1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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I Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the commandment of God our Savior, and of Christ Jesus our hope.

Of God, our Saviour. God the Father is here called our Saviour, as also to Titus 3:4., being author of our salvation, as are all the three divine persons. (Witham) --- As this letter was to be read to the faithful, it was proper that St. Paul should speak with dignity and authority; and, as in the course of it he reproves false apostles who taught from themselves, he reminds them at the beginning of his letter, that he himself had entered the sacred ministry, and was an apostle by the command of God. (Calmet)
I Timothy 1:2 *To Timothy, beloved son in faith. Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father, and from Christ Jesus our Lord.

Acts 16:1.
To Timothy, beloved son{ Ver. 2. Dilecto, gnesio tekno. Some manuscripts, agapeto.|} in faith: not that St. Paul first converted him, but that by his instructions he was settled in the principles of faith and of the Christian religion. (Witham)
I Timothy 1:3 As I desired thee to remain at Ephesus when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some not to teach otherwise,

Not to teach otherwise;{ Ver. 3. Ne aliter docerent, me eterodidaskalein, aliud docere.|} that is than what I taught them. (Witham) --- The distinctive mark of a heretic, is the teaching differently from that which they found generally taught and believed in the unity of the Catholic Church before their time. The Greek word admirably expresses this; eterodidaskalein. Had Luther and the other original reformers attended to this, the peace of the Church would not have been so disturbed.
I Timothy 1:4 *Nor to give heed to fables and endless genealogies: which furnish questions rather than the edification of God, which is in faith.

1 Timothy 4:7.; 2 Timothy 2:13.; Titus 3:9.
Nor to give heed to fables and endless genealogies,{ Ver. 4. Interminatis, aperantois, infinitis, sine fine.|} or disputes about pedigrees from Abraham and David, which furnish questions rather than the edification of God, or godly edification.{ Ver. 4. Aedificationem Dei, oikodouian Theou; which, I think, might as well be translated, godly edification. Some few manuscripts, oikonomian.|} In some Greek manuscripts is read, dispensation, or economy; and so the sense may be, which contribute nothing to the explaining the dispensation of grace in the mystery of Christ's incarnation. The construction of this and the former verse is imperfect, when it is said, as I desired thee, nothing being expressed corresponding to the word as. Some understand it, As I desired before, so now in this epistle I desire it of thee again. The same difficulty occurs in the Greek as in the Latin text. (Witham) --- The Jews were accustomed to dispute and make endless questions concerning their origin from Abraham, Isaac, and other patriarchs, and concerning their different tribes, which their captivity had confounded together. Hence there was no end of their questions, how, when, why? which gave rise to many fables, to the great disturbance of the faithful. Whereas, they ought to have taken the shortest way to edification, which was to confine themselves to what was of faith. (St. Ambrose)
I Timothy 1:5 Now the end of the commandment is charity from a pure heart, and a good conscience, and an unfeigned faith.

The end of the commandment. By the precept many understand, as it were by way of a parenthesis, all that is here contained from the 3rd to the 18th verse, where precept is again repeated. We may understand by the commandment, the law of Moses in general, comprehending both the ceremonial part and the moral precepts, which are also the law of nature. The ceremonial part was designed to bring us to Christ by types and figures; and the moral precepts, which were also of the law of nature, or natural reason, were to bring men to observe them by punishments, and so were delivered against wicked criminals, ungodly, who worshipped{ Ver. 5. Impiis, asebesi, indevotis, non colentibus Deum.|} not God; against the unjust,{ Ver. 5. Injustis, anomois, sine lege.|} (in the Greek, lawless men) Sodomites, etc. (Witham)
I Timothy 1:6 From which things some going astray are turned aside to vain talk,

I Timothy 1:7 Desiring to be teachers of the law, understanding neither the things they say, nor whereof they affirm.

I Timothy 1:8 *But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully:

Romans 7:12.
The law is good. Do not think I condemn the law of Moses, or those who observe it; it is good, if properly understood and rightly practised. I only blame those who make the law an occasion of disturbance; who, without understanding, pretend to be masters, and teach idle curiosities. (Theodoret)
I Timothy 1:9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for the just man, but for the unjust and disobedient, for the ungodly, and for sinners, for the wicked, and defiled, for murderers of fathers, and murderers of mothers, for manslayers,

The law is not, etc. He means that the just man doth good, and avoideth evil, not as compelled by the law, and merely for fear of the punishment appointed for transgressors, but voluntarily, and for the love of God and virtue; and would do so, though there were no law. (Challoner) --- If all men were just, the law would be unnecessary, as law are made against transgressors. (Calmet) --- It is not the just, but the unjust, that the law threatens, binds, and chastises. The just man obeys it without violence or constraint; he fulfils it with pleasure. (St. Augustine, lib. de Spiritu. etc.)
I Timothy 1:10 For fornicators, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for men-stealers, for liars, for perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine,

I Timothy 1:11 Which is according to the gospel of the glory of the blessed God, which hath been committed to my trust.

I Timothy 1:12 I give thanks to him who hath strengthened me, Christ Jesus our Lord, for that he deemed me faithful, putting me in the ministry:

I Timothy 1:13 Who before was a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and contumelious: but I obtained the mercy of God, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.

Because I did it ignorantly in unbelief, or in incredulity. Not that we can think it an invincible and altogether an inculpable ignorance, such as would have made St. Paul blameless in the sight of God. It was through his pure mercy that he called St. Paul, when his great sins and false zeal made him a greater object of the divine mercy: and God in him was pleased to make known to all men his wonderful patience, that no sinner might despair. The grace of God was superabounding, or exceedingly abundant in him. (Witham)
I Timothy 1:14 Now the grace of our Lord hath abounded exceedingly with faith and love, which is in Christ Jesus.

I Timothy 1:15 A faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation: *that Christ Jesus came into this world to save sinners, of whom I am the chief.

Matthew 9:13.; Mark. 2:17.
Christ Jesus, the true son of God, came into the world to save sinners, of whom (says St. Paul) I am the chief, the first, the greatest. (Witham)
I Timothy 1:16 But for this cause have I obtained mercy: that in me first Christ Jesus might shew forth all patience, for the information of those who shall believe in him unto life everlasting.

