1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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Daniel 1:1 In the third year *of the reign of Joakim, king of Juda, Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem, and besieged it.

Year of the World 3398, Year before Christ 606. Third, at the conclusion, so that it is called the fourth, Jeremias 25:1. (Cornelius a Lapide; Menochius) --- Nabuchodonosor began his expedition into Syria a year before he was king; (Salien, the year of the world 3428.; Josephus, etc.) or he had the title before his father Nabopolassar's death. (Usher, the year of the world 3397.) --- The following year he took Joakim, with a design to convey him to Babylon; but he left him on hard terms, and seized many of the sacred vessels, Daniel, etc. (Calmet) --- Joakim reigned other eight years, 2 Paralipomenon 36:5. (Worthington)
Daniel 1:2 And the Lord delivered into his hands Joakim, the king of Juda, and part of the vessels of the house *of God: and he carried them away into the land of Sennaar, to the house of his god, and the vessels he brought into the treasure-house of his god.

Jeremias 25:1.
His god; Bel, or Belas, the principal idol of the Chaldeans. (Challoner) --- The king pretended to derive his pedigree from Belus, (Abyd. Eus. praep. 1.) and greatly enriched his temple, (Calmet) which Xerxes demolished. (Arrian.) --- God. Some part might be kept in the palace, Daniel 5:10., and 2 Paralipomenon 36:7.
Daniel 1:3 And the king spoke to Asphenez, the master of the eunuchs, that he should bring in some of the children of Israel, and of the king's seed, and of the princes,

Eunuchs, or chief officers. The Jews assert that Daniel was made an eunuch, Isaias 39:7. But he might be so styled on account of his dignity. (Calmet) --- Princes. Literally, "tyrants." (Haydock) --- This name was afterwards only rendered odious by the misconduct of several kings. (Calmet) --- Hebrew parthemim, (Haydock) seems to be of Greek derivation, alluding to protimoi, or protoi, "the first or most honoured." (Drusius) --- We find here other Greek words. (Calmet)
Daniel 1:4 Children in whom there was no blemish, well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, acute in knowledge, and instructed in science, and such as might stand in the king's palace, that he might teach them the learning, and the tongue of the Chaldeans.

Blemish. Deformed people were excluded the throne, or the king's presence. (Procop. 1.) --- Science; well educated, or apt to learn. They were first to be taught the Chaldean letters, which then differed from the Hebrew. (Calmet)
Daniel 1:5 And the king appointed them a daily provision, of his own meat, and of the wine of which he drank himself, that being nourished three years, afterwards they might stand before the king.

Meat: more exquisite. (De Dieu.) --- All was first served on the king's table. (Athen. 6:14.)
Daniel 1:6 Now there were among them of the children of Juda, Daniel, Ananias, Misael, and Azarias.

Juda. It is thought all four were of royal blood. (Calmet) --- Others were also kept at court. (Menochius)
Daniel 1:7 And the master of the eunuchs gave them names: to Daniel, Baltassar: to Ananias, Sidrach: to Misael, Misach: and to Azarias, Abdenago.

Baltassar, or as Chaldeans (Calmet) or Masorets (Haydock) pronounce, Beltesasar, "the treasurer of Baal." The names were changed to testify their subjection, (Calmet) and that they might embrace the manners of the Chaldeans. (Menochius) --- The new names alluded to the sun. (Calmet)
Daniel 1:8 But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not be defiled with the king's table, nor with the wine which he drank: and he requested the master of the eunuchs that he might not be defiled.

Daniel, as head and nearer the throne, gave good example to the rest. (Worthington) --- Defiled, either by eating meat forbidden by the law, or which had before been offered to idols. (Challoner) --- It was customary among the pagans to make an offering of some parts to their gods, or throw it into the fire. (Theod.; Calmet) --- These reasons determined the pious youths, (Haydock) who desired also to keep free from gluttony and other vices. (Theod.; Worthington)
Daniel 1:9 And God gave to Daniel grace and mercy in the sight of the prince of the eunuchs.

Daniel 1:10 And the prince of the eunuchs said to Daniel: I fear my lord, the king, who hath appointed you meat and drink: who if he should see your faces leaner than those of the other youths, your equals, you shall endanger my head to the king.

Daniel 1:11 And Daniel said to Malasar, whom the prince of the eunuchs had appointed over Daniel, Ananias, Misael, and Azarias:

Malassar, another inferior officer. It means also one appointed over the mouth or provisions, (Calmet) and might be Asphenez, ver. 3, 9. (Haydock)
Daniel 1:12 Try, I beseech thee, thy servants for ten days, and let pulse be given us to eat, and water to drink:

Pulse. That is, pease, beans, and such like. (Challoner) --- St. Basil hence shews the advantages of fasting; and Catholics, who imitate Daniel, may expect the like reward in heaven: and hope that such a pattern would not displease their dissenting brethren, but rather screen them from their profane sarcasms. (Haydock)
Daniel 1:13 And look upon our faces, and the faces of the children that eat of the king's meat: and as thou shalt see, deal with thy servants.

Daniel 1:14 And when he had heard these words, he tried them for ten days.

Daniel 1:15 And after ten days, their faces appeared fairer and fatter than all the children that ate of the king's meat.

Daniel 1:16 So Malasar took their portions, and the wine that they should drink: and he gave them pulse.

Daniel 1:17 And to these children God gave knowledge, and understanding in every book, and wisdom: but to Daniel the understanding also of all visions and dreams.

Dreams. He was learned in all the sciences of the country, like Moses, Acts 7:22. (Calmet) --- They studied these things, in order to refute what was erroneous: discunt....ut judicent. (St. Jerome) --- The Chaldeans paid great attention to dreams. Daniel acquired the knowledge of such as were sent from heaven by the gift of God, as Joseph had done. To pay any regard to common dreams would be childish (Calmet) and sinful, if the person depend on them for the knowledge of futurity. (Haydock)
Daniel 1:18 And when the days were ended, after which the king had ordered they should be brought in: *the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before Nabuchodonosor.

Year of the World 3401.
Daniel 1:19 And when the king had spoken to them, there were not found among them all such as Daniel, Ananias, Misael, and Azarias: and they stood in the king's presence.

Daniel 1:20 And in all matters of wisdom and understanding, that the king enquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the diviners, and wise men, that were in all his kingdom.

Diviners, or fortune-tellers. --- Wise men. Septuagint, "philosophers." (Calmet) --- Hebrew Ashaphim, may come from the Greek sophoi. (Grotius) --- They had been educated three years, ver. 5. (Haydock)
Daniel 1:21 *And Daniel continued even to the first year of king Cyrus.

Daniel 6:28.
Cyrus; and also to the third, (Chap. 10) and of course during the whole of the captivity. (Worthington) --- He was maintained in power by the conqueror of Babylon, Daniel 6:18., and 14:1. He first displayed his sagacity in the cause of Susanna, (Chap. 13.) (Calmet) whose history was placed at the head of the book, in Theodotion, (St. Jerome in Isaias 3:1.) as in its natural order. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:0 Daniel, by divine revelation, declares the dream of Nabuchodonosor, and the interpretation of it. He is highly honoured by the king.

Daniel 2:1 In *the second year of the reign of Nabuchodonosor, Nabuchodonosor had a dream, and his spirit was terrified, and his dream went out of his mind.

Year of the World 3401, Year before Christ 603. Year, from the death of his father, Nabopolassar; for he had reigned before as partner with his father, in the empire. (Challoner) --- In that quality he conquered Syria, (in the year of the world 3397) took Daniel, etc. in the year 3399. He succeeded his father. (Usher) (Calmet) --- After he had enlarged his empire by the conquest of Egypt, etc. he had this dream. (A. R. 25.[in the 25th year of his reign?]) (Worthington) --- Mind. Septuagint, "his sleep departed from him." (Haydock) --- He was restless, recollecting enough to fill him with trouble. When the dream was repeated over, he knew that it was the same. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:2 Then the king commanded to call together the diviners and the wise men, and the magicians, and the Chaldeans: to declare to the king his dreams: so they came and stood before the king.

The Chaldeans. That is, the astrologers, that pretended to divine by stars. (Challoner) --- They dwelt on the banks of the Euphrates, and were highly esteemed. (Diod. Sic. i.) --- They were the most ancient philosophers. (Civ. Div. i.)
Daniel 2:3 And the king said to them: I saw a dream: and being troubled in mind I know not what I saw.

I know. Hebrew also, "to know or understand what," etc.
Daniel 2:4 And the Chaldeans answered the king in Syriac: O king, live for ever: tell to thy servants thy dream, and we will declare the interpretation thereof.

