the spirit, and words of Christ) profit any thing. But it would be the height of blasphemy, to say the living flesh of Christ (which we receive in the blessed sacrament, with his spirit, that is, with his soul and divinity) profiteth nothing. For if Christ's flesh had profited us nothing, he would never have taken flesh for us, nor died in the flesh for us. --- Are spirit and life. By proposing to you a heavenly sacrament, in which you shall receive, in a wonderful manner, spirit, grace and life. These words sufficiently correct the gross and carnal imagination of these Capharnaites, that he meant to give them his body and blood to eat in a visible and bloody manner, as flesh, says St. Augustine, is sold in the market, and in the shambles;{ Ver. 64. St. Augustine, 27. p. 503, carnem quippe intellexerunt, quomodo in cadavere dilaniatur, aut in macello venditur.|} but they do not imply a figurative or metaphorical presence only. The manner of Christ's presence is spiritual and under the outward appearances of bread and wine; but yet he is there truly and really present, by a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of his body and blood, which truly and really become our spiritual food, and are truly and really received in the holy sacrament. --- The flesh{ Ver. 64. St. Augustine, 27. p. 503, caro non prodest quicquam, sed caro sola ... nam si caro nihil prodesset, verbum caro non fieret.|} of itself profiteth nothing, not even the flesh of our Saviour Christ, were it not united to the divine person of Christ. But we must take care how we understand these words spoken by our Saviour: for it is certain, says St. Augustine, that the word made flesh, is the cause of all our happiness. (Witham) --- When I promise you life if you eat my flesh, I do not wish you to understand this of that gross and carnal manner, of cutting my members in pieces: such ideas are far from my mind: the flesh profiteth nothing. In the Scriptures, the word flesh is often put for the carnal manner of understanding any thing. If you wish to enter into the spirit of my words, raise your hearts to a more elevated and spiritual way of understanding them. (Calmet) --- The reader may consult Des Mahis, p. 165, a convert from Protestantism, and who has proved the Catholic doctrine on the Eucharist in the most satisfactory manner, from the written word. Where he shows that Jesus Christ, speaking of his own body, never says the flesh, but my flesh: the former mode of expression is used to signify, as we have observed above, a carnal manner of understanding any thing.
John 6:65 But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were that did not believe, and who he was that would betray him.

John 6:66 And he said: Therefore did I say to you, that no man can come to me, unless it be given him by my Father.

John 6:67 After this many of his disciples went back: and walked no more with him.

John 6:68 Then Jesus said to the twelve: Will you also go away?

Jesus said to the twelve: Will you also go away? He shews them, says St. Chrysostom, that he stood not in need of them, and so leaves them to their free choice. (Witham) --- Jesus Christ remarking in the previous verse that the apostate disciples had left him, to walk no more with him, turning to the twelve, asks them, Will you also go away? The twelve had heard all that passed; they had seen the Jews strive amongst themselves, and the disciples murmur and leave their Master; they understood what he said in the same literal sense; it could, indeed, bear no other meaning; but when Jesus put the above question to them, leaving them to their free choice, whether to follow him, or to withdraw themselves, Simon Peter answered him: "Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life;" and therefore art able to make good thy words, however hard and difficult they may appear to others. --- We may here admire not only the excellency of their faith, but the plain, yet noble motive of their faith: they believe, because he is Christ, the Son of God, (or, as it is in the Greek, the Son of the living God) who is absolutely incapable of deceiving his creatures, and whose power is perfectly equal to perform the promises he here makes them.
John 6:69 And Simon Peter answered him: Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.

Simon Peter, the chief or head of them, said in the name of the rest: Lord, to whom shall we go? It is only from thee that we hope for salvation. Thou hast the words of eternal life: we have believed, and known, and remain in this belief, that thou art the Christ, the Son of God. (Witham) \f + \fr 6:69\fk Concluding reflexions on this chapter.\ft If we take into consideration all the circumstances of this chapter, it will be difficult to conceive how any person can bring their mind to think that there is no connexion between this chapter and the institution of the blessed sacrament. It must proceed, as Dr. Clever, the Protestant Bishop of Bangor, affirms, "from the fear of giving advantage to the doctrine of transubstantiation." He moreover adds: "whilst the institution is considered as a memorial only, nothing can well be further from being plain." See his Sermon on the Lord's Supper. The holy Fathers have unanimously understood these repeated promises of Christ with a reference to the institution. St. Cyprian, of the third age[century], quoting the promises of Christ, the bread which I will give, is my flesh, for the life of the world, deduces this conclusion: "Hence it is manifest, that they have this life, who touch his body, and receive the Eucharist." Qui corpus ejus attingunt. (De Orat. Dom. p. 147.) St. Hilary, of the fourth age[century], quoting Christ's words, says: "there is no place left to doubt of the truth of Christ's flesh and blood, de veritate carnis et sanguinis non relictus est ambigendi locus; for now, by the profession of the Lord himself, and according to our belief, it is truly flesh and truly blood." (De Trin. lib. viii. p. 954-6.) St. Basil, of the fourth century also, citing ver. 53 and 54 of this chapter, says: "about the things that God has spoken there should be no hesitation, nor doubt, but a firm persuasion that all is true and possible, though nature be against it: Kan e phusis machetai. Herein lies the struggle of faith." (Reg. viii. Moral. t. 2, p. 240.) Again the same saint says: "it is very profitable every day, to partake of the body and blood of Christ, phagein to soma kai piein to aima tou kuriou emon, for he that eateth my flesh. etc. (John 6:55.) --- "We communicate four times in the week; on Sunday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, and on the other days, if there be a commemoration of any saint." (Ep. xcii. t. 3, p. 186.) --- St. Ambrose, of the same age, says: "the manna in the desert was given in figure. You have known things more excellent. For light is preferable to the shadow; truth to the figure; the body of Christ to the manna of heaven. But you may say: I see somewhat else: how do you assert that I shall receive the body of Christ?" He gives this answer: "How much more powerful is the virtue of the divine blessing, than that of nature; because by the former, nature itself is changed? ... If the blessing of men (he here instances Moses changing a rod into a serpent, and many other miraculous changes) was powerful enough to change nature, what must we not say of the divine consecration, when the very words of the Lord operate? For that sacrament which you receive, is accomplished by the word of Christ. If the word of Elias could call down fire from heaven, shall not the word of Christ be able to change the outward elements? ... The word of Christ could draw out of nothing what was not, shall it not be able to change the things that are into that which they were not? ... Was the order of nature followed when Jesus was born of a Virgin? Certainly not. Then why is that order to be looked for here? It was the true flesh of Christ, which was crucified, which was buried; and this is truly the sacrament of his flesh ... Our Lord himself proclaims, This is my body." --- If Jesus Christ, during his public ministry, performed so many visible and palpable miracles as we read of in the gospels, was it not to induce us to believe without doubting the truths that escape our senses, and surpass our reason? If we believe the water was changed into wine at the marriage feast of Cana; if we believe that the bread in the hands of Christ and his apostles was not diminished, by being broken and divided among five thousand, why cannot we believe the miracle of the Eucharist on the authority of Christ's word, "the bread that I will give you, is my flesh? This is my body," etc. Not one of all the ancient Fathers has ever denied the real presence; not one of them all has ever said, that the body of Jesus Christ is received in figure only.
John 6:70 *And we have believed, and have known that thou art the Christ, the Son of God.

Matthew 16:16.; Mark 8:29.; Luke 9:20.
John 6:71 Jesus answered them: Have not I chosen you twelve: and one of you is a devil?

John 6:72 Now he meant Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon: for this same was about to betray him, whereas he was one of the twelve.

John 7:0 Christ goes up to the feast of the tabernacles: he teaches in the temple.

John 7:1 After these things Jesus walked in Galilee, for he would not walk in Judea: because the Jews sought to kill him.

John 7:2 Now the Jewish feast of *tabernacles was at hand.

Leviticus 23:34.
This was the festival of Tabernacles, on which the Jews made tents, in imitation of those which were their habitations during their sojournment in the wilderness, for forty years. See Leviticus 23:34. The Jews called it a festival day; though it consisted not of one, but of many days successively. (St. Augustine, tract. 28. in Joan.)
John 7:3 And his brethren said to him: Pass from hence, and go into Judea, that thy disciples also may see thy works which thou dost.

These brethren of Christ were the relatives of the blessed Virgin, not her children. For, as in the sepuchre, were the body of our Saviour was deposited, no other mortal lay either before or since; so neither did the womb of Mary ever either before or after bear any other body but that of her divine Son. (St. Augustine, tract. 28. in Joan.)
John 7:4 For there is no man that doth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly: If thou do these things, manifest thyself to the world.

John 7:5 For neither did his brethren believe in him.

Neither did his brethren believe in him; by his brethren here, we are to understand his kindred, his townsmen or countrymen, at or about Nazareth. (Witham)
John 7:6 Then Jesus said to them: My time is not yet come: but your time is always ready.

John 7:7 The world cannot hate you: but me it hateth: because I give testimony of it, that the works thereof are evil.

John 7:8 Go you up to this festival day, but I go not up to this festival day: because my time is not yet fulfilled.

Go you up to this festival day, which lasted eight days. --- I go not with you, nor to be there at the first day, nor in that public manner as you desire. But when the feast was half over, about the fourth day, Jesus went thither in a private manner, yet so that when he arrived, he spoke publicly in the temple. (Witham)
John 7:9 When he had said these things, he himself staid in Galilee.

John 7:10 But after his brethren were gone up, then he also went up to the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.

But why does he ascend to the festival day, when he said he would not? He did not say, I will not ascend, but only, I do not ascend; that is, in your company. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xlvii. in Joan.) --- Or, I do not go up to this festival, viz. the first or second day of the feast, which lasted eight days, and to which you wish me to ascend: but he went afterwards, when the first part of the festival was over. (St. Augustine, tract. 28. in Joan.)
John 7:11 The Jews, therefore, sought him on the festival day, and said: Where is he?

John 7:12 And there was much murmuring among the multitude concerning him. For some said: He is a good man. And others said: No, but he seduceth the people.

It was the people that held the favourable opinion of Christ, whilst on the contrary, the Scribes and Pharisees speak ill of him, saying, he seduceth not us, but he seduceth the multitude. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xlviii. in Joan.)
John 7:13 Yet no man spoke openly of him, for fear of the Jews.

No one publicly took the part of Jesus, however favourable were their private sentiments; for the Jews hated and persecuted such as sided with him. (Bible de Vence)
John 7:14 Now about the midst of the feast, Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.

John 7:15 And the Jews wondered, saying: How doth this man know letters, having never learned?

Whilst the Jews proceeded no farther than to admire the wisdom of our Saviour, when they could easily have seen that what he taught he knew by the power of God, Christ himself reveals to them the source of his wisdom, saying: My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xlviii. in Joan.) --- St. Thomas Aquinas, the great doctor of the schools, and styled the angelic doctor, informs us that in all the scriptural difficulties he met with, he uniformly had recourse to prayer, and that he acquired greater light and knowledge at the foot of his crucifix than from any books or masters. (Haydock)
John 7:16 Jesus answered them, and said: My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.

My doctrine is not mine; that is not mine only, but also the Father's; from whom I proceed, and with whom I am always. (Witham)
John 7:17 If any man do the will of him: he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be from God, or whether I speak from myself.

John 7:18 He that speaketh from himself, seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh the glory of him that sent him, he is true, and there is no injustice in him:

He is true: seeketh truth, and not his own glory. (Witham)
John 7:19 *Did not Moses give you the law: and none of you keepeth the law?

Exodus 24:3.
The law of Moses prescribes that you shall not kill, but this law you transgress; for, why do you seek to kill me? You do not observe the law; otherwise you would learn from that law, that I am the Christ, and not seek to put me to death, when I appear amongst you. (St. Augustine, tract. 30, in Joan.) --- If I cure on the sabbath-day, do not you also give circumcision, and also cure the wound on the sabbath? (Bible de Vence) --- See ver. 23, of this chapter.
John 7:20 *Why seek you to kill me? The multitude answered, and said: Thou hast a devil; who seeketh to kill thee?

John 5:18.
Thou hast a devil: art possessed with a devil, mad, etc. (Witham)
John 7:21 Jesus answered, and said to them: One work I have done: and you all wonder:

One work I have done. He means by healing the man at the pond, who had been ill thirty-eight years. (Witham) --- Jesus here speaks of the cure that he had performed on the paralytic, eighteen months before, and which had scandalized the Jews. See John 5:9. et dein. of this gospel. (Bible de Vence)
John 7:22 Therefore *Moses gave you circumcision: (not because it is of Moses, **but of the fathers,) and on the sabbath-day you circumcise a man.

Leviticus 12:3. --- ** Genesis 17:10.
John 7:23 If a man receive circumcision on the sabbath-day, that the law of Moses may not be broken: are you angry at me because I have healed the whole man on the sabbath-day?

John 7:24 *Judge not according to the appearance, but judge just judgment.

Deuteronomy 1:16.
John 7:25 Some therefore of Jerusalem said: Is not this he whom they seek to kill?

John 7:26 And behold he speaketh openly, and they say nothing to him. Have the rulers known for a truth that this is the Christ?

Have the rulers, etc. the chief priests, elders, and all the members of the great sanhedrim. (Witham)
John 7:27 But we know this man whence he is: but when the Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.

We know this man whence he is. They looked upon him as no more than a man, and they thought they knew his father to be St. Joseph; they knew his Mother and kindred. --- But when the Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is. Thus said some of the people; but, doubtless, the more learned knew Christ was to be born at Bethlehem. (Witham) --- The Jews had imbibed this opinion of the secrecy of the origin of Christ from the prophet Isaias (Isaias 53.) Who shall relate his generation? But they likewise were acquainted with many other texts of Scripture relative to the Messias, which plainly point out the place of his birth, viz. Bethlehem, and also the place of his residence, when it is said, He shall be called a Nazarite. His generation is indeed unknown with regard to his divinity, as Christ himself told the Jews in his answer: He is true that sent me, but you know him not. But as to his humanity, his origin is well known: You know me, and whence I am you know. (St. Augustine, tract. 31. in Joan.)
John 7:28 Jesus, therefore, cried out in the temple, teaching and saying: You both know me, and you know whence I am: and I am not come of myself: but he that sent me, is true, whom you know not.

You both know me; that is you know me as man, and where I have been educated. --- But him that sent me, from whom I proceeded, and who sent me into this world to be its Redeemer, you know not; because you know not, that he was always, and from all eternity, my eternal Father, and I his eternal Son. (Witham)
John 7:29 I know him: because I am from him, and he hath sent me.

John 7:30 They sought, therefore, to apprehend him: but no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.

John 7:31 But of the people many believed in him, and said: When the Christ cometh, shall he do more miracles than these which this man doth?

The faith of these was not at all sound, as appears from the following words, which they spoke. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xlix. in Joan.)
John 7:32 The Pharisees heard the people murmuring these things concerning him: and the rulers and Pharisees sent ministers to apprehend him.

The Pharisees understood well enough that his words signified he was their Messias, and the true Son of God. And they sent some servants to seize him, and bring him to them. (Witham)
John 7:33 Jesus, therefore, said to them: Yet a little while I am with you: and I go to him that sent me.

Yet a little while and I am with you: and then I go, and return to him that sent me, with whom I am always; but as man, I shall leave the world. (Witham)
John 7:34 *You shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, you cannot come.

John 13:33.
And shall not find me. Some understand it, you shall wish me conversing with you, as at present, healing diseases, etc. but as I shall suffer death shortly, you shall not find me. Others expound it, you shall seek for your Messias, but not owning me, who am truly he, you shall not find your Messias; and you cannot come to me in my kingdom of glory, because you will not believe in me. (Witham) --- Or where I shall be. The present tense is not unfrequently used for the future, by the hagiographers. See John 13:33.
John 7:35 The Jews, therefore, said among themselves: Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go to the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?

Will he go to the dispersed among the Gentiles, or to the dispersed Gentiles, and Jews among them to preach to them? (Witham)
John 7:36 What is this saying that he hath said: You shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, you cannot come?

John 7:37 Now on the last *great day of the festivity, Jesus stood and cried out, saying: If any man thirst, let him come to me, and drink.

Leviticus 23:27.
John 7:38 *He that believeth in me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

Deuteronomy 18:15.; Joel 2:28.; Acts 2:17.
Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. By this living water, are signified the gifts of the Holy Ghost, which were promised to the faithful. (Witham)
John 7:39 Now this he said of the spirit which they should receive who believed in him: for as yet the spirit was not given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.

As yet the spirit was not given, in that particular and extraordinary manner, because Jesus was not yet glorified by his ascension and the coming of the Holy Ghost. (Witham) --- It is said that John the Baptist was filled with the Holy Ghost from the womb of his mother; that Zacharias, when he prophesied concerning his son, and the blessed Virgin, when she prophesied concerning our Lord, were both filled with the Holy Ghost; that Simeon and Anna were inspired by the Holy Ghost, to declare the greatness of Christ. How can this be otherwise reconciled with this text of St. John, that by saying that this gift of the Holy Ghost, after the ascension of Christ, was much more abundant than it had ever been before? It had something which essentially distinguished it from all preceding gifts. For we never read that men inspired by the Holy Ghost before the coming of Christ, spoke languages which they had never learned. (St. Augustine, 4 de Trin. ch. XX.) --- The Holy Ghost is still received, but none speak with tongues: because the Church herself, being spread over the whole earth, speaks the languages of all. (St. Augustine, tract. 32. in S. Joan.) --- The primitive Christians of Corinth consulted St. Paul on the subject of these spiritual gifts or graces, frequently communicated in the sacraments of baptism and confirmation. In his Epistle, addressed to them, (1 Corinthians 12.) he explains those gifts, and complains that some among the Corinthians made not a right use of these gifts; especially those who had the gift of tongues, and made use of it rather through vanity, than for the profit of others. In the last verse of 1 Corinthians 12. he adds: But be zealous for the better gifts. And I shew to you a yet more excellent way. And in the 13th chapter, he describes the excellence, the characters of charity which he extols far above all other gifts. (Haydock)
John 7:40 Of that multitude therefore, when they had heard these words of his, some said: This is the prophet indeed.

John 7:41 Others said: This is the Christ. But some said: Doth the Christ come out of Galilee?

A prophet does not come from Galilee, but the Lord of the prophets does. (St. Augustine, tract. 38. in Joan.) --- Without faith, without advantage, they again return to their habitations of infidelity and impiety. (Alcuin)
John 7:42 *Doth not the Scripture say: That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of Bethlehem, the town where David was?

Micheas 5:2.; Matthew 2:6.
John 7:43 So there arose a dissension among the people because of him.

John 7:44 And some of them would have apprehended him: but no man laid hands upon him.

John 7:45 The ministers therefore came to the chief priests and the Pharisees. And they said to them: Why have you not brought him?

John 7:46 The ministers answered: Never did man speak like this man.

John 7:47 Then the Pharisees answered them: Are you also seduced?

John 7:48 Hath any one of the rulers believed in him, or of the Pharisees?

John 7:49 But this multitude, that knoweth not the law, are accursed.

But this multitude ... are accursed; that is falls under the curses of the law, by being seduced and led away by false preachers. (Witham)
John 7:50 Nicodemus said to them, *he that came to him by night, who was one of them:

John 3:2.
John 7:51 Doth our law judge any man, unless it first hear him, *and know what he doth?

Deuteronomy 17:8.; Deuteronomy 19:15.
John 7:52 They answered, and said to him: Art thou also a Galilean? Search the Scriptures, and see that out of Galilee a prophet riseth not.

They say to Nicodemus: Art thou also a Galilean, who defendest this Galilean, whereas no prophet, nor especially the Messias, comes from Galilee? (Witham) --- A prophet, properly the prophet: for they could not be ignorant that the prophet Jonas was from Galilee. We have not indeed the article the in this verse, but we find it in ver. 40, with which this appears to correspond. (Haydock)
John 7:53 And every man returned to his own house.

John 8:0 The woman taken in adultery. Christ justifies his doctrine.

John 8:1 And Jesus went to Mount Olivet.

etc.{ Ver. 1. In multis Latinis et Graecis codicibus invenitur. S. Hierom.[St. Jerome] See the Greek edition of the New Testament, at Amsterdam, ex officina Westeniana, an. 1711, in notis Criticis in fin, p. 17.|} The last verse of the foregoing chapter, and the eleven verses that follow in this, are not found in the greater part of our present Greek copies, yet they are in some manuscripts and so are retained in the Protestant translation. We read nothing of them in the commentaries of St. Chrysostom or St. Cyril; but St. Jerome (lib. 2:con. Pelag. tom. 4, part 2, p. 521. Ed. Ben.) says, they were found in many both Latin and Greek copies. St. Ambrose (Ep. 52.) says this passage, of the woman taken in adultery, was always famous in the Church. St. Augustine expounds them, tract. in Joan, etc. (Witham)
John 8:2 And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came to him, and sitting down he taught them.

John 8:3 And the Scribes and Pharisees bring to him a woman taken in adultery: and they set her in the midst,

John 8:4 And said to him: Master, this woman was even now taken in adultery.

John 8:5 *Now Moses in the law commanded us to stone such a one. But what sayest thou?

Leviticus 20:10.
John 8:6 And this they said, tempting him, that they might accuse him. But Jesus, stooping down, wrote with his finger on the ground.

Wrote with his finger, as one that was musing about something else. (Witham)
John 8:7 When therefore they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said to them: *He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.

Deuteronomy 17:7.
We cannot with any propriety reprehend or condemn faults in others, if we ourselves be guilty of the same, or other great faults, St. Cyril, in Joan. --- See annotations on Matthew vii, ver. 1.
John 8:8 And again stooping down, he wrote on the ground.

John 8:9 But they hearing this, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest: and Jesus alone remained, and the woman standing in the midst.

Went out one by one,{ Ver. 9. Apo tes suneideseos, elegchomenoi.|} confounded, and as it is in the ordinary Greek copies, convicted by their own conscience. (Witham)
John 8:10 Then Jesus lifting up himself, said to her: Woman, where are they that accused thee? Hath no man condemned thee?

John 8:11 She said: No man, Lord. And Jesus said: Neither will I condemn thee. Go, and now sin no more.

Hence we may see how impious is the doctrine of those who say that God is the author of sin. Christ did not say to the woman: I do not condemn thy sin; or, go and live now as thou pleasest, I will free thee from all punishment due to any sin thou shalt commit: but he only said, Go, and from henceforth sin no more: thus preserving his amiable virtue of clemency, and still not encouraging vice. (St. Augustine)
John 8:12 Again therefore Jesus spoke to them, saying: *I am the light of the world: he that followeth me, walketh not in darkness, but shall have the light of life.

1 John 1:3.
John 8:13 The Pharisees, therefore, said to him: Thou givest testimony of thyself: thy testimony is not true.

John 8:14 Jesus answered, and said to them: Although I give testimony of myself, my testimony is true: for I know whence I came and whither I go: but you know not whence I come, or whither I go.

Although I give testimony (or witness) of myself, my testimony is true. He gives them the reason, ver. 16; because he is not alone, but the Father (who also beareth witness) is also with him. (Witham)
John 8:15 You judge according to the flesh: I judge not any man:

You judge, and also bear testimony concerning other men, according to the flesh, and according to outward shew and appearances only. I judge no one in this manner. And whatever judgment I pass, or if I give testimony, my testimony is true, as coming also from the Father, with whom I am one in nature, though a distinct person: and two, according to the law, are enough to give evidence. (Witham) --- You judge according to the flesh, etc. Because you do not understand the ways of God, and think you only see in me the person of man; therefore I seem to you to be arrogant, bearing witness of myself. Man indeed, who wishes alone to bear testimony of himself, is arrogant, and not to be believed, because all men are frail and liable to be deceived; but light and truth itself can neither deceive nor be deceived. (St. Augustine)
John 8:16 And if I do judge, my judgment is true, because I am not alone: but I and the Father that sent me.

I am not alone. Christ does not here say that he is the Father and he is the Son, he only says that he is not alone, but that the Father is with him, plainly distinguishing the two Persons. The Father is truly the Father, and the Son truly the Son, not one elder or greater than the other, but both entirely equal in all perfections. One in substance, co-eternal, and of one perfect equality. (St. Augustine)
John 8:17 And in your law it is written, *that the testimony of two men is true.

Deuteronomy 17:6.; Deuteronomy 19:15.; Matthew 18:16.; 2 Corinthians 13:1.; Hebrews 10:28.
John 8:18 I am one that give testimony of myself: and the Father that sent me, giveth testimony of me.

John 8:19 They said, therefore, to him: Where is thy Father? Jesus answered: Neither me do you know, nor my Father: if you did know me, you would know my Father also.