I Timothy 1:17 Now to the king of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

I Timothy 1:18 This precept I commend to thee, son Timothy; according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou war in them a good warfare,

This precept I commend to thee. Some understand it a precept of what follows, that he should wage a good warfare against the enemies of God and of his salvation. Others refer it to the precept mentioned before, ver. 5, to wit, that Timothy should charge all the new converts not to give ear to new teachers. --- Prophecies. He seems to mean some particular predictions made by some who had the gift of prophecies, and who foretold that he should be a great minister of God. (Witham) --- The apostle reminds his disciple that he did receive him in the number of his disciples, and ordained him a ruler of the Church, in consequence of a prophecy; that is, a particular inspiration and revelation of the divine will. (St. Chrysostom)
I Timothy 1:19 Having faith and a good conscience, which some rejecting have made shipwreck concerning the faith:

An evil life is not unfrequently the leading principle of defection from the faith. The heart, not the mind, is generally the first corrupted.
I Timothy 1:20 Of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander: whom I have delivered to Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.

I have delivered to Satan; whom I have excommunicated, that they may learn not to blaspheme, or speak against the truth of the faith. (Theophylactus) --- The devil frequently, at that time, took possession of, or afflicted the excommunicated with diseases and other temporal evils. (St. Chrysostom)
I Timothy 2:0 Prayers are to be said for all men: because God wills the salvation of all. Women are not to teach.

I Timothy 2:1 I desire, therefore, first of all, that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all men:

Intercessions, as in the Protestant translation. If men's intercessions to God in favour of others, are no injury to Christ, as our mediator, how can it be any injury to Christ for the Angels and saints in heaven to pray or intercede to God for us? (Witham) --- St. Augustine writes thus on this verse: By supplications are meant what are said before the consecration. By prayers, are what are said in and after the consecration and communion, at mass, including the Pater Noster[the Our Father]; which St. Jerome also says, our Lord taught his apostles to recite at the daily sacrifice of his body. (lib. 3:contra Pelag. 1 Timothy 5) By intercessions, what are said after the communion: and by thanksgivings, what both the priest and people give to God for so great a mystery then offered and received. (ep. 50. ad Paulin.) See St. Chrysostom on this place.
I Timothy 2:2 For kings, and for all who are in high station, that we may lead a quiet and a peaceable life, in all piety and chastity.

For kings, who were then heathens, this being in Nero's time. (Witham) --- Upon the happiness of the king generally depends that of his subjects. We pray for the emperors, says Tertullian, that God would grant them a long life, a secure throne, and a safe family, brave armies, a faithful council, and a just people. In fine, that he would grant them peace, and whatever else they could wish, either for themselves or their empire. (Apologet. cap. 30.)
I Timothy 2:3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God, our Saviour,

I Timothy 2:4 Who will have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth.

All men to be saved. They contradict this, and other places of the Scripture, as well as the tradition and doctrine of the Catholic Church, who teach that God willeth only the salvation of the predestinated, of the elect, and as they say, of the first-begotten only: and that he died only for them, and not for all mankind. But if it is the will of God that all and every one be saved, and no one resists, or can frustrate the will of the Almighty, whence comes it that every one is not saved? To understand and reconcile divers places in the holy Scriptures, we must needs distinguish in God a will that is absolute and effectual, accompanied with special graces and assistances, and with the gift of final perseverance, by which, through his pure mercy, he decreed to save the elect, without any prejudice to their free will and liberty; and a will, which by the order of Providence, is conditional, and this not a metaphorical and improper will only, but a true and proper will, by which he hath prepared and offered graces and means to all men, whereby they may work their salvation; and if they are not saved, it is by their own fault, by their not corresponding with the graces offered, it is because they resist the Holy Ghost. (Acts 7:51.) If in this we meet with difficulties, which we cannot comprehend, the words of St. Paul, (Romans 9:20.) O man, who art thou, who repliest against God? may be sufficient to make us work our salvation with fear and trembling. (Witham)
I Timothy 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus:

\f + \fr 2:5-6\ft One mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus: who gave himself a redemption for all. Take all these words together, and we may easily understand in what sense the apostle calls our Saviour Christ, the one or only mediator; that is, he is the only mediator, who at the same time is our Redeemer; the only mediator who could mediate betwixt God, the person offended by sin, and men the offenders; the only mediator who reconciled God to mankind by his incarnation and death, by the infinite price of his blood, by his own merits, independently of the merits of any other. All Catholics allow that the dignity and office of mediator in this sense belongs only to our Redeemer, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, made man to save us. The sense then of this place is, that as there is but one God, who created all, so there is but one mediator, who redeemed all. But yet the name of mediator is not so appropriated to Christ, but that in an inferior and different sense the Angels and saints in heaven, and even men on earth, who pray to God for the salvation of others, may be called mediators, intercessors, or advocates; and we may apply ourselves to them to pray, intercede, and mediate for us, without any injury to Christ, since we acknowledge that all their intercession and mediation is always grounded on the merits of Christ, our Redeemer. The same word for mediator, in the Greek as well as in the Latin, is given to Moses, God's servant. (Galatians 3:19.) See also Deuteronomy 5:5. The words of our Saviour himself, (Matthew xxiii.) taken according to the letter, contain an express prohibition of being called masters, or fathers; and this reason is given, because all men have one Father in heaven, and because Christians have one master, Christ. Yet no one can justly pretend from thence, that in a different sense, a man may not be called father or master, without any injury to God, or to Christ. (Witham) --- Christ is the one and only mediator of redemption; who gave himself, as the apostle writes, a redemption for all. He is also the only mediator, who stands in need of no other to recommend his petitions to the Father. But this is not against our seeking the prayers and intercessions, as well of the faithful upon earth, as of the saints and Angels in heaven, for obtaining mercy, grace, and salvation, through Jesus Christ. As St. Paul himself often desired the help of the prayers of the faithful, without any injury to the mediatorship of Jesus Christ. (Challoner) --- If there be other mediators among the Angels and saints, they are only so in subordination to the first[Christ], who by themselves have no right to mediation or favours, and who cannot demand them but through the merits of him[Christ] who is our only essential mediator. (Estius, Menochius, etc.) Consult Judges 3:9; 2 Esdras 9:17; Acts 7:35. --- A redemption for all. Not only for the predestinated, not only for the just, not only for the faithful, but for all Gentiles and infidels: and therefore he says again, (chap. 4:10.) that Christ is the Saviour of all men, and especially of the faithful. See St. Augustine{ Ver. 6. See St. Augustine (lib. de Spi. et Lit. tom. x. 1 Timothy 33. p. 118) Vult Deus omnes homines salvos fieri....non sic tamen, ut eis adimat Liberum Arbitruim, quo vel bene, vel male utentes, justissimè judicentur. Quod cum fit, infideles quidem contra voluntatem Dei faciunt, cum ejus Evangelio non credunt.|} and St. Chrysostom.{ Ver. 6. St. Chysostom (om. z. p. 277) kai o men Christos kai apethanen uper ellauon....pos oun, phesin ouk episteusan, oti ouk ethelesan, to de autou moros egeneto.|} (Witham)
I Timothy 2:6 Who gave himself a redemption for all, a testimony in due times:

I Timothy 2:7 Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, (I say the truth, I lie not) a doctor of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

I Timothy 2:8 I will, therefore, that men pray in every place, lifting up pure hands without anger and strife.