Syriac. It was originally the same as the Chaldean. Daniel understood this language, as well as Hebrew and writes in it what concerned the Chaldeans, to Daniel 8. This shews his accuracy, as he makes his speakers use their own tongue. Spinosa ignorantly asserts, that all the seven first chapters are in Chaldean and taken from the records of that nation by Judas Maccabeus. How then did Matthathias become acquainted with the contents?
Daniel 2:5 And the king, answering, said to the Chaldeans: The thing is gone out of my mind: unless you tell me the dream, and the meaning thereof, you shall be put to death, and your houses shall be confiscated.

Put. Chaldean, "torn to pieces, and your house become infamous places;" (Calmet) Protestant, "a dunghill" (Haydock) --- Such cruel punishments were not uncommon. (1 Esdras 6:11.) (Calmet) --- Bessus was torn in pieces by the relations of Darius; (Diod. xvii.) and the Persians generally cut off some member of criminals. (Brisson ii.)
Daniel 2:6 But if you tell the dream, and the meaning of it, you shall receive of me rewards, and gifts, and great honour: therefore, tell me the dream, and the interpretation thereof.

Daniel 2:7 They answered again and said: Let the king tell his servants the dream, and we will declare the interpretation of it.

Daniel 2:8 The king answered and said: I know for certain that you seek to gain time, since you know that the thing is gone from me.

Gain. Literally, "redeem" (Haydock) --- St. Paul uses a similar expression, exhorting us to save our souls even at the expense of our temporal interest. (Calmet) --- The diviners wished to give the king's fury time to abate, (Haydock) and to save their lives; (Calmet) or delay punishment, at least, as much as possible. (Haydock)
Daniel 2:9 If, therefore, you tell me not the dream, there is one sentence concerning you, that you have also framed a lying interpretation, and full of deceit, to speak before me till the time pass away. Tell me, therefore, the dream, that I may know that you also give a true interpretation thereof.

Thereof. It is indeed more easy to discover what dream a person has had, than to explain it; since the devil might disclose the former, but he can only guess at what will happen, and herein his agents are often deceived. (See Genesis xl.) (Worthington) --- It is not even certain that the devil can know the dreams which we have not divulged, as it is the privilege of God to discern the secrets of the heart. (Haydock)
Daniel 2:10 Then the Chaldeans answered before the king, and said: There is no man upon earth, that can accomplish thy word, O king; neither doth any king, though great and mighty, ask such a thing of any diviner, or wise man, or Chaldean.

Daniel 2:11 For the thing that thou askest, O king, is difficult: nor can any one be found that can shew it before the king, except the gods, whose conversation is not with men.

Men. They acknowledged greater and less gods. (Stanley, p. 13. ch. I.) --- They pretend not to have any communication with the superior ones, (Calmet) and by their answer unguardedly bear testimony to the excellence of the God whom Daniel served. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 2:12 Upon hearing this, the king in fury, and in great wrath, commanded that all the wise men of Babylon should be put to death.

Daniel 2:13 And the decree being gone forth, the wise men were slain: and Daniel and his companions were sought for, to be put to death.

Slain. Literally, "were slaughtering;" interficiebantur. (Haydock) --- Many think that some had already suffered. (Geier.; Menochius) --- They had been perhaps jealous of Daniel, and had not informed him of the matter. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 2:14 Then Daniel inquired concerning the law and the sentence, of Arioch, the general of the king's army, who was gone forth to kill the wise men of Babylon.

General. He occupied the same office as Putiphar, in Egypt. (Genesis 39:1.) It was no disgrace for such a one to execute himself the king's order, as Banaias slew the brother of Solomon. (3 Kings ii.)
Daniel 2:15 And he asked him that had received the orders of the king, why so cruel a sentence was gone forth from the face of the king. And when Arioch had told the matter to Daniel,

Cruel. Chaldean also, "precipitate." (Calmet)
Daniel 2:16 Daniel went in, and desired of the king, that he would give him time to resolve the question and declare it to the king.

Declare the dream. (Haydock) --- The Chaldeans had promised only to explain it, and the king knew the superior merit of Daniel. (Chap. 1:19.) (Calmet)
Daniel 2:17 And he went into his house, and told the matter to Ananias, and Misael, and Azarias, his companions:

Daniel 2:18 To the end that they should ask mercy at the face of the God of heaven, concerning this secret, and that Daniel and his companions might not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon.

Secret. Literally, "sacrament." Greek, "mystery," which seems to be derived from (Calmet) mosthor, "a secret." (Haydock)
Daniel 2:19 Then was the mystery revealed to Daniel by a vision in the night: and Daniel blessed the God of heaven,

Night, while he was probably asleep, (Calmet) or praying with his companions. (Villet.)
Daniel 2:20 And speaking, he said: Blessed be the name of the Lord from eternity and for evermore: for wisdom and fortitude are his.

His. He grants them to whom he pleases, and disposes of kingdoms (Calmet) without control. (ver. 21.)
Daniel 2:21 And he changeth times and ages: taketh away kingdoms, and establisheth them: giveth wisdom to the wise, and knowledge to them that have understanding:

Daniel 2:22 He revealeth deep and hidden things, and knoweth what is in darkness: and light is with him.*

1 Corinthians 4:5.; 1 John 1:6.; John 1:9.; John 8:12.
Daniel 2:23 To thee, O God of our fathers, I give thanks, and I praise thee: because thou hast given me wisdom and strength: and now thou hast shewn me what we desired of thee, for thou hast made known to us the king's discourse.

Daniel 2:24 After this Daniel went in to Arioch, to whom the king had given orders to destroy the wise men of Babylon, and he spoke thus to him: Destroy not the wise men of Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will tell the solution to the king.

Daniel 2:25 Then Arioch in haste brought in Daniel to the king, and said to him: I have found a man of the children of the captivity of Juda, that will resolve the question to the king.

Daniel 2:26 The king answered, and said to Daniel, whose name was Baltassar: Thinkest thou indeed that thou canst tell me the dream that I saw, and the interpretation thereof?

Daniel 2:27 And Daniel made answer before the king, and said: The secret that the king desireth to know, none of the wise men, or the philosophers, or the diviners, or the soothsayers, can declare to the king.

Soothsayers. Chaldean Gazerin, (Haydock) who inspect entrails, (Ezechiel 21:21. St. Jerome) or tell fortunes by sticks. (Chap. 3:3.)
Daniel 2:28 But there is a God in heaven that revealeth mysteries, who hath shewn to thee, O king Nabuchodonosor, what is to come to pass in the latter times. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these:

Times. In the Old Testament, this commonly signifies when Christ shall appear; but in the New, it refers to the end of the world. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:29 Thou, O king, didst begin to think in thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and he that revealeth mysteries shewed thee what shall come to pass.

Begin. By thus telling what thoughts the king had entertained before his dream, he would be heard with greater confidence. (Worthington)
Daniel 2:30 To me also this secret is revealed, not by any wisdom that I have more than all men alive: but that the interpretation might be made manifest to the king, and thou mightest know the thoughts of thy mind.

Daniel 2:31 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold there was as it were a great statue: this statue, which was great and high, tall of stature, stood before thee, and the look thereof was terrible.

Terrible, or unusual. (Calmet) --- The statue denoted the four great empires of the Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks and Romans. The metals did not mean that the empire of gold was greater than the rest, as that signified by the iron was far more powerful; but only that the empire of the Chaldeans was then the greatest, and that the Persians would acquire still more power and be surpassed by the Greeks, as they were by the Romans, till the kingdom of Christ should be spread over all the earth. (Worthington)
Daniel 2:32 The head of this statue was of fine gold, but the breast and the arms of silver, and the belly and the thighs of brass.

Daniel 2:33 And the legs of iron, the feet part of iron and part of clay.

Daniel 2:34 Thus thou sawest, till a stone was cut out of a mountain without hands: and it struck the statue upon the feet thereof that were of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces.

Daniel 2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of a summer's thrashing-floor, and they were carried away by the wind: and there was no place found for them: but the stone that struck the statue, became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.

Daniel 2:36 This is the dream: we will also tell the interpretation thereof before thee, O king.

Daniel 2:37 Thou art a king of kings: and the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, and strength, and power, and glory:

Of kings. This title was used by the Persians. Nabuchodonosor was at that time the most potent monarch on earth. He conquered many nations, and greatly embellished the city of Babylon, surrounding it with three walls in fifteen days, and building hanging gardens, which were the wonder of the world. See Eusebius, praep. 9:41. and 10:42. etc. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:38 And all places wherein the children of men, and the beasts of the field do dwell: he hath also given the birds of the air into thy hand, and hath put all things under thy power: thou, therefore, art the head of gold.