Where is thy Father? They knew well enough by other discourses, that he had called and declared God to be his Father; but they had a mind to make him own it again, that they might accuse him as guilty of blasphemy. --- Neither me do you know, nor my Father: you will not own me to have been always his Son, nor him to have been always my Father, but did you know me to be his Son, always proceeding from him, you would know my Father also, and know him as my Father from all eternity. (Witham) --- As in common conversation we often say, "when you have seen one, you have seen the other;" when two persons or things seem perfectly alike as to outward appearances, so here Christ says, If you did know me, you would know my Father also: not that the Father is the Son, or the Son the Father, but because the Father is like the Son. (St. Augustine) --- Here might the Arians, and all who maintain that Christ is a mere creature, blush; for if he were a creature, how can any one who knows him likewise know God? Therefore is Christ consubstantial with the Father, for he who knows the Son, knows the Father also. (Theophylactus)
John 8:20 These words Jesus spoke in the treasury, teaching in the temple: and no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.

John 8:21 Then Jesus said to them again: I go, and you shall seek me, and you shall die in your sin. Whither I go, you cannot come.

I go my way, and you shall seek me, etc. See the foregoing chapter, ver. 34. (Witham)
John 8:22 The Jews, therefore, said: Will he kill himself, because he said: Whither I go, you cannot come?

John 8:23 And he said to them: You are from beneath, I am from above. You are of this world, I am not of this world.

I am not of this world: he speaks of his divine person, as the words evidently shew. (Witham)
John 8:24 Therefore, I said to you, that you shall die in your sins: for if you believe not that I am he, you shall die in your sin.

John 8:25 They said, therefore, to him: Who art thou? Jesus said to them: The beginning, who also speak to you.

Who art thou? Jesus said to them: The beginning,{ Ver. 25. Principium qui et loquor vobis. St. Augustine reads, quia loquor vobis, as we find in some Greek manuscripts and in St. Cyril, p. 511. In the common copies wer read, ten archen, oti kai lalo umin. And as ten archen is in the accusative case, so we may take principium; and to be taken adverbially, to signify the same as primùm, à principio, imprimis. Maldonatus is of the same opinion, as well as many others, and brings examples to shew that ten archen (that is, kata ten archen) is often taken for primùm: and so the sense will be, I am what I told you from the beginning, that is the Messias, and this I now tell you again. We may also take notice, that the Greek construction is hard to be accounted for, ten archen oti, not os, qui, nor e, to agree with arche.|} who also speak to you. This text and the construction of it is obscure, both in the Latin and in the Greek. St. Augustine and some of the Latin Fathers, expound it in this manner: I am the beginning of all things, who now being made man, speak to you. But this does not seem the construction, if we consult the Greek text; (where the beginning is not in the nominative, but in the accusative case) and therefore St. Augustine having considered more attentively the Greek, thinks that something must be understood, as believe me to be the beginning: he looks upon this to be the sense and the construction, as being connected with what was said two verses before; to wit, if you believe not that I am he, the true Messias, you shall die in your sins. "That they might," says St. Augustine (tract. 38, num. 11, p. 560) "know what they were to believe," he made them this answer, as if he had said: believe me to be the beginning, the cause, the author of all things, who am now become man, and speak to you. Other later interpreters are of opinion that the beginning is here a Grecism, and signifies that same as at first, or from the beginning. The sense therefore and construction may be, I am, what I said and told you at first, and from the beginning; that is, I am your Messias, the true Son of God, sent into the world, etc. (Witham) --- The Pharisees, indignant at the liberty with which Jesus spoke to them, demand of him in a rage, Who art thou, to speak to us in this imperious manner, to say that we shall die in our sins? Jesus answered them, that he was the Beginning, Author, Creator, and Ruler of all things. This is the more orthodox and more becoming interpretation. Or, I am, in the first place, what I have already told you; viz. (ver. 12.) I am the light of the world; he that followeth me, walketh not in darkness, but shall have the light of life. Or, it may mean, I am what I have always from the beginning told you. I am the Son of God, the Messias, etc. (Calmet)
John 8:26 I have many things to speak, and to judge of you. But he that sent me is *true: and the things I have heard from him, the same I speak in the world.

Romans 3:4.
And the things I have heard from him, etc. For Christ, to hear from his Father, to see, etc. is the same as to proceed from him, to be of the same nature and substance. See John 5:19. (Witham)
John 8:27 Now they did not understand that he called God his father.

Now they, etc. Some of the more ignorant among the Jews understood not Christ when he clearly enough signified that he was equal to God, and of one and the same nature; but at other times they that heard him, perceived it very well; and so, in this place, they were for stoning him to death. (Witham)
John 8:28 Jesus, therefore, said to them: When you shall have lifted up the Son of man, then shall you know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as the Father hath taught me, these things I speak:

When you shall have lifted up, etc. That is, have put me to the death of the cross; (see John 3:14.; John 12:32.) you, that is, many of you, shall know, and believe in me, as your Messias. (Witham)
John 8:29 And he that sent me is with me, and he hath not left me alone: for I do always the things that please him.

John 8:30 When he spoke these things, many believed in him.

John 8:31 Then Jesus said to those Jews that believed him: If you continue in my word, you shall be my disciples indeed:

If you persevere in the true faith, and in the observance of my words, you shall be my disciples indeed. It is not sufficient to believe; you must likewise do what my words command you to do: nor will it be sufficient to have the true faith for a time; you must persevere in that faith to the end. (St. Augustine, Ven. Bede, St. Chrysostom, Theophylactus, Euthymius, etc.) --- Faith alone without perseverance, or abiding in God's commandments, will not suffice. (Bristow)
John 8:32 And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.

And the truth shall make you free. They were affronted at these words, as if he hinted they were slaves, and not a free people. They tell him, therefore, that they were never slaves to any one. They can only pretend this of themselves: for, their forefathers were slaves to the Egyptians, to the Babylonians, etc. and besides they were now the subjects, if not slaves, to the Romans. But Christ speaks of the worst of slaveries, and tells them the such as live in sin, are slaves to sin. (Witham)
John 8:33 They answered him: We are the seed of Abraham, and we have never been slaves to any man: how sayest thou, You shall be free?

John 8:34 Jesus answered them: Amen, amen, I say unto you: *that whosoever committeth sin, is the servant of sin.

Romans 6:15-16.; 2 Peter 2:19.
John 8:35 Now the servant abideth not in the house for ever: but the son abideth for ever.

Now the servant abideth not in the house for ever, nor has a right to live in that manner as a son and a child of the family has to live in his father's house. A slave or servant, though he live ever so long in his master's house, his condition is quite different from that of a son of the family: and thus Christ puts them in mind that though they be of the race of Abraham, and in that sense can pretend to be his children, yet having made themselves slaves to sin, and remaining in that sin, by which they refuse to believe in him, their Messias, they are not the spiritual children of Abraham, nor can they inherit the promises made to Abraham, till, by the grace of Christ, they believe in him, and become his adoptive children. (Witham)
John 8:36 If, therefore, the son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed.

Man never was without free-will; but, having the grace of Christ, his will is truly made free from the servitude of sin. (St. Augustine, tract. 41. in Joan.)
John 8:37 I know that you are the children of Abraham: but you seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you.

You. That is, many of you, seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you; that is, is not rightly understood, nor received by you: you reject my doctrine, and are displeased with it. (Witham)
John 8:38 I speak that which I have seen with my Father: and you do the things that you have seen with your father.

The things that you have seen with your father. That is, you follow the suggestions of the devil, whom, (ver. 44.) in plain terms, he calls their father. (Witham)
John 8:39 They answered, and said to him: Abraham is our Father. Jesus saith to them: If you be the children of Abraham, do the works of Abraham.

Not only faith but good works make men children of Abraham. See James 2.
John 8:40 But now you seek to kill me, a man who have spoken the truth to you, which I have heard of God: this Abraham did not.

John 8:41 You do the works of your father. They said then to him: We are not born of fornication: we have one Father, God.

We are not born of fornication; we have one Father, God. These Jews perceived that Christ had hinted that they were not the true and faithful sons of Abraham; and therefore they replied in this manner. But Christ answered, if God was your Father, if you were his dutiful children, you would also believe in me, and love me; for I have proceeded from him, and am come from him, his true Son: and now sent into the world by him. But you cannot hear my word, because you will not, by your own wilful obstinate blindness. (Witham)
John 8:42 Jesus therefore said to them: If God were your father, verily you would love me. For I proceeded and came from God: for I came not of myself, but he sent me.

John 8:43 Why do you not know my speech? Because you cannot hear my word.

John 8:44 *You are of your father, the devil, and the desires of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and he abode not in the truth: because truth is not in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father thereof.

1 John 3:8.
You are of your father, the devil, and have made yourselves his slaves. --- He was a murderer from the beginning of the world, having brought both a corporal and a spiritual death by sin, upon all mankind. --- He abode not in the truth, in the ways of truth and obedience to God. --- He is a liar, and the father thereof: that is, the father of lies. I speak truth, being truth itself. (Witham) -- St. Augustine compares heretics, who drive Christians out of the Church, to the devil, who was the cause of our first parents' banishment from paradise. (Cont. lit. Petil. lib. 2:chap. 13.)
John 8:45 But if I say the truth, you believe me not.

John 8:46 Which of you shall convince me of sin? If I say the truth to you, why do you not believe me?

John 8:47 *He that is of God, heareth the words of God. Therefore, you hear them not, because you are not of God.

1 John 4:6.
John 8:48 The Jews, therefore, answered, and said to him: Do we not say well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?

John 8:49 Jesus answered: I have not a devil: but I honour my Father, and you have dishonoured me.

John 8:50 But I seek not my own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth.

John 8:51 Amen, amen, I say to you, if any man keep my word, he shall not see death for ever.

He shall not see death, he shall not die, for ever. That is, he shall not incur an eternal death, as they who die in sin: but they understood his words of the death of the body. (Witham) --- You accuse me of being possessed with a devil, because I preach to you a doctrine far different from what you are accustomed to hear; but I speak nothing but the truth; I give honour to my Father, I execute his orders; and the words I now speak to you, are the words of eternal life. Whoever observes them shall not die. Moses promised a long life to those who observed what was commanded in the old law, and offered them as their reward goods and temporal prosperity. But I now offer you an eternal life. Believe my words, keep them, and observe my ordinances, and you shall not feel the death of the soul, the second, eternal, and most miserable of deaths. (Calmet)
John 8:52 The Jews, therefore, said, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets: and thou sayest, If any man keep my word, he shall not taste death for ever.

John 8:53 Art thou greater than our father, Abraham, who is dead? and the prophets are dead. Whom dost thou make thyself?

John 8:54 Jesus answered: If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing: it is my Father that glorifieth me, whom you say that he is your God.

John 8:55 And you have not known him, but I know him: And if I should say that I know him not, I should be like to you, a liar. But I know him, and keep his word.

John 8:56 Abraham, your father, rejoiced that he might see my day: he saw it, and was glad.

Abraham, your father, rejoiced that he might see my day, my entrance into this world, my incarnation, my birth, my manifestation in Israel, my death and passion. (St. Irenaeus, Origen, St. Cyril, etc.) --- He waited with impatience for the deliverance of the whole world. He saw it, and was glad. He saw it in spirit, for God revealed it to him. He saw it approaching in the birth of his son Isaac, and in the miraculous deliverance of his dear son, when he was commanded to offer him in sacrifice to the Lord. The vivacity of his faith made him, as it were, present at the time of my birth, though then so far off. (St. Chrysostom, Leont., Theophylactus, Euthymius) --- It is not unlikely that this patriarch, and the others who were with him, detained in limbo, were apprised of the incarnation and coming of the Messias, which would fill them with an effusion of inexpressible joy. (St. Chrysostom) --- Christ here teaches us two things. 1. That he was before Abraham. 2. That the Jews were not true sons of Abraham, now treating so rudely him, who, even before his coming, had given the patriarch so much joy. (Calmet)
John 8:57 The Jews then said to him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?

John 8:58 Jesus said to them, Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham was made, I am.

Before Abraham was made, I am.{ Ver. 58. Abraham fieret, ego sum; prin Abraam genesthai, ego eimi. St. Augustine, (tract. xliii. in Joan. num. 17. p. 588.) intellige, fieret ad creaturam, sum vero pertinere ad divinam substantiam: non dixit, antequam Abraham esset, ego eram, ... neque dixit, ego factus sum ... agnoscite creatorem, discernite creaturam.|} Christ here speaks of his eternal existence as God. St. Augustine shews this by these very words, I am. He does not say, before Abraham was made, I was made: because, as the Son of God, he never was made: but I am, which shews his eternal divine nature. (Witham)
John 8:59 Then they took up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple.

John 9:0 He gives sight to the man born blind.

John 9:1 And Jesus passing by, saw a man that was blind from his birth.

John 9:2 And his disciples asked him: Rabbi, who hath sinned, this man, or his parents, that he should be born blind?

When Christ healed the paralytic, he dismissed him with this injunction: Behold thou art made whole; now sin no more. From this the disciples concluded, that his infirmity was sent him in punishment of former sins. When, therefore, they saw this man afflicted with blindness, they inquired of their divine Master, whether it was on account of his or his parents' sin. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. lv. in Joan.)
John 9:3 Jesus answered: Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents, but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.

When Christ says that neither he nor his parents had sinned, we must not understand that he was born without original sin, nor even that he had not committed other sins. For both he and his parents had sinned; but the meaning is, that this blindness was not a penal blindness inflicted in punishment of any sin either himself or his parents had committed; but, as is afterwards subjoined, it was sent him for the manifestation of the glory of God. (St. Augustine, tract. xliv. in Joan.)
John 9:4 I must work the works of him that sent me, whilst it is day; the night cometh, when no man can work.

Whilst it is day. That is, during all the time of this mortal life; the night comes, that is, death. (Witham) --- He speaks of that night of which mention is made is St. Matthew 22. Cast him into exterior darkness. This is a night in which none can work, but only receive the reward of their labours. If you wish to work, work now whilst you live; for beyond the grave there is neither faith, nor labour, nor repentance. (St. Chrysostom, as above.)
John 9:5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.

Thus the day of which I am to avail myself is the time of my mortal life; and the night which is to follow this, is that of my death. (Bible de Vence)
John 9:6 When he had said these things, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and spread the clay upon his eyes;

He spat on the ground. With clay and spittle he cured the blind man, to make the miracle more visible. (Witham) --- From the example of Jesus Christ, religious ceremonies are introduced in the administration of the sacraments; and can the Church be blamed for copying her divine Founder? (Haydock)
John 9:7 And said to him: Go, wash in the pool of Siloe, (which is interpreted, Sent). He went, therefore, and washed, and he came seeing.

The fountain of Siloe was at the foot of the walls of Jerusalem, to the east, where its waters were collected in a reservoir for the benefit of the city. Thither our Saviour sent the blind man. The word Siloe signifies sent, and was a figure of Christ, who was sent by his eternal Father into the world to enlighten all men, of whom this blind man was the emblem. The pool of Siloe represents the sacrament of baptism, by which we are sanctified and made Christians. It is still to this day held in great veneration by the Turks, who think its waters very beneficial in diseases of the eyes. (Calmet) --- Its waters signify those of divine grace and light, communicated to the faithful soul through Jesus Christ, who was sent of God. (Bible de Vence) --- Thus Sedulius: ---------------------------Cognoscite cuncti, Mystica quid doceant animos miracula nostros. Coeca sumus proles miserae de foetibus Hevae, Portantes longo natas errore tenebras. Sed dignante Deo mortalem sumere formam Tegminis humani, facta est de Virgine nobis Terra salutaris, quae fontibus oblita sacris Clara renascentis referat spiracula lucis.
John 9:8 The neighbours, therefore, and they who had seen him before that he was a beggar, said: Is not this he that sat, and begged? Some said: This is he.

John 9:9 But others, No: but he is like him. But he said: I am he.

John 9:10 They said, therefore, to him: How were thy eyes opened?

John 9:11 He answered: That man who is called Jesus, made clay, and anointed my eyes, and said to me; Go to the pool of Siloe, and wash. And I went, I washed, and I see.

John 9:12 And they said to him: Where is he? He saith; I know not.

John 9:13 They bring him that had been blind, to the Pharisees.

John 9:14 Now it was the Sabbath, when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes.

John 9:15 Again, therefore, the Pharisees asked him how he had received his sight. But he said to them: He put clay upon my eyes, and I washed, and I see.

John 9:16 Some, therefore, of the Pharisees said; This man is not of God, who keepeth not the sabbath. But others said; How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division among them.

John 9:17 They say, therefore, to the blind man again; What sayest thou of him that hath opened thy eyes? And he said; He is a prophet.

The Hebrews gave the name of prophet to all those who were honoured by the Almighty in a particular manner. And it was a maxim amongst them, that a prophet could dispense with the law of the sabbath. (Calmet) --- Do you wish to know what he believed Jesus to be? asks St. Augustine. And falling down, he adored him. Before, he regarded him as a holy man, as a prophet; but he did not adore him until he understood him to be the Son of God; whereas no sooner did he know this, than, falling down, he paid him that sovereign worship which is due to God alone. (Calmet)
John 9:18 The Jews then did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight:

John 9:19 And asked them, saying; Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then doth he now see?

John 9:20 His parents answered them, and said: We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind:

John 9:21 But how he now seeth, we know not: or who hath opened his eyes, we know not: ask himself; he is of age; let him speak for himself.

John 9:22 These things his parents said, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had already agreed among themselves, that if any man should confess him to be Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.

The Jews had already agreed, or combined together, that if any one owned him for the Messias, he should be turned out of their synagogues, as a person excommunicated. (Witham)
John 9:23 Therefore did his parents say; He is of age; ask himself.

John 9:24 They, therefore, called the man again that had been blind, and said to him: Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.

Give glory to God, before whom thou art speaking, and tell us the truth. It could not be this man who cured thee; for we know he is a sinner, who seduceth the people. (Bible de Vence) --- So say our separated brethren, when they derogate from miracles done by saints, pharisaically pretending the glory of God, as if it were not God's glory when his servants act by his power and virtue. Witness Peter's shadow, (Acts v.) and Paul's handkerchiefs that cured diseases, and expelled wicked spirits. (Acts 19:11, 12.)
John 9:25 He said then to them; If he be a sinner, I know not: one thing I know, that whereas I was blind, now I see.

John 9:26 Then they said to him; What did he to thee? how did he open thy eyes?

John 9:27 He answered them: I have told you already, and you have heard: why would you hear it again? will you also become his disciples?

I have told you already, and you have heard. In almost all Greek manuscripts we now read, and you have not heard. Beza, with good reason, here prefers the Latin Vulgate, as more correct than the Greek. (Witham)
John 9:28 They reviled him, therefore, and said; Be thou his disciple: but we are the disciples of Moses.

They reviled him with scornful{ Ver. 28. Maledixerunt, eloidoresan, reviled, rather than cursed.|} and disdainful language. (Witham)
John 9:29 We know that God spoke to Moses: but as to this man, we know not from whence he is.

John 9:30 The man answered, and said to them; Why herein is a wonderful thing, that you know not from whence he is, and he hath opened my eyes:

John 9:31 Now we know that God doth not hear sinners: but if a man be a worshipper of God, and doth his will, him he heareth.

God doth not hear sinners. That is, in so particular a manner, as to work miracles in favour of them and their doctrine. (Witham)
John 9:32 From the beginning of the world it hath not been heard, that any man hath opened the eyes of one born blind.

From the beginning of the world it hath not been heard. Though we read of many miracles done by Moses and the prophets, this, saith he, is the first example of any man receiving his sight who had been born blind. (Witham)
John 9:33 Unless this man were of God, he could not do any thing.

John 9:34 They answered, and said to him: Thou wast wholly born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out.

John 9:35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out: and when he had found him, he said to him; Dost thou believe in the Son of God?

John 9:36 He answered, and said: Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him?

John 9:37 And Jesus said to him; Thou hast both seen him; and it is he that talketh with thee.

John 9:38 And he said; I believe, Lord. And falling down, he adored him.

John 9:39 And Jesus said; For judgment I am come into this world; that they who see not, may see, and they who see, may become blind.

For judgment I am come into this world. Christ said (chap. 3:17.) that God did not send his Son to judge the world: the same he repeats; (John 12:47.) nor is this contradictory to those words: the meaning here is not that he is come to exercise the office of a judge, but he tells them what will be the consequences of his coming, and their refusing to believe in him, that they shall be justly punished with the greatest severity for their wilful blindness. (Witham) --- Jesus Christ came into the world that the pagans, who were yet in darkness, might receive light, and that the Jews, who enjoyed the light, might fall into darkness. The Jews were thus condemned, on account of their presumption and hardness of heart, and grace was granted to the Gentiles to enter into the true Church. These are the designs of the Almighty upon mankind, some of whom remain in infidelity, whilst others receive the light of faith; but all is done by the secret and impenetrable decrees of the justice and wisdom of God. The Holy Ghost, by these words, tells us only what was to be the event, not what was the cause of these things. We must seek for the cause of them in the malice of the heart of man, and in the depth of the judgments of God. (Calmet) --- I am come, etc. Not that Christ came for that end, that any one should be made blind; but that the Jews, by the abuse of his coming, and by their not receiving him, brought upon themselves this judgment of blindness. (Challoner)
John 9:40 And some of the Pharisees, that were with him, heard: and they said to him; Are we also blind?

\f + \fr 9:40-41\ft The Pharisees then replied: and are we also blind? Jesus said to them: if you were blind, by ignorance in not having heard of me, and my doctrine, you might be excused for not believing; but now saying, we see: and having been yourselves in the occasions and opportunities of seeing, your sin remaineth, and you in your sins. (Witham) --- If you were blind, etc. If you were invincibly ignorant, and had neither read the Scriptures, nor seen my miracles, you would not be guilty of the sin of infidelity: but now, as you boast of your knowledge of the Scriptures, you are inexcusable. (Challoner) --- If you had humility enough to acknowledge your blindness and ignorance, and seriously to seek for a remedy, you would soon be delivered from sin, and freed from the evil of blindness. But filled as you are with presumption, you remain still in blindness, which, as it is voluntary, is at the same time criminal and inexcusable. This is your evil; this your sin. (Calmet) --- We here see that it is judged by truth itself far better not to read the Scriptures at all, than to read them with bad dispositions; not to see the miracles of Jesus Christ, than to refuse our assent to their author. At the present day all read the Scriptures, but do we see any marked improvement in the moral world? The text, without any comment, is given to Churchmen and to Dissenters: the latter gladly accept the offering, because, as the Rev. Frederick Noland observes, (in his objections of a Churchman to uniting with the Bible society, p. 34) "the authorized version is in many places accommodated to their peculiar opinions, through the conciliatory spirit of the Church, which revised the text for the purpose of doing their objections away." And in his note on this part, he adds: "The last revisal of the translation of the Bible was undertaken, as is notorious, for the purpose of removing certain objections made to the old version by the non-conformists. That the execution has been answerable to the intent, is evident from the fact of the Dissenters having withdrawn their exceptions, and adopted the version. Comp. Nichols. Defens. Eccles. Anglic. p. 33. Pierre. Vindic. Fratr. Dissent. p. 60-67." Thus (Acts 14:23.) "cheirotonesantes de autois presbuterous kat ekklesian. When they had ordained them elders by election, in every church. (Bp's Bible.) When they had ordained them elders in every church. (Authors. vers.) These words, as applied to St. Paul and St. Barnabas, who had merely received first orders, (Acts 13:2.) form in the former version an argument against presbyters' right to ordain, and in the latter one in favour of that practice." As a further accommodation, he says the word elders was substituted for presbyters, etc. "Independency in the very nature of it is schism; for every congregation is a different church." (Sherl. Def. of Stillingfl.)
John 9:41 Jesus said to them; If you were blind, you should not have sin: but now you say, We see; Your sin remaineth.

John 10:0 Christ is the door, and the good shepherd. He and his Father are one.

John 10:1 Amen, amen, I say to you; he that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up another way, the same is a thief and a robber.

etc. In this parable the fold is the Church: the good shepherd, and also the door is Christ: the thieves and robbers are false guides; the hirelings, such ministers as seek their own profit and gain, and a good living, as they call it; the wolves, heretics; the sheep not yet brought into the fold, the Gentiles not then converted. (Witham)
John 10:2 But he that entereth in by the door, is the shepherd of the sheep;

John 10:3 To whom the porter openeth: and the sheep hear his voice, and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out.

His own sheep by name. By this is signified the particular care. (Witham)
John 10:4 And when he hath let out his own sheep, he goeth before them: and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice.

He goeth before them, leads them by his instructions and example. (Witham)
John 10:5 But a stranger they follow not, but fly from him, because they know not the voice of strangers.

John 10:6 This parable Jesus spoke to them. But they understood not what he was speaking to them.

John 10:7 Jesus, therefore, said to them again; Amen, amen, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep.

John 10:8 All they who came, are thieves and robbers, and the sheep heard them not.

All they who came are thieves, meaning those who came of their own accord, without being sent: not so the prophets, who had their mission from God. (Witham)
John 10:9 I am the door. If any one enter by me, he shall be saved: and he shall go in, and go out, and shall find pastures.

John 10:10 The thief cometh not, but to steal, and to kill, and to destroy. I am come that they may have life, and may have it more abundantly.

John 10:11 I am the good shepherd. *The good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep.