How beautifully does St. Paul teach that modesty and chastity are the greatest ornaments of the female sex, not only in the sight of God and of Angels, but also of men, who although by their own neglect they have not always grace and courage sufficient to be virtuous themselves, cannot help admiring virtue wherever they see it in others. Even the pagan fully acknowledges the native attractions of virtue. Virtus per se placet: Virtue pleases with unborrowed charms.
I Timothy 2:9 *In like manner women also in decent apparel, adorning themselves with modesty and sobriety, not with plaited hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly attire:

1 Peter 3:3.
I Timothy 2:10 But as it becometh women professing piety, by good works.

I Timothy 2:11 Let the women learn in silence, with all subjection.

In silence. See 1 Corinthians 14:34. See St. Chrysostom.{ Ver. 11. In silentio. St. Chrysostom (log. th.) edidazen apax e gune, kai panta katestrepse.|} (Witham)
I Timothy 2:12 *But I permit not a woman to teach, nor to use authority over the man: but to be in silence.

1 Corinthians 14:34.
St. Paul only means in public. See note on ver. 11. of the next chapter. It would appear from this regulation of the apostle, as well as from the writings of the earliest fathers, that the practice and condemnation of women interfering at all in spiritual affairs, in not new. Tertullian says: We do not permit a woman to teach, to baptize, or to arrogate to herself any part of the duty which belongs to man. (De Veland. Virg. cap. 9.) --- The woman has tried once to teach, when she persuaded Adam to eat the forbidden fruit, and has wofully failed. Let her now be content to remain in silence, and subjection to man; (St. Chrysostom on this place) as appears also from the order of the creation. See ver. 13. Seduction began with Eve, a subject of profound humiliation for women; but this ought not to deprive them of confidence in God's mercy, nor take from them the hope of salvation. (Bible de Vence)
I Timothy 2:13 *For Adam was first formed, then Eve:

Genesis 1:27.
\f + \fr 2:13-14\ft Adam was first formed....and was not seduced. That is, was not at least seduced first, as the woman. (Witham)
I Timothy 2:14 *And Adam was not seduced, but the woman being seduced was in the transgression.

Genesis 3:6.
I Timothy 2:15 Yet she shall be saved by bearing children, if she continue in faith, and love, and sanctification with sobriety.

She shall be saved by bearing children, etc. and performing other duties of a wife, with a due submission to her husband, taking care to serve God, and bring up her children in the faith of Christ, in piety, etc. (Witham) --- This would perhaps be more properly rendered, from the Greek, by the bringing up of her children in faith, charity, and holiness. This is the duty of the woman; upon the faithful discharge or neglect of which she must expect her salvation, or reprobation, to hang. Thus repairing the evil which the first of all women brought upon man, by seducing him to evil. (Bible de Vence)
I Timothy 3:0 What sort of men are to be admitted into the clergy: the Church is the pillar of truth.

I Timothy 3:1 A faithful saying: If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work.

He desireth a good work. No doubt but the work, or office, and charge of a bishop is good; but the motive of desiring to be a bishop not always good. However, in those days, the desire could scarce be grounded on temporal advantages. (Witham)
I Timothy 3:2 *It behoveth, therefore, a bishop to be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, prudent, of good behaviour, chaste, given to hospitality, a teacher,

Titus 1:7.
A bishop (the same name then comprehended priest) to be blameless, as to life and conversation, adorned, (says St. Chrysostom) with all virtues. See also St. Jerome in his letter to Oceanus. --- The{ Ver. 2. Unius uxoris virum, that is non bigamum. See St. Chrysostom, p. 285.|} husband of one wife. It does not signify, that to be a bishop or priest he must be a married man; nor that he must be a man who has but one wife at a time; but that he must be a man who has never been married but once, or to one wife: because to be married more than once, was looked upon as a mark of too great an inclination to sensual pleasures. It is true, at that time a man might be chosen to be a bishop or priest whose wife was living, but from that time he was to live with her as with a sister. This St. Jerome testifies as to the discipline of the Latin Church. (Witham) --- The meaning is not that every bishop should have a wife, (for St. Paul himself had none) but that no one should be admitted to the holy orders of bishop, priest, or deacon, who had been married more than once. (Challoner) --- Sober.{ Ver. 2. Sobrium, nephalion. Vigilantem.|} The Greek rather signifies watchful. --- Chaste.{ Ver. 2. Pudicum: some Greek manuscripts, semnon.|} There is nothing for this in the Greek text at present, unless in some few manuscripts. Perhaps the ancient Latin interpreter added it, as being signified and comprehended in the other words. --- Teacher: a doctor, as the Greek signifies. (Witham)
I Timothy 3:3 Not given to wine, no striker, but modest; not quarrelsome, not covetous, but

Not given to wine, or a lover of wine. This, says St. Chrysostom, is less than to be a drunkard; for such are excluded from the kingdom of heaven, whoever they be. (1 Corinthians 6:10.) --- No striker. St. Chrysostom understands not striving, fighting or quarreling even with his tongue. --- Not covetous{ Ver. 3. Cupidum, aphilarguron.|} of money, as appears by the Greek text. (Witham)
I Timothy 3:4 One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all chastity.

Ruleth well his own house, etc. Before he is set over the Church, let him have given proofs of his talents for governing within his own house, by the regularity he has made all his dependants observe. In the infancy of the Church, it was frequently necessary to ordain the most regular fathers of families bishops, for want of others of a sufficient age who had observed perpetual continency. --- With all chastity. The Greek implies, grave, sober, temperate; but as this seems to answer what is said in Titus 1:6., it seems to be properly understood of chastity. (Witham)
I Timothy 3:5 But if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?

I Timothy 3:6 Not a neophyte: lest being puffed up with pride, he fall into the judgment of the devil.