Daniel 2:39 And after thee shall rise up another kingdom, inferior to thee, of silver: and another third kingdom of brass, which shall rule over all the world.

Another kingdom; viz. that of the Medes and Persians. (Challoner) --- Inferior; later, of less duration and extent. (Calmet) --- Third, etc. That of Alexander the Great. (Challoner) --- World. Alexander received ambassadors at Babylon, from the most distant nations, testifying their submission. He conquered beyond the river Indus, etc. (Diod. A. 1. Olym. 14.[year 1 of the 14th Olympiad.?]) (Calmet)
Daniel 2:40 And the fourth kingdom shall be as iron. As iron breaketh into pieces, and subdueth all things, so shall that break, and destroy all these.

The fourth kingdom, etc. Some understand this of the successors of Alexander, the kings of Syria and Egypt: others, of the Roman empire and its civil wars. (Challoner) --- The former supposition seems best, though the latter is almost universally received, and will be explained hereafter. (Calmet) --- The Roman empire did not immediately rise out of Alexander's, and had no relation to the Jews, etc. (Grotius, L'Empereus.) --- But it surely swallowed up all that he had left to his generals, and proved the greatest scourge to the Jewish nation; which has been ever since scattered, while the kingdom of Christ gains ground, and will flourish till that of Rome shall be no more. Antichrist will then appear to cast a cloud over, but not destroy it for three years and a half. It is the opinion of many Fathers, etc. that the Roman empire will subsist till that event take place; (see 2 Thessalonians 2:3, 7.) and thus it may be said, that the fourth empire shall not be given to another people. For antichrist will not strive to exalt a particular nation, but to rule over all. Yet his dominion will be short, and will end in the general dissolution of nature; so that the Roman empire may be deemed to last for a long time, or even for ever. (ver. 44.) Those who adopt the former system, allow (Haydock) that the stone designates both the Roman empire and that of Christ; so that some parts of the prediction may refer to one and some to the other. The origin and progress of the Roman empire, might be a figure of the spiritual power of the Church. It is certain that the successors of Alexander owed their dominion to their valour, and established it by the slaughter of many great generals. The kings who followed Seleucus and Ptolemy were remarkable for a mixture of good and bad qualities. Their efforts to preserve their power by intermarriages, proved abortive. The prophet seems also to have had them in view, Daniel 7:7., and 8:22. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet, and the toes, part of potter's clay, and part of iron: the kingdom shall be divided, but yet it shall take its origin from the iron, according as thou sawest the iron mixed with the miry clay.

Clay. The iron was in a rude state, mixed with earth. The Roman power was at last partly exercised by consuls and partly by emperors. (Menochius) --- Florus (1.) compares it to the four states of a man, infancy, childhood, youth, and old age. Its youth may be dated from the conquest of all Italy to Tiberius; afterwards it fell to decay, while the eternal kingdom of Christ was forming, ver. 44.
Daniel 2:42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay: the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.

Daniel 2:43 And whereas thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay, they shall be mingled indeed together with the seed of man, but they shall not stick fast one to another, as iron cannot be mixed with clay.

Man. Pompey and Caesar, Anthony and Augustus, married each other's relations; but they soon quarrelled, and the race of the Caesars was extinct in Nero. But this is better understood of the kings of Syria and of Egypt. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:44 But in the days of those kingdoms, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, and his kingdom shall not be delivered up to another people: and it shall break in pieces, and shall consume all these kingdoms: and itself shall stand for ever.

Kingdom of Christ, in the Catholic Church, which cannot be destroyed. (Challoner) --- This alone cannot be destroyed. (Worthington) --- All other empires change. The Catholic Church has stood for seventeen centuries in the midst of persecutions, which gives us an assurance that she will continue for ever. (Calmet) --- "Then," says Munster, "was the kingdom of Christ set up, not by arms,...but by the divine power." This interpretation arises from the improper version, without hands; whereas the sequel shews that the empire here spoken of, is attended with the like violence as the four others, which it destroys. The Roman empire was in no degree connected with others by marriage. In the following verse, Munster improperly turns to the second coming of our Saviour. Grotius here asserts that the stone alludes to the Roman armies, prefiguring the Son of man, whose gospel is indicated by the progress of the Roman empire, as both sprung from small beginnings. But who informed him that there were such figures in that empire as in the Old Testament? All empires begin in that manner, and types should have some greater resemblance with the reality. The Church meddles not with the temporal powers. It is therefore plain that the prophet speaks of empires which shall succeed each other. (Houbigant. perf. Prop. 340.) --- Kingdoms. That of Rome comprised all the former. The persecuting emperors are forced to yield, and the colossal power of infidelity and vice falls before the gospel. Christ's dominion is spiritual, exercised against wickedness; (Calmet) is heavenly and eternal. (Haydock) --- The blood of martyrs was more efficacious in the establishing of Christianity, than fire and sword had been in forming other empires. (Menochius)
Daniel 2:45 According as thou sawest, that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and broke in pieces, the clay and the iron, and the brass, and the silver, and the gold, the great God hath shewn the king what shall come to pass hereafter, and the dream is true, and the interpretation thereof is faithful.

Hands. Protestant marg.: "mountain, which was not in hand." (Haydock) --- Christ was born of a virgin; and his kingdom was not established by ambition, like others. Yet it presently became a mountain, and filled the earth. (St. Justin, dial.; St. Augustine, tr. 9. in Jo.) --- God himself sets up this kingdom. (Calmet)
Daniel 2:46 Then king Nabuchodonosor fell on his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer in sacrifice to him victims and incense.

Daniel, taking him for a little god, under the great one, ver. 17. (Worthington) --- Victims. Chaldean mincha, (Haydock) of flour, etc. But the prophet had already declared his sentiments on this head, (ver. 28.) and abhorred such honours, like St. Paul, (Acts 14:10.; Calmet) though this is not here recorded. (Menochius)
Daniel 2:47 And the king spoke to Daniel, and said: Verily, your God is the God of gods, and Lord of kings, and a revealer of hidden things: seeing thou couldst discover this secret.

Of gods, above all those of the country for explaining hidden things: yet he did not acknowledge him to be the only true God. (Calmet) --- He afterwards erected an idol to represent his own greatness. (Worthington)
Daniel 2:48 Then the king advanced Daniel to a high station, and gave him many and great gifts: and he made him governor over all the provinces of Babylon: and chief of the magistrates over all the wise men of Babylon.

Provinces, or that of Babylonia, which was the first. --- Wise men. This would not engage him in any idolatrous practices.
Daniel 2:49 And Daniel requested of the king, and he appointed Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, over the works of the province of Babylon: but Daniel himself was in the king's palace.

Works of agriculture, (Calmet) which the ancient kings of Persia encouraged with great attention, appointing officers to reward or punish according as their land was cultivated. (Xenophon, Cyr. 8. et oecon.) --- St. Jerome thinks they were appointed judges, (Calmet) or assistants of Daniel. (Grotius) --- Palace. Literally, "gates," (Haydock) as receiver of the taxes, particularly at Susa. (Chap. 8:2.) (Marsham Egypt. saec. 18.)
Daniel 3:0 Nabuchodonosor sets up a golden statue: which he commands all to adore: the three children, for refusing to do it, are cast into the fiery furnace; but are not hurt by the flames. Their prayer, and canticle of praise.

Daniel 3:1 King Nabuchodonosor *made a statue of gold, of sixty cubits high, and six cubits broad, and he set it up in the plain of Dura, of the province of Babylon.

Year of the World 3417, Year before Christ 587. Statue. It was not the figure of a man, (Calmet) the dimensions 90 feet high and 9 broad (Worthington) being disproportionate; though a man might be represented on the pillar. Some take it for Nabolpolassar, (Calmet) or for the king himself. (St. Jerome) (Worthington) --- But he never complains of the injury shewn to his own person, and therefore it probably was meant for Bel, the chief god, Daniel 4:5., and 14:1. This nation adored statues, Baruch 6:3. The Persians worshipped only the elements. (Calmet) --- Ochus first set up the statue of the goddess Tanais or Anais. (Clem. Protr.) --- Dura. Septuagint, "enclosed." (St. Jerome) --- This happened towards the end of the king's reign, (ver. 98, etc.) of course the three young men might be about fifty years old. (Calmet)
Daniel 3:2 Then Nabuchodonosor, the king, sent to call together the nobles, the magistrates, and the judges, the captains, the rulers, and governors, and all the chief men of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the statue which king Nabuchodonosor had set up.