Isaias 40:11.; Ezechiel 34:23.; Ezechiel 37:24.
How happy are we in having such a shepherd, so great, so good, so loving, so careful of our true welfare! O he is the true shepherd indeed, that came down from heaven to seek the poor sheep that was lost; and when he found it, took it upon his own shoulders to carry it home with joy to his heavenly fold. How dearly have his sheep cost him, for truly has he made good in himself this sentence, that the good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep. Let us then ever follow and obey, love and embrace this true shepherd of our souls. (Meditations for every Day, vol. 2:p. 417.) The good pastor gives his life for his sheep; he exposes himself to every danger to save them, no inclemency of the weather, no frost or cold, no rains or tempests, can drive him from looking over his sheep, to defend them from the attacks of wolves, etc. and like Jacob he might say, day and night was I parched with heat, and with cold, and sleep departed from my eyes. (Genesis xl.[xxxi. 40.?]) Or, like David speaking to Saul: "Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a lion or a bear, and took a ram out of the midst of the flock; and I pursued after them, and struck them, and delivered it out of their mouths; and they arose up against me, and I caught them by the throat, and I strangled them, and killed them." (1 Kings xvii.) This is a model of a true pastor. But Jesus Christ has done more than this for us. He has exposed his life and his repose, he has spilled his blood, he delivered himself to the fury of his enemies, and has offered himself as a victim on the cross to his eternal Father, to free us, his lost sheep, from the most cruel wolf, the devil. And ever since his death he has always protected his Church, assisted and consoled his distressed flock under all their sufferings, pouring into their hearts the consolations of the holy Spirit, and sending to them holy teachers, to govern and lead them in the holy path of salvation. Such were the apostles and their successors, the bishops and priests of the holy Catholic Church, whom he has sent, and will continue to send, to govern his flock to the end of time. (Calmet.)
John 10:12 But the hireling, and he that is not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf snatcheth, and scattereth the sheep:

John 10:13 And the hireling fleeth, because he is a hireling: and he hath no care for the sheep.

Every bishop and pastor is bound to abide with his flock in the time of danger, and persecution, except himself be personally sought for, rather than his flock, or the flock itself forsake him. In such cases the pastor may fly, as the apostles did, and St. Athanasius and others. (St. Athanasius, Apol. de sua fuga.; St. Augustine, ep. 180.)
John 10:14 I am the good shepherd, and I know mine, and mine know me.

I know mine, and mine know me. To know, in the style of the holy Scriptures, is to love and approve. (Witham)
John 10:15 *As the Father knoweth me, and I know the Father, and I lay down my life for my sheep.

Matthew 11:27.; Luke 10:22.
I lay down. That is, in a short time shall lay down my life for my sheep: for all, and in a special manner for my elect. See ver. 28. (Witham)
John 10:16 And other sheep I have, that are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice, and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

One fold. In the Greek one flock. The signification is the same; that is, there shall be one church of Jews and Gentiles converted. (Witham)
John 10:17 Therefore doth the Father love me: *because I lay down my life, that I may take it again.

Isaias 53:7.
Therefore doth the Father love me, because I lay down my life, etc. Christ here speaketh of himself, as made man for the redemption of mankind: or rather, as he was our Redeemer, both God and man: for he laid down his life, and died as man, and had power to take it up again, as God. Yet the command of laying it down, he as man received from the Father: thus as man, he was obedient to him even to the death on the cross. See Philippians 2:8. (Witham)
John 10:18 No man taketh it away from me: but I lay it down of myself, and I have power to lay it down; and I have power to take it up again. This commandment have I received of my Father.

John 10:19 A dissension rose again among the Jews for these words.

John 10:20 And many of them said: He hath a devil, and is mad: why hear you him?

John 10:21 Others said; These are not the words of one that hath a devil: Can a devil open the eyes of the blind?

John 10:22 *And it was the feast of the dedication at Jerusalem, and it was winter:

1 Machabees 4:56-59.
John 10:23 And Jesus walked in the temple, in Solomon's porch.

In the gallery of Solomon, which was near the temple, supposed to be attached to the eastern gate of the court, and called beautiful. See Acts 3:2.
John 10:24 The Jews, therefore, came round about him, and said to him; How long dost thou keep our minds in suspense? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.

If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. St. John the Baptist had told them several times who Jesus was. See John John 1:He himself had not only owned it in plain terms to the Samaritan woman, (John 4:26.) but he had frequently delivered this truth so openly to them, that he came from heaven, that he was sent into the world that all men should be saved by believing in him, that he was the Son of God, and one with the Father, that they easily perceived he made himself God: but these men would have him to declare it again, that they might accuse him. (Witham)
John 10:25 Jesus answered them; I speak to you, and you believe not: the works that I do in the name of my Father, they give testimony of me:

The works and miracles, that I do in the name of my Father, they give testimony of me, and shew who I am, being foretold by the prophets. See John 5:31, etc. (Witham)
John 10:26 But you do not believe, because you are not of my sheep.

Because you are not of my sheep, refusing to believe in me, and to follow my doctrine, by your own wilful blindness. (Witham)
John 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:

Christ here says that his sheep hear his voice, and follow him: but let us ask ourselves, Do we cling close to this heavenly shepherd? Do we follow him, both by our faith and by our lives? Do we know him, and hear his voice? Do we fly from strangers, the world, the flesh, and the devil? If so, we are his sheep indeed; and if we persevere, he will bring us, in spite of the world, the flesh, and the devil, to the pastures of eternal life. But if we run away from our shepherd, to follow these strangers, we must expect to fall a prey to wolves. (Med. vol. 2:p. 417)
John 10:28 And I give them life everlasting: and they shall not perish for ever, and no man shall snatch them out of my hand.

They shall not perish for ever: and no man shall snatch them out of my hand. He speaks of his elect, of those whom he called by a special Providence and mercy, whom he blessed with more than ordinary graces, and with the gift of final perseverance to the end in his grace. (Witham)
John 10:29 That which my Father hath given me, is greater than all: and no one can snatch them out of the hand of my Father.

That which my Father hath given{ Ver. 29. Pater meus quod dedit mihi, majus est omnibus. See Tertullian, lib. cont. Praxeam. ch. XXII, p. 513. C. Ed. R.; St. Hilary, lib. vii. de Trin. p. 930. Ed. Ben.; St. Ambrose, lib. iii. de Sp. S. John 18. Ed. Par. 1586.; St. Augustine, trac. 49. in Joan. p. 616, Quid dedit filio Pater majus omnibus? ut ipse illi esset Unigenitus Filius. St. Chrysostom takes notice, that by the hand of the Father, is here understood his power. And that it follows from hence, that the power or hand of the Father and the Son is equal, is one and the same: and if their power, says he, is the same, so is their substance, ei de e dunamis e aute, endelon oti kai e ousia. om. xa. (in Joan. 363. tom. viii. nov. Ed. Ben.)|} me, is greater than all. We may look upon this as the true reading by Tertullian, St. Hilary, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, etc. The ancient Fathers make use of these words, to shew the eternal procession of the Son from the Father; and that they are one in nature, substance, power, etc. The reading in the ordinary Greek copies is now different. My Father, who gave me them, (the sheep) is greater than all. No one can snatch, or pull them by force, out of the hand of the Father. He had said just before, no one shall, or can snatch them, out of my hand. And this shews that the hand, that is, the power of the Father and the Son, is equal, is one and the same. See St. Augustine, St. Chrysostom, etc. (Witham)
John 10:30 I and the Father are one.

I and the Father are one,{ Ver. 30. Unum sumus, en esmen, that is says St. Chrysostom, secundum potentiam. kata ten dunamin entautha legon. See St. Cyril, p. 667.; St. Augustine, tract. 49. p. 617, Huc usque Judaei tolerare potuerunt ... tunc verò more suo duri ad lapides concurrunt ... ideo irati sunt, quia senserunt non posse dici, Ego et pater unum sumus, nisi ubi aequalitas est Patris et Filii. ... Ecce intelligunt Judaei, quod not intellligunt Ariani.|} or one being, not one person, nor one by an union of affection only, but in nature, substance, power, and other perfections, as appears by the whole text: for Christ here tells them that none of his elect shall perish, because no one can snatch them out of his hands, no more than out of the hands of his Father: and then adds, that he and his Father are one, or have one equal power: and if their power, says St. Chrysostom, is the same, so is their substance. Christ adds, (ver. 38.) that the Father is in him, and he in the Father; which also shews an union of nature and substance, and not only of love and affection, especially when taken with other words of our Saviour Christ. (Witham)
John 10:31 The Jews then took up stones, to stone him.

Then took up stones, etc. because, said they, being a man, thou makest thyself God. The Jews, says St. Augustine, understood well enough what the Arians will not understand, that from Christ's words it followed that he was one and the same God with the eternal Father. (Witham) --- The Jews, in opposition to our Saviour's doctrine, took up stones to destroy him, in order that he might preach no more to them. So heretics at the present time exercise the odium of their impiety against the same Lord, by perverting his holy doctrines, and, as much as in them lies, pulling him and his servants down from the glorious seats of heavenly bliss. (St. Augustine)
John 10:32 Jesus answered them; Many good works I have shewn to you from my Father; for which of those works do you stone me?

John 10:33 The Jews answered him; For a good work we stone thee not, but for blasphemy: and because that thou, being a man, maketh thyself God.

John 10:34 Jesus answered them; Is it not written in your law: *I have said, you are gods?

Psalm 81:6.
This is addressed to princes established to govern the people of God. They are the image of God on earth by the authority they exercise, and which they have received from Him. --- Is it not written in your law, (under which were also comprehended the Psalms) I have said: you are Gods? etc. Christ here stops the mouths of the Jews, by an argument which they could not answer, that sometimes they were called Gods, who acted by God's authority. I have said: you are Gods. (Psalm 81:6.) But then he immediately declares, that it is not in this sense only that he is God. 1st, Because he has been sanctified by the Father, which St. Augustine and others understand of that infinite sanctification, which he has necessarily by always proceeding from the Father. Others expound it of a greater sanctity and fulness of grace above all other saints, given to him, even as he was man. But 2ndly, he adds at the same time, and confirms what he had often told them, that he was the Son of God, sent into the world: that his works shew that he was in the Father, and the Father in him. by this they saw that he was far from recalling or contradicting what he had said before. And therefore (ver. 30.[39.?]) they sought to apprehend him, and put him to death for blasphemy. (Witham) --- Eloim, which name of God was so called from judging, and may be interpreted judges. (Menochius)
John 10:35 If he called them gods, to whom the word of God was spoken, and the Scripture cannot be broken;

John 10:36 Do you say of him, whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?

John 10:37 If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not.

John 10:38 But if I do: though you will not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father.

John 10:39 They sought, therefore, to take him: and he escaped out of their hands.

And he escaped out of their hands; perhaps making himself invisible, or hindering them by his divine power. (Witham)
John 10:40 And he went away again beyond the Jordan into that place where John was baptizing first, and there he abode:

John 10:41 And many resorted to him, and they said: John indeed did no sign.

John 10:42 But all things whatsoever John said of this man were true. And many believed in him.

John 11:0 Christ raises Lazarus to life. The rulers resolve to put him to death.

John 11:1 Now there was a certain man sick, named Lazarus, of Bethania, of the town of Mary, and of Martha, her sister.

At the end of the preceding chapter, we are told that Jesus went into the place where John the Baptist was first baptizing. This place, as may be gather from St. John, (chap. 1:ver. 28. and 44.) was Bethania; but not the Bethania where the sisters of Lazarus resided. The Bethania where Christ was at this time was beyond the Jordan, and was likewise called Bethabara; whereas the Bethania where Lazarus lay sick, was two miles to the south of Jerusalem, and formed a part of the suburbs of that city. It is called the town of Martha and Mary, because they lived there; in the same manner as Bethsaida is called the city of Peter and Andrew. (Calmet)
John 11:2 (And Mary was she *that anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair: whose brother, Lazarus, was sick.)

Matthew 26:7.; Luke 7:31.; John 12:3.
John 11:3 His sisters, therefore, sent to him, saying; Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest, is sick.

John 11:4 And Jesus hearing it, said to them; This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God: that the Son of God may be glorified by it.

This sickness is not unto death. That is, though he truly die, it is not designed that he remain dead. (Witham) --- This sickness is not unto death; because his death itself was not unto death, but rather to the working of a great miracle, by which men were brought to the true faith, and thus avoided an eternal death. (St. Augustine, tract. 49. in Joan.) --- Lazarus indeed died of this sickness, but he did not die as other men, to continue dead; for Jesus raised him again to the glory of God. (Sts. Cyril, Chrysostom, etc.)
John 11:5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, Mary, and Lazarus.

John 11:6 When he had heard, therefore, that he was sick, he still remained in the same place two days.

John 11:7 Then after that he said to his disciples; Let us go into Judea again.

John 11:8 The disciples say to him; Rabbi, the Jews but just now sought to stone thee: and goest thou thither again?

John 11:9 Jesus answered: Are there not twelve hours of the day? If a man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world:

Some, by the day in this place, understand the time preceding the Passion of our Saviour; and, by the night, the time of his Passion. (Theophylactus) --- By this he encouraged his disciples, assuring them that the day of his sojournment on earth was not yet over; and therefore that the Jews, with all their malice and hatred, could not hurt him. But when the night (the time of his Passion) comes, then their power over him commenced. This is your hour, says he to them, and the power of darkness. (Calmet) --- The Hebrews then divided the day into twelve parts of equal duration, from the rising to the setting sun. (Bible de Vence)
John 11:10 But if he walk in the night, he stumbleth, because the light is not in him.

John 11:11 These things he said: and after that he said to them; Lazarus, our friend, sleepeth: but I go that I may awake him out of sleep.

Lazarus ... sleepeth. It is strange that the disciples could imagine that Christ spoke of an ordinary sleep, and that he would go two or three days' journey to awake him. Nothing but the fear and concern they were under, could make them think so. (Witham)
John 11:12 His disciples, therefore, said; Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.

To men indeed he was dead, but to God he slept. For the Almighty as easily raised him from his grave, as man can raise the slumberer from his bed. (St. Augustine, tract. 49. in Joan.)
John 11:13 But Jesus spoke of his death: and they thought that he spoke of the repose of sleep.

John 11:14 Then, therefore, Jesus said to them plainly; Lazarus is dead.

John 11:15 And I am glad, for your sake, that I was not there, that you may believe: but let us go to him.

When Christ says, that you may believe, we must not suppose he means, that they might begin then for the first time to believe, but that their faith, already begun, might be increased; for the faith of the disciples still stood in need of miracles, to make it grow more strong and rooted. (St. Augustine, as above.)
John 11:16 Then Thomas, who is called Didymus, said to his fellow-disciples: Let us go also, that we may die with him.

Thomas ... said, let us also go, that we may die with him. That is, with Jesus: this he said, exhorting the other disciples not to fear. (Witham) --- The words, Thomas and Didymus, have the same radical signification; both meaning twins.
John 11:17 Jesus therefore came: and found that he had been four days already in the grave.

John 11:18 (Now Bethania was near Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off.)

About fifteen furlongs. About two Italian miles. (Witham)
John 11:19 And many of the Jews were come to Martha, and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.

John 11:20 Martha, therefore, as soon as she heard that Jesus wast come, went to meet him: but Mary sat at home.

John 11:21 Martha therefore said to Jesus: Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died:

If thou hast been here. These words shew that the faith of the two sisters was but weak; as if the Son of God was not everywhere: or as if he could not restore him to life when dead and buried. (Witham) --- Martha believed in Christ, but not as she ought to have done. She did not yet believe him to be God, but addresses him as one who is remarkable for virtue, and approved of by heaven. (St. Chrysostom, hom. 61. in Joan.)
John 11:22 But now also I know that whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.

John 11:23 Jesus saith to her: Thy brother shall rise again.

Thy brother shall rise again. Martha took notice that Christ did not express, whether immediately, or at the general resurrection, which she and the Jews generally believed. (Witham)
John 11:24 Martha saith to him; I know that he shall rise again,* in the resurrection at the last day.

Luke 14:14.; John 5:2.
John 11:25 Jesus said to her; I am the resurrection, and the life: *he that believeth in me, although he be dead, shall live:

John 6:40.
I am the resurrection, and the life. That is, the author of both. (Witham) --- I am the resurrection, I am he who will at the last day raise him up; I can, therefore, if I will, raise him up now also. (St. Augustine)
John 11:26 And every one that liveth, and believeth in me, shall not die for ever. Believest thou this?

John 11:27 She saith to him; Yea, Lord, I have believed that thou art Christ, the Son of the living God, who art come into this world.

Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God. Martha breaks out into an act of perfect faith. See John 1:ver. 49. (Witham)
John 11:28 And when she had said these things, she went, and called her sister, Mary, secretly, saying; The master is come, and calleth for thee.

John 11:29 She, as soon as she heard this, riseth quickly, and cometh to him.

John 11:30 For Jesus was not yet come into the town: but he was still in that place where Martha had met him.

John 11:31 The Jews, therefore, who were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary that she rose up speedily and went out, followed her, saying; She goeth to the grave to weep there.

It was customary to visit, occasionally, the sepulchres, there to weep over the deceased. (Bible de Vence)
John 11:32 When Mary, therefore, was come where Jesus was, seeing him, she fell down at his feet, and saith to him: Lord; if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.

John 11:33 When Jesus, therefore, saw her weeping, and the Jews that were come with her weeping, he groaned in the spirit, and troubled himself.

He groaned in the spirit, and troubled himself. The Latin and Greek, both in this and the 38th verse, express a more than ordinary inward trouble. Christ, as he was truly man, had the affections and passions of human nature; yet so that he was master, even of the first motions, which could not raise in him any disturbance or disorderly inclinations. He permitted, therefore, and, as it is said, raised in himself these affections of compassion and grief at this time. (Witham)
John 11:34 And said; Where have you laid him? They say to him; Lord, come and see.

Where have you laid him? He asks what he knows, says St. Augustine, to raise their attention, their faith, hope, etc. (Witham)
John 11:35 And Jesus wept.

Jesus wept. A mark of his human nature, when he was going to give them a proof of his divinity, in raising the dead to life. (Witham) --- The tears of the disconsolate sisters called forth tears from the tender commiseration of Jesus. Nor was it unworthy the Son of God to shed tears. See Luke 19:41. About to give proofs of his divinity in raising the dead, he is pleased to give, first, undoubted proofs of his humanity, that he might shew himself both God and man.
John 11:36 The Jews, therefore, said; Behold how he loved him.

John 11:37 But some of them said: *Could not he that opened the eyes of the man born blind, have caused that this man should not die?

John 9:6.
John 11:38 Jesus, therefore, again groaning in himself, cometh to the sepulchre: Now it was a cave: and a stone was laid over it.

John 11:39 Jesus saith; Take away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith to him; Lord, by this time he stinketh, for he is now of four days.

Take away the stone. He could have done this by his word and command; or he could have made Lazarus come out without taking off the stone; he needed not to pray, who could do and command every thing. (Witham)
John 11:40 Jesus saith to her; Did not I say to thee, that if thou believe, thou shalt see the glory of God?

John 11:41 They took, therefore, the stone away: And Jesus, lifting up his eyes, said; Father, I give thee thanks that thou hast heard me.

Father, I give thee thanks, that thou hast heard me. He knew that what he asked, even as man, must needs be granted; but he prayed for our instruction. (Witham) --- Christ was about to pray for the resurrection of Lazarus; but his eternal Father, who alone is good, prevented his petition, and heard it before he presented it. Therefore does Christ begin his prayer, by returning his almighty Father thanks for having granted his request. (Origen, tract. 18. in Joan.)
John 11:42 And I knew that thou hearest me always; but because of the people who stand about, have I said it: that they may believe that thou hast sent me.

John 11:43 When he had said these things, he cried with a loud voice: Lazarus, come forth.

He cried with a loud voice: Lazarus come forth. His will had been sufficient. He calls upon the dead man, says St. Chrysostom, as if he had been living; and it is no sooner said than done. (Witham)
John 11:44 And presently he that had been dead came forth, bound feet and hands with winding-bands, and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus said to them; Loose him, and let him go.

Loose him, and let him go. Christ, says St. Gregory, by giving these orders to his apostles, shews that it belongs to his ministers to loose and absolve sinners, when they are moved to repentance, though it is God himself that forgiveth their sins; and they by his authority only. (Witham) --- Lazarus comes forth bound from the sepulchre, that he might not be thought to be a phantom; and that the bystanders might themselves loose him, and touching and approaching him, might know for certain that it was he. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxiii. in Joan.) --- St. Cyril and St. Augustine both adduce this verse to shew the power of priests in absolving sinners. See St. Cyril, lib. VII. last chapter in Joan. and St. Augustine, tract. 49. in Joan.
John 11:45 Many, therefore, of the Jews, who were come to Mary and Martha, and had seen the things that Jesus did, believed in him.

John 11:46 But some of them went to the Pharisees, and told them the things that Jesus had done.

John 11:47 The chief priests, therefore, and the Pharisees, gathered a council, and said; What do we, for this man doth many miracles?

The chief priests ... said: what do we? etc. as if they had said: why are we so slow, so remiss, and indolent in our proceedings against this man, when we daily see what numbers he draws after him by his miracles? (Witham)
John 11:48 If we let him alone so, all men will believe in him: And the Romans will come, and take away our place and nation.

The Romans will come upon us, in case he be admitted as our great Messias, and our King. (Witham)
John 11:49 *But one of them, named Caiphas, being the high priest that year, said to them; You know nothing at all.

John 18:14.
But one of them, named Caiphas, being the high priest, etc. He said not this, says the evangelist, of himself, but as the high priest of that year. The spirit of prophecy was given him, and he foretells that Jesus was to lay down his life both for the nation of the Jews, and for all mankind. The gift of prophecy itself does not make a man holy. It was also given to the wicked Balaam. (Numbers 24.) (Witham) --- It is supposed that he exercised the sacrificial office alternately with his father-in-law, Annas, who, as we have seen in Luke 3:2. was also high priest. (Bible de Vence)
John 11:50 Neither do you consider that it is expedient for you that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.

How great is the power of the Holy Ghost? From a wicked mind he brings forth the words of prophecy. And how great is the power attached to the pontifical dignity! For Caiphas having becoming high priest, though unworthy of that dignity, prophesies, not knowing indeed what he says. The Holy Ghost makes use of his tongue only, but touches not his sinful heart. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxiv. in Joan.)
John 11:51 And this he spoke not of himself: but being the high priest of that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation.

The same words have an impious and sacrilegious sense in the intention of the high priest, the enemy of Jesus Christ: and a divine and prophetic sense, in the intention of the Holy Ghost. (Bible de Vence) --- We here behold the privilege of the office and order, though in a wicked person: and as we have the assistance of God for the utterance of truth, which Caiphas neither meant nor knew, we may rest satisfied that Christ will not leave Peter's chair; (Luke 22:32.) whose faith he promises should never fail, though the occupants be as bad as their enemies describe them.
John 11:52 And not only for the nation, but to gather together in one the children of God, that were dispersed.

John 11:53 From that day, therefore, they devised to put him to death.

John 11:54 Wherefore Jesus walked no more openly among the Jews, but he went into a country near the desert, unto a city that is called Ephrem, and there he abode with his disciples.

Ephrem was a small city or town in the neighbourhood of Bethel. Some suppose it to be the same as Ephron, mentioned in 2 Paralipomenon 13:19., and 1 Machabees v., 2 Machabees 12:17.[27.?] Eusebius and St. Jerome say it was situated about 20 miles to the north of Jerusalem. (Calmet) --- Here he remained with his disciples till the time in which he had resolved to deliver himself up into the hands of his enemies. (Bible de Vence)
John 11:55 And the Pasch of the Jews was at hand: and many from the country went up to Jerusalem before the Pasch, to purify themselves.

This was the last Pasch that our Saviour kept upon earth, and the one on which he suffered death for our salvation. (Calmet) --- It is well called the Pasch of the Jews, and not of the Lord, since on it they were laying snares to apprehend their Saviour. (Origen) --- Thus making this day of festivity a day of murder. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxv. in Joan.) --- They went up so early to purify themselves by the sacrifices ordered by the law. (Bible de Vence)
John 11:56 They sought, therefore, for Jesus: and they discoursed one with another, standing in the temple: What think you, that he is not come to the festival day? And the chief priests and Pharisees had given a commandment, that if any man knew where he was, he should tell, that they might apprehend him.

He had not then arrived, because He would not expose himself to the fury of his enemies before his own time. (Bible de Vence)
John 12:0 The anointing of Christ's feet. His riding into Jerusalem upon an ass. A voice from heaven.

John 12:1 Now *six days before the Pasch, Jesus came to Bethania, where Lazarus had been dead, whom Jesus raised to life.

Matthew 26:6.; Mark 14:3.
On the tenth day of the month the Jews were accustomed to collect the lambs, and other things in preparation for the ensuing great feast. On this day, likewise, they generally had a small feast, or treat for their friends, at which time Jesus coming to Bethania, joined his friends in their entertainment. This was most likely in the house of Lazarus, Martha and Mary. Martha served at the table herself, thinking herself happy in waiting on Jesus, whom she considered as her Lord and God. Lazarus was one of them that were at table, to shew himself alive, by speaking and eating with them, and thus confounding the inexcusable incredulity of the Jews. And Mary too shewed her loving attachment to Jesus, by anointing his feet with her precious ointment. (Theophylactus, St. Augustine, and St. Chrysostom)
John 12:2 And they made him a supper there: and Martha served, but Lazarus was one of them that were at table with him.