Not a neophyte. Not one newly as it were planted, or newly instructed in the faith. (Witham) --- That is, one lately baptized, a young convert. (Challoner) --- He fall into the judgment and condemnation of the devil, by returning to his evil habits he has so lately quitted. (Witham) --- Devil; that is into the same punishment to which the devil is condemned; (Theodoret) or into the power of the devil, who will accuse him at the judgment. (Calmet) --- Or again, seeing himself so soon after his conversion raised to the first dignities of the Church, might imitate in his pride the devil, who could not bear the weight of glory in which God had created him. (Bible de Vence)
I Timothy 3:7 Moreover he must have a good testimony from them who are without, lest he fall into reproach, and into the snare of the devil.

I Timothy 3:8 Deacons in like manner chaste, not double-tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre:

Deacons, etc. By the Greek, grave, sober, etc. But why does he pass from bishops to deacons, not naming priests? St. Chrysostom answers, that priests were comprehended under the name of bishops, their functions being much the same, except as to the ordination of the ministers of God. (Witham) --- After speaking of bishops he passes on to deacons, because priests are included in the former title; and every thing that he has said of the first, is applicable to them. (Estius)
I Timothy 3:9 Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience.

I Timothy 3:10 And let these also first be proved: and so let them minister, having no crime.

I Timothy 3:11 The women in like manner, chaste, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things.

Women, etc. By the Greek again, sober, grave, etc. By these women are commonly understood such as had made a vow of not marrying, and who assisted at the baptism of women; (Witham) that is deaconesses, who were women charged with the assistance, and sometimes with the instruction, of persons of their own sex. (Bible de Vence) --- Not given to detraction,{ Ver. 11. Non detrahentes, me diabolous.|} or calumnies, as in the Greek. A necessary admonition. (Witham)
I Timothy 3:12 Let deacons be the husbands of one wife: who rule well their children, and their own houses.

I Timothy 3:13 For they that have ministered well, shall purchase to themselves a good degree, and much confidence in the faith, which is in Christ Jesus.

I Timothy 3:14 These things I write to thee, hoping that I shall come to thee shortly.

I Timothy 3:15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.

The pillar and ground of the truth. By the promises of Christ to direct his Church by the infallible spirit of truth; (see John 16:7; Matthew 28:20; etc. (Witham)) and therefore, the Church of the living God can never uphold error, nor bring in corruptions, superstition, or idolatry. (Challoner) --- That the Church, the pillar and ground of truth, is to be conducted by the constant superintendence and guidance of the Holy Spirit into all truth to the consummation of days, every one whose mind is not strangely prejudiced may easily discover in various places of the inspired writings.
I Timothy 3:16 And evidently great is the mystery of piety, which was manifested in the flesh, was justified in the spirit, appeared to Angels, hath been preached to the Gentiles, is believed in the world, is taken up in glory.

Mystery of piety, meaning the mystery of the incarnation of the Son of God: and so in most Greek copies, and in St. Chrysostom we read, God appeared in the flesh.{ Ver. 16. Quod manifestatum est; Theos ephanerothe en sarki. See St. Chrysostom.|} --- Taken up into glory, by Christ's glorious ascension into heaven. (Witham) --- After having spoken of the grandeur and infallibility of the Church, the apostle takes occasion from it to extol the great mystery of love, the incarnation and redemption of man. By this mystery the Second Person of the blessed Trinity became manifested in the flesh, justifying or proving his divinity by the virtue of the Holy Spirit appearing in his miracles, made known to the Angels, who were his messengers to bear the tidings to man, or assisting spirits to wait upon him, as at the nativity, in the desert, the agony, etc. preached to the world, and at length consummated to the world by his ascension into glory. (Calmet and others)
I Timothy 4:0 He warns him against heretics; and exhorts him to the exercise of piety.

I Timothy 4:1 Now the Spirit manifestly saith, *that in the last times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to spirits of error, and doctrines of devils,

2 Timothy 3:3.; 1 Peter 4:3.; Jude 1:1.; Jude 1:18.
In the last times. Literally, last days; that is hereafter, or in days to come. --- To spirits of error and doctrines of devils; or, to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils, as in the Protestant translation. The sense must be, that men shall teach false doctrine by the suggestion of the devil. (Witham)
I Timothy 4:2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy, and having their conscience seared,

Their conscience seared; hardened: a metaphor from the custom of burning malefactors with a hot iron. (Witham)
I Timothy 4:3 Forbidding to marry, to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving by the faithful, and by them that have known the truth.

Forbidding to marry, to abstain from meats, etc. Here says St. Chrysostom{ Ver. 3. St. Chrysostom, Greek: om. ib. ou koluomen, me genoioto. St. Jerome, (lib. 1. contra Jovinian. tom. 4. p. 156) Si nupserit Virgo, non peccavit....non illa Virgo, quae se semel Dei cultui dedicavit; harum enim si qua nupserit, habebit damnationem. See St. Augustine (lib. 30. contra Faust. ch. VI.) Both as to marriage and meats.|} are foretold and denoted the heretics called Encratites, the Marcionites, Manicheans, etc. who condemned all marriages as evil, as may be seen in St. Irenaeus, Epiphanius, St. Augustine, Theodoret, etc. These heretics held a god who was the author of good things, and another god who was the author or cause of all evils; among the latter they reckoned, marriages, fleshmeats, wine, etc. The doctrine of Catholics is quite different, when they condemn the marriages of priests and of such as have made a vow to God to lead always a single life; or when the Church forbids persons to eat flesh in Lent, or on fasting-days, unless their health require it. We hold that marriage in itself is not only honourable, but a sacrament of divine institution. We believe and profess that the same only true God is the author of all creatures which are good of themselves; that all eatables are to be eaten with thanksgiving, and none of them to be rejected, as coming from the author of evil. When we condemn priests for marrying, it is for breaking their vows and promises made to God of living unmarried, and of leading a more perfect life; we condemn them with the Scripture, which teaches us that vows made are to be kept; with St. Paul, who in the next 1 Timothy (ver. 12) teaches us, that they who break such vows incur their damnation. When the Church, which we are commanded to obey, enjoins abstinence from flesh, or puts a restraint as to the times of eating on days of humiliation and fasting, it is by way of self-denial and mortification: so that it is not the meats, but the transgression of the precept, that on such occasions defiles the consciences of the transgressors. "You will object, (says St. Chrysostom) that we hinder persons from marrying; God forbid," etc. St. Augustine, (lib. 30. contra Faustum. ch. VI.) "You see (says he) the great difference in abstaining from meats for mortification sake, and as if God was not the author of them." We may observe that God, in the law of Moses, prohibited swine's flesh and many other eatables; and that even the apostles, in the Council of Jerusalem, forbad the Christians, (at least about Antioch) to eat at that time blood and things strangled; not that they were bad of themselves, as the Manicheans pretended. (Witham) --- St. Paul here speaks of the Gnostics and other ancient heretics, who absolutely condemned marriage and the use of all kind of meat, because they pretended that all flesh was from an evil principle: whereas the Church of God so far from condemning marriage, holds it to be a holy sacrament, and forbids it to none but such as by vow have chosen the better part: and prohibits not the use of any meats whatsoever, in proper times and seasons, though she does not judge all kinds of diet proper for days of fasting and penance. (Challoner) --- We may see in the earliest ages[centuries] of Christianity, that some of the most infamous and impure heretics that ever went out of the Church, condemned all marriage as unlawful, at the same time allowing the most unheard of abominations: men without religion, without faith, without modesty, without honour. See St. Clement of Alexandria, lib. 3. Strom.
I Timothy 4:4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be rejected that is received with thanksgiving:

I Timothy 4:5 For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.