Nobles. Literally, "satraps," or, "the king's domestics." (Septuagint in 1 Esdras 8:36.) --- Judges, or "governors of provinces." (ibid.; Theodot. etc.) --- Captains of the soothsayers. --- Rulers; "tyrants," here denoting treasurers. (Calmet) --- Governors. Literally, "the grandees who were in power;" (Haydock) counsellors. The original adds, (Calmet) Thopthia, (Haydock) "lawyers" and orators. The head of the Turkish religion is called muphti, from the same root, (Calmet) peti, "to teach." (Haydock)
Daniel 3:3 Then the nobles, the magistrates, and the judges, the captains, and rulers, and the great men that were placed in authority, and all the princes of the provinces, were gathered together to come to the dedication of the statue, which king Nabuchodonosor had set up. And they stood before the statue which king Nabuchodonosor had set up.

Daniel 3:4 Then a herald cried with a strong voice: To you it is commanded, O nations, tribes, and languages:

Daniel 3:5 That in the hour that you shall hear the sound of the trumpet, and of the flute, and of the harp, of the sackbut, and of the psaltery, and of the symphony, and of all kind of music, ye fall down and adore the golden statue which king Nabuchodonosor hath set up.

Symphony. This and several other terms seem taken from the Greek, though the scythara and sambuca came originally from Chaldea. (Calmet) --- Down. This and offering incense were sometimes considered as marks of idolatry; so being present at the sermons and churches of Protestants was a sign of joining in their communion, being required for that purpose. (Worthington)
Daniel 3:6 But if any man shall not fall down and adore, he shall the same hour be cast into a furnace of burning fire.

Daniel 3:7 Upon this, therefore, at the time when all the people heard the sound of the trumpet, the flute, and the harp, of the sackbut, and the psaltery, of the symphony, and of all kind of music, all the nations, tribes, and languages fell down and adored the golden statue which king Nabuchodonosor had set up.

Daniel 3:8 And presently at that very time some Chaldeans came and accused the Jews,

Jews: the three children whom they viewed with a jealous eye. Daniel was too much exalted, or was absent with other Jews.
Daniel 3:9 And said to king Nabuchodonosor: O king, live for ever:

Daniel 3:10 Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the trumpet, the flute, and the harp, of the sackbut, and the psaltery, of the symphony, and of all kind of music, shall prostrate himself, and adore the golden statue:

Daniel 3:11 And that if any man shall not fall down and adore, he should be cast into a furnace of burning fire.

Daniel 3:12 Now there are certain Jews, whom thou hast set over the works of the province of Babylon, Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago: these men, O king, have slighted thy decree: they worship not thy gods, nor do they adore the golden statue which thou hast set up.

Daniel 3:13 Then Nabuchodonosor in fury, and in wrath, commanded that Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago should be brought: who immediately were brought before the king.

Daniel 3:14 And Nabuchodonosor, the king, spoke to them, and said: Is it true, O Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, that you do not worship my gods, nor adore the golden statue that I have set up?

Daniel 3:15 Now, therefore, if you be ready, at what hour soever, you shall hear the sound of the trumpet, flute, harp, sackbut, and psaltery, and symphony, and of all kind of music, prostrate yourselves, and adore the statue which I have made: but if you do not adore, you shall be cast the same hour into the furnace of burning fire: and who is the God that shall deliver you out of my hand?

Hand? Proof of this king's inconstancy, as he had witnessed the power of God!
Daniel 3:16 Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, answered, and said to king Nabuchodonosor: We have no occasion to answer thee concerning this matter.

Daniel 3:17 For behold our God, whom we worship, is able to save us from the furnace of burning fire, and to deliver us out of thy hands, O king.

Daniel 3:18 But if he will not, be it known to thee, O king, that we will not worship thy gods, nor adore the golden statue which thou hast set up.

He. Chaldean, "not" (Calmet) --- By this modest yet resolute answer, they testified their faith in God's power, and their determination rather to suffer death (Worthington) than to go against their conscience. (Haydock) --- They were ignorant whether God would preserve them from the flames or not, (Worthington) as he is said to have rescued Abraham from a similar danger, 2 Esdras 9:7.
Daniel 3:19 Then was Nabuchodonosor filled with fury: and the countenance of his face was changed against Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, and he commanded that the furnace should be heated seven times more than it had been accustomed to be heated.

Daniel 3:20 And he commanded the strongest men that were in his army, to bind the feet of Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, and to cast them into the furnace of burning fire.

Strongest. Chaldean, "mighty in strength;" (Haydock) his own guards, the usual executioners.
Daniel 3:21 And immediately these men were bound, and were cast into the furnace of burning fire, with their coats, and their caps, and their shoes, and their garments.

Coats, or various coloured bandages for the thighs, used by men and women. Aquila and Th. retain the original term, Sarabarois. Chaldean, saraballa. (Calmet) --- Caps: "tiaras." (Haydock) --- The king alone wore them upright.
Daniel 3:22 For the king's commandment was urgent, and the furnace was heated exceedingly. And the flame of the fire slew those men that had cast in Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago.

Slew. They were working still at the furnace, when it burst out and destroyed them, (Calmet) while the three Jews were praising God below. (Haydock) (ver. 46, 48.)
Daniel 3:23 But these three men, that is, Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, fell down bound in the midst of the furnace of burning fire.

Daniel 3:24 And they walked in the midst of the flame, praising God, and blessing the Lord.

And, etc. "What follows I have not found in the Hebrew volumes." (St. Jerome) (Haydock) --- Here St. Jerome takes notice, that from this verse to ver. 91 was not in the Hebrew in his time. But as it was in all the Greek Bibles, (which were originally translated from the Hebrew) it is more than probable that it had been formerly in the Hebrew; or rather in the Chaldaic, in which the Book of Daniel was written. But this is certain: that it is and has been of old, received by the Church, and read as canonical Scripture in her liturgy and divine offices. (Challoner) --- See the preface. (Worthington)
Daniel 3:25 Then Azarias standing up, prayed in this manner, and opening his mouth in the midst of the fire, he said:

Daniel 3:26 Blessed art thou, O Lord, the God of our fathers, and thy name is worthy of praise, and glorious for ever:

Daniel 3:27 For thou art just in all that thou hast done to us, and all thy works are true, and thy ways right, and all thy judgments true.

True; not fickle, and liable to change. (Calmet) --- Opera mutas non mutas consilium. (St. Augustine, Conf. 1:4.) --- Cappel. argues from this confession, that the piece is not divine, as they would rather have burst out into expressions of admiration, as they do in the canticle below. But they had done so already, (ver. 26) and make this confession, (Haydock) as Daniel does, Daniel 9.; reflecting, that if the nation had not transgressed, they would not thus have been exposed to the fury of the king. (Houbigant. 5:40.) (Haydock)
Daniel 3:28 For thou hast executed true judgments in all the things that thou hast brought upon us, and upon Jerusalem, the holy city of our fathers: for according to truth and judgment, thou hast brought all these things upon us for our sins.

Daniel 3:29 For we have sinned, and committed iniquity, departing from thee: and we have trespassed in all things:

Daniel 3:30 And we have not hearkened to thy commandments, nor have we observed nor done as thou hadst commanded us, that it might go well with us.

Daniel 3:31 Wherefore, all that thou hast brought upon us, and every thing that thou hast done to us, thou hast done in true judgment:

Daniel 3:32 And thou hast delivered us into the hands of our enemies that are unjust, and most wicked, and prevaricators, and to a king unjust, and most wicked beyond all that are upon the earth.

Daniel 3:33 And now we cannot open our mouths: we are become a shame, and reproach to thy servants, and to them that worship thee.

Thee. Pagans take occasion to vilify our religion.
Daniel 3:34 Deliver us not up for ever, we beseech thee, for thy name's sake, and abolish not thy covenant.

Sake. This disinterested motive is often urged, Joshua 7:9., and 2 Machabees 8:15. (Calmet)
Daniel 3:35 And take not away thy mercy from us, for the sake of Abraham, thy beloved, and Isaac, thy servant, and Israel, thy holy one:

One. Moses used the like terms, and pacified God, Exodus xxxii. (Worthington)
Daniel 3:36 To whom thou hast spoken, promising that thou wouldst multiply their seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand that is on the sea shore.

Daniel 3:37 For we, O Lord, are diminished more than any nation, and are brought low in all the earth this day for our sins.