John 12:3 Mary, therefore, took a pound of ointment of right spikenard, of great price, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment.

John 12:4 Then one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, he that was about to betray him, said:

John 12:5 Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor?

John 12:6 Now he said this, not because he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and having the purse, carried what was put therein.

Judas did not then begin to be wicked: he followed Christ, not in heart, but in body only. This our Master tolerated, to give us a lesson to tolerate the bad, rather than divide the body. (St. Augustine, in Joan. tract. 50.)
John 12:7 But Jesus said; Let her alone, that she may keep it against the day of my burial.

John 12:8 For the poor you have always with you: but me you have not always.

Me you have not always with you. He speaks of his corporal presence; for by his majesty, by his providence, by his ineffable and invincible grace, he ever fulfils what he said, (Matthew xxviii.) Behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world. (St. Augustine, tract. 50 in Joan.)
John 12:9 A great multitude, therefore, of the Jews knew that he was there: and they came, not for Jesus's sake only, but that they might see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead.

John 12:10 But the chief priests thought to kill Lazarus also:

To kill Lazarus. A foolish thought, says St. Augustine, as if Christ who had raised him to life from a natural death, could not also restore him to life, when murdered by them. (Witham) --- O foolish thought, and blinded rage! As if you could, by putting Lazarus to death, take away power from the Lord; as if Christ, who had already raised one that had died, could not as easily have raised one that was slain. But, lo! he has done both. Lazarus dead, he hath restored to life, and himself slain, he hath raised to life. (St. Augustine, tract 50. in Joan.)
John 12:11 Because many of the Jews, by reason of him, went away, and believed in Jesus.

John 12:12 And on the next day a great multitude, that was to come to the festival day, when they had heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem;

John 12:13 Took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried: Hosannah, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, the king of Israel!

John 12:14 *And Jesus found a young ass, and sat upon it, as it is written;

Zacharias 9:9.; Mark 11:7.; Luke xix 35.
John 12:15 Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy king cometh, sitting on the colt of an ass.

John 12:16 These things his disciples did not know at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things to him.

John 12:17 The multitude, therefore, gave testimony, which was with him, when he called Lazarus out of the grave, and raised him from the dead.

John 12:18 For which reason also the people came to meet him: because they heard that he had done this miracle.

John 12:19 The Pharisees, therefore, said among themselves; Do you see that we prevail nothing? Behold, the whole world is gone after him.

Do you see that we prevail nothing?{ Ver. 19. Quia nihil proficimus. In most Greek copies, and also in St. Chrysostom, we read: you see that you prevail nothing; as if these words had been spoken by some of Christ's friends, to make his adversaries desist. Theoreite oti ouk opheleite ouden.|} Thus said the Pharisees, being vexed that so many followed Christ, even after they had ordered, that whosoever owned him, should be turned out of their synagogues; and after they had employed men to apprehend him, but to no purpose. (Witham)
John 12:20 Now there were certain Gentiles among them, that came up to adore on the festival day.

Gentiles ... came up to adore. These either were proselytes who had been Gentiles, and now had embraced the Jewish law: or they were such among the Gentiles, who owned and served the one true God, as Cornelius did, (Acts 10.) but did not submit themselves to circumcision, and all the other Jewish rites and ceremonies. These could only enter into that part of the temple, called the court of the Gentiles. (Witham)
John 12:21 These, therefore, came to Philip, who was of Bethsaida, of Galilee, and desired him, saying; Sir, we wish to see Jesus.

John 12:22 Philip cometh, and telleth Andrew: again Andrew and Philip told Jesus.

John 12:23 But Jesus answered them, saying; The hour is come that the Son of man should be glorified.

John 12:24 Amen, amen, I say to you, unless the grain of wheat falling into the ground, die,

Unless the grain of wheat. The comparison is this, that as the seed must be changed, and corrupted in the ground, before it fructify, so the world would not be converted but by Christ's death. (Witham) --- By this grain of corn our Saviour means himself, who was to die by the infidelity of the Jews, and be multiplied by the faith of the Gentiles. (St. Augustine, tract. 51. in Joan.)
John 12:25 Itself remaineth alone. But if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. *He that loveth his life, shall lose it: and he that hateth his life in this world, keepeth it unto life everlasting.

Matthew 10:39.; Matthew 16:25.; Mark 8:35.; Luke 9:34.; Luke 17:33.
John 12:26 If any man minister to me, let him follow me: and where I am, there also shall my minister be. If any man minister to me, him will my Father honour.

We must minister to Jesus by seeking not our own things, but the things of Christ; that is; we must follow him, we must walk in his footsteps, we must perform the corporal works of mercy, and every other good work, for his sake, till we come to put in practice the most perfect act of charity, the laying down of our lives for our brethren. Then will he crown us with this greatest of rewards, the happiness of reigning with him. And where I am, there shall my minister be. (St. Augustine, tract. 51. in Joan.)
John 12:27 Now is my soul troubled. And what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour. But for this cause I came unto this hour.

Now is my soul troubled. Christ permitted this fear and horror to come upon his human nature, as he did afterwards in the garden of Gethsemani. Father, save me from this hour; yet he presently adds, but for this cause I came unto this hour; that is, I came into this world for this end, that I might die on a cross for all mankind. In like manner, when he had said in the garden, let this cup pass from me, he presently joined these words: but not my will, but thine be done. (Witham) --- Lest the disciples, upon hearing our Saviour exhorting them willingly and courageously to suffer death, should think within themselves, that he could well exhort them to these things, being himself beyond the reach of human misery, he assures them in this place, that he himself is in agony, and yet does not refuse to die for them. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxvi. in Joan.)
John 12:28 Father, glorify thy name. A voice, therefore, came from heaven: I have both glorified it, and I will glorify it again.

Father, glorify thy name, by my sufferings and death, as well as by many miracles that shall follow. A voice came from heaven, and so loud, that some there present compared it to thunder: and at the same time these words were heard: I have glorified it, thy name, and I will glorify it again, by a number of ensuing miracles at Christ's death, at his resurrection and ascension, as well as by all those miracles, which the apostles and disciples wrought afterwards. (Witham)
John 12:29 The multitude, therefore, that stood and heard, said that it thundered. Others said; An Angel spoke to him.

John 12:30 Jesus answered, and said; This voice came not for mine, but for your sake.

As the soul of Christ was troubled, not on his own account, but for the sake of the people; so this voice came from heaven, not for his sake, but for that of the people. What it announced was already known to him; the advantage and instruction of the Jews was its end, object, and motive. (St. Augustine, 52. tract. in Joan.)
John 12:31 Now is the judgment of the world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.

Now is the judgment of the world: Their condemnation, says St. Chrysostom, for not believing. --- The prince of this world, that is, the devil, shall be cast out from that great tyranny, which he had over mankind, before Christ's incarnation. (Witham) --- By these words Christ informs the Gentiles that wished to see him, that soon he would punish the incredulous Jews, and cast off their synagogue, for their malice and insatiable hatred against him; and that the prince of this world, that is, the worship of idols, should be destroyed, and all called to the true faith. (Calmet)
John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all things to myself.

And I, if I be lifted up from the earth: that is, on the cross. See the same expression, John 3:14.; John 8:28. --- I will draw all things, all nations, to myself by faith. (Witham)
John 12:33 (Now this he said signifying what death he should die.)

John 12:34 The multitude answered him: We have heard *out of the law, that Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of man?

Psalm 109:4.; Psalm 116:2.; Isaias 40:8.; Ezechiel 37:25.
How sayest thou the Son of man must be lifted up? By these words of the people, Christ, in this discourse must have called himself the Son of man, though it is not here mentioned by the evangelist. The people also tell him, they had heard that their Messias was to abide for ever: which was true as to his spiritual kingdom of grace, not as to such a glorious temporal kingdom, as they imagined. (Witham)
John 12:35 Jesus, therefore, said to them; Yet a little while, the light is among you. Walk whilst you have the light, that the darkness overtake you not: and he that walketh in darkness, knoweth not whither he goeth.

Yet a little while,{ Ver. 35. Adhuc modicùm lumen in vobis est, eti mikron chronon, to phos meth umon esti. They mistake, who take modicum for an adjective, that agrees with lumen.|} that is, for a very few days, I, who am the light of the world, am with you. (Witham) --- How much do the Jews now do, and yet they know not what they do: but like men that are walking in the dark, they think they are in the right way, when alas! they are quite the contrary. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxvi. in Joan.)
John 12:36 Whilst you have the light, believe in the light, that you may be the children of light. These things Jesus spoke, and he went away, and hid himself from them.

John 12:37 And whereas he had done so many miracles before them, they believed not in him:

John 12:38 That the saying of Isaias, the prophet, might be fulfilled, which he said; *Lord, who hath believed our hearing? And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?

Isaias 53:1.; Romans 10:16.
John 12:39 Therefore they could not believe, for Isaias said again;

They could not believe,{ Ver. 39. Non poterant credere. St. Augustine, (tract. 53.) Quare autem non potuerunt, si a me quaeratur, citò respondeo, quia nolebant.|} that is, they would not, says St. Augustine, or it could not be, considering their wilful obstinate blindness. (Witham) --- But where then is the sin, if they could not believe? They could not believe, because they would not. For as it is the glory of the will of God, that it cannot be averse to its own glory, so it is the fault of the will of man, that it cannot believe. (St. Augustine, tract. 53. in Joan.) They could not believe. Since the prophet has foretold it, and he cannot but say the truth, it is impossible that they should now believe. Not but they had it in their power to believe; and had they believed, the prophet would never have foretold the contrary. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxvii. in Joan.)
John 12:40 *He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart, that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.

Isaias 6:9.; Matthew 13:14.; Mark 4:12.; Luke 8:10.; Acts 28:26.; Romans 11:8.
He hath blinded their eyes, etc. See Matthew 13:14. (Witham) --- God blinded the Jews, not by filling them with malice, but by refusing them his graces, of which they had made themselves unworthy, and which they before abused and despised. It was their perverse will, their pride, presumption, and obstinacy, that brought on them this judgment. (St. Augustine)
John 12:41 These things said Isaias, when he saw his glory, and spoke of him.

John 12:42 However, many of the chief men also believed in him: but because of the Pharisees, they did not confess it, that they might not be cast out of the synagogue.

John 12:43 For they loved the glory of men, more than the glory of God.

For they loved the glory of men. This was one of the chief obstacles of their belief: yet many even of the chief of them believed in him; but durst not own it for fear of being disgraced, and turned out of their synagogues. Do not human considerations, and temporal advantages, hinder men from seeking out, and embracing the truth?
John 12:44 But Jesus cried out, and said; He that believeth in me, doth not believe in me, but in him that sent me.

John 12:45 And he that seeth me, seeth him that sent me.

He that seeth me, seeth him that sent me. In what sense these words are true, see John xiv. ver. 9. where they are repeated again, and with other expressions to the same sense. (Witham)
John 12:46 I am come a light into the world; that whosoever believeth in me, may not remain in darkness.

John 12:47 And if any man hear my words, and keep them not, I do not judge him: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.

I do not judge him. To judge here, may signify to condemn. St. Augustine expounds it in this manner: I do not judge him at this my first coming. St. Chrysostom says, it is not I only that judgeth him, but the works also that I do.
John 12:48 He that despiseth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him.* The word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.

Matthew 16:16.
John 12:49 For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father who sent me, he gave me commandment what I should say, and what I should speak.

John 12:50 And I know that his commandment is life everlasting. The things, therefore, that I speak, even as the Father said unto me, so do I speak.

John 13:0 Christ washes his disciples' feet: the treason of Judas: the new commandment of love.

John 13:1 Before *the festival day of the Pasch, Jesus knowing that his hour was come, that he should pass out of this world to the Father: having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end.

Matthew 26:2.; Mark 14:1.; Luke 22:1.
about the year A.D. 33. Before the festival day, or feast of the Pasch. See the note on this word Pasch, Matthew xxvi. ver. 2. Here when St. John says, before the festival day, he means in the evening, or latter evening after sunset, on the 14th day of the month of Nisan, when the great feast of Azyms or unleavened bread was begun, (for the Jews began their feasts from sunset on the foregoing day) so that the hours from sunset, at least, on the 14th day of the month of Nisan (at which time the paschal lamb was to be eaten with unleavened bread belonged to the first, and great day of Azyms, which lasted till sunset on the 15th day of the month [of] Nisan. St. John therefore says, the day before, meaning after sunset on the 14th day of the month; but yet it was part of the same great feast, which was kept on the 15th day. See also the note Matthew xxvi. ver. 17. (Witham)
John 13:2 And when supper was done, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas, the son of Simon, the Iscariot, to betray him:

And when supper was done. By this we must not understand, that the supper was over; for we afterwards find that Jesus again sat down, and gave bread to the traitor. But these words only mean, that all had partook of refreshment, and might be therefore said to have supped. (St. Augustine, tract. 55. in Joan.) --- He knew that he went out from God, and would return to God; but at the same time, he did not leave God, when he went out from him, nor us, when he returns to him. (St. Augustine, as above.) --- And though he went out from God, and returns to him, yet here he condescends to perform the office, not of the Lord God of the universe, but of a man and a slave; (St. Augustine) and this, says St. Chrysostom, (hom. lxix. in Joan.) that he might tread all pride under foot: doing every thing himself on this occasion, to teach us with what eagerness we ought to perform the duties of humility.
John 13:3 Knowing that the Father had given him all things into his hands, and that he came from God, and goeth to God;

John 13:4 He riseth from supper, and layeth aside his garments: and having taken a towel, he girded himself.

He riseth from supper; that is, after supper was done, or ended, as it is here said, (ver. 2. and 1 Corinthians 11:25.) girded himself like a servant, to wash and wipe the feet of his apostles. (Witham) --- If we compare the text of the four evangelists, it will appear that the washing of the feet preceded the institution of the blessed Eucharist, of which St. John is silent. (Bible de Vence)
John 13:5 After that, he poureth water into a basin, and began to wash the feet of the disciples, and to wipe them with the towel, wherewith he was girded.

St. Ambrose and St. Bernard shew that this washing was mysterious, and significative of the very great purity expected of those that receive the blessed Eucharist.
John 13:6 He cometh, therefore, to Simon Peter. And Peter saith to him: Lord, dost thou wash my feet?

Lord, dost thou wash my feet? My master, my Lord, the true Son of the living God, wilt thou wash the feet of me, thy servant, thy disciple, a poor vile sinner? this must not be. (Witham)
John 13:7 Jesus answered, and said to him: What I do, thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter.

John 13:8 Peter saith to him: Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him: If I wash thee not, thou shalt have no part with me.

If I wash thee not, thou shalt have no part with me. At this, Peter, as one thunderstruck, replied: Lord, not my feet only, but my head; whatever my Lord pleaseth. (Witham)
John 13:9 Simon Peter saith to him: Lord, not only my feet, but also my hands and my head.

John 13:10 Jesus saith to him: He that is washed, needeth not but to wash his feet, but is clean wholly. And you are clean, but not all.

He that is washed, etc. The feet are always apt to contract some dust or dirt; and in the mystical sense, he that is washed by the sacraments of baptism, or penance, from greater sins, must still endeavour to cleanse, and purify his affections from lesser failings of human frailty. And you, my apostles, are clean from greater offences, but not all of you, meaning the traitor Judas. (Witham) --- It is impossible that the extremities of the soul (if we may be allowed the expression) should not, as long as we tread upon this earth, receive some stain or other; although in the opinion of men, the soul appear just. Many indeed after baptism, are covered with the dust of sin, even to the head, but those who are disciples indeed, need only to wash their feet. (Origen, tract. 32. in Joan.) --- The foulness of the feet, when the rest is clean, signifies the earthly affections, and remains of former sins remitted, which are to be cleansed by devout acts of charity and humility. (St. Ambrose, lib. 3:de Sacram. John 1; St. Bernard, de caen. Dom. ser. 1.) --- Though his disciples were clean, still he washed their feet, comformably to that of the Apocalypse (Apocalypse 22.) "He that is clean, let him be cleansed still." (Origen, tract. 32. in Joan.)
John 13:11 For he knew who he was that would betray him: therefore he said; You are not all clean.

John 13:12 Then after he had washed their feet, and taken his garments, having sat down again, he said to them: Know you what I have done to you?

John 13:13 You call me, Master, and Lord: and you say well, for so I am.

John 13:14 If I then, being your Lord and Master, have washed your feet: you also ought to wash one another's feet.

You also ought to wash one another's feet. Not that he made this a standing precept according to the letter; but designed it as a lesson of humility. We find this custom literally observed in several churches, as it is now done every year by diverse prelates, and by Christian kings and princes. (Witham) --- He gives us an example of a more elevated act of virtue, that we may at least learn to practise the lower degrees of it. For he indeed was their Lord, but when we perform this office, we can but do it to our fellow-servants. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxx. in Joan.) --- This it is, blessed Peter, which you were ignorant of, but which he promises to explain afterwards. (St. Augustine, tract. 58. in Joan.)
John 13:15 For I have given you an example, that as I have done to you, so you do also.

John 13:16 *Amen, amen, I say to you; The servant is not greater than his lord: neither is the apostle greater than he that sent him.

Matthew 10:24.; Luke 6:40.; John 15:20.
John 13:17 If you know these things, you shall be blessed if you do them.

John 13:18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the Scripture may be fulfilled: *He that eateth bread with me, shall lift up his heel against me.

Psalm 40:10.
Shall lift up his heel against me. It is the sense of those words, (Psalm 40:10.) hath supplanted me; and they were spoken of Judas's sin in betraying Christ. (Witham) --- Jesus Christ applies in this place to the perfidy of Judas, that which David appears to have said on occasion of the perfidy of Achitophel, who was thus a figure of the perfidious Judas. (Bible de Vence)
John 13:19 At present I tell you before it come to pass: that when it shall come to pass, you may believe, that I am he.

John 13:20 *Amen, amen, I say to you, he that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth me: and he that receiveth me, receiveth him that sent me.

Matthew 10:40.; Luke 10:16.
John 13:21 When Jesus had said these things, he was troubled in spirit: and he protested, and said: *Amen, amen, I say to you, that one of you will betray me.

Matthew 26:20.; Mark 14:18.; Luke 22:21.
John 13:22 The disciples, therefore, looked one upon another, doubting of whom he spoke.

John 13:23 Now there was leaning on Jesus's bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.

One of his disciples. St. John himself was lying at table in (or towards) the bosom of Jesus.{ Ver. 23. Erat recumbens in sinu Jesu, ver. 23. And cum recubuisset super pectus Jesu, ver. 25. In the Greek, ver. 23, anakeimenos epi to kolpo tou Iesou; and ver. 25, epipeson epi to stethos tou Iesou. The word anakeimenos from anakeisthai, seems to express no more than the manner in those days of leaning, or lying at table: as in the Latin, accumbere, or discumbere; but epipeson, from epipiptein epi to stethos, signifies a bowing or falling down on Christ's breast, as it were in a fit of trouble or grief. See the author of the Analysis, diss. xxxvi. St. Chrysostom, (hom. lxxii. p. 423, tom. 8, Nov. Ed. Ben.) seems to make a difference betwixt these two expressions, when he says: Joannes ... in sinu Jesu recubat, nec recubat solùm, sed in pectus incidit: neque hoc solum quaesitu dignum est, etc. o Ioannes anakeitai eis ton kolpon tou Iesou, kai ouk anakeitai monon, alla kai to stethei epipiptei, kai ou touto monon axion zeteseos, etc.|} These words seem to express the manner that the Jews were placed at table. They had couches about a table, to lean or lie upon; and three for example upon each couch. The master, or head of the company, was placed in the midst; so that we may suppose, that Christ was placed on one of these couches in the midst, St. Peter on one side of him, and St. John on the other; and that St. John, in that resting and leaning posture, had his head all the time turned, and inclined towards Christ's bosom: yet it can scarce be imagined, that his head laid continually upon our Saviour's breast or bosom; for this posture would have been very uneasy to Jesus, or to any one. St. John then leaned all supper time towards Jesus's bosom or breast, but not upon it. (Witham) --- Whilst all were fearing for themselves, and Peter, the very head of the apostles, was trembling, St. John rests; reposing on the bosom of Jesus. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxi. in Joan.)
John 13:24 Simon Peter, therefore, beckoned to him: and said to him; Who is it, of whom he speaketh?

John 13:25 He, therefore, leaning on the breast of Jesus, saith to him; Lord, who is it?

When Christ had said, one of you is to betray me, St. Peter whispered with St. John, by turning to him behind Jesus's back, and desired him to ask, who this was: now when John had leaned down upon the breast of Jesus, or as the Greek hath it, falling down on the breast of Jesus, as a person may do in a great concern, or fit of grief, he said, Lord, who is it? This posture seems to have been only for that moment of whispering, and to have been different from the posture of eating at table. (Witham)
John 13:26 Jesus answered: He it is, to whom I shall reach bread dipped. And when he had dipped the bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.

John 13:27 And after the morsel, Satan entered into him. And Jesus said to him; That which thou dost, do quickly.

Satan entered into him, who presently went out with great anger and indignation. It was then night, likely about nine o'clock. (Witham) --- That which thou dost, do quickly. It is not a license, much less a command, to go about his treason: but a signification to him, that Christ would not hinder or resist what he was about, do it as soon as he pleased: but was both ready, and desirous to suffer for our redemption. (Challoner) --- Christ does not by these words exhort the traitor, much less command him, to perform his wicked deed; but he means to reprobate it, and at the same time testify that he would not hinder his being betrayed. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxi. in Joan.) --- It is the voice not of command, but of permission, not of a person in fear, but of one prepared for death. (St. Leo)
John 13:28 Now no man at the table knew for what purpose he said this to him.

John 13:29 For some thought, because Judas had the purse, that Jesus had said to him: Buy those things which we have need of for the festival day: or that he should give something to the poor.

John 13:30 He then having received the morsel, went out immediately. And it was night.

John 13:31 When, therefore, he was gone out, Jesus said; Now is the Son of man glorified: and God is glorified in him.

Jesus said: now is the Son of man glorified: the time is at hand, when he shall be glorified by miracles at his death, resurrection, etc. (Witham)
John 13:32 If God be glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself: and immediately will he glorify him.

John 13:33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. *You shall seek me: and as I said to the Jews, Whither I go, you cannot come: so now I say to you.

John 7:34.
John 13:34 *I give you a new commandment: That you love one another, as I have loved you, that you also love one another.

Leviticus 19:18.; Matthew 22:39.; John 15:12.
The commandment of mutual love had been previously given, but evidently misconstrued and abridged by the Jews to friends only, to this life only, and for earthly respects: but Jesus Christ reneweth it and enlargeth it after the form of his own love towards us, and giveth grace to observe it. (Bristow)
John 13:35 By this shall all men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another.

John 13:36 Simon Peter saith to him: Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered: Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now: but thou shalt follow me afterwards.

You cannot follow me yet to the dying for justice sake, for you are not yet prepared for martyrdom; you cannot yet follow me to the glory of my body, when risen from the dead, but must wait till the general resurrection; you cannot follow me to the bosom of my Father, being not yet sufficiently perfected in charity. (St. Augustine, tract. 64. in Joan.)
John 13:37 Peter saith to him: Why cannot I follow thee now? *I will lay down my life for thee.

Matthew 26:35.; Mark 14:29.; Luke 22:23.
This commandment was already in the old law, where it is written, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; how then does our Saviour call it a new command? It is new, not because we simply love one another; but because we love one another, as he has loved us: not as men love one another, as being fellow creatures, but united in love, as being all the children of the Most High; that so we may be brethren to his only begotten Son, bearing to all the same love that he has borne to us. (St. Augustine, tract. 64. in Joan.) --- By this shall I moreover know that you truly love me. (Bible de Vence)
John 13:38 Jesus answered him: Wilt thou lay down thy life for me? Amen, amen, I say to thee, the cock shall not crow, till thou deny me thrice.

The love which St. Peter bore our Saviour was exceedingly tender, but it was not yet sufficiently strong. (St. Bernard, Serm. 4:in Cant.) --- Jesus therefore asks him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for me? Do you think yourselves sufficiently strong to perform this heroic act for love of me? so far are you from exposing your life for me, that you will shortly deny me. (Menochius)
John 14:0 Christ's discourse after his last supper.

John 14:1 Let not your heart be troubled. You believe in God, believe also in me.