It is sanctified by the word of God, and prayer. That is, praying that they may not, by the abuse we make of them, be an occasion to us of sinning and offending God. (Witham) --- The use of all kinds of meat is in itself good; but if it were not, it would become sanctified by the prayer which we usually pronounce over it, and by the word of Christ, who has declared that not that which enters the mouth defiles a man. (Calmet)
I Timothy 4:6 Proposing these things to the brethren, thou shalt be a good minister of Christ Jesus, nourished up in the words of faith, and of the good doctrine which thou hast attained.

I Timothy 4:7 *But avoid foolish and old wives' fables: and exercise thyself to piety.

1 Timothy 1:4.; 2 Timothy 2:23.; Titus 3:9.
Old wives' fables.{ Ver. 7. Bebelous.|} Some understand the groundless traditions of the Jews; others the ridiculous fictions of Simon Magus and his followers. In the Greek they are called profane fables. (Witham)
I Timothy 4:8 For bodily exercise is profitable to little: but piety is profitable to all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.

Some think St. Paul alludes in this verse to the corporal exercises of wrestlers, which procured them but a little short renown, whereas the works of piety have a more lasting reward. (Menochius; Tirinus) --- Corporal exercises of temperance, mortification, etc. are good, but not to be compared with the spiritual virtues of charity, piety, etc. (St. Bernard)
I Timothy 4:9 A faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation.

I Timothy 4:10 For we labor for this, and are reviled, because we hope in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, especially of the faithful.

Of all men, and especially of the faithful, who have received the grace of faith. (Witham)
I Timothy 4:11 These things command, and teach.

I Timothy 4:12 Let no man despise thy youth, but be thou an example of the faithful, in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, in chastity.

Let no man despise thy youth. That is, let thy behaviour be such that no one can have occasion to despise thee. He seems then about the age of forty. (Witham)
I Timothy 4:13 Till I come, attend to reading, to exhortation, and to doctrine.

Attend to reading, etc. He recommends to him the reading of the Holy Scriptures; which, says St. Ambrose, (lib. 3. de fid. ch. VII.) is the book of priests. (Witham)
I Timothy 4:14 Neglect not the grace which is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the imposition of the hands of the priesthood.

Neglect not the grace. The Greek seems to imply the gifts of the Holy Ghost, given by the sacraments,{ Ver. 14. Gratiam, charismatos.|} by prophecy; which may signify, when the gift of preaching or of expounding prophets was bestowed upon thee. --- With the imposition of the hands of the{ Ver. 14. Presbyterii, tou presbuteriou. See Luke xxii. 26. and Acts xxii. 5., where presbuterion is taken for a number of Jewish priests.|} priesthood. Some expound it, when thou didst receive the order of priesthood, or wast made bishop: but the sense rather seems to be, when the hands of priests of the first order (that is, of bishops) were laid upon thee, according to St. Chrysostom. (Witham) --- St. Augustine sayeth that no man can doubt whether holy orders be a sacrament; and that no one may argue that he uses the term improperly, and without due precision, he joineth this sacrament in nature and name with baptism (Contra Ep. Parmen. lib. 2. ch. XIII.) St. Ambrose on this verse understands in the words imposition of hands, all the holy action and sacred words done and spoken over him when he was made a priest; whereby, says the saint, he was designed to the work, and received authority that he durst offer sacrifice in our Lord's stead unto God.
I Timothy 4:15 Meditate on these things: be wholly in these things: that thy proficiency may be manifest to all.

I Timothy 4:16 Attend to thyself and to doctrine: be earnest in them. For in doing this thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee.

I Timothy 5:0 He gives him lessons concerning widows; and how he is to behave to his clergy.

I Timothy 5:1 An ancient man rebuke not, but entreat him as a father; young men, as brethren:

An ancient man.{ Ver. 1. Seniori, presbutero.|} Here the word presbyter is not taken as in other places, for a bishop or priest, but for an elderly man, who is otherwise to be dealt with than young men. (Witham) --- We cannot sufficiently admire the tenderness and prudence of all this saint's counsels. Reproof, under any circumstances, is always sufficiently painful, without being accompanied by harsh and unfeeling words and manners. Age, though not exempt from fault, should always be treated with tenderness and respect.
I Timothy 5:2 Old women, as mothers; young women, as sisters, in all chastity.

A just medium must be observed in the guidance of the sex, avoiding equally an indiscreet severity or an affection too tender and bordering on sensuality. A just diffidence in self is the best security. --- All chastity refers to the heart, eyes, ears, words, looks, with the precautions of times and places.
I Timothy 5:3 Honour widows, who are widows indeed.

Honour widows. To honour, here means to relieve and maintain. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:4 But if any widow have children, or grandchildren, let her learn first to govern her own house, and to make a return of duty to her parents: for this is acceptable before God.

Let her{ Ver. 4. Discat, in most Greek copies, discant, manthanetosan. Yet St. Chrysostom in his commentary, (log. ig.) expounds it of the widow.|} learn first, etc. He gives this as a mark to know if widows deserve to be maintained out of the common stock; if they have been careful of their own family, and to assist their parents, if yet alive. In most Greek copies, and in the Syriac, is read, let them learn; that is let the children and grandchildren learn to govern their family, and to assist their parents, when they are widows; that, as it is said in ver. 16., the Church may not be burthened with maintaining them. (Witham) --- Let her render to her children the same good services she has received from her parents, that she may also expect from them what is her due as mother. (Theodoret)
I Timothy 5:5 But she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, let her hope in God, and continue in supplications and prayers night and day.