Daniel 3:38 Neither is there at this time prince, or leader, or prophet, or holocaust, or sacrifice, or oblation, or incense, or place of first-fruits before thee,

Thee, in Jerusalem, (Haydock) or Judea. There were chiefs and judges, (Chap. 13.) as well as prophets, (Ezechiel, etc.) among the captives. Yet the republic was in disorder. (Calmet) --- Sedecias was dead, Joakim in prison, so that no Jewish king ruled over the people; nor was there any prophet in the promised land, Jeremias being either dead or in Egypt. (Worthington) --- Prophets were at least very rare. (Menochius)
Daniel 3:39 That we may find thy mercy: nevertheless, in a contrite heart and humble spirit let us be accepted.

Daniel 3:40 As in holocausts of rams, and bullocks, and as in thousands of fat lambs: so let our sacrifice be made in thy sight this day, that it may please thee: for there is no confusion to them that trust in thee.

Sacrifice of ourselves. (Haydock) --- They knew not yet whether they would escape. When they beheld the angel they had greater confidence, and broke forth into a hymn of praise. (Houbigant.) --- They now offer all they can, a humble heart!
Daniel 3:41 And now we follow thee with all our heart, and we fear thee, and seek thy face.

Daniel 3:42 Put us not to confusion, but deal with us according to thy meekness, and according to the multitude of thy mercies.

Daniel 3:43 And deliver us according to thy wonderful works, and give glory to thy name, O Lord:

Name, by rescuing us, that all may confess thy power. (Calmet)
Daniel 3:44 And let all them be confounded that shew evils to thy servants, let them be confounded in all thy might, and let their strength be broken:

Daniel 3:45 And let them know that thou art the Lord, the only God, and glorious over all the world.

Daniel 3:46 Now the king's servants that had cast them in, ceased not to heat the furnace with brimstone and tow, and pitch, and dry sticks,

Brimstone. Literally, naphtha, (Haydock) or bitumen, which was very inflammable. --- Tow, besmeared with pitch. (Calmet) --- Dry (malleolis) "bundles" of sticks, or ropes, covered with pitch. (Haydock) --- Manipuli spartoei pice contecti. (Nonius.)
Daniel 3:47 And the flame mounted up above the furnace nine and forty cubits:

Daniel 3:48 And it broke forth, and burnt such of the Chaldeans as it found near the furnace.

Furnace. These might be other victims, (Haydock) or he recapitulates what had been said ver. 22, (Calmet) which is by no means unusual, though Cappel. would hence reject the piece. (Houbigant.)
Daniel 3:49 But the angel of the Lord went down with Azarias and his companions into the furnace: and he drove the flame of the fire out of the furnace,

Furnace: so that it destroyed the Chaldeans, while it had no power to hurt God's servants. The operation of the laws nature was thus only restrained. (Haydock)
Daniel 3:50 And made the midst of the furnace like the blowing of a wind bringing dew, and the fire touched them not at all, nor troubled them, nor did them any harm.

Daniel 3:51 Then these three, as with one mouth, praised and glorified and blessed God, in the furnace, saying:

Daniel 3:52 Blessed art thou, O Lord, the God of our fathers; and worthy to be praised, and glorified, and exalted above all for ever: and blessed is the holy name of thy glory: and worthy to be praised, and exalted above all, in all ages.

Daniel 3:53 Blessed art thou in the holy temple of thy glory: and exceedingly to be praised, and exceeding glorious for ever.

Temple; heaven, styled the throne, ver. 54. The temple was now in ruins.
Daniel 3:54 Blessed art thou on the throne of thy kingdom, and exceedingly to be praised and exalted above all for ever.

Daniel 3:55 Blessed art thou that beholdest the depths, and sittest upon the cherubims: and worthy to be praised and exalted above all for ever.

Depths, from whom nothing is hidden. --- Cherubims, as on thy chariot.
Daniel 3:56 Blessed art thou in the firmament of heaven: and worthy of praise, and glorious for ever.

Daniel 3:57 All ye works of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:58 O ye angels of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:59 *O ye heavens, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Psalm 148:4.
Daniel 3:60 O all ye waters that are above the heavens, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:61 O all ye powers of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:62 O ye sun and moon, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:63 O ye stars of heaven, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:64 O every shower and dew, bless ye the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:65 O all ye spirits of God, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Spirits: winds. Angels and men are mentioned elsewhere. (Calmet) --- They rejoice that the angels always praise God, and wish that all would strive to imitate them. (Worthington)
Daniel 3:66 O ye fire and heat, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:67 O ye cold and heat, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Heat. Winter and summer. Some copies have, aestas. (Calmet)
Daniel 3:68 O ye dews and hoar frost, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:69 O ye frost and cold, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:70 O ye ice and snow, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:71 O ye nights and days, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:72 O ye light and darkness, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Darkness. The privation of light has its use, and invites men to praise. (St. Augustine, de Nat. Boni. 16.) (Worthington)
Daniel 3:73 O ye lightnings and clouds, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:74 O let the earth bless the Lord: let it praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:75 O ye mountains and hills, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:76 O all ye things that spring up in the earth, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:77 O ye fountains, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:78 O ye seas and rivers, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:79 O ye whales, and all that move in the waters, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:80 O all ye fowls of the air, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:81 O all ye beasts and cattle, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:82 O ye sons of men, bless the Lord, praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:83 O let Israel bless the Lord: let them praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:84 O ye priests of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:85 O ye servants of the Lord, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:86 O ye spirits and souls of the just, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Souls, in a separate state. Angels are invited before. (Calmet)
Daniel 3:87 O ye holy and humble of heart, bless the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever.

Daniel 3:88 O Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, bless ye the Lord: praise and exalt him above all for ever. For he hath delivered us from hell, and saved us out of the hand of death, and delivered us out of the midst of the burning flame, and saved us out of the midst of the fire.

Ananias, etc. They retain their Hebrew names, despising those imposed by the Chaldeans, with their impious manners, Daniel 1:7. The inanimate creation is invited to praise God in its way, (Psalm cxlviii.) as well as those endued with reason. The former never refuse obedience. (Haydock) --- Hell: the grave. (Calmet)
Daniel 3:89 O give thanks to the Lord, because he is good: because his mercy endureth for ever and ever.

Daniel 3:90 O all ye religious, bless the Lord, the God of gods: praise him, and give him thanks, because his mercy endureth for ever and ever.

And ever. "Hitherto does not occur in Hebrew; and what we have written, is translated from the edition of Theodotion." (St. Jerome, ver. 24.)
Daniel 3:91 Then Nabuchodonosor, the king, was astonished, and rose up in haste, and said to his nobles: Did we not cast three men bound into the midst of the fire? They answered the king, and said: True, O king.

Then hearing these praises, and seeing people walking in the fire. Grabe's edition after ver. 24, has only, "And Nabuchodonosor heard them singing hymns, and was, " etc.
Daniel 3:92 He answered, and said: Behold, I see four men loose, and walking in the midst of the fire, and there is no hurt in them, and the form of the fourth is like the son of God.

The son, or rather (Haydock) "a son;" nio. (Lowth's Gram.) --- He supposed this was some angel or petty god, like Hercules. (Carthus.) --- It was the same angel who descended (Worthington) with them ver. 49. Some have taken him for Jesus Christ. But St. Augustine observes, that most of these apparitions were made by angels, (Trin. 3:11.) who are often styled "sons of God," Job 1:6. (Tirinus; Calmet)
Daniel 3:93 Then Nabuchodonosor came to the door of the burning fiery furnace, and said: Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, ye servants of the most high God, go ye forth, and come. And immediately Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago went out from the midst of the fire.

Daniel 3:94 And the nobles, and the magistrates, and the judges, and the great men of the king, being gathered together, considered these men, that the fire had no power on their bodies, and that not a hair of their head had been singed, nor their garments altered, nor the smell of the fire had passed on them.

Smell, such as is felt when people, (Haydock) or their garments, come too near the fire. Pagans have sometimes walked through fire; but they first anointed their feet with certain preservatives, as Servius (in Aen. xi.) remarks from Varro. (Calmet) --- Here the fire burnt only the bands, (ver. 23, 92.; Haydock) God making his creatures afford comfort to his servants, as was the case when the Goths attempted to burn St. Benedict. (St. Gregory, Dial. 3:18.) (Worthington)
Daniel 3:95 Then Nabuchodonosor breaking forth, said: Blessed be the God of them, to wit, of Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, who hath sent his angel, and delivered his servants that believed in him: and they changed the king's word, and delivered up their bodies, that they might not serve nor adore any god, except their own God.