After having answered the questions of St. Peter, Jesus again addresses himself to his disciples, and bids them not to be afflicted or troubled, at what he says to them. Many Greeks and Latins begin this chapter thus: Jesus said to his disciples, let not your hearts be troubled. (St. Chrysostom) --- Euthymius; Leont.; Theophylactus; Theodor.; etc. agree, that our Saviour wished to encourage his apostles, who were so much troubled, because he had said, that Peter should deny him. They thought within themselves, if Peter, who is the strongest, and most resolute amongst us, shall so far forget himself, as to deny his master, what will become of us? Jesus seeing their anxiety, tells them not to be troubled; but to believe in him, and in his words, for he had said, that he would not lose any, whom his Father had given him; (John 6:39.) and that whosoever should believe in him, should have life everlasting. (chap. 3:15.) --- Let not your heart be troubled. Christ here begins those incomparable discourses to his apostles, which are set down in the four next chapters. His sufferings and death now approaching, he forewarns them not to be troubled. You believe in God, and put your trust in him; believe also, and trust in me, no less than in him. (Witham)
John 14:2 In my Father's house there are many mansions. If not, I would have told you: that I go to prepare a place for you:

In my Father's house. He does not say of your Father: for though God be the Father of all by creation, and of the just, by the grace of adoption; yet Christ in several places, calls him his Father, in a quite different sense, that is, as he was his eternal Father, as the ancient interpreters observe. (Witham) --- These many mansions signify different degrees of glory in heaven. (St. Jerome, lib. 2:adv. Jovin.)
John 14:3 And if I shall go, and prepare a place for you: I will come again, and will take you to myself; that where I am, you also may be.

I will come again: not only by rising the third day, but at your death, and at the day of judgment: that where I am, you also may be, and may receive the reward of eternal happiness in my kingdom.
John 14:4 And whither I go you know, and the way you know.

And whither I go, you know, and the way you know. Thomas replied, we know neither. Jesus saith to him, I am the way. They knew it, says St. Augustine, (tract. 69.) but they did not know, that they knew it: they knew their Master, Jesus Christ, and he was the way: they also knew, that is, believed, the kingdom of heaven, but they knew not, that he was returning thither: for as yet their imaginations were upon a temporal kingdom. --- I am the way, by my doctrine and example: I am the Truth, by my promises; and I am Life, by the graces I offer and give. (Witham)
John 14:5 Thomas saith to him: Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way?

John 14:6 Jesus saith to him: I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No man cometh to the Father, but by me.

John 14:7 If you had known me, you would surely have known my Father also: and from henceforth you shall know him, and you have seen him.

If you know me, you would surely{ Ver. 7. Cognoscetis eum, in the present Greek copies (one excepted) we read, cognoscitis, ginoskete; Maldonatus judges it the true reading. But not only St. Augustine and the Latin Fathers, but even St. Chrysostom reads it in the future tense, gnosesthe: and takes particular notice of this reading. to men mellontos, hom. lxxiii. tom. 8. p. 432. Ed. Montfaucon.|} have known my Father also. That is, (says St. Chrysostom; St. Cyril; etc.) did you know me to be his true, and eternal Son, you would always know him to be the Father from all eternity. And from henceforth, especially from the coming of the Holy Ghost, you shall know him with a more perfect knowledge. And you have seen him, not as to the divine nature: in this manner, you have neither seen him, nor me. But,
John 14:8 Philip saith to him: Lord, shew us the Father, and it is enough for us.

John 14:9 Jesus saith to him: Have I been so long a time with you; and have you not known me? Philip, he that seeth me, seeth the Father also. How sayest thou, Shew us the Father?

He that seeth me, seeth the Father also:{ Ver. 9. Qui videt me, videt et Patrem. See St. Chrysostom, om od. p. 435. Nov. Ed. si alterius esset substantiae, non hoc dixisset, ei de eteras ousias en, ouk an touto eipen. See St. Cyril, p. 777.|} that is, he seeth him, who is not a man only, but who also, by my divine nature, am one and the same with the Father: so that he who believes, and as it were sees, or knows by faith, who I am, cannot but know, that I am one with my eternal Father; not one person, as the Sabellians fancied, but one in nature and substance. The ancient Fathers take notice against the Arians, that these words, and others that follow in this chapter, could not be true, if Christ was no more than a creature, though ever so perfect, there being an infinite distance betwixt God and the highest of his creatures. (Witham)
John 14:10 Do you not believe, that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I speak to you, I speak not of myself. But the Father who abideth in me, he doth the works.

Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? These words confirm the equality of the Father and the Son: nor can they be expounded of an union of affection only, by what Christ told them before. (John 5:17-19.) As the Father worketh till now, so I work: and whatsoever things the Father worketh, these also in like manner the Son doth. (Witham) --- In the Son and in the Father, there is one and the same essence, the same wisdom, the same power; so that what the Son says, he does not say it of himself, and what the Son does, he does not do it of himself; but it is the Father, who abideth in the Son, who both acts and speaks.
John 14:11 Believe you not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me?

John 14:12 Otherwise believe for the works themselves. Amen, amen, I say to you, he that believeth in me, the works that I do, he shall do also, and greater than these shall he do: because I go to the Father.

And greater than these shall he do, because I go to the Father. Christ speaks of the greatness of visible miracles, and tells them, that after his ascension, they shall be enabled, even to do greater miracles than he has yet shewn to the world. He would give this power to his disciples, who were to convert the world; and perhaps the greatest miracle of all, was the conversion of the whole world. (Witham) --- Behold another proof of my divinity, viz. the wonderful miracles those perform, who believe in me. An impostor may seduce the vulgar with false miracles, or, perhaps, with real wonderful prodigies; but he cannot confer that power on others. Behold, I have performed miracles by my own power, without any deceit, and always with a sovereign authority. I have given those, who believed in me, power to work in my name, as great, and even greater miracles, than I have done myself. All this I have done, to shew you, that I am equally God with the Father. I truly am so, then, for it would be impossible for God to assist an impostor, a liar, and an enemy to his honour and glory. (Calmet)
John 14:13 *And whatsoever you shall ask the Father in my name, that will I do: that the Father may be glorified in the Son.

Matthew 7:7.; Matthew 21:22.; Mark 11:24.; John 16:23.
That will I do. He does not now say, this the Father will do: to shew that the power of both is equal, and the same. (Witham)
John 14:14 If you shall ask me any thing in my name, that I will do.

John 14:15 If you love me, keep my commandments.

Instead of afflicting yourselves at our separation, and my going to the Father, you ought, if you truly love me, to testify your affection, by a faithful observance of my commandments. Behold, this is the best proof you can give me of your attachment: better far than any exterior sign of grief and tenderness. (St. Chrysostom)
John 14:16 And I will ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may abide with you for ever,

Paraclete. This is a comforter: or also an advocate: inasmuch as by inspiring prayer, he prays, as it were, in us, and pleads for us. --- For ever. Hence it is evident, that this spirit of truth was not only promised to the persons of the apostles, but also to their successors, through all generations. (Challoner) --- I have not changed the word Paraclete, which signifies, both and advocate and a comforter. He shall remain with you, and in you, for ever. What greater happiness, what greater security for the faithful, than to have this divine promise, the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth, remaining with the Church for ever, to protect her, and preserve her from all errors and heresies? (Witham) --- If the Holy Ghost had been promised only to the apostles, their successors could not have challenged the promise. But the promises and privileges were not merely personal, but attached to their office perpetually. Hence, the Holy Ghost, in every age and clime, perpetually watches over the Catholic Church, and preserves her from both open and secret attacks of her enemies.
John 14:17 The Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, nor knoweth him: but you shall know him; because he shall abide with you, and shall be in you.

John 14:18 I will not leave you orphans: I will come to you.

John 14:19 Yet a little while: and the world seeth me no more. But you see me: because I live, and you shall live.

The world seeth me no more, after my death; but you shall see me, conversing with you for forty days, after my resurrection. (Witham)
John 14:20 In that day, you shall know, that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you.

In that day, when I am risen again, or when the Holy Ghost is come, you shall know that I am in the Father, and how, and in what manner: as also, how I am in you, and you in me. Our Saviour Christ, on several occasions, speaks of different ways of being united, or of being one; as first, of being one in nature and substance, and by such an union, as agrees only with the divine persons, who are one in all things. 2ndly, Persons may be one, or united in affection and love, which also, as to its most perfect manner, agrees only with the three divine persons; but a similitude, and an imitation of this union of love, is found among creatures, both when they love God, and when for God's sake, they love one another: yet these unions are as different as God, and his creatures. The Arians and Socinians lay hold on these expressions, and of the words, (chap. 17:21.) when Christ prays, that his disciples may be one, as he and his Father are one, which words imply no more than a similitude, and an imitation of that union of love (with which the three divine persons love one another) though at an infinite distance. If the old or new Arians examined, with a sincere desire of finding the truth (which they ought to seek from many passages in the New Testament, as well as from the sense and tradition of the Church, guided by the promised Spirit of Truth) they might certainly find how different is the union of nature and substance of the eternal Son with his eternal Father, and of that union of the three divine persons, when they are said to be one, from that inferior and lesser union of love and affection, by which either God loves his adoptive children, his faithful servants, or they love one another: they would easily discover, that many things are said of the unity and union of the divine persons, which could not be true, unless they were one and the same God, coeternal and consubstantial, which by no means can be said of God and his creatures, nor of the union of affection only, by which the creatures love one another. (Witham)
John 14:21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them: he it is that loveth me. And he that loveth me, shall be loved of my Father: and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.

Now that Christ in this place speaks only of this imperfect union of affection, appears by the following words: he that keepeth my commandments, loveth me: and he that loveth me, shall be loved by my Father, and I will love him, and I will manifest myself to him: that is, by particular graces and favours, and by a recompense of glory in the next life. (Witham)
John 14:22 Judas saith to him, not the Iscariot, Lord, how is it, that thou wilt manifest thyself to us, and not to the world?

\f + \fr 14:22-25\ft Lord, how is it? Literally, what is done, or, what will be done, that thou art about to manifest thyself to us, and not to the world? This apostle imagined, that the Messias would make manifest his glory of a temporal kingdom, not to them only, but to all the world. But Christ, by his answer, lets him know, that he spoke only of a manifestation of his love to those that loved him. If any man love me, my Father will love him, and we will come to him, that is, the three divine persons, will come to his soul, in a special manner, so as to bless him with an infusion of graces, and make our abode in his soul. (Witham)
John 14:23 Jesus answered, and said to him: If any one love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and will make our abode with him:

John 14:24 He that loveth me not, keepeth not my words. And the word which you have heard is not mine: but the Father's who sent me.

John 14:25 These things have I spoken to you, remaining with you.

John 14:26 But the Paraclete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring all things to your mind, whatsoever I shall have said to you.

The Paraclete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, as proceeding also from me: and therefore Christ saith, in the next chapter, (ver. 26) that he himself will send him from the Father. He will teach you all things, etc. He will give you a more perfect knowledge of all those truths, which I have taught you. (Witham) --- Teach you all things. Here the Holy Ghost is promised to the apostles, and their successors, particularly, in order to teach them all truth, and to preserve them from error. (Challoner) --- The Scripture, in different places, remarks, that the apostles did not understand the accomplishment of prophecies, as soon as they were fulfilled. (Luke 24:27.) They could not draw the comparison between the actions of our Saviour, and the figures of the old law: but no sooner had the Holy Ghost descended upon them, than they explained the Scriptures, their hearts and eyes being opened and enlightened by the light of the Holy Spirit. (Calmet) --- See John 16:12-13.
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you, my peace I give to you: not as the world giveth, do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, nor let it be afraid.

John 14:28 You have heard that I said to you: I go away, and I come again to you. If you loved me, you would indeed be glad, because I go to the Father: for the Father is greater than I.

The Father is greater than I.{ Ver. 28. Pater major me est, o pater meizon mou estin. St. Chrysostom, hom. oe. p. 443. Nov. Ed. Si quis verò dixerit majorem esse Patrem, ut filii principium, non huic contradicemus, kath o aitios tou uiou, oude touto anteroumen. See St. Athanasius, Orat. 1. Cont. Arianos, p. 362. Ed. Ben. non dixit, Pater praestantior est me, kreiton mon esti, ne quis eum alium à Patris naturà, esse suspicaretur, sed major dixit, non quidem magnitudine quadam, aut tempore, sed quià ex ipso Patre gignitur, etc. See St. Augustine, tract. 78. p. 699. propter forman servi, dicit, Pater major me est, etc.|} According to the common exposition, Christ here speaks of himself, as made man, which interpretation is drawn from the circumstances of the text, Christ being at that time, going to suffer, and die, and shortly after to rise again, and ascend into heaven, all which agree with him, as man, and according to his human nature. But the Arians can take no advantage from these words, (though with divers of the ancient Fathers, we should allow them to be spoken of Christ, as the Son of God:) the Father may be said in some manner to be greater than the Son, if we consider the order of the divine processions, that is, that the Father is the first person, and proceeds from no other; whereas the Son proceeds from the Father. If any one, says St. Chrysostom, will contend, that the Father is greater, inasmuch as he is the cause, from which the Son proceedeth, we will bear with him, and this way of speaking: provided he grant that the Son is not of a different substance, or nature. St. Athanasius allows the same, and takes notice, that though the Father is said to be greater, yet he is not said to be better, nor more excellent, than the Son; because they are one and the same in substance, nature, and other perfections. (Witham) --- The enemies of the divinity of Christ here triumph, and think they have the confession of Christ himself, that he is less than the Father. But if they would distinguish the two natures of Christ, their arguments would all fall to the ground. Jesus Christ, as man, and a creature, is inferior to his Father, the Creator; but, as God, he is, in every respect, equal to him. (St. Basil, St. Augustine, etc.) --- Others, likewise, answer it thus: Following the confused opinion of the world, and even of the apostles themselves, who as yet only considered Christ as a prophet, and as a man, eminent in virtue and sanctity, he was less than the Father. (St. Chrysostom; Leont.; Theophylactus; Euthymius) --- And likewise the title of Father, (as we generally use the word) is greater, and much more honourable, than that of Son; and in this respect, Christ is inferior to his Father. (St. Athanasius; St. Hilary; St. Epiphanius; St. Gregory of Nazianzus; and St. Cyril) ---But this appellation, though really true, does not destroy the equality of the persons, because Christ has declared, in numerous other places, that he is equal to the Father; that he is in the Father; and that he and the Father are one. The apostles ought to have rejoiced that Christ was going to the Father, who was superior to him, considering him in his human nature; because, then, would the Son shew forth his honour and glory to be equal to the Father's, in heaven. This would have been a mark of a pure, solid, and disinterested love, which ought to have inspired the apostles, if they truly loved their divine Master. (Calmet) --- Protestants assume to themselves the liberty of making the Bible only, the exclusive rule of faith, yet refuse this privilege to others. Thus Luther insisted, that his catechism should be taught, and followed. Calvin burnt Servetus for explaining his faith, by his own interpretation of the Bible, particularly of these words, the Father is greater than 1:The Church of England compels every clergyman to swear to the Thirty-nine Articles, and has inflicted the severest penalties on such as interpreted the Bible according to the principles of Socinus; and on Catholics, who understand the words of Jesus Christ, This is my body: this is my blood, in the literal and obvious sense of the words. As long as each individual is at liberty to expound Scripture by the private spirit, it is a great injustice to compel any one, by penal laws, to yield his judgment to any authority, that is not less fallible than his own.
John 14:29 And now I have told you before it come to pass: that when it shall come to pass, you may believe.

John 14:30 I will not now speak many things with you. For the prince of this world cometh, and in me he hath not any thing.

John 14:31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, *and as the Father hath given me commandment, so I do. Arise, let us go hence.

Acts 2:23.
As the Father hath given me commandment, so I do. --- He again speaks of himself, as man. Arise, let us go hence. Yet by John 18:1. Christ still continued the like instructions, either in the same place, or in the way to Gethsemani. (Witham)
John 15:0 A continuation of Christ's discourse to his disciples.

John 15:1 I am the true vine; and my Father is the husbandman.

I am the true vine. Christ, says St. Augustine, speaks of himself, as man, when he compares himself to a vine, his disciples to the branches, and his Father to the husbandman. He himself, as God, is also the husbandman. --- Without me, you can do nothing, that shall be meritorious of a reward in heaven. (Witham) --- These words are supposed to have been spoken by our Saviour, when on the road, as he was going from the house, where he had supped, to the garden of Olives. It was then about midnight. (Calmet) --- Though many other interpreters think they were spoken before Jesus Christ left the house.
John 15:2 Every branch in me, that beareth not fruit, he will take away: and every one that beareth fruit, he will purge it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

He here shews, that the virtuous themselves stand in need of the help of the husbandman; therefore the Almighty sends them tribulations, and temptations, that they may be cleansed, and rendered firm, like the vine, which, the more it is pruned, the more vigorous are its shoots. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxv. in Joan.)
John 15:3 *Now you are clean, by reason of the word, which I have spoken to you.

John 13:10.
See John 13:10.
John 15:4 Remain in me: and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abide in the vine: so neither can you, unless you abide in me.

John 15:5 I am the vine: you the branches: he that abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit: for without me you can do nothing.

John 15:6 If any one remaineth not in me, he shall be cast forth as a branch, and shall wither, and they shall gather him up, and cast him into the fire, and he burneth.

John 15:7 If you remain in me, and my words remain in you: you shall ask whatever you will, and it shall be done to you.

On account of our being in this world, we sometimes ask for that, which is not expedient for us. But these things will not be granted us, if we remain in Christ, who never grants us any thing, unless it be profitable to us. (St. Augustine, tract. 81. in Joan.) --- If we abide in Christ, by a lively faith, and his words abide in us by a lively, ardent charity, which can make us produce the fruits of good works, all that we ask, will be granted us. (Bible de Vence) --- These conditional expressions, if you remain in the vine, if you keep my commandments, etc. give us to understand, that our perseverance and salvation are upon conditions, to be fulfilled by us. --- (St. Augustine, de cor. et gra. John 13.)
John 15:8 In this is my Father glorified, that you bring forth very much fruit, and become my disciples.

It is the glory of the husbandman, to see his vine well cultivated, and laden with fruit. And it is the glory of God, my Father, to see you filled with faith, charity, and good works, and to behold you usefully employed, in the conversion of others. Then will men, seeing your good works, and the fruit of your preaching, among all nations, glorify your heavenly Father, as the author of all these blessings. (St. Matthew 5:16.) (Calmet)
John 15:9 As the Father hath loved me, I also have loved you. Remain in my love.

John 15:10 If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love, as I also have kept my Father's commandments, and do remain in his love.

As I also have kept my Father's commandments. He still speaks of himself, as man. (Witham) --- This frequent admonition, of keeping the commandments, proveth, that a Christian's life consists not in faith only, but in good works. (Bristow)
John 15:11 These things I have spoken to you: that my joy may be in you, and your joy may be filled.

John 15:12 *This is my commandment, that you love one another, as I have loved you.

John 13:34.; Ephesians 5:1.; 1 Thessalonians 4:9.
John 15:13 Greater love than this no man hath, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

John 15:14 You are my friends, if you do the things that I command you.

You are my friends. A wonderful condescension, says St. Augustine, in our blessed Redeemer, who was God as well as man, to call such poor and sinful creatures, his friends; who, when we have done all we can, and ought, are still but unprofitable servants. I have called you my friends, because I have made known to you, etc. We can only understand these words, as St. Chrysostom takes notice, of all things which they were capable of understanding, or which it was proper to communicate to them; for, as Christ tells them in the next chapter (ver. 12.) I have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. (Witham)
John 15:15 I will not now call you servants: for the servant knoweth not what his lord doth. But I have called you friends: because all things whatsoever I have heard from my Father, I have made known to you.

John 15:16 You have not chosen me: but I have chosen you, and have appointed you, *that you should go, and should bring forth fruit, and your fruit should remain: that whatsoever you shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you.

Matthew 28:19.
O ineffable grace! For what were we, before Christ chose us, but wretched and abandoned creatures? Such we were; but now we are chosen, in order that we may become good by the grace of Him that hath chosen us. (St. Augustine, tract. 86. in Joan.)
John 15:17 *These things I command you, that you love one another.

1 John 3:11.; 1 John 4:7.
John 15:18 If the world hate you, know ye that it hath hated me before you.

If the world hate you. The wicked, unbelieving world, hate and persecute you, as they have done me; remember, that the servant must not desire to be treated better than his master. (Witham)
John 15:19 If you had been of the world, the world would love its own; but because you are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.

John 15:20 Remember my word that I said to you: *The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, **they will also persecute you: if they have kept my word, they will keep yours also.

John 13:16.; Matthew 10:24. --- ** Matthew 24:9.
Here Christ predicts, that many will be deaf to the words of his Church, as they have neglected to attend to his precepts.
John 15:21 But all these things they will do to you for my name's sake: because they know not him that sent me.

John 15:22 If I had not come, and spoken to them, they would not have sin: but now they have no excuse for their sin.

They would not have sin, or would not be guilty of sin: that is, they might be excused, as to their not believing me to be their Messias: but after so many instructions, which I have given them, and so many, and such miracles done in their sight, which also were foretold of their Messias, they can have no excuse for their obstinate sin of unbelief. They have hated both me, and my Father: that is, by hating me, the true Son, who have one and the same nature with my Father, they have also hated him, though they pretend to honour him as God. See on this chapter St. Augustine (tract. 81.) and St. Chrysostom (hom. lxxvi.) in the Latin edition, hom. lxxvii. in Joan. in the Greek.
John 15:23 He that hateth me, hateth my Father also.

John 15:24 If I had not done among them the works that no other man hath done, they would not have sin: but now they have both seen, and hated both me and my Father.

How can this be true, that Christ wrought greater wonders than any one else had ever done? We find recounted in the Old Testament, the miracles of Elias and Eliseus, who raised the dead to life, healed the sick, and brought down fire from heaven; of Moses, who afflicted Egypt with plagues, divided the Red Sea, for the passage of the Israelites, and brought water from the rock; of Josue, who stopped the waters of the Jordan, for the passage of the children of Israel, and in the battle of Gabaon, made the sun and moon stand still; in all which miracles, there appeared a greater manifestation of power, than in any of the miracles wrought by our Saviour, during his ministry. But to this may be answered, that the miracles of our Saviour were much more numerous than those of any of the saints of the Old Testament, even of Moses himself; particularly when we compare the few years which he preached, and manifested the glory of his Father by his miracles, with the long life of Moses: Christ did not preach full four years, whereas Moses governed the people forty years. Again, if the miracles of Jesus were not of so astonishing a nature, at least they always had for their object, the healing of the sick, and the good of the people; which the prophets have given us, as the distinguishing characteristics of the miracles of the Messias. Add to this, the ease and authority with which he performs them, which are most sensible proofs of their superiority. But what chiefly distinguishes his miracles, from those of the other saints, is, that he performed them in proof of his divinity, and of his mission, as the deliverer of Israel: whereas the prophets only perform miracles, as the ministers of the Lord, and as so many voices, which foretold the Messias. Besides, if the ancient saints could work miracles, they never could confer that power upon others, as Christ did upon his disciples, of which the Jews themselves were witnesses, in all the places whither Christ sent his disciples. We omit mentioning his resurrection, which at this time he had not performed, but had already foretold, and which was the greatest miracle that has ever been performed. (Calmet)
John 15:25 But that the word may be fulfilled which is written in their law: *They have hated me without cause.

Psalm 24:19.
John 15:26 *But when the Paraclete is come, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father, he shall give testimony of me:

Luke 24:49.
Whom I will send. The Holy Ghost is sent by the Son: therefore he proceedeth from him also, as from the Father; though the schismatical Greeks think differently; (Bristow) otherwise, as Dr. Challoner says, he could not be sent by the Son.
John 15:27 And you shall give testimony, because you are with me from the beginning.

You shall give. He vouchsafes to join together the testimony of the Holy Ghost, and of the apostles; that we may see the testimony of truth, jointly to consist in the Holy Ghost, and in the prelates of the Catholic Church. See Acts 15:28.
John 16:0 The conclusion of Christ's last discourse to his disciples.

John 16:1 These things have I spoken to you, that you may not be scandalized.

Which the persecutions you will have to suffer, on the part of man, may possibly occasion, particularly with the weak.
John 16:2 They will put you out of the synagogues: yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you, will think that he doth a service to God.

John 16:3 And these things will they do to you, because they have not known the Father, nor me.

John 16:4 But these things I have told you: that when the hour of them shall come, you may remember that I told you.

That when the hour of them shall come{ Ver. 4. Ut cum venerit hora eorum, reminiscamini quia Ego dixi vobis, otan elthe e ora, mnemoneuete auton, etc. where the construction is not hora eorum, but reminiscamini eorum, etc.|} , you may remember that I told you. This is both the sense and the construction, by the Greek text, which here determines the construction of the Latin. (Witham)
John 16:5 But I told you not these things from the beginning, because I was with you: And now I go to him that sent me: and none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou?

None of you asketh me, whither goest thou? St. Peter had put this question, John 13:36. and Thomas, chap 14:5. The meaning, then, of Christ's words here, seems to be, that having told you, I am going to leave you, and also going to him that sent me, you do not ask, says St. Cyril, to be fully and thoroughly informed about it. (Witham) --- You suffer yourselves to be entirely overcome with grief; and none of you inquire of me, whither I am going. You look on my departure as an eternal separation between us, and take leave of me, as if we were never to meet again. But be persuaded; my absence will only be for a short continuance; and this absence will be honourable and glorious for me, and extremely advantageous for you. If you were fully persuaded of this, you would inquire, how long I should be absent, and whither I was going; as one friend in the act of parting, is always accustomed to ask another. But you only torture your minds with the pain and grief you will have to suffer at my loss. (Menochius, Tirinus, etc.)
John 16:6 But because I have spoken these things to you, sorrow hath filled your heart.