She that is a widow indeed, and desolate, (destitute of help, as the Greek word implieth) may be maintained; and then let her be constant in prayers and devotions night and day. (Witham) --- Every Christian soul is a widow of Jesus Christ, who has been forcibly torn from her: and in her communications with heaven she ought to offer up an afflicted and humbled heart---the heart of a widow. It is thus she will avoid the dangers of the world, and secure true life in unchangeable felicity. (Haydock)
I Timothy 5:6 For she that liveth in pleasures, is dead while she is living.

For she that liveth in pleasure, (that is, that seeks to live in ease and plenty) is dead{ Ver. 6. St. Chrysostom, (log. ig. p. 301.) touto phusin ainigma, etc.|} while she is living, by the spiritual death of her soul in sin. See St. Chrysostom with no less eloquence than piety, expounding this riddle, as he terms it, to wit, what it is to be at the same time alive and dead. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:7 And this give in charge, that they may be blameless.

I Timothy 5:8 But if any man have not care of his own, and especially of those of his house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.

He hath denied the faith, (not in words, but in his actions) and is worse than an infidel; nay, even than brutes, that take care of their young ones. (Witham) --- Faith may be renounced either by words or by actions, when our conduct shews that in our hearts we really do not believe what would otherwise influence our lives. (Calmet) --- We have a horror of the name of apostacy, and fear not its works. Is not this to be a Christian in appearance, and an infidel in heart?
I Timothy 5:9 Let a widow be chosen, not under threescore years of age, who hath been the wife of one husband.

Not under threescore years of age. Some think he speaks only of such a widow as was placed over all the rest: but the common exposition is of all such widows as were maintained in that manner, who made a vow of chastity, who assisted the ministers of the Church in looking to the poor, and in the administering baptism to women. --- Who hath been the wife of one husband; that is hath never been married but once. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:10 Having testimony for her good works, if she have educated children, if she have exercised hospitality, if she have washed the saints' feet, if she have ministered to them that suffer tribulation, if she have diligently followed every good work.

I Timothy 5:11 But the younger widows avoid: For when they have grown wanton in Christ, they will marry:

As for the younger widows,{ Ver. 11. Cum luxuriatae fuerint in Christo, otan gar katastreniasosi tou Christou. See Apocalypse xviii. 7, 9. It is a metaphor from horses not to be governed. See St. Jerome, Ep. ad Ageruchiam. tom. iv. part 2. p. 741. tou Christou, that is contra Christum, says Erasmus and Arius Montanus. In injuriam viri sui Christi, says St. Jerome.|} admit them not into that number; for when they have grown wanton in Christ, which may signify in the Church of Christ, or as others translate, against Christ; when they have been nourished in plenty, indulging their appetite in eating and drinking, in company and conversation, in private familiarities, and even sometimes in sacrilegious fornications against Christ and their vows, they are for marrying again. See St. Jerome. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:12 Having damnation, because they have made void their first faith.

Having, or incurring and making themselves liable to damnation, by a breach of their first faith, their vow or promise, (Witham) by which they had engaged themselves to Christ. (Challoner)
I Timothy 5:13 And withal being idle, they learn to go about from house to house: not only idle, but tattlers also, and inquisitive, speaking things which they ought not.

Idle, etc. He shews by what steps they fall. Neglecting their prayers, they give themselves to idleness; they go about visiting from house to house; they are carried away with curiosity to hear what passes, and speak what they ought not of their neighbour's faults. (Witham) --- The young widow that bears a near resemblance with this portrait, is not less to be lamented on her own account than feared and shunned on account of others.
I Timothy 5:14 I will, therefore, that the younger should marry, bear children, be mistresses of families, give no occasion to the adversary to speak evil.

The younger{ Ver. 14. Volo juniores nubere, boulomai neoteras gamein.|} (widows) should marry. They who understand this of a command or exhortation to all widows to marry, make St. Paul contradict himself, and the advice he gave to widows 1 Corinthians vii. where he says, (ver. 40.) She (the widow) will be more happy if she so remain according to my counsel; and when it is there said, I would have all to be as myself. [See the notes on those places.] He can therefore only mean such young widows, of whom he is speaking, that are like to do worse. Thus it is expounded by St. Jerome to Sabina:{ Ver. 14. St. Jerome, (Ep. ad Sabinam, tom. iv. part. 2. p. 669.) maritum potius accipiat quam diabolum. The same author, (Ep. ad Ageruchiam. p. 741.) multo tolerabilius habere secundum virum, quam plures adulteros.|} "Let her rather take a husband than the devil." And in another epistle, to Ageruchia: "It is better to take a second husband than many adulterers." St. Chrysostom{ Ver. 14. St. Chrysostom, (log. ie. p. 311.) boulomai, epeide autai boulontai.|} on this verse: I will, or would have such to marry, because they themselves will do it. See also St. Augustine,{ Ver. 14. St. Augustine, (de bono viduitatis, ch. VIII.) nubant antequam Deo voveant, quod nisi reddant, jure damnantur. And in Psalm lxxv. Quid est primam fidem irritam fecerunt? voverunt et non reddiderunt. And again St. Augustine, Non sitis pigri ad vovendum. Non enim viribus vestris implebitis: deficietes, si de vobis praesumitis, si autem de illo cui vovistis, vovete, securi reddetis.|} de Bono viduitatis, ch. VIII. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:15 For some are already turned aside after Satan.

For some are already turned aside after Satan, by breaking the vows they had made. "Yet it does not follow, (says St. Augustine in the same place [de Bono viduitatis, ch. VIII.]) that they who abstain not from such sins may marry after their vows. They might indeed marry before they vowed; but this being done, unless they keep them they justly incur damnation." "Why is it, (says he again, on Psalm lxxv.) they made void their first faith? but that they made vows, and kept them not. But let not this (says he) make you abstain from such vows, for you are not to comply with them by your own strength; you will fall, if you presume on yourselves; but if you confide in him to whom you made these vows, you will securely comply with them." How different was the doctrine and practice of the first and chief of the late pretended reformers, who were many of them apostates after such vows? (Witham)
I Timothy 5:16 If any of the faithful have widows, let him relieve them, and let not the church be burthened: that there may be sufficient for them who are widows indeed.

I Timothy 5:17 Let the priests who rule well, be esteemed worthy of double honour: especially they who labour in the word and doctrine.

\f + \fr 5:17-18\ft The priests, or ancient ministers, (that is, bishops, priests, etc.) deserve a double honour; that is to be more liberally supplied and maintained by the flock, especially when they labour in preaching the word. --- Thou shalt not muzzle, etc. See 1 Corinthians 9:9. (Witham) --- It is the obligation of the faithful to provide a decent maintenance for their pastors, and the duty of pastors to be content with little. Happy the church where there is no further difference found than between the liberality of the former and the disinterestedness of the latter!
I Timothy 5:18 For the Scripture saith: *Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And: **The labourer is worthy of his hire.