Changed, refusing to comply against their better knowledge. The force of reason extorts this concession from the wicked king. (Haydock)
Daniel 3:96 By me, therefore, this decree is made: That every people, tribe, and tongue, which shall speak blasphemy against the God of Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, shall be destroyed, and their houses laid waste: for there is no other God that can save in this manner.

Destroyed. Chaldean, "torn limb from limb, (Calmet) and their houses be made a dunghill," Daniel 2:5. (Haydock) --- Manner. One would suppose that he was really converted; but his heart was not changed, Daniel 4:(Calmet)
Daniel 3:97 Then the king promoted Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, in the province of Babylon.

Promoted. He granted them greater power: (Worthington) or Chaldean, "re-established" them in their former dignities. Roman Septuagint, "He elevated them in honour, and judged them worthy to rule over all the Jews in his kingdom." (Theod.)
Daniel 3:98 Nabuchodonosor, the king, to all peoples, nations, and tongues, that dwell in all the earth, peace be multiplied unto you.

Nabuchodonosor, etc. These three last verses are a kind of preface to the following chapter, which is written in the style of an epistle from the king. (Challoner) --- It was probably published in consequence of this miracle. Here the chapter might properly commence, (Calmet) as it does in Hebrew and Protestant Bibles. (Haydock)
Daniel 3:99 The most high God hath wrought signs and wonders towards me. It hath seemed good to me, therefore to publish

Daniel 3:100 His signs, because they are great: and his wonders, because they are mighty: and his kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, *and his power to all generations.

Daniel 4:31.; Daniel 7:14.
Daniel 4:0 Nabuchodonosor's dream, by which the judgments of God are denounced against him for his pride, is interpreted by Daniel, and verified by the event.

Daniel 4:1 I, Nabuchodonosor, was at rest in my house, *and flourishing in my palace:

Year of the World 3434, Year before Christ 570. Palace. He continues the edict, having subdued all his enemies. (Calmet) --- Daniel recites his words. The king had the dream in the 34th year of his reign, which continued in all forty-three, including the seven of absence. (Worthington)
Daniel 4:2 I saw a dream that affrighted me: and my thoughts in my bed, and the visions of my head, troubled me.

Daniel 4:3 Then I set forth a decree, that all the wise men of Babylon should be brought in before me, and that they should shew me the interpretation of the dream.

Daniel 4:4 Then came in the diviners, the wise men, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers, and I told the dream before them: but they did not shew me the interpretation thereof:

Daniel 4:5 Till their colleague Daniel, came in before me, whose name is Baltassar, according to the name of my god, who hath in him the spirit of the holy gods: and I told the dream before him.

Colleague. Chaldean also, "another, or afterwards, (Haydock) or at last." (Calmet) --- My god. He says this, because the name of Baltassar, or Belteshazzar, is derived from the name of Bel, the chief god of the Babylonians. (Challoner) --- Gods. He speaks conformably to his false opinion; (St. Jerome) or, being instructed by Daniel, he testifies that the Holy Spirit enlightens the prophet. (Theod.) Greek has "god," which St. Jerome disapproves; though the plural is often used for the true God. Reason evinces that only the Deity can disclose the secrets of futurity, Genesis 41:38. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:6 Baltassar, prince of the diviners, because I know that thou hast in thee the spirit of the holy gods, and that no secret is impossible to thee: tell me the visions of my dreams that I have seen, and the interpretation of them?

And the. He is convinced that Daniel could do both, but condescends now to relate his dream. (Haydock)
Daniel 4:7 This was the vision of my head in my bed: I saw, and behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was exceeding great.

Tree often denotes princes; (Ezechiel 31:3.) and according to the false principles (Calmet) of those who pretend to explain dreams, always (Haydock) implies some great personage. (Achmet. C. 200.) (Grotius) --- But nothing is more vain than these pretensions. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:8 The tree was great and strong: and the height thereof reached unto heaven: the sight thereof was even to the ends of all the earth.

Daniel 4:9 Its leaves were most beautiful, and its fruit exceeding much: and in it was food for all: under it dwelt cattle, and beasts, and in the branches thereof the fowls of the air had their abode: and all flesh did eat of it.

Daniel 4:10 I saw in the vision of my head upon my bed, and behold a watcher, and a holy one came down from heaven.

A watcher. A vigilant angel, perhaps the guardian of Israel. (Challoner) --- Chaldean hir; (Haydock) whence Iris the messenger of the gods, is derived. (St. Jerome) --- Theodotion retains eir. See St. Jerome in Psalm 76:4. The scholiast (Rom. ed.) says: "the Septuagint render it an angel, the rest a watcher." These supernatural agents (Haydock) and saints are represented as judges, ver. 14. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:11 He cried aloud, and said thus: Cut down the tree, and chop off the branches thereof: shake off its leaves, and scatter its fruits: let the beasts fly away that are under it, and the birds from its branches.

Branches, to shew that all (Haydock) the king's subjects should abandon him.
Daniel 4:12 Nevertheless, leave the stump of its roots in the earth, and let it be tied with a band of iron and of brass, among the grass, that is without, and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let its portion be with the wild beasts in the grass of the earth.

Let it, the tree, representing the king who was confined when he began to shew signs of madness: but he broke loose, and fled away. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:13 Let his heart be changed from man's, and let a beast's heart be given him: and let seven times pass over him.

Changed, etc. It does not appear, by Scripture, that Nabuchodonosor was changed from human shape, much less that he was changed into an ox, but only that he lost his reason, and became mad; and in this condition remained abroad in the company of beasts, eating grass like an ox, till his hair grew in such a manner as to resemble the feathers of eagles, and his nails to be like birds' claws. (Challoner) --- Origen represents the whole as an allegorical description of the fall of Lucifer. See St. Jerome. But his arguments have made little impression: and it is universally believed that Nabuchodonosor was thus punished for his pride, after a whole year had been allowed him to see if he would repent. The manner of this strange metamorphose has been variously explained. But it seems that he was seized with the species of madness styled Lycanthropy, (Calmet) as Virgil (Ec. 6:48.) relates of the daughters of Proetus, who "with mimick'd mooings fill'd the fields." (Haydock) --- Thus many fancy they are kings, or horses, (Calmet) and that they are continually mounting above the clouds, of which we have an instance in a woman still living at Whitby, who in other respects appears to be sufficiently sensible, (Haydock) as Tertullian and others think Nabuchodonosor was, that he might suffer more. Yet it is commonly supposed he lost his senses for a while, till God was pleased to restore them at the time appointed; when his former humiliating state might make a deep impression upon his mind, as well as upon his subjects, and caution all future generations to guard against the fatal consequences of pride. His son, Evilmerodac, probably ruled during his absence. Most of the Chaldean writings have perished; so that we need not be surprised if they take no notice of this event, which was so disgraceful to the nation. Yet Megasthenes, (in Eusebius praep. ix. ult.) seems to hint at it, when he represents the king seized with a divine fury, and crying out: (Calmet Diss.) "I, the same Nabuchodonosor, foretell unto you, Babylonians, a fatal calamity, which neither my ancestor Belus, nor even the kingdom of Bel, (Haydock, the gods) have power to avert. For a Persian mule (Cyrus; Calmet) shall come, assisted by your demons, and bring on slavery....Having uttered this oracle, he suddenly disappeared." (Haydock) --- Beast's heart. In his hypochondriac temper he imagined himself (Calmet) to be an ox, (Haydock) avoided the society of men, going naked and feeding on grass, upon his hands and feet, till (after seven years) God restored him to his senses and kingdom. (Worthington) --- The food which he used would tend to purge him, and naturally abate the disorder. (Barthol.) --- Yet none but God could tell precisely when the madness would seize or leave him. --- Times. This usually denotes years, in (Daniel 7:25.; Daniel 12:7.) and of course (Calmet) we must understand it here in this sense; (Worthington) though some have explained it of an indeterminate length of time, or of weeks, months, or seasons. Only winter and summer were admitted, so that half this period would thus suffice. See Theod. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:14 This is the decree by the sentence of the watchers, and the word and demand of the holy ones: till the living know, that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men: and he will give it to whomsoever it shall please him, and he will appoint the basest *man over it.

1 Kings 2:8.; 1 Kings 16:11.
Over it. Kings are not always of the most noble dispositions. (Haydock) --- "All honour comes from Jove." (Homer, Iliad 17.) --- Let the greatest monarchs be humble, (Haydock) and cast their crowns at the feet of God. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:15 I, king Nabuchodonosor, saw this dream: thou, therefore, O Baltassar, tell me quickly the interpretation: for all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to declare the meaning of it to me: but thou art able, because the spirit of the holy gods is in thee.