Sorrow hath filled your heart: and this sorrow hindereth you from asking, what you should earnestly desire to know. (Witham) --- Peter had put the question above, John 13:36. and Thomas, John 14:5. But Jesus Christ means, that they did not persevere in their questions, so as to obtain satisfactory information, where, when, and for what end he was going, and how soon he was to return to them, or if to return at all. For it is customary with friends, to put the most minute questions on all these heads to friends, when they are about to be separated from each other. (Menochius)
John 16:7 But I tell you the truth: it is expedient for you that I go: for if I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you: but if I go, I will send him to you.

I tell you ... it is expedient for you that I go: that I leave you, as to my corporal presence: that I suffer death, for the redemption of all men. And if I go not, the Paraclete will not come, according to the order of the divine decrees: his coming to sanctify you with his gifts, and to teach you all things, is not to be till after my ascension. When I am gone, I will send him to you. The Father and I will send him, for he proceedeth from both. (Witham)
John 16:8 And when he is come, he will convince the world of sin, and of justice, and of judgment.

He will convince{ Ver. 8. Arguet mundum, elegxei, which St. Cyril expounds by katakrine. See St. Augustine interpretation on that verse, tract 95. p. 733.|}, or convict the world. Others translate, he will reprove the world of sin, etc. These words have occasioned a great many expositions. I here follow St. Cyril, that the Holy Ghost will condemn the Jews, and all obstinate unbelievers, of their sin, in not believing, after so many miracles, and so many pregnant motives, that ought to induce them to submit to the Christian faith. 2ndly, Of justice, by shewing the justice and innocence of Christ, and also, that true justice and sanctification cannot be obtained, but by his grace. 3rdly, Of judgment, by shewing that the world, and the prince of this wicked world, the devil, is justly condemned, his empire in a great measure destroyed, and that all the wicked will be justly condemned, and punished with him. (Witham) --- The Holy Ghost, by his coming, brought over many thousands, 1st, To a sense of their sin, in not believing in Christ. 2ndly, To a conviction of the justice of Christ, now sitting at the right hand of his Father. And 3rdly, To a right apprehension of the judgment prepared for them that choose to follow Satan, who is already judged and condemned. (Challoner) --- The Greek text, in addition, has oti ou pisteuousin eis eme. Because they have not believed in me. This accusation and conviction of sin, cannot naturally fall on any, but the incredulous Jews. St. Augustine, Ven. Bede, St. Chrysostom, Theophylactus, and many others, are of opinion, that this sin was their unbelief in Jesus, after all the miracles he had done in their presence, after so many prophecies so clearly accomplished in his person, after so many prodigies and wonders, which happened at his death, at his resurrection, and after his resurrection. They are accused, and convinced of sin, particularly by sensible effects of the Holy Spirit, in the apostles, by the gift of miracles and tongues, and that supernatural knowledge, which was communicated, not only to the apostles, but also to all the first Christians. These are the means, which the Paraclete, the consoling and assisting Spirit, makes us of, to condemn, and convince the world of sin; that is, of incredulity, which is the source and foundation of all other sins. The world had calumniated and despised its Saviour. It had condemned him, as a liar, as a seducer, magician, a man possessed by the devil, a destroyer of the law of God. To which the Son of God made no resistance; he only replied, that he did not wish to take the execution of justice upon himself, and that he was not come into the world to judge the world. Therefore, he committed all to the Holy Spirit, who, in the persons of the apostles, did justice to the Son, by shewing to the whole world, his doctrines, his life, his miracles, and the accomplishment of all the ancient prophecies in his person. All that the apostles preached, they confirmed by most stupendous miracles, gained the hearts of pagans to believe Jesus as their Redeemer, and called down imprecations upon the heads of the incredulous Jews, who had rejected a prophet, visibly sent by God, a Saviour and Redeemer of his people, who, in his person, bore all the characters of the divinity. (Calmet)
John 16:9 Of sin indeed: because they have not believed in me.

John 16:10 And of justice: because I go to the Father, and you shall see me no longer:

John 16:11 And of judgment: because the prince of this world is already judged.

John 16:12 I have yet many things to say to you: but you cannot bear them now.

John 16:13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will teach you all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak: and the things that are to come, he will shew you.

When he, the Spirit of Truth, is come, he will teach you all truth; will direct you and the Church, in the ways of truth. For he shall not speak of himself, or of himself only, because, says St. Augustine, he is not from himself, but proceedeth from the Father and the Son. Whatsoever he shall hear, he shall speak{ Ver. 13. Non loquetur a semetipso, St. Augustine says on these words, (tract 99.) quia non est a semetipso. Sed quaecunque audiet, loquetur ... ab illo audiet, a quo procedit ... a quo est illi essentia, ab illo scientia; et audientia nihil aliud est quam scientia.|}; this his hearing, says St. Augustine, is his knowledge, and his knowledge is his essence, or being, which from eternity is from the Father and the Son. The like expressions are applied to the Son, as proceeding from the Father. (John 5:30.; 8:16.; etc.) (Witham) --- If he shall teach all truth, and that for ever, (John 11:26.) how is it possible, that the Church can err, or hath erred in matters of faith, at any time, or in any point of doctrine? In this supposition, would not the Holy Ghost have forfeited his title of Spirit of Truth?
John 16:14 He shall glorify me: because he shall receive of mine, and will declare it to you.

John 16:15 All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine. Therefore, I said, that he shall receive of mine, and will shew it to you.

All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine. The obvious sense of these words, shews, that the Son hath the same nature, and the same substance with the Father, and that he is one, and the same God with him. And by Christ's adding: therefore he (the Holy Ghost) shall receive of mine, we are taught, that the third person proceeds from both the Father, and the Son, and that he receives, and has the same perfections. (Witham)
John 16:16 A little while, and now you shall not see me, and again a little while, and you shall see me: because I go to the Father.

A little while, and now you shall not see me, etc. Many expound these words in this manner: that after a little while, you shall not see me, because even to-morrow, I shall be taken from you by death: and again, after a little while, you shall see me, because the third day I shall rise again, and converse with you, till my ascension. St. Augustine gives another interpretation, (tract. 101.) that by the first little while, may be understood, the short time till Christ's ascension, and by the latter little while, the short time that the apostles were to live in this world; after which they should see, and enjoy Christ for ever in the kingdom of heaven. And this exposition seems to agree better with the following promise. (Witham) --- In a few hours, I shall be separated from you, to be delivered up to my enemies, and put to the cruel death of the cross; and after a short time, I shall rise again; then you shall see me in my new state of glory. St. Chrysostom, both Sts. Cyrils, Theophylactus, Euthymius, St. Augustine, and others, interpret this verse differently; thus: Not long hence, I shall be entirely separated from you; you shall not see me, because I shall go to the Father, by my ascension; but you shall see me again, after a short time, at my second coming, to judge the living and the dead. All the time, that shall pass between my ascension, and my second coming, is in the eyes of God only as a moment. For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday, which is past and gone. (Psalm lxxxix. ver. 4.) And the apostle calls all time a moment, a time that soon passes. (1 Corinthians vii. and 2 Corinthians iv.)
John 16:17 Then some of his disciples said one to another, What is this that he saith to us: A little while, and you shall not see me, and again a little while, and you shall see me: and because I go to the Father?

John 16:18 They said therefore, What is this that he saith, A little while? we know not what he speaketh.

John 16:19 And Jesus knew that they wished to ask him: and he said to them: Of this do you inquire among yourselves, because I said, A little while, and you shall not see me; and again a little while, and you shall see me.

John 16:20 Amen, amen, I say to you, that you shall lament and weep, but the world shall rejoice; and you shall be made sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy.

Your sorrow shall be turned into joy, chiefly at the end of your mortal life; then you shall have a joy, never to be taken from you. (Witham)
John 16:21 A woman, when she is in labour, hath sorrow, because her hour is come: but when she hath brought forth the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world.

John 16:22 So also you now indeed have sorrow; but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice: and your joy no man shall take from you.

The joy you will feel at my resurrection, shall ever be unalterable, and unremitting, because there I shall give you assurances and proofs of your future resurrection, and immortality. As you have been partakers in my labours, in my ignominies, and in my sorrows, so also shall you have a share in my glory, in my resurrection, and immortal bliss. Behold, these will rise to your ever unalterable and permanent joy. This is the opinion of St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, Theophylactus, and others.
John 16:23 And in that day you shall not ask me any thing. *Amen, amen, I say to you: If you ask the Father any thing in my name, he will give it you.

Matthew 7:7.; Matthew 21:22.; Mark 11:24.; Luke 11:9.; John 14:13.; James 1:5.
In that day{ Ver. 23. Non me rogabitis quicquam, ouk erotesate, which commonly signifies to ask questions: but when it follows, aitesete ton patera, this is properly to petition for.|}, or at that time, in that happy state, you shall not ask, you shall not need to ask me any questions: nor even desire to have any happiness, but what you will enjoy. But now if you ask, that is, petition for any thing of the Father in my name, he will give it you, whatever graces or assistances you stand in need of: ask them in my name, as I am your chief Mediator, through whose merits all shall be granted you. This is the constant practice of the Church, to ask for all graces through our Lord Jesus Christ. (Witham) --- In my name. In consequence of this promise, the Church concludeth all her prayers, even those that are addressed to the saints, Per Christum Dominum nostrum, through Christ our Lord.
John 16:24 Hitherto you have not asked any thing in my name: Ask, and you shall receive, that your joy may be full.

Hitherto you have not asked any thing in my name: by the merits of me, your Mediator and Redeemer. They were not yet acquainted, says St. Cyril, with this manner of praying and petitioning, as they were afterwards. (Witham)
John 16:25 These things I have spoken to you in proverbs. The hour cometh, when I will no more speak to you in proverbs, but will shew you plainly of the Father.

John 16:26 In that day you shall ask in my name, and I say not to you, that I will ask the Father for you.

\f + \fr 16:26-27\ft In that day ... I say not to you that I will ask the Father for you, or shall need to ask the Father for you, though I am your Redeemer, your chief Advocate and Mediator, by dying for all the world. --- For the Father himself loveth you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from God, sent to be your Redeemer. --- I came forth from the Father, both as begotten of him from all eternity; and I also came into the world, as sent from him to become man, to become the Redeemer of the world, both as God and man. Now I am going, as man, to leave the world, and go to the Father, with whom I am, and have always been, as God. (Witham)
John 16:27 For the Father himself loveth you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from God.

John 16:28 I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again I leave the world, and I go to the Father.

John 16:29 His disciples say to him: Behold now thou speakest plainly, and speakest no proverb.

In this we believe that thou camest forth from God; that is, we are more confirmed than ever, that thou art the Messias, the true Son of God. Yet St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, and St. Augustine, take notice, that their faith was but imperfect, till after Christ's resurrection, and the coming of the Holy Ghost; and therefore Christ answered them, (ver. 31. etc.) Now do you believe? the hour cometh, that you shall be dispersed, etc. (Witham)
John 16:30 Now we know that thou knowest all things, and thou needest not that any man ask thee: by this we believe, that thou camest forth from God.

John 16:31 Jesus answered them: Do you now believe?

John 16:32 *Behold the hour cometh, and is now come, that you shall be dispersed, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me.

Matthew 26:31.; Mark 14:27.
John 16:33 These things I have spoken to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you shall have distress: but have confidence, I have overcome the world.

John 17:0 Christ's prayer for his disciples.

John 17:1 These things Jesus spoke, and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said; Father, the hour is come, glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee.

Glorify thy Son, by signs and miracles, lest dying so disgraceful a death, I seem to be no more than another man: that thy Son may glorify thee, that my death may make thee praised and glorified. (Witham)
John 17:2 *As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he may give life everlasting to all whom thou hast given him.

Matthew 28:18.
Power over all flesh, that he may give life everlasting to all{ Ver. 2. Ut omne quod dedisti ei, det eis vitam aeternam, ina pan o dedokas outo, dose autios zoen aionion. That is, ut omnibus quos dedisti, etc.|} whom thou hast given him. He speaks of himself, as made man, and the Redeemer of mankind. If we ask, who are they, who in this sense are said to be given to Christ: it is true, only the elect, or predestined, are given by a special and uncommon mercy. In this sense St. Augustine, (tract. 111. p. 779.) They are not said to be given, to whom he shall not give life everlasting. Yet not only the elect, but all believers, nay, all men whatsoever, may be said to be given to him, inasmuch as by his coming to redeem all, sufficient helps and means are offered to all men, whereby they may be saved: and inasmuch as Christ came, suffered, died, and offered up his death for all men. See 2 Corinthians 5:15. (Witham) --- Thou hast given him power over all flesh: by this our Saviour shewed, that his preaching was directed, not to the Jews only, but to every nation of the earth. Are then all saved? Christ has done sufficient for the salvation of all, and if they are not saved, it is the fault, not of him that speaketh, but of those that receive not his word. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxix. in Joan.)
John 17:3 Now this is life everlasting, that they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.

This is life everlasting; that is, the way to life everlasting, that they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent{ Ver. 3. Ut cognoscant te, etc. St. Augustine, tract. 105. p. 671. Ordo Verborum est, ut te, et quem misisti Jesum Christum, cognoscant solum verum Deum. See also St. Ambrose (lib. v. de fide, ch. II. t. 4. p. 138.) where he treats of this verse at large. St. Chrysostom gives this interpretation (hom. lxxix.) Solum verum Deum, etc. ad eorum qui dii non sunt differentiam. In the Greek, (hom. lxxx. p. 474. t. 8.) Ed. Montfaucon. pros autidiastolen ton ouk onton theon phesi. See likewise St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orat. xxxvi. p. 586.|}. The Arians, from these words, pretended that the Father only is the true God. St. Augustine and divers others answer, that the sense and construction is, that they may know thee, and also Jesus Christ thy Son, whom thou hast sent to be the only true God. We may also expound them with St. Chrysostom and others, so that the Father is here called the only true God, not to exclude the Son, and the Holy Ghost, who are the same one true God with the Father; but only to exclude the false gods of the Gentiles. Let the Socinians take notice, that (1 John 5:20.) the Son of God, Jesus Christ, is expressly called the true God, even with the Greek article, upon which they commonly lay so much stress. (Witham) --- Life everlasting. Both the life of glory in heaven, and of grace here, consisteth in the knowledge of God; the former in perfect vision, the latter in faith working by charity. For knowledge of God, without keeping his commandments, is not true knowledge, but unprofitable knowledge. (1 John xi.[ii.?])
John 17:4 I have glorified thee upon the earth: I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do:

John 17:5 And now glorify thou me, O Father, with thyself, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.

And now, glorify thou me, O Father, with thyself, with the glory which I had with thee, before the world was. Glorify me, is the same as make me known to men; so that the sense may be, make men know, that I had the same glory with thee, before the world was created, and from all eternity. Others understand, that Christ as man, here prays that his eternal Father would make known to men, that glory, which it was decreed from eternity should be given him: that is, that all creatures should be made subject to him, even as he was man, and appointed to be judge of the living and the dead. See 1 Corinthians 15:26; Ephesians 1:22. (Witham)
John 17:6 I have manifested thy name to the men whom thou hast given me out of the world. Thine they were, and to me thou gavest them: and they have kept thy word.

To the men whom thou gavest me out of the world. By whom we may understand his apostles and disciples. They were thine, and also mine, as I am God. See ver. 10. --- And to me thou gavest them, inasmuch as I am become man, their Saviour, their Redeemer, etc. (Witham) --- Had then the Father any thing which the Son had not? By no means. But Christ, as Son of God, had from eternity what he had not as Son of man; because he had not yet taken flesh of his virgin mother. All that he had as God, he attributes to his Father. (St. Augustine, tract. 106. in Joan.)
John 17:7 Now they have known that all things which thou hast given me are from thee.

\f + \fr 17:7-8\ft Now they have known that all things which thou gavest me, are from thee. That is, says St. Augustine,{ Ver. 7. Quia omnia quae dedisti mihi, abs te sunt. That is, says St. Augustine, (tract. 106. p. 767.) cognoverunt, quia abs te sum, etc.|} they now know, and will know more perfectly hereafter, that I myself am from thee, or proceed from thee, and am sent by thee to redeem the world. (Witham)
John 17:8 Because the words which thou gavest me, I have given to them: and they have received them, and have known for certain that I came forth from thee, and they have believed that thou didst send me.

John 17:9 I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them whom thou hast given me: because they are thine:

I pray for them, I pray not for the world. That is, now in this prayer, when I desire special graces and assistances for them, to discharge their duty, as my apostles; yet we must take notice, that (ver. 20.) Christ prays for all those, who should believe in him. He also prayed (Luke 23:34.) for all, even for those that crucified him, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. (Witham) --- The prayer I now offer up to thee, O my Father, is all in behalf of my disciples, it is not for the world. I pray not now for the incredulous Jews, nor for such of the Gentiles as shall afterwards believe in me; for them I will pray at another time. At present I speak to thee for my apostles only: they call for my first care, because they are thine, and thou has given them to me. (Calmet) --- Jesus Christ prayed with an absolute and an efficacious prayer, for all those, for whom his prayer was to be heard: he begged for them, whatever his Father had predestined to give them; but he asked for nothing, that his Father had predestined not to give them.
John 17:10 And all mine are thine, and thine are mine: and I am glorified in them.

And all mine are thine, and thine are mine. They must needs be equal, says St. Augustine, to whom equally belong all things, and all persons; on which words St. Chrysostom also says, (hom. lxxxi.) Do you see the equality? (Witham) --- And all mine are thine, and thine are mine: as if he said: whatever thou hast given to me, remains still thine, for mine are thine; and whatever is thine, is likewise mine, for thine are all mine. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxx. in Joan.)
John 17:11 And now I am no more in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name, whom thou hast given me: that they may be one, as we also are.

And now I am no more in the world: that is, I am now leaving the world, as to a corporeal and visible presence: yet St. Augustine takes notice, that Christ saith afterwards, (ver. 13.) these things I speak in the world: therefore he was still for some short time in the world. And as to his true invisible presence with his Church, he gave us this promise, (Matthew 28:20.) Behold I am with you all days, even to the end of the world. --- Keep them in thy name, whom thou hast given me.{ Ver. 11. Serva eos in nomine tuo, quos dedisti mihi. Some Greek manuscripts have in nomine tuo, quod dedisti mihi, o dedokas moi. Or, as St. Cyril reads, en onomati sou o dedokas moi. which is the same by a Grecism, as o dedokas. --- Ut sint unum sicut et nos. St. Chrysostom says, non aequalitate, sed pro homana facultate, or quantum hominibus fas est, os anthropois dunaton. (hom. pb. p. 484.) nov. Ed. Ben.|} Christ, as man, says St. Augustine, asks of his Father, to preserve those disciples whom he had given him, who were to preach the gospel to the world. --- That they may be one, as we also are. These words cannot signify an equality, nor to be one in nature and substance, as the divine persons are one, but only that they may imitate, as much as they are able, that union of love and affection. See St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, and St. Augustine on these words. (Witham) --- Here Jesus Christ prays especially, that the apostles and his Church may be kept in unity of religion, and free from schism.
John 17:12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name. *Those whom thou gavest me, I have kept: and none of them hath perished, but the son of perdition, **that the Scripture may be fulfilled.

John 18:9. --- ** Psalm 108:8.
While I was with them, I kept them in thy name.{ Ver. 12. Cum essem, cum eis, etc. He speaks, says St. Chrysostom, as man, os anthropos dialegetai. (hom. pa. p. 480.) --- In the same place, nisi filius perditionis, ei me, etc. nisi, it is not, alla, sed. --- Non perdom, that is, says St. Chrysostom in the same place, quantum in me erit, non perdam ... non me impellente, vel relinguente: quod si spontè resiliant, non ex necessitate traham. ei de aph eauton apodedosi, pros anagken ouch elko. St. Augustine, Quomodo diabolus intravit in cor Judae, non intraret, nisi ille locum daret.|} He still speaks, says St. Chrysostom, as man, and after a human manner, by mentioning the advantage they seemed to enjoy, as long as he conversed visibly with them on earth, not that his invisible presence should be less beneficial to them. --- And none of them hath perished, except the son of perdition, the wretched Judas, whose fall was foretold in the Scriptures. (Psalm cviii.) He hath perished, that is, now is about being lost, by his own fault, says St. Chrysostom on this place. And St. Augustine on Psalm cxxxviii. How did the devil enter into the heart of Judas? he could not have entered, had not he given him place. (Witham) --- That the Scripture may be fulfilled: this does not any ways shew, that it was the will of God that Judas should be lost; but only that what happened to Judas was conformable to the prophecies, and not occasioned by them. Who will doubt, says St. Augustine, (lib. de Unit. Eccl. ch. IX.) but that Judas might, if he pleased, have abstained from betraying Christ. But God foretold it, because he foresaw clearly the future perversity of his disposition. (Calmet) --- See above, (chap. 13:18.) one of the principal passages of Scripture relative to the treachery of Judas, in which the traitor's crime had been predicted.
John 17:13 And now I come to thee: and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy filled in themselves.

John 17:14 I have given them thy word, and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world: as I also am not of the world.

He tells his Father the reason why the world hated them, because they were not of the world. By generation, indeed, they were of the world; but by regeneration, they were not of the world. Thus they became like to himself, being born again of that Holy Spirit, by whose all powerful operation, he took upon himself the form of a servant. But although they were not of the world, still was it necessary that they should remain in the world; therefore he continues, I ask not that thou wouldst take them out of the world. (St. Augustine, tract. 107. in Joan.)
John 17:15 I do not ask that thou take them away out of the world, but that thou preserve them from evil.

John 17:16 They are not of the world: as I also am not of the world.

John 17:17 Sanctify them in truth. Thy word is truth.

John 17:18 As thou hast sent me into the world, I also have sent them into the world.

As thou hast sent me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. He speaks of that mission, which agreed with him, as man, and become man for the salvation of mankind, to which also the apostles, and their successors were to co-operate, as the ministers and instruments of Christ, by virtue of their mission from him. (Witham) --- For the same intent as Christ himself was sent, were the apostles sent also: whence St. Paul says, God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, and he has placed in us the word of reconciliation. (2 Corinthians 5:19.) (Glossarium.)
John 17:19 And for them do I sanctify myself: that they also may be sanctified in truth.

And for them do I sanctify myself{ Ver. 19. Sanctifico meipsum. Quid est hoc, says St. Augustine, (tract. 108.) nisi eos in meipso Sanctifico, quoniam membra ejus sunt? St. Chrysostom, (hom. pb. p. 484) Offero tibi Sacrificium, prosphero soi thusian. St. Cyril says the same, lib. xi. in Joan. p. 989.|}. St. Augustine expounds it, I sanctify them, who are my members, in myself. The interpretation of St. Chrysostom and St. Cyril, seems preferable, that to sanctify in the style of Scriptures, is oftentimes the same as to offer up a sacrifice: so the sense here is, I sacrifice, and offer up myself on the cross for them and all mankind. (Witham) --- By this Christ shews, that he sanctified the apostles, by sanctifying himself; because they are the members of his body. (St. Augustine, tract. 107. in Joan.) --- Or, according to St. Chrysostom, I offer myself up to be the victim in their behalf. For victims, and whatever is dedicated to God, are called holy. He, their head, was offered up, and they also are immolated, according to that of the apostle, Romans xii. Exhibit your members a living sacrifice, holy, etc. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxi. in Joan.)
John 17:20 And not for them only do I pray, but for those also who through their word shall believe in me.

After having prayed for his apostles in particular, he now begins to pray for all that would afterwards, by their preaching, believe in his name; (St. Augustine, tract. 109. in Joan.) and by this he likewise comforts his disciples, shewing them, that they would prove the instruments of the salvation of others. (St. Chrysostom, hom. 80. in Joan.) --- This divine prayer of Jesus Christ is a great comfort to all Christians; it is introduced in the holy Canon of the Mass, before the consecration, as here it was made just before his visible sacrifice on the cross. (Bristow)
John 17:21 That they all may be one, as thou, Father, in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me:

Christ does pray that his disciples may be one, as he and his heavenly Father are one; not that the unity may resemble the unity of persons in the divinity, by a perfect and exact likeness; but only as far as it is possible for men to imitate the perfections of God, as when he says, "Be ye merciful as your heavenly Father is merciful." (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxi. in Joan.)
John 17:22 And the glory which thou hast given me, I have given to them: that they may be one, as we also are one.

The glory which thou gavest me, I have given to them. St. Chrysostom expounds this of the power of working miracles: St. Augustine rather understands the glory of heaven, which he had given, prepared, and designed to give them in heaven. This seems to be the sense by the 24th verse, where he says, Father, I will that where I am, they also whom thou hast given me, may be with me. (Witham)
John 17:23 I in them, and thou in me: that they may be made perfect in one: and the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast also loved me.

John 17:24 Father, I will that where I am, they also whom thou hast given me, may be with me: that they may see my glory, which thou hast given me: because thou hast loved me before the foundation of the world.

John 17:25 Just Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee: and these have known, that thou hast sent me.