Deuteronomy 25:4.; 1 Corinthians 9:9. --- ** Matthew 10:10.; Luke 10:7.
I Timothy 5:19 Against a priest receive not an accusation, but under two or three witnesses.

Against a priest. The word presbyter{ Ver. 19. Adversus presbyterum, kata presbuterou. And St. Chrysostom, (p. 313.) ten elikian.|} is commonly here expounded of bishops and priests; though St. Chrysostom understands it of men advanced in age. --- Receive not an accusation; that is do not sit as judge, nor hearken to such information. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:20 Them that sin reprove before all: that the rest also may have fear.

Them that sin, so as to be public criminals, etc. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:21 I charge thee, before God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect Angels, that thou observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by declining to either side.

Without prejudice{ Ver. 21. Sine praejudicio, choris prokrimatos.|} for or against any one, not declining to either side, holding the scales of justice equally. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:22 Impose not hands lightly upon any man, neither be partaker of other men's sins. Keep thyself chaste.

Impose not hands lightly upon any man, in promoting him to be a minister of God by the sacrament of orders, unless he be duly qualified. --- Neither in this be partaker of other men's sins, as they make themselves who ordain others rashly. (Witham)
I Timothy 5:23 Do not still drink water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake, and thy frequent infirmities.

I Timothy 5:24 Some men's sins are manifest, going before to judgment: and some men they follow after.

\f + \fr 5:24-25\ft Some men's sins are manifest, etc. These two verses seem connected with the admonition before given, as to ordaining ministers, some men's sins and evil life being so manifest, that they are certain to be rejected. --- And some men they follow after: they appear not till after a trial and examination. --- In like manner also good deeds, and good lives of some men, are so manifest, that they are easily admitted. And such as are otherwise, (that is, when they are desirous to conceal their virtues) they cannot be hidden: by an examination and trial they will appear. (Witham) --- This refers to what he had said before, that he ought not easily to ordain others, but pass his judgment with scrutiny and impartiality. But there are some whom the public voice already condemns; their crimes are manifest: and there are others, though bad, whose crimes cannot be proved without examination. (Calmet) --- St. Basil thinks it refers to the general judgment. Many both good and bad actions are at present manifest: others shall not be known till the day of judgment. Hypocrites are reserved to be judged by the Lord, as we cannot pronounce upon their actions. (St. Basil, lib. de Virgin.)
I Timothy 5:25 In like manner also good deeds are manifest; and they that are otherwise cannot be hid.

I Timothy 6:0 Duties of servants. The danger of covetousness. Lessons for the rich.

I Timothy 6:1 Whosoever are servants under the yoke, let them count their masters worthy of all honour, lest the name and doctrine of the Lord be blasphemed.

\f + \fr 6:1-2\ft Lest the name and doctrine of the Lord be blasphemed, or ill spoken of by infidels, when such as were converted refused to be servants. --- Let them not despise them, etc. That is, they who were servants under Christian masters, ought to think themselves more happy on that account, being brethren, and partakers of the same benefit of faith and grace. (Witham) --- If servants be insolent and disobedient, their infidel masters will blaspheme the Christian religion, as if that were the cause of their disrespectful behaviour. And let them not be arrogant, or aspire to an equality with their Christian masters, under pretence that the profession of the same religion makes them brothers; but rather serve them with greater submission and affection, as partakers of the benefit of the same faith, the same baptism, the same hope, etc. (Calmet)
I Timothy 6:2 But they who have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren: but serve them the rather, because they are faithful and beloved, who are partakers of the benefit. These things teach, and exhort.

I Timothy 6:3 If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to that doctrine which is according to piety:

I Timothy 6:4 He is proud, knowing nothing, but sick about questions and strifes of words: from which arise envies, contentions, blasphemies, evil suspicions,

But sick about questions,{ Ver. 4. Languens, noson. Aegrotans; Erasmus, insaniens.|} unprofitable disputes, blasphemies, which may either signify against God, or railing one against another, conflicts, etc.{ Ver. 4. Conflictationes, paradiatribai, exercitationes.|} and dissensions of men corrupted in their minds: such is the character and description he gives of those ancient heretics, which applies to heretics in general. (Witham)
I Timothy 6:5 Conflicts of men corrupted in mind, and who are destitute of the truth, supposing gain to be piety.

Supposing gain to be piety.{ Ver. 5. Existimantes quaestum esse pietatem, porismon einai ten eusebeian. In the ordinary Greek copies follows, aphistato apo ton toiouton, and so the Protestant translation, from which withdraw thyself. But Grotius and Dr. Wells leave them out, preferring those manuscripts that agree with the Latin Vulgate and with the Syriac.|} The sense is the same, that they make a shew of piety only for gain-sake. (Witham)
I Timothy 6:6 But piety with sufficiency, is great gain.

But piety with sufficiency, or when a man hath what is sufficient to support his necessities, is certainly great gain, is accompanied with the most valuable advantages, the treasure of a good conscience, peace of mind, the grace of God, and hereafter a recompense of eternal glory. (Witham) --- That man is certainly rich, however small his possession, if he desire nothing more below, and aspires eagerly after that blessing above, which alone can fill his heart. Mediocrity is an enviable state; it frees us from the dangers of riches, and from the temptations of extreme poverty: with this lot let us be content. Why should we fix our hearts on the fleeting possessions of the day: we had not them yesterday, and to-morrow they will not be ours; for as we were born so we must die.
I Timothy 6:7 *For we brought nothing into this world: and certainly we can carry nothing out.

Job. 1:21.; Ecclesiastes 5:14.
I Timothy 6:8 *But having food, and wherewith to be covered, with these we are content.

Proverbs 27:26.
I Timothy 6:9 For they who wish to become rich, fall into temptation, and into the snare of the devil, and into many unprofitable and hurtful desires, which drown men in destruction and perdition.

For they who wish to become rich.{ Ver. 9. Qui volunt divites fieri, oi boulomenoi. St. Chrysostom, (log. iz. p. 321.) ouk aplos eipen, oi ploutountes, all oi boulomenoi.|} He does not say, as St. Chrysostom observes, they who are rich; as persons may be rich, and make good use of their riches to God's honour, and the good of others. But such as would be rich, who seek riches, and have their heart and affections upon riches, fall into various temptations of injustice, of pride, and vanity, into hurtful lusts, which drown and plunge{ Ver. 9. Mergunt, buthizousi.|} men into perdition, etc. (Witham)
I Timothy 6:10 For covetousness is the root of all evils; which some desiring, have erred from the faith, and have entangled themselves in many sorrows.