Daniel 4:16 Then Daniel, whose name was Baltassar, began silently to think within himself for about one hour: and his thoughts troubled him. But the king answering, said: Baltassar, let not the dream and the interpretation thereof trouble thee. Baltassar answered, and said: My lord, the dream be to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof to thy enemies.

Hour. Chaldean shaha, (Haydock) implies "a little while;" (Grotius) yet of some duration, not precisely like one of the modern hours. The prophet was silent, being troubled by the divine spirit, (Chap. 10:8.) at the view of impending misery; or unwilling to hurt the king's feelings, till he should urge him to speak. (Calmet) --- He was sorry to denounce such calamities, yet must speak the truth. (Worthington) --- Trouble. Theodotion, "make thee hurry." He perceived the prophet's anxiety, and encouraged him.
Daniel 4:17 The tree which thou sawest, which was high and strong, whose height reached to the skies, and the sight thereof into all the earth:

Daniel 4:18 And the branches thereof were most beautiful, and its fruit exceeding much, and in it was food for all, under which the beasts of the field dwelt, and the birds of the air had their abode in its branches.

Daniel 4:19 It is thou, O king, who art grown great and become mighty: for thy greatness hath grown, and hath reached to heaven, and thy power unto the ends of the earth.

Daniel 4:20 And whereas the king saw a watcher, and a holy one come down from heaven, and say: Cut down the tree, and destroy it, but leave the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, and let it be bound with iron and brass, among the grass without, and let it be sprinkled with the dew of heaven, and let his feeding be with the wild beasts, till seven times pass over him.

Daniel 4:21 This is the interpretation of the sentence of the most High, which is come upon my lord, the king.

Daniel 4:22 They shall cast thee out from among men, and thy dwelling shall be with cattle, and with wild beasts, *and thou shalt eat grass, as an ox, and shalt be wet with the dew of heaven: and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth over the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

Daniel 5:21.
Daniel 4:23 But whereas he commanded, that the stump of the roots thereof, that is, of the tree, should be left: thy kingdom shall remain to thee, after thou shalt have known that power is from heaven.

Remain. His son and the nobles should act in his name, ver. 13.
Daniel 4:24 Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to thee, *and redeem thou thy sins with alms, and thy iniquities with works of mercy to the poor: perhaps he will forgive thy offences.

Ecclesiasticus 4:8.; Ecclesiasticus 3:33.
Alms. Chaldean, "justice," is often taken in this sense. (Syr. etc.; 2 Corinthians 9:9.) (Calmet) --- The prediction was conditional, and therefore Daniel exhorts the king to strive to obtain pardon by the powerful remedy of alms-deeds; as he did, after enduring some punishment. (Worthington) --- Yet this is very doubtful, ver. 31.
Daniel 4:25 All these things came upon king Nabuchodonosor.

Came. Daniel informs us of this event, unless the king speak of himself in the third person, from ver. 16 to 31, giving an account of what he had heard and experienced. (Haydock) --- A year of trial was allowed him at first; (Theod.) or he obtained this reprieve by his alms, and lost his former merit by relapsing into pride. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 4:26 At the end of twelve months he was walking in the palace of Babylon.

Daniel 4:27 And the king answered, and said: Is not this the great Babylon, which I have built, to be the seat of the kingdom, by the strength of my power, and in the glory of my excellence?

Answered his own vain thoughts. (Haydock) --- He was admiring the city, (Calmet) which he had greatly enlarged and beautified. (Beros. etc.)
Daniel 4:28 And while the word was yet in the king's mouth, a voice came down from heaven: To thee, O king Nabuchodonosor, it is said: Thy kingdom shall pass from thee.

Daniel 4:29 And they shall cast thee out from among men, and thy dwelling shall be with cattle and wild beasts: thou shalt eat grass like an ox, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

Daniel 4:30 The same hour the word was fulfilled upon Nabuchodonosor, and he was driven away from among men, and did eat grass like an ox, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven: till his hairs grew like the feathers of eagles, and his nails like birds' claws.

Daniel 4:31 Now at the end of the days, *I, Nabuchodonosor, lifted up my eyes to heaven, and my sense was restored to me: and I blessed the most High, and I praised and glorified him that liveth for ever: **for his power is an everlasting power, and his kingdom is to all generations.

Daniel 3:100.
Year of the World 3442, Year before Christ 562. Heaven: God having looked on me with pity. (St. Augustine, ep. 111. (Calmet) or 122.; Worthington) seems to think that he was saved; and the author [St. Augustine?] of the Book on Pred. et grace, (chap. 15) attributes to him, remarks that his repentance was different from that of Pharao. Hence none must despair. (St. Jerome, ep. vii. to Laeta.) --- See Theod.; Cornelius a Lapide, etc., who maintain that same opinion: but St. Thomas Aquinas expresses his doubts. Isaias (xiv. 9.) seems to consign him to hell; and the king here manifests his adhesion to Bel, (ver. 5.) and great inconstancy, Daniel 2:47., and 3:15. His conviction seems therefore to have been only in speculation, (Calmet) or momentary, like that of the philosophers, (Romans i.) which would render them only more criminal; and we must confess, (Haydock) that this conversion is very equivocal. (Sanctius, ver. 24 and 34.) (Haydock)
Daniel 4:32 And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing before him: for he doth according to his will, *as well with the powers of heaven, as among the inhabitants of the earth: and there is none that can resist his hand, and say to him: Why hast thou done it?

Jeremias 23:13.; Psalm 115:3.
With, or "by the powers (angels. ver. 10.)....as by men." (Grotius) --- The stars are also frequently thus described, Matthew 24:29. The king probably believed that the God of the Jews was above his gods, the sun, fire, etc. (Calmet)
Daniel 4:33 At the same time my sense returned to me, and I came to the honour and glory of my kingdom: and my shape returned to me: and my nobles, and my magistrates, sought for me, and I was restored to my kingdom: and greater majesty was added to me.

Shape. He had not assumed that of an ox, (Haydock) but had greatly neglected his person, (Calmet) so that he was covered with hair, etc., ver. 30. (Haydock)
Daniel 4:34 Therefore I, Nabuchodonosor, do now praise, and magnify, and glorify the King of heaven: because all his works are true, and his ways judgments, and them that walk in pride he is able to abase.

I, etc. From this place some commentators infer, that this king became a true convert, and dying not long after, was probably saved. (Challoner) (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 10.) --- This is the last act of his which is recorded. If he had lived much longer, he would probably have restored the Jews. (Worthington) --- But the time decreed by heaven for their liberation was not yet arrived. (Haydock)
Daniel 5:0 Baltassar's profane banquet: his sentence is denounced by a hand writing on the wall, which Daniel reads and interprets.

Daniel 5:1 Baltassar, *the king, made a great feast for a thousand of his nobles: and every one drank according to his age.

Year of the World 3466, Year before Christ 538. Baltassar. He is believed to be the same as Nabonides, the last of the Chaldean kings, grandson to Nabuchodonosor. He is called his son (ver. 2, 11, etc.) according to the style of the Scriptures, because he was a descendant from him. (Challoner; St. Jerome in Isaiah xiii.; Usher, etc.) --- Some think that he was brother of Evilmerodac, ver. 11., and Baruch 1:11. But he seems rather to have been his son, Jeremias 27:7. Profane authors place Neriglissor and Laborosoarchod between them. They were not of the royal family, and might be looked upon as usurpers, or reigned in some other place; or they did not meddle with the Jews. (Calmet) --- It is wonderful that Josephus should prefer these authors; (Tirinus) yet he abandons the dates given by them. (Jewish Antiquities 10:12. et contra Apion 1.) They represent Nabonides as a simple Babylonian raised to the throne, defeated by Cyrus, and suffered to retire into Carmania; whereas, Baltassar was slain, ver. 29. (Calmet) --- The others were of a different lineage, and are mentioned by Eusebius, etc. Evilmerodac certainly preceded him on the throne, and honoured Joachin in the 37th year of his captivity. (Worthington) --- Thousand; or, "for his officers over a thousand men." (Theodotion) --- Every. Chaldean, "and drank wine before the thousand," more than any, for this was deemed a great perfection; or he drank in their presence, but apart. (Calmet) --- The Persian monarchs used to sit in a separate apartment, with a veil before the door, so that they could see the guests without being seen. A great chandelier was before them; (Athen. 4:10.) probably on the outside, otherwise it would have defeated their purpose. Light sufficient would appear for Baltassar to see the hand-writing on his chamber wall, ver. 5. (Haydock) --- According to the order of time, this chapter should be placed after the vii. and viii. (Calmet) --- But those contain visions. (Haydock)
Daniel 5:2 And being now drunk, he commanded that they should bring the vessels of gold and silver, which Nabuchodonosor, his father, had brought away out of the temple, that was in Jerusalem, that the king and his nobles, and his wives, and his concubines, might drink in them.