John 17:26 And I have made known thy name to them, and will make it known: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me, may be in them, and I in them.

I will make thy name known to them, by giving them, by means of the Holy Ghost, a perfect knowledge. For if they know Thee, they will likewise know that I am not different from Thee, but thy own well begotten Son. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxi. in Joan.)
John 18:0 The history of the Passion of Christ.

John 18:1 When *Jesus had said these things, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where there was a garden, into which he entered with his disciples.

2 Kings 15:23.; Matthew 26:36.; Mark 14:32.; Luke 22:39.
Over the torrent, or brook Cedron,{ Ver. 1. Cedron, not Cedrorum. In most Greek copies, ton Kedron. In some manuscripts tou Kedron. So the Protestant translation, the brook Cedron.|} which ran betwixt Jerusalem and Mount Olivet, in the valley of Cedron, or of Hennom, or of Josaphat, not of Cedars, as in many Greek copies. See the history of Christ's Passion. (Matthew xxvi. and xxvii.) (Witham)
John 18:2 Now Judas also, who betrayed him, knew the place: because Jesus had often resorted thither together with his disciples.

John 18:3 *Judas, therefore, having received a band of soldiers, and servants, from the chief priests and the Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns, and torches, and weapons.

Matthew 26:47.; Mark 14:43.; Luke 22:47.
John 18:4 Jesus, therefore, knowing all things that were to come upon him, went forward, and said to them: Whom seek ye?

John 18:5 They answered him; Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith to them; I am he. And Judas also, who betrayed him, stood with them.

Jesus here asks them, whom they were seeking, not as if he were ignorant of their errand, but to shew them, that of their own power they could do nothing, because, though he, whom they sought, was present, and stood before them, yet, they did not know him. (Theophylactus) --- The darkness of the night could not have been the reason why they did not see him, because, as the evangelist observes, they had lanterns and torches with them, and if they could not see him, at least they might have known him by his voice; for how could Judas, their leader, who was one of his own apostles, be unable to know him by his voice. (St. Chrysostom)
John 18:6 As soon then, as he had said to them; I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

Jesus again shews the Jews his power, and works another miracle before them, to give them another opportunity of being converted; but they would not: they still persevere in their hardness of heart; he therefore now delivers himself up to them, as now they can have no excuse for their incredulity. (St. Chrysostom)
John 18:7 Again, therefore, he asked them; Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

John 18:8 Jesus answered, I have told you, that I am he: if, therefore, you seek me, let these go their way.

John 18:9 That the word might be fulfilled which he said; *Of them whom thou hast given me, I have not lost any one.

John 17:12.
John 18:10 Then Simon Peter having a sword, drew it, and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. And the name of the servant was Malchus.

John 18:11 Then Jesus said to Peter: Put up thy sword into the scabbard. The chalice which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

John 18:12 Then the band, and the tribune, and the servants of the Jews, took Jesus, and bound him:

John 18:13 And they led him away to *Annas first; for he was father-in-law to Caiphas, who was the high priest of that year.

Luke 3:2.
Some are of opinion that Annas and Caiphas both dwelt in the same house. (Bible de Vence)
John 18:14 Now Caiphas was he, *who had given the counsel to the Jews; that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

John 11:49.
John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. And that disciple was known to the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the court of the high priest.

Peter followed Jesus, but at a distance, for he was afraid. And so did another disciple. St. Jerome, and St. Chrysostom, and after him, Theophylactus, with some others, believe that this other disciple was St. John himself. (Calmet)
John 18:16 But Peter stood at the door without. *Then the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out, and spoke to the portress, and brought in Peter.

Matthew 26:58.; Mark 14:54.; Luke 22:55.
John 18:17 The maid therefore that was portress, saith to Peter; Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith: I am not.

St. John gives here Peter's first denial, which is reunited to the other two by all the preceding evangelists. This is one of the circumstances, which the others may have neglected, to unite three similar facts, and relating to the same object. (Bible de Vence) --- St. Peter, the prince and head of the Church, was permitted to fall, to teach him to treat with more mildness and condescension those, whom he would afterwards have to raise out of the same miserable state of sin. One weak and frail man is placed over another, that seeing him unhappily fallen, he may give him his kind and helping hand, to free him from that unhappy state, in which he knows himself to have been. (St. Chrysostom) --- Of all which our divine Saviour suffered in the court of Caiphas, nothing so much affected him as the dangerous fall of Peter, the chief of all his apostles, who had received the most signal favours from him. He had boasted that very night, that although all the rest of the disciples should abandon their master, he would never forsake him. Yet, see the weakness and inconstancy of human nature; at the voice of a poor maid, he forthwith denies his master; repeats his denial a second, and a third time, and even swears with an imprecation, that he never knew the man. O what is man, when he confides too much in himself! Let us look to ourselves, and see, that we never fall into the same unfortunate state. But if we have the misfortune to imitate this apostle in his fall, let us likewise imitate him in his speedy repentance: for immediately after his fall, going out, he wept bitterly; a practice which, it is said, he ever after retained, as often as he heard the cock crow. (Butler's Lives of the Saints)
John 18:18 Now the servants and officers stood at a fire of coals, because it was cold, and warmed themselves: and with them was Peter also standing, and warming himself.

John 18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

John 18:20 Jesus answered him: I have spoken openly to the world: I have always taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither all the Jews resort: and in secret I have spoken nothing.

John 18:21 Why asketh thou me? ask them who have heard what I have spoken to them: behold they know what things I have said.

Why askest thou me? Caiphas, in quality of judge, was to examine the crimes laid to the charge of the accused, by the testimony of the witnesses. (Witham)
John 18:22 And when he had said these things, one of the officers standing by, gave Jesus a blow, saying; Answerest thou the high priest so?

John 18:23 Jesus answered him; If I have spoken evil, give testimony of the evil: but if well, why strikest thou me?

John 18:24 *And Annas sent him bound to Caiphas, the high priest.

Matthew 26:57.; Mark 14:53.; Luke 22:54.
Annas sent him bound to Caiphas. Christ was but a little while there: for both the box on the ear, given to our Saviour, and St. Peter's denial, were at the house of Caiphas: so that St. John does not here observe the order of time. (Witham)
John 18:25 And Simon Peter was standing, and warming himself. *They said, therefore, to him: Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

Matthew 26:69.; Mark 14:67.; Luke 22:56.
John 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, a kinsman to him whose ear Peter cut off, saith to him; Did I not see thee in the garden with him?

John 18:27 Then Peter again denied: and immediately the cock crew.

John 18:28 *Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the governor's hall. And it was morning: and they went not into the hall, **that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the Pasch.

Matthew 27:2.; Mark 15:1.; Luke 23:1. --- ** Acts 10:28.; Acts 11:3.
That they might eat the Pasch. They, who by the Pasch will always understand the paschal-lamb, look upon it certain from these words, that the Scribes and Pharisees at least, had deferred eating the paschal-lamb, till Friday the 15th day, in the evening: but there are passages in the Scripture, which shew, that the word Pasch, or Phase, comprehended not only the paschal sacrifice of the lamb, but also the sacrifices, that were to be eaten with unleavened bread, during the seven days of the paschal solemnity, as Deuteronomy 16:2. thou shalt offer up the Phase, or Pasch, to the Lord, of sheep and oxen. And 1 Paralipomenon 35:8. They gave to the priests to make the Phase, or Pasch, in altogether two thousand six hundred small cattle, and three hundred oxen. The oxen, therefore, were also given, to make up the Pasch, and were comprehended by the word Pasch, or Phase. It might, therefore, be these paschal sacrifices, and not the paschal-lamb, which the priests designed to partake of, and therefore would not enter into the palace of Pilate. See Tillemont against Lamy, on the 2nd passage out of St. John, tom. 2:p. 696. See also the Lexicon of Mr. Heure on the word Paque. (Witham)
John 18:29 Pilate, therefore, went out to them, and said: What accusation bring you against this man?

John 18:30 They answered, and said to him; If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up to thee.

John 18:31 Pilate then said to them; Take him you, and judge him according to your law. The Jews, therefore, said to him; It is not lawful for us to put any one to death.

John 18:32 *That the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he said, signifying what death he should die.

Matthew 20:19.
John 18:33 *Pilate, therefore, went into the hall again, and called Jesus, and said to him; Art thou the king of the Jews?

Matthew 27:11.; Mark 15:2.; Luke 23:3.
John 18:34 Jesus answered; Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or have others told it thee of me?

John 18:35 Pilate answered; Am I a Jew? Thy nation and the chief priests have delivered thee up to me: what hast thou done?

It pleased God, that Christ, who was to die both for the Jews and the Gentiles, should be betrayed by the one, and put to death by the other. (Bristow)
John 18:36 Jesus answered; My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would certainly strive that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from hence.

John 18:37 Pilate, therefore, said to him; Art thou a king then? Jesus answered; Thou sayest that I am a king. For this was I born, and for this came I into the world, that I should give testimony to the truth: every one that is of the truth, heareth my voice.

John 18:38 Pilate saith to him; What is truth? And when he had said this, he went forth again to the Jews, and saith to them; I find no cause in him.

John 18:39 *But you have a custom that I should release one unto you at the Pasch: will you, therefore, that I release unto you the king of the Jews?

Matthew 27:15.; Mark 15:6.; Luke 23:17.
John 18:40 Then they all cried again, saying; Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

John 19:0 The continuation of the history of the Passion of Christ.

John 19:1 Then, *therefore, Pilate took Jesus, and scourged him.

Matthew 27:27.; Mark 15:16.
Pilate's motive, for ordering our Saviour to be scourged, was no other than this; that the Jews might be satisfied with these his numerous sufferings, and might no longer seek his death. For the same reason, likewise, he permitted his soldiers to inflict those unheard of cruelties, related in the sequel. (St. Augustine, tract. 110. in Joan.)
John 19:2 And the soldiers platting a crown of thorns, put it upon his head: and they put on him a purple garment.

John 19:3 And they came to him, and said; Hail, king of the Jews: and they gave him blows.

John 19:4 Pilate, therefore, went forth again, and saith to them; Behold I bring him forth to you, that you may know that I find no cause in him.

John 19:5 (So Jesus came forth bearing the crown of thorns, and the purple garment.) And he saith to them; Behold the man.

John 19:6 When the chief priests, therefore, and the officers, had seen him, they cried out, saying; Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith to them; Take him, you, and crucify him; for I find no cause in him.

John 19:7 The Jews answered him, We have a law; and according to the law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.

John 19:8 When Pilate, therefore, had heard this saying, he feared the more.

John 19:9 And he entered into the hall again, and he said to Jesus; Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.

John 19:10 Pilate, therefore, saith to him; Speakest thou not to me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and I have power to release thee?

John 19:11 Jesus answered; Thou shouldst not have any power against me, unless it were given thee from above. Therefore, he that hath delivered me to thee, hath the greater sin.

Unless it were given, or permitted thee from above. Therefore, he that delivered me to thee, hath the greater sin. Some expound this of Judas; others, rather of the high priest Caiphas, with the Jewish council: for they could not be ignorant that Jesus was their Messias, having seen the miracles Jesus did, and knowing the predictions of the prophets. (Witham) --- Lest any should think, from what our Saviour had said, that Pilate was not in fault, in this place, he here adds, that he that had delivered him up, had the greater sin: God, indeed, had permitted it; but still these instruments of his death were not without fault. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxiii. in Joan.) --- Christ had been delivered into the power of Pilate through envy, and Pilate was about to exercise that power through fear. But though this last motive of fear can never justify any one, who condemns the innocent, yet still it is much more pardonable than the motive of envy, which was the incentive of the Jewish multitude. (St. Augustine, tract. 116. in Joan.) --- Judas delivered Jesus into the hands of the priests, but both the priests and the people delivered him up to Pontius Pilate.
John 19:12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him. But the Jews cried out, saying; If thou release this man, thou art not Caesar's friend. For whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar.

John 19:13 Now when Pilate had heard these words, he brought Jesus forth: and sat down in the judgment-seat, in the place that is called Lithostrotos, and in Hebrew, Gabbatha.

John 19:14 And it was the Parasceve of the Pasch, about the sixth hour, and he saith to the Jews: Behold your king.

The Parasceve of the Pasch; that is, the day before the paschal sabbath. The eve of every sabbath was called the Parasceve, or day of preparation. But this was the eve of a high sabbath, viz. that which fell in the paschal week. (Challoner) --- It was about the sixth hour when they crucified him. St. Mark, in his gospel, says, it was at the third hour that Jesus was crucified. These two evangelists are easily reconciled, if we consider that according to the custom of the Jews, all that took place between the third hour and the sixth hour of their day, was said to have happened in the third hour: their days being divided into four parts of three hours each, in the same manner as the nights were into four watches, of three hours each. St. Mark, therefore, might say very well, that the crucifixion of our Saviour took place in the third hour: though it might have been towards the conclusion of this general division of the day: whilst St. John, with a reason equally as good, says that it happened about the sixth hour. (John Nicolaus, in his marginal notes on St. Thomas Aquinas' Aurea Catena.)
John 19:15 But they cried out: Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith to them; Shall I crucify your king? The chief priests answered; We have no king but Caesar.

John 19:16 Then, therefore, he delivered him to them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him forth.

John 19:17 *And bearing his own cross, he went forth to that place which is called Calvary, but in Hebrew, Golgotha:

Matthew 27:33.; Mark 15:22.; Luke 23:33.
St. John makes no mention of what took place on the way to Calvary, when Jesus, being worn out by fatigue, could not proceed any farther, and they were obliged to relieve him of his burden, and to give it to a man, named Simon, of Cyrene, to carry for him, as is related in (Matthew 27:32.; Mark 15:21.) (Calmet) --- For the honour paid in the early ages to the holy cross see St. Cyril, lib. VI. cont. Julian.; St. Jerome, ep. XVII.; St. Paulin. ep. XI.
John 19:18 Where they crucified him, and with him two others, one on each side, and Jesus in the midst.

John 19:19 And Pilate wrote a title also; and he put it upon the cross. And the writing was, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.

He is the king, not of the Jews only, but of the Gentiles also. But it is not without reason, that he is called king of the Jews. For they were the true olive (Romans 11.); and we, the wild olive, have been ingrafted, and made partakers of the virtue of the true olive. Christ, therefore, is the king of the Jews, circumcised, not in the flesh, but in the heart, not according to the letter, but the spirit. (St. Augustine, tract. 118. in Joan.)
John 19:20 This title, therefore, many of the Jews did read; because the place, where Jesus was crucified, was near to the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Greek, and in Latin.

As there were probably many Gentiles at Jerusalem at this time, on account of the festival day, this inscription was written in three different languages, that all might be able to read it. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxiv. in Joan.) --- It was written in Hebrew, on account of the Jews, who glorified in the law of God; in Greek, on account of the wise men of all nations; and in Latin, because of the Romans, who at that time commanded almost every nation of the earth. (St. Augustine, tract. 118. in Joan.)
John 19:21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate; Write not, The king of the Jews: but that he said, I am the king of the Jews.

John 19:22 Pilate answered; What I have written, I have written.

John 19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified him, *took his garments, (and they made four parts, to every soldier a part) and also his coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

Matthew 27:35.; Mark 15:24.; Luke 23:34.
They made four parts. Christ's upper garment had seams, which the four executioners could easily divide; but his under garment, or vest, was without seam, so that being cut, it would have been of no use. (Witham) --- This coat without seam is a figure of the unity of the Church. (St. Cyprian, de unit. Eccles.) --- The Rev. Fred. Nolan, of Woodford, in Essex, in his late work, entitled, Objections of a Churchman to uniting with the Bible Society, after quoting 2 Peter 3:15, 16, says: "That the Bible may, therefore, prove the remote, but innocent cause of harm, is not, I apprehend, to be disputed, if we are to admit of its own authority:" p. 23, and again, p. 24, "that the present mode of circulating the Scriptures must prove a most effectual specific for multiplying sects and schisms; and consequently, for increasing, to an infinite degree, the greatest evil, under which Christianity has suffered, from the time of its promulgation, down to the memorable epoch of this happy invention, for the establishment of Christian faith, and the extension of Christian unanimity." P. 62., in the same work, "That the Bible is the foundation of our religion, is new doctrine, unless in the divinity of the conventicle. We are built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. (Ephesians 2:20.) On this foundation others still build, who are labourers together with God; (1 Corinthians 11:9. 10.) of which divine co-operation the successors of the apostles have an express promise, to the end of the world. (Matthew 28:20.) And by persons thus authorized (John 20:21.) apostolical tradition has been delivered down to the present day, p. 63. The one body, of which our Lord was resolved his Church should consist, was to have one faith, (Ephesians 4:4, 5.) it was to contain no schism, (1 Corinthians 12:25.) but the present confederacy is formed on the principle of combining every sect and party, and this, while we have received an express prohibition against associating with those, who reject apostolical traditions, committed to the Church." (2 Thessalonians 3:6. 14.) In a foot-note on the above, the learned divine very appositely cites St. Ignatius, in which quotation we find these emphatic words: Me planasthe adelphoi mou, ei tis schizonti akolouthei, Basileian theou ou Kleronomei. Be not deceived, my brethren, not only acknowledged schismatics, but whoever shall join with a schismatic, shall not inherit the kingdom of God. The same apostolic Father, in another part, adds: he who corrupts the faith of God, for which Christ suffered, shall go into unquenchable fire: eis to pur to asbeston choresei. St. Alexander, in the fourth century, says of the Arians: that seamless garment, which the murderers of Jesus Christ would not divide, these men have dared to rip asunder. Tou arrekton chitona schisai eiolmesan.
John 19:24 They said then one to another; Let us not cut it, but let us cast lots for it, whose it shall be; that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saying, *They have parted my garments among them; and upon my vesture they have cast lot. And the soldiers indeed did these things.

Psalm 21:19.
John 19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

There stood by the cross....his mother. And so near to him, that from the cross he both spoke to her, and also to St. John. (Witham)
John 19:26 When Jesus, therefore, saw his mother, and the disciple standing, whom he loved, he saith to his mother; Woman, Behold thy son.

Though there were other holy women standing by the cross, he takes notice of none but his mother, teaching us, by this, what we owe to our parents. For although it is our duty to disown them, when they place obstacles in our way to salvation; yet when they do not thus impede us, we owe every thing to them, and must prefer them to all. (S. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxiv. in Joan.) --- We learn also here, what should be our respect and confidence in this Virgin Mother, so highly honoured by her divine Son.
John 19:27 After that, he saith to the disciple; Behold thy mother. And from that hour the disciple took her to his own.

The disciple took her to his own{ Ver. 27. Accepit eam discipulus in sua. Not in suam. eis ta idia.|} home, or into his own are, not for his mother, by the Greek expression. See St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine. (Witham)
John 19:28 Afterwards Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, *that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said; I thirst.

Psalm 68:22.
John 19:29 Now there was a vessel set there full of vinegar. And they putting a sponge full of vinegar about hyssop, put it to his mouth.

John 19:30 When Jesus, therefore, had taken the vinegar, he said; It is consummated. And bowing his head, he gave up the ghost.

John 19:31 Then the Jews, (because it was the Parasceve) that the bodies might not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that was a great sabbath day) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Because it was the Parasceve. It is also called, (ver. 14.) the day of preparation of the Pasch. Literally, the Parasceve of the Pasch. And (ver. 31.) the Jews, because it was the preparation, that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath, for that was a great sabbath day, etc. Some pretend, by these expressions, to prove that Friday, the year Christ suffered, was not the first and great day of the feast of Azyms, but only the day of preparation, and that on Friday night the Jews eat the paschal lamb, and not the night before, or Thursday night, as Christ had done with his disciples. But according to the common exposition, Friday is here called the day of preparation, for the great and solemn sabbath, which happened in the paschal week. See Tillemont on the 5th passage out of John, p. 698, section 11. and 12. (Witham)
John 19:32 The soldiers, therefore, came; and they broke the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him.

John 19:33 But when they were come to Jesus, as they saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.

John 19:34 But one of the soldiers opened his side with a spear, and immediately there came out blood and water.

There came out blood and water, which naturally could not come from a dead body. (Witham) --- Hence it is, that the sacred mysteries flow; as often, therefore, as thou approachest the awful cup, approach it as if thou wert going to drink from thy Saviour's sacred side. (St. Chrysostom, hom. LXXXIV. in Joan.) --- The holy Fathers say, that the spouse [i.e. the Church] of Jesus Christ was here taken out of his side, whilst sleeping on the cross, as Eve was from Adam's side, when he was cast asleep in Paradise.
John 19:35 And he that saw it, gave testimony; and his testimony is true. And he knoweth that he saith true, that you also may believe.

John 19:36 For these things were done, that the Scripture might be fulfilled; *You shall not break a bone of him.

Exodus 12:46.; Numbers 9:12.
You shall not break a bone of him. This, which was literally spoken of the paschal lamb, (Exodus 12:46.) the evangelist applies to Christ, of whom the lamb was a figure. (Witham) --- This had been said of the paschal lamb, which was a figure of Jesus Christ. (Exodus 12:46.; Numbers 9:12.)
John 19:37 And again another Scripture saith; *They shall look on him whom they pierced.

Zacharias 12:10.
This text is from (Zacharias 12:10.) and seems to refer most literally to Jesus Christ.
John 19:38 *And after these things, Joseph of Arimathea (because he was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly, for fear of the Jews) besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus. And Pilate permitted him. He came, therefore, and took away the body of Jesus.

Matthew 27:57.; Mark 15:43.; Luke 23:50.
John 19:39 And Nicodemus also came; *he who at the first came to Jesus by night, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pound.

John 3:2.
About a hundred pound. This seems a great quantity. It may be, they did not use it all. And besides, it was the custom of the Jews, at their great burials, to cover the body with spices and perfumes. (Witham)
John 19:40 They took, therefore, the body of Jesus, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as it is the custom with the Jews to bury.

John 19:41 Now there was in the place, where he was crucified, a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein no man had yet been laid.

This is added, lest it should be said, that it was not Christ, but some other, that rose from the dead; or at least, that he rose by the virtue of some other person reposing there. (Calmet).
John 19:42 There, therefore, because of the Parasceve of the Jews, they laid Jesus, for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

John 20:0 Christ's resurrection, and manifestation to his disciples.

John 20:1 And *on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene cometh in the morning, it being yet dark, to the sepulchre; and she saw the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

Matthew 28:1.; Mark 16:1.; Luke 24:3.
As our Saviour had been interred in great haste, the holy women who had before accompanied Jesus in all his journeys, brought perfumes to embalm his sacred body again, in a manner more proper, than Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea had been able to do before. St. John makes mention of Mary Magdalene only, because it was his intention to give a particular relation of all that she did: but we learn from the other evangelists, that there were three holy women at the sepulchre together, viz. Mary Magdalene, Mary, the mother of James, and Salome. (Calmet) --- This was on the first day of the week, the morrow of the sabbath. (Bible de Vence) --- Christ rose again, leaving the stone and seals still lying on the sepulchre. But as this was to be believed by others also, after the resurrection, the tomb was opened, and thus the belief of what had taken place, propagated. This it was that struck Magdalene; for as soon as she saw the stone rolled from the sepulchre, without entering, or even looking into it, she immediately ran, in the ardour of her affection, to carry the news to the disciples. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxiv. in Joan.)
John 20:2 She ran, therefore, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith to them; They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.

John 20:3 Peter, therefore, went out, and that other disciple, and they came to the sepulchre.

John 20:4 And they both ran together, and that other disciple out-ran Peter, and came first to the sepulchre.

John 20:5 And when he stooped down, he saw the linen cloths lying; but yet he went not in.

He saw the linen cloths lying. St. Chrysostom takes notice, that Christ's body being buried with myrrh, the linen would stick as fast to the body as pitch, so that it would be impossible to steal, or take away the body without the linen cloths. (Witham)
John 20:6 Then cometh Simon Peter, following him, and went into the sepulchre, and saw the linen cloths lying,

John 20:7 And the napkin, that had been about his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but apart, wrapt up into one place.

John 20:8 Then that other disciple also went in, who came first to the sepulchre; and he saw, and believed.

He saw and believed. He did not yet believe that Jesus was risen from the dead, because he was still ignorant that he was to rise from the dead. For although the apostles had so often heard their divine Master speak in the most plain terms of his resurrection, still being so much accustomed to parables, they did not understand, and imagined something else was meant by these words. (St. Augustine, tract. 120. in Joan.)
John 20:9 For as yet they knew not the Scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.

John 20:10 The disciples therefore went away again to their home.

John 20:11 *But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping. Whilst she was then weeping, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre:

Matthew 28:1.; Mark 16:5.; Luke 24:4.
John 20:12 And she saw two Angels in white, sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had been laid.

John 20:13 They say to her; Woman, why weepest thou? She saith to them; Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him.

John 20:14 When she had said this, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing: and she knew not that it was Jesus.

It may be asked, why Magdalene, after putting the question to the angels, turns round, without waiting for the answer. No doubt, as soon as she had spoken, the heavenly messengers perceived their Lord behind Mary, and by their looks and actions, gave her to understand that they beheld their Lord. This caused her immediately to look behind her. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxv. in Joan.)
John 20:15 Jesus saith to her; Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She thinking that it was the gardener, saith to him; Sir, if thou hast taken him away, tell me where thou hast laid him: and I will take him away.