The root of all evils is covetousness,{ Ver. 10. Cupiditas, philarguria, amor pecuniae.|} or the love of money, as it is in the Greek; a covetous man being ready to sacrifice his soul for money. (Witham) --- This truth is verified and illustrated by the example of Judas, in the gospel; of Ananias and Saphira, in the Acts; of Demas, mentioned by St. Paul in his second epistle to Timothy; and many others, who have made shipwreck of their faith through eagerness to gain riches. Whoever seeks visible and terrestrial goods with great avidity, cannot be supposed to retain much faith in things that are celestial and invisible. He quits a future real and substantial good to seek for a delusive happiness that presents itself, but which will prove a source of present and future evils.
I Timothy 6:11 But thou, O man of God, fly these things: and pursue justice, piety, faith, charity, patience, meekness.

But thou, O man of God.{ Ver. 11. O homo Dei. See St. Chrysostom, (log. iz. p. 321.) mega axioma, etc. magna dignitas, etc.|} This, says St. Chrysostom, is one of the highest title and commendations that can be given to any man. So are called Samuel, Elias, Eliseus. (1 Kings ii and ix.; 3 Kings xxxiii.) (Witham)
I Timothy 6:12 Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life whereunto thou art called, and hast confessed a good confession before many witnesses.

Fight the good fight. Literally, strive{ Ver. 12. Certa bonum certamen, agonizou ton kalon agona, which may be by running as well as by fighting.|} a good strife. St. Paul oftentimes brings this comparison of men striving for a prize. --- And hast confessed a good confession before many witnesses, not only when baptized, not only when thou wast ordained a bishop, but by thy constancy and sufferings and persecutions, says St. Chrysostom, though we know not the particulars. (Witham) --- Timothy had made profession of his faith at his baptism, at his ordination, and during the whole course of a life which, through many labours and persecutions, had been dedicated entirely to promote the faith. (St. Thomas Aquinas) --- Like him let us also combat, if we aspire after the same triumph and prize.
I Timothy 6:13 I charge thee before God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, who gave testimony *under Pontius Pilate, a good confession:

Matthew 27:11.; John 18:33.; John 18:37.
Under Pontius Pilate, etc. Some expound it of the words and particular testimony Christ gave when he said he was king, but not of this world, who came to teach the truth. We may rather understand it with others, of all Christ taught and suffered under Pilate, or whilst he was governor of Judea. (Witham)
I Timothy 6:14 That thou keep the commandment without spot, blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:

That thou keep the commandment. Some understand that of fighting manfully; others of loving God; others rather comprehend all that St. Paul had commanded him, and all the instructions given. --- Unto the coming of our Lord;{ Ver. 14. Usque ad Adventum Domini, quem, etc. mechri tes epiphaneias...en, not on, and so must agree with adventum.|} which coming, he in due time will shew. This is the construction by the Greek. (Witham) --- This coming will be desirable for Christians who have preserved or recovered their baptismal innocence, and for pastors who have faithfully fulfilled their ministry; but terrible, in the extreme, for all who have lived in the constant neglect and omission of their duties.
I Timothy 6:15 Which in his times he shall shew, *who is the Blessed and only Mighty, the King of kings, and Lord of lords:

Apocalypse 17:14.; Apocalypse 19:16.
I Timothy 6:16 Who only hath immortality, and inhabiteth light inaccessible, *whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and empire everlasting. Amen.

John 1:18.; 1 John 4:12.
Who only hath immortality; that is is immortal of himself, and by his own nature. --- Light inaccessible; to human eyes or understandings. (Witham)
I Timothy 6:17 Charge the rich of this world not to be high-minded, *nor to hope in uncertain riches, but in the living God (who giveth us abundantly all things to enjoy)

Luke 12.
Charge the rich of this world not to confide in such uncertain goods; to strive to be rich in good works; to communicate{ Ver. 17. Communicare, koinonikous. See koinonein, Romans xii. etc.|} in lending, assisting, giving to others, by which they will lay up an everlasting treasure. (Witham)
I Timothy 6:18 To do good, to be rich in good works, to distribute readily, to communicate.

I Timothy 6:19 To lay up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may obtain true life.

I Timothy 6:20 O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding the profane novelties of words, and oppositions of knowledge falsely so called,

O Timothy, keep that which is committed{ Ver. 20. Depositum custodi, ten parakatatheken phulaxon. See St. Chrysostom on these words.|} to thy trust. He does not mean his charge of bishop, nor the graces of God, but the true and sound doctrine delivered to him either by writing or word of mouth, according to the common interpretation. See St. Chrysostom, Vincentius Lirinensis, Commonitorii, ch. XVII. This is confirmed by the following words, avoiding the profane novelties{ Ver. 20. Profanas vocum novitates; though all the Greek copies have now kenophonias, vocum inanitates: the Latin interpreter must have read, kainophonias.|} of words: (in the Greek empty, vain, babbling). The apostle here condemns new words, which change the doctrine; but sometimes to express the ancient doctrine, new words may be found necessary, as those of trinity, incarnation, consubstantiality, transubstantiation, etc. as St. Athanasius, St. Augustine, and others observed. See 2 Timothy 1:14. --- Oppositions of knowledge falsely so{ Ver. 20. Falsi nominis scientiae, pseudonuma gnoseos. St. Chrysostom, (log. ie.) tines eautous ekaloun tote Gnostikous.|} called. St. Chrysostom understands in particular the errors of the Gnostics, so called from the same Greek word, who were the successors of Simon Magus. But they perhaps not having the name when St. Paul wrote, we may rather understand heretics in general, who all pretend to an uncommon knowledge in Scriptures, when they follow their own private judgment, and so fall from the faith. (Witham) --- Keep the deposit, viz. of faith, which has been committed to thee. Throughout this whole epistle the apostle beseeches Timothy, in the most earnest manner, as a guardian of the faith, to preserve it without change. He every where condemns sects, heresies, and changes in faith. It would be well for the modern religionists, to inform us and themselves, why St. Paul is so particular in insisting upon union of faith, under pain of damnation, if it was the intention of Christ that men should differ on questions of religion. Let them tell us what St. Paul means, or else say plainly that they differ from the apostle's religion, and have formed theirs upon a more liberal scale. (Haydock)
I Timothy 6:21 Which some promising, have erred concerning the faith. Grace be with thee. Amen.