If thou hast taken him away. Thinking him, as the evangelist remarks, to be the gardener, how comes it, that without saying whom she sought, she asks if he had taken him away? Because such was the ardour of her love, that she could not imagine any one could think of any other but him, of whom her own mind was so full. (St. Gregory, hom. xxv. in Evan.)
John 20:16 Jesus saith to her; Mary. She turning, saith to him; Rabboni, (that is to say, Master).

Jesus saith to her, Mary. Magdalene, now in grief and tears, knew not Jesus, till he called upon her by her name, and with his usual voice: then with joy, she cried out, Rabboni, Master. And Jesus saith to her, touch me not, etc. The meaning of which words seems to be: I am not yet leaving thee, nor ascending to the Father, so that thou mayest have time enough to embrace my feet afterwards; now go to my disciples, etc. (Witham) --- Magdalene, having inquired where he had placed him, appears to have turned towards the angels, to inquire the cause of the awe and reverence she had observed in them. Upon this, Jesus calls upon her by name, and she, turning again towards him, discovers him by his voice. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxv. in Joan.)
John 20:17 Jesus saith to her; Do not touch me, for I have not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say to them; I ascend to my Father and to your Father, to my God and your God.

I will not leave you again; be not in a hurry to touch me; you shall all have this pleasure. I will remain with you some time, before my ascension. Announce my resurrection to my apostles. You shall see me again. This is the interpretation most modern commentators put upon this place. Others suppose, that Magdalene imagined he was risen from the dead to live with men as before, like Lazarus. He addresses these words to her to disabuse her of this notion. (Calmet)
John 20:18 Mary Magdalene cometh, and telleth the disciples; I have seen the Lord, and these things he said to me.

John 20:19 *Now when it was late that same day, the first of the week, and the doors were shut, where the disciples were gathered together for fear of the Jews: Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them; Peace be to you.

Mark 16:14.; Luke 24:36.; 1 Corinthians 15:5.
And the doors were{ Ver. 19. 29. Cum fores essent clausae: januis clausis, ton thuron kekleismenon. See St. Ambrose, in Psal. cxviii.; St. Augustine, tract. 121. in Joan. De Agone Christiano, John 24. 4. 6. p. 257. Epist. ad Volusianum. t. 3. p. 405, where he says, demus Deum aliquid posse, quod nos fateamur investigare non posse. In talibus rebus tota ratio facti est potentia facientis. See St. Cyril on this place, lib. xii. p. 1092, 1103, and 1107. St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxv. p. 315. Lat. Ed. and hom. lxxxvii. Ed. Ben. p. 520, to gar outo lepton kai kouphon os kekleismenon eiselthein ton thuron. etc. See St. Jerome, ad Eustochium in Epitaph. Paulae. t. 4. p. 685. and lib. i. cont. Jovin. t. 4. p. 178; St. Leo, serm. i. de Resurr.; St. Epiphanius, her. lxiv. p. 593. Ed. Petav. etc.|} shut, or being shut; and remaining still shut, his glorified body entered by penetration through the doors, as he did at his resurrection. Maldonatus takes notice, that Calvin was the first that denied this, against the belief of all the ancient Fathers and interpreters, who call this a miracle of divine power. (Witham) --- The same power which could bring Christ's whole body, entire in all its dimensions, through the doors, can, without the least question, make the same body really present in the sacrament; though both the one and the other be above our comprehension. (Challoner) --- Therefore it is a want of faith to limit the power of Christ, by the ordinary rules of place, and to deny that he can be in the blessed Sacrament, and on so many altars as he pleaseth. We do not still join with the Ubiquists or Brentiani, who, quite contrary to the Zuinglians, maintain, that the humanity of Jesus Christ is in every place where his divinity is. This is contrary to faith. (Bristow)
John 20:20 And when he had said this, he shewed them his hands, and his side. The disciples, therefore, were glad, when they saw the Lord.

John 20:21 He said therefore to them again; Peace be to you. As the Father hath sent me, I also send you.

As the Father hath sent me. The word mission, when applied to our Saviour Christ, sometimes signifies his eternal procession from the Father, and sometimes his mission, as he was sent into the world to become man, and the Redeemer of mankind: the first mission agrees with him, as the eternal Son of God; the second, as man, or as both God and man. The mission which Christ here gives his apostles, is like this latter mission, with this great difference, that graces and divine gifts were bestowed on Christ, even as man, without measure: and the apostles had a much lesser share in both these missions. See St. Augustine, lib. 4:de Trin. ch. XIX. XX. tom. 4. p. 829. and seq. (Witham) --- Jesus Christ here shews his commission, and so giveth power to his apostles to forgive sins, as when he gave them commission to preach and baptize throughout the world, he made mention of his own power. Hence, whosoever denies the apostles, and their successors, the right of preaching, baptizing, and remitting sins, must consequently deny that Christ, as man, had the power to do the same. St. Cyprian, in the 3rd century, ep. lxxiii. says: "for the Lord, in the first place, gave to St. Peter, on whom he built his Church, super quem aedificavit Ecclesiam, the power that what he loosed on earth, should be loosed also in heaven. And after his resurrection, he speaks also to his apostles, saying, as the Father sent me, etc. whose sins you shall forgive," etc. Why, on this occasion, passing over the other apostles, does Jesus Christ address Peter alone? Because he was the mouth, and chief of the apostles. (St. Chrysostom, de Sacerd. lib. 2:chap. 1.)
John 20:22 When he had said this, he breathed on them, and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost:

Receive ye the Holy Ghost. It was said, (John 7:39.) that the Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not glorified. The sense must needs be, that the holy Spirit was not given in that solemn manner, nor with so large an effusion of spiritual gifts and graces, till the day of Pentecost, after Christ's ascension: but the just, at all times, from the beginning of the world, were sanctified by the grace of the Holy Ghost, as no doubt the apostles were, before this time. Now at this present, he gave them the power of forgiving sins. (Witham) --- Some say, that our Saviour did not then confer the Holy Ghost on his disciples, but only prepared them for the receiving of the Holy Ghost. But surely we may understand, that even then they received some portion of spiritual grace, the power, not indeed of raising the dead, and working other miracles, but of forgiving sins. (St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxv. in Joan.) --- St. Cyril of Alexandria, speaking of the remission of sins, promised in this text, asks, "How then, or why, did Christ impart to his disciples a power, which belongs to the divinity alone? It seemed good to him, that they, who had within themselves his divine Spirit, should likewise possess the power of forgiving sins, and of retaining such as they judged expedient; that Holy Spirit, according to his good pleasure, forgiving and retaining, through the ministry of men." (In Joan. lib. xii. John 1.)
John 20:23 *Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them: and whose you shall retain, they are retained.

Matthew 18:18.
Whose sins you shall forgive,{ Ver. 23. Whose sins you shall forgive, etc. See St. Cyril, lib. xii. in Joan. p. 1101, metanoousi sugginoskontes. St. Chrysostom, hom. lxxxvi. p. 517. nov. Ed., Magna est sacerdotum dignitas, quorum remiseritis peccata, etc. See also lib. iii. de sacerd. t. 1. p. 383. nov. Ed. Ibid., noli esse incredulus, sed fidelis, kai me ginou apistos, alla pistos.|} etc. These words clearly express the power of forgiving sins, which, as God, he gave to his apostles, and to their successors, bishops and priests, to forgive sins in his name, as his ministers, and instruments, even though they are sinners themselves. For in this, they act not by their own power, nor in their own name, but in the name of God, who as the principal cause, always remitteth sins. This is generally allowed to be done by God's ministers in the sacrament of baptism, as to the remission of original sin; and the Catholic Church has always held the same of God's ministers, in the sacrament of penance. (See the Protestant Common Prayer Book, in the Visitation of the Sick.) --- Whose sins you shall retain, they are retained: by which we see, that to priests is given a power to be exercised, not only by forgiving, but also by retaining; not only by absolving and loosing, but also by binding, by refusing, or deferring absolution, according to the dispositions that are found in sinners, when they accuse themselves of their sins. From hence must needs follow an obligation on the sinner's part, to declare, and confess their sins in particular, to the ministers of God, who are appointed the spiritual judges, and physicians of their souls. A judge must know the cause, and a physician the distemper: the one to pronounce a just sentence, the other to prescribe suitable remedies. (Witham) --- See here the commission, stamped by the broad seal of heaven, by virtue of which, the pastors of Christ's Church absolve repenting sinners upon their confession. (Challoner)
John 20:24 Now Thomas, one of the twelve, who is called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

Thomas ... was not with them. Yet no doubt the like power of forgiving sins was given to him, either at this time or afterwards. See St. Cyril. (Witham)
John 20:25 The other disciples, therefore, said to him; We have seen the Lord. But he said to them; Unless I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe.

I will not believe. St. Cyril thinks, that the grief and trouble St. Thomas was under, might partly excuse his want of belief: however, we may take notice with St. Gregory, the his backwardness in believing, was permitted for the good of Christians in general, that thereby they might be more convinced of Christ's resurrection. (Witham) --- The doubts of St. Thomas are of greater advantage to the strengthening of our faith, than the ready belief of the rest of the apostles. For when he proceeded to touch, to assure his faith, our minds, laying aside every, even the least doubt, are firmly established in faith. (St. Gregory the Great)
John 20:26 And after eight days, his disciples were again within, and Thomas with them. Jesus cometh, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said; Peace be to you.

John 20:27 Then he saith to Thomas; Put in thy finger hither, and see my hands, and bring hither thy hand, and put it into my side: and be not incredulous, but faithful.

Put in thy finger hither. Christ, to shew he knew all things, made use of the very same words in which St. Thomas had expressed his incredulous dispositions. Our blessed Redeemer would have the mark of the spear, and the prints of the nails to remain in his glorified body, to convince them it was the same body: and that they might be for ever marks of his victory and triumph over sin and the devil. The evangelist does not say, that St. Thomas went and touched Christ's body, though it is very probable he did as he was ordered. But how could a body that entered in, when the doors were shut, be felt, or be palpable? St. Chrysostom[2] answers, that Christ at that time permitted his body to be palpable, and to resist another body, to induce St. Thomas to believe the resurrection; and that when he pleased, his body could not be felt. In like manner, his body was either visible or invisible, as he had a will it should be. In fine, he could eat in their sight, though he stood not in need of any nourishment. See St. Augustine. Be not incredulous, but faithful. In the Greek, be not an unbeliever, but a believer. --- My Lord, and my God; that is, I confess thee to be my Lord, and my God; and with the Greek article, to be him, that is, the Lord, and the God. (Witham)
John 20:28 Thomas answered, and said to him; My Lord, and my God.

John 20:29 Jesus saith to him; Because thou hast seen me, Thomas, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and have believed.

John 20:30 *Many other signs also did Jesus in the sight of his disciples, which are not written in this book.

John 21:25.
John 20:31 But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God: and that believing you may have life in his name.

John 21:0 Christ manifests himself to his disciples by the sea side, and gives Peter the charge of his sheep.

John 21:1 After this Jesus manifested himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. And he manifested himself after this manner:

John 21:2 There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas, who is called Didymus, and Nathanael, who was of Cana, in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples.

John 21:3 Simon Peter saith to them; I go a fishing. They say to him; We also come with thee. And they went forth and entered into a ship: and that night they caught nothing.

How comes it that Peter, after his conversion, should return to his fishing, when Jesus Christ had said, that he that sets his hand to the plough, and looks back, is not worthy of the kingdom of heaven? The employments they applied to before their conversion, without being guilty of sin, these they might, without fault, exercise, after their conversion: therefore Peter returned to his fishing; but St. Matthew never returned to his custom-house, because when once converted, we never can be allowed to give ourselves to these employments, which of themselves lead to sin. And there are many pursuits which can scarcely, or not at all, be followed without sin. (St. Gregory, hom. xxiv. in Evan.)
John 21:4 But when the morning was come, Jesus stood on the shore: yet the disciples knew not that it was Jesus.

John 21:5 Jesus therefore said to them; Children, have you any meat? they answered him; No.

Have you any meat?{ Ver. 5. Numquid pulmentarium habetis? me ti prosphagion.|} Have you any thing to eat? This is what is literally signified, both in the Latin and in the Greek text. (Witham)
John 21:6 He saith to them; Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and you shall find. They cast, therefore: and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes.

John 21:7 That disciple, therefore, whom Jesus loved, said to Peter; It is the Lord. Simon Peter, when he heard that it was the Lord, girded his coat about him, (for he was naked) and cast himself into the sea.

It is the Lord. St. Chrysostom says, we may here see the different characters of the two apostles, Peter and John; the former is more ardent, the latter more sublime; the first more vehement, the last more penetrating; for these reasons, John was the first to know Christ, Peter the first to hasten to him. (Hom. lxxxvi.)
John 21:8 But the other disciples came in the ship, (for they were not far from the land, but as it were two hundred cubits) drawing the net with fishes.

The evangelist praises Peter, and excuses the other apostles: all come to Christ; the former leaving his boat, his companions, his nets and prey, arrives more expeditiously; the latter with the impediments of the boat and nets, etc. etc. arrive also, but not so readily; a just figure this of religious, who leave all to go directly to God, and of those who remain in the world, and have to navigate a treacherous element with imminent danger of shipwreck. (Maldonatus) --- The poet Sedulius writes thus on the nets: Pendula fluctivagam traxerunt retia praedam, Per typicam noscenda viam; nam retia dignis Lucida sunt praecepta Dei, quibus omnis in illa Dextra parte manens concluditur, ac simul ulnis Fertur apostolicis Domini ad vestigia Christi.
John 21:9 As soon, then, as they came to land, they saw hot coals lying, and a fish laid thereon, and bread.

Hot coals lying, and a fish laid thereon, and bread. The fish caught in the net were not yet drawn to land. These things, then, were created out of nothing, or miraculously transported thither, by the divine power. (Witham)
John 21:10 Jesus saith to them; Bring hither of the fishes which you have now caught.

John 21:11 Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fishes, one hundred and fifty-three. And although there were so many, the net was not broken.

Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fishes, one hundred and fifty-three; a figure of the great number to be converted by the labours of the apostles. (Witham)
John 21:12 Jesus saith to them; Come, and dine. And none of them who were at meat, durst ask him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord.

And none of them who were at meat, durst ask him, who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord. It is likely he appeared to them with a countenance different, and brighter than before his death; yet they were presently so convinced it was Jesus, that they were ashamed to ask or doubt of it. (Witham)
John 21:13 And Jesus cometh and taketh bread, and giveth them, and fish in like manner.

John 21:14 This is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to his disciples, after he was risen from the dead.

This is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to his disciples. He had appeared to them more than thrice, even the very day of his resurrection. (Matthew 28:16.) Here it is called the third time either because it was the third different day; or because it was the third time that he had then appeared to a considerable number together. After this, he appeared to them frequently, and conversed with them for forty days, till his ascension. See (Acts 1:3.; 1 Corinthians 15:5.) (Witham) --- This must be understood of the third day, or of the third time, that our Saviour appeared to his apostles assembled: the first day, being the day of his resurrection; the second, eight days after, when St. Thomas saw, and believed; and on this day of their fishing. (St. Augustine, tract. 122. in Joan.) --- The evangelists relate ten different manifestations of our Saviour, after his resurrection. First, he was seen by the women at the sepulchre; 2ndly, he was again seen by the same holy women, returning from the sepulchre; 3rdly, by St. Peter; 4thly, by the two going to Emmaus; 5thly, by many at Jerusalem, when Thomas was not with them; 6thly, at the time when St. Thomas saw him; 7thly, at the sea of Tiberias; 8thly, by the eleven, on a mountain of Galilee, according to St. Matthew; 9thly, according to St. Mark, by the disciples, at their refreshment, because he was going to sup with them no more; and 10thly, on the day of his ascension, raised from the earth into heaven. (St. Augustine, de Concord. Ev. lib. 3:chap. 25.)
John 21:15 When, therefore, they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter; Simon, son of John, lovest thou me more than these? He saith to him; Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him; Feed my lambs.

Simon, son of John, lovest thou me more than these? That is, more than any one of these love me. Christ puts this question thrice to St. Peter, that this triple protestation of love, says St. Augustine, might correspond to his triple denial. St. Peter did not answer that he loved him more than the rest did, which he could not know, but modestly said: yea, Lord, thou knowest I love thee: and the third time, thou knowest all things, and the hearts of all men, thou knowest how much I love thee. At each protestation, Jesus answered, feed my lambs; and the third time, feed my sheep. To feed, in the style of the Scriptures, is to guide, rule, and govern. St. Ambrose and some others take notice, as if by the lambs, might be understood the people, and by the sheep, those placed over them, as bishops, priests, etc. but others make no such difference in this place, betwixt lambs and sheep, only as comprehending all the members of Christ's Church, of what condition soever, even the rest of the apostles. For here it was that Christ gave to St. Peter that power which he had promised him, (Matthew 16:18.) that is, He now made St. Peter head{ Ver. 15. He made St. Peter head of his whole Church. See Tertullian, lib. de pudicitia, p. 556. Ed. Rig. where he calls the successor of St. Peter, Pontificem maximum, et Episcopum Episcoporum; St. Irenaeus, lib. iii. John 3; St. Cyprian, ep. 55. p. 84, Ed. Rig. Navigare audent et ad Petri Cathedram, atque ad Ecclesiam principalem. See St. Jerome, epist. lvii. and lviii. p. 175. nov. Ed. St. Augustine. --- St. Chrysostom on this place, hom. lxxxviii. p. 525. nov. Ed. Cur. aliis praetermissis (Petrum) alloquitur? he answers, ekkritos en ton Apostolon, kai stoma ton matheton, kai koruphe tou chorou, coetus illius caput. ... fratrum praefecturam suscipe; egcheirizetai ten prostasian ton adelphon. And a little after, p. 527. putting the objection, why St. James, and not St. Peter, was made bishop of Jerusalem, he answers; because St. Peter was to be over the whole universe; tes oikoumenes echeirotonese, etc. The same St. Chrysostom, lib. ii. de Sacerd. John 1. tom. 1. p. 372. nov. Ed. Ben. qua de causa ille sanguinem effudit suum? certè ut oves eas acquireret, quarum curam tum Petro, tum Petri Successoribus committebat. --- Conc. Chalced. Lab. tom. 4. p. 565. The Council thus writes to St. Leo; omnibus constitutus interpres, quibus tu quidem tanquam caput membris praeeras, etc. pasin ermeneus kathestamenos, etc. And p. 368. Petrus per Leonem ita locutus est; Petros dia Leontos tauta exephonesen. See Annotation for Matthew xvi. ver. 18.|} of his whole Church, as he had insinuated at the first meeting, when St. Andrew brought him to our Saviour, when he changed his name from Simon to Peter: again, when he chose him, and made him the first of his twelve apostles; but particularly, when he said, thou art Peter, (a rock) and upon this rock will I build my Church, etc. Upon this account the Catholic Church, from the very first ages, hath always reverenced, and acknowledged the supreme power of the successors of St. Peter, in spirituals, over all Christian Churches. This appears also by the writings of Tertullian, of St. Irenaeus, of St. Cyprian, of the greatest doctors and bishops, both of the west and east, of St. Jerome, St. Augustine, of St. Chrysostom, in several places, of the first general Councils, particularly of the great Council of Chalcedon, etc. (Witham) --- Simon (son) of John. The father's name is here added, to discriminate him from Simon Thaddeus, that every one might know that the chief care of the universal Church was not given to any other apostle but Peter. This Simon of John is the same as Simon Bar-jona. See Matthew 16:17. (Menochius) --- St. Peter had three times renounced his master; and Jesus, to give him an opportunity of repairing his fault by a triple confession, three several times demanded of him, if he loved him more than these? That, as St. Augustine remarks, he who had thrice denied through fear might thrice confess through love. (Calmet)
John 21:16 He saith to him again; Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? He saith to him; Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee. He saith to him; Feed my lambs.

\f + \fr 21:16-17\ft The lambs and the sheep of our Saviour here mean the faithful, who compose his Church, without any distinction of Jew or Gentile. St. Peter, by these words, is appointed to take charge of the whole flock, as being the chief and prince of the apostles. He is, in some manner, the pastor, not of the sheep only, but of the pastors themselves. They have each their own flock to look after; but to him is committed the care of all; he alone is the pastor of all. (Calmet) --- Feed my sheep. Our Lord had promised the spiritual supremacy to St. Peter; (St. Matthew 16:19.) and here he fulfils that promise, by charging him with the superintendency of all his sheep, without exception; and consequently of his whole flock, that is, of his whole Church. (Challoner)
John 21:17 He saith to him the third time; Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved, because he said to him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said to him; Lord, thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love thee. He said to him; Feed my sheep.

John 21:18 Amen, amen, I say to thee: *when thou wast younger thou didst gird thyself, and didst walk where thou wouldst: But when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and lead thee whither thou wouldst not.

2 Peter 1:14.
Thou shalt stretch forth thy hands ... signifying by what death he should glorify God; that is, that a cross should be the instrument of his death and martyrdom. --- Whither thou wouldst not: which is no more than to say, that a violent death is against the natural inclination of any man, even though he be ever so willing, and disposed to undergo it. (Witham) --- By this is meant the martyrdom of St. Peter, which took place thirty-four years after this. He was first cast into prison, and then led out to punishment as Christ had foretold him. He stretched out his arms to be chained, and again he stretched them out, when he was crucified; for he died on the cross, as the ancients assure us. (Calmet)
John 21:19 And this he said, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had said this, he saith to him; Follow me.

John 21:20 Peter turning about, saw that disciple whom Jesus loved, following, *who also leaned on his breast at the supper, and said; Lord, who is he that shall betray thee?

John 13:23.
John 21:21 Him, therefore, when Peter had seen, he saith to Jesus; Lord, and what shall this man do?

Lord, what shall this man do? St. Chrysostom thinks, it was the love and friendship, that St. Peter had for St. John, that moved him to ask this question. (Witham)
John 21:22 Jesus saith to him; So I will have him to remain till I come, what is it to thee? follow thou me.

Jesus saith: so I will have him remain,{ Ver. 22. Sic eum volo manere, ean auton thelo menein.|} etc. That is, in case I will have him remain; or, as it is in the Greek, if I will have him remain, what is that to thee? It is thy duty, and thy concern, to follow me. (Witham) --- When Christ told St. Peter to follow him, he meant, that he should go like himself to the death of the cross; but when he says of St. John, So I will have him to remain till I come, he insinuates that his beloved disciple should not undergo a violent death; but remain in the world, till he should visit him by death, and conduct him to glory. It may likewise be understood of the Revelations, in which our Saviour manifested himself in his glory to this his beloved disciple. [Apocalypse 1:13.] In the Greek, it is, if I will have him to remain; and this is the true reading, according to Estius, and Jansenius, bishop of Ghent, authorized by many Latin copies. Others refer these words of Christ to his coming to destroy Jerusalem: an epoch which St. John survived.
John 21:23 This saying, therefore, went abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should not die. And Jesus did not say to him, He should not die: but, So I will have him to remain till I come, what is it to thee?

This saying, therefore:{ Ver. 23. St. Augustine, tract. 124. p. 819. D. Hanc opinionem Joannes ipse abstulit, non hoc dixisse Dominum, aperta contradictione declarans: cur enim subjungeret, non dixit Jesus, non moritur, nisi ne hominum cordibus quod falsum fuerat inhaereret? etc. --- So St. Chrysostom says, he spoke this to prevent or correct this mistake. p. 528. diorthoutai.|} that is, a report went about among the disciples, the John was not to die. But St. John himself, as St. Augustine and St. Chrysostom observe, took care to tell us, that Christ said not so. Nor do we find any sufficient grounds to think that St. John is not dead. (Witham)
John 21:24 This is that disciple who giveth testimony of these things, and hath written these things: and we know that his testimony is true.

This is that disciple, etc. Some conjecture, that these words were added by the Church of Ephesus. But the ancient Fathers, St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, St. Augustine, expound them as they do the rest, without any such remark. Nor is it unusual for a person to write in this manner of himself, as of a third person. It is what St. John hath done of himself, John 19:35. (Witham) --- Some conjecture, that these words were added by the Church of Ephesus, to point out St. John to be the real author of this history, and to record their own assent to this his testimony. But the ancient Fathers give no such comment. Nor is it unusual for a person to write of himself, as of a third person. It is what St. John hath done before.
John 21:25 *But there are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they were written every one, the world itself, I think, would not be able to contain the books that should be written.

John 20:30.
The world{ Ver. 25. Nec ipsum arbitror mundum, etc. St. Cyril on this expression, p. 1123, uperbolikos. See St. Augustine at the end of his 124. tract. where he says, such hyperboles are found elsewhere in the holy Scripture.|} itself, I think, etc. It is an hyperbolical way of speaking, says St. Cyril, common enough, even in the holy Scriptures; and only signifies, that a very great number of things, which Christ did and said, have not been recorded. (Witham) --- This is a figure of speech, called hyperbole, and only means, that it would require many, many books, to contain all the various actions and sayings of our divine Lord.