Daniel 5:3 Then were the golden and silver vessels brought, which he had brought away out of the temple that was in Jerusalem: and the king and his nobles, his wives, and his concubines, drank in them.

Daniel 5:4 They drank wine, and praised their gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, and of wood, and of stone.

Daniel 5:5 In the same hour there appeared fingers, as it were of the hand of a man, writing over-against the candlestick, upon the surface of the wall of the king's palace: and the king beheld the joints of the hand that wrote.

Daniel 5:6 Then was the king's countenance changed, and his thoughts troubled him: and the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees struck one against the other.

Loosed, so that he quaked for fear, Ezechiel 29:7. (Calmet) --- He was not so drunk as to be deprived of sense. (Haydock) --- This happened in the 17th and last year of his reign, when Daniel was about a hundred years old, (Worthington) though we have no certain account of his age. (Haydock) --- He might be eighty-two when he died. (Calmet)
Daniel 5:7 And the king cried out aloud to bring in the wise men, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. And the king spoke, and said to the wise men of Babylon: Whosoever shall read this writing, and shall make known to me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with purple, and shall have a golden chain on his neck, and shall be the third man in my kingdom.

Purple. This and the chain were reserved for the highest nobility. --- Third, or one of the three great officers, Daniel 6:1., and 2 Kings 23:8, 19.
Daniel 5:8 Then came in all the king's wise men, but they could neither read the writing, nor declare the interpretation to the king.

Read. It was written in Samaritan characters; or, for want of vowels, could not be read or understood. (Calmet)
Daniel 5:9 Wherewith king Baltassar was much troubled, and his countenance was changed: and his nobles also were troubled.

Daniel 5:10 Then the queen, on occasion of what had happened to the king, and his nobles, came into the banquet-house: and she spoke, and said: O king, live for ever: let not thy thoughts trouble thee, neither let thy countenance be changed.

The queen. Not the wife, but the mother of the king; (Challoner) Amyit, widow of Nabuchodonosor, and sister of Darius, the Mede; or (Calmet) Nitocris, the mother of Labynithus, (Herod. i.) whom many confound with Baltassar. (Calmet)
Daniel 5:11 There is a man in thy kingdom that hath the spirit of the holy gods in him: and in the days of thy father knowledge and wisdom were found in him: for king Nabuchodonosor, thy father, appointed him prince of the wise men, enchanters, Chaldeans, and soothsayers, thy father, I say, O king:

Father. So a grandfather might be styled, Jeremias 27:7.(Worthington) ---Daniel was not perhaps at the head of the wise men. (Calmet) --- They were too jealous to mention him; and the intoxicated king and courtiers remembered not his merit, till an aged matron suggested that he should be consulted. He was probably (Haydock) in some office, at Susa, yet happened to be then in Babylon, (Calmet) which was besieged; and thither he might have retired at the approached of Cyrus.
Daniel 5:12 Because a greater spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, and interpretation of dreams, and shewing of secrets, and resolving of difficult things, were found in him, that is, in Daniel: whom the king named Baltarssar. Now, therefore, let Daniel be called for, and he will tell the interpretation.

Daniel 5:13 Then Daniel was brought in before the king. And the king spoke, and said to him: Art thou Daniel of the children of the captivity of Juda, whom my father, the king, brought out of Judea?

Daniel 5:14 I have heard of thee, that thou hast the spirit of the gods, and excellent knowledge, and understanding, and wisdom are found in thee.

Daniel 5:15 And now the wise men, the magicians, have come in before me, to read this writing, and shew me the interpretation thereof; and they could not declare to me the meaning of this writing.

Daniel 5:16 But I have heard of thee, that thou canst interpret obscure things, and resolve difficult things: now if thou art able to read the writing, and to shew me the interpretation thereof, thou shalt be clothed with purple, and shalt have a chain of gold about thy neck, and shalt be the third prince in my kingdom.

Difficult. Literally, "things which are tied," or perplexing. (Haydock) --- The Persians still use the like expressions, to imply an intelligent governor. (Chardin.)
Daniel 5:17 To which Daniel made answer, and said before the king: Thy rewards be to thyself, and the gifts of thy house give to another: but the writing I will read to thee, O king, and shew thee the interpretation thereof.

Another. He does not refuse the offers, but civilly replies that he will give satisfaction without regard to any recompense.
Daniel 5:18 O king, the most high God gave to Nabuchodonosor, thy father, a kingdom, and greatness, and glory, and honour.

Daniel 5:19 And for the greatness that he gave to him, all people, tribes, and languages trembled, and were afraid of him: whom he would, he slew: and whom he would, he destroyed: and whom he would, he set up: and whom he would, he brought down.

Slew. He was an absolute monarch, and considered his subjects as so many slaves. (Calmet) --- Xerxes having called together his nobles, that he might not seem to have resolved on the war with Greece alone, said: "Nevertheless, remember that you have to obey rather than to advise." (V. Max. 9. 5. 2.)
Daniel 5:20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his spirit hardened unto pride, he was put down from the throne of his kingdom, and his glory was taken away.

Daniel 5:21 *And he was driven out from the sons of men, and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses, and he did eat grass like an ox, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven: till he knew that the most High ruled in the kingdom of men, and that he will set over it whomsoever it shall please him.

Daniel 4:22.
Beasts. His disordered imagination made him dwell with them. (Worthington) --- It is strange that such an example should have been so soon forgotten, that Daniel is forced to repeat it so explicitly, Daniel 4:13.
Daniel 5:22 Thou also, his son, O Baltassar, hast not humbled thy heart, whereas thou knewest all these things:

Daniel 5:23 But hast lifted thyself up against the Lord of heaven: and the vessels of his house have been brought before thee: and thou, and thy nobles, and thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them: and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and of gold, and of brass, of iron, and of wood, and of stone, that neither see, nor hear, nor feel: but the God who hath thy breath in his hand, and all thy ways, thou hast not glorified.

Vessels. Only part had been returned to Sedecias: (Chap. 1:2.) but they were taken again, and kept in the palace, or in the temple of Bel. (Haydock) --- Breath, or soul, Genesis 2:7. (Calmet)
Daniel 5:24 Wherefore, he hath sent the part of the hand which hath written this that is set down.

Daniel 5:25 And this is the writing that is written: Mane, Thecel, Phares.

Phares. These words consist of three letters, mona, thokol, pros, as we add o merely for pronunciation. Being unconnected and almost destitute of vowels, (Haydock) it is not easy even for the learned to read these words, or to ascertain their meaning. Thus d b r being placed in a similar situation, it would be impossible to determine the sense; as it may have ten different meanings, according as it is pronounced, ver. 8. (Calmet) --- Mane is twice repeated, to shew the certainty and exactitude of the numbering. (Menochius) --- Yet in the sequel each word occurs once and unconnected, as it is here in the Vulgate; not Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin, (Protestants; Haydock) "He hath numbered, numbered, weighed, and the dividers or the Persians" are upon thee, (T.[Tirinus?]) as Dalila said to Samson. Only three words (Haydock) were written. (St. Jerome) --- The rest contain the prophet's explanation. The Chaldean empire had now attained its utmost height. Its king brought ruin upon himself by his wicked life. (Haydock) --- He would soon be divided with the sword, and his kingdom shared between the Medes and Persians. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 5:26 And this is the interpretation of the word. Mane: God hath numbered thy kingdom, and hath finished it.

Daniel 5:27 Thecel: thou art weighed in the balance, and art found wanting.

Daniel 5:28 Phares: thy kingdom is divided, and is given to the Medes and Persians.

Persians. Those who confound Baltassar with Nabonides, say that Cyrus made himself master of all the empire. How then was it divided? Darius rather took possession of the greatest part while Cyrus had Persia, (Calmet) till his uncle's death. (Haydock)
Daniel 5:29 Then by the king's command, Daniel was clothed with purple, and a chain of gold was put about his neck: and it was proclaimed of him that he had power as the third man in the kingdom.

Third, or over a third part. (St. Jerome; ver. 7.; Haydock) The honours were conferred without delay, and they would have been made public in the morning. But death prevented the king; and Daniel did not enjoy them till they were ratified by Darius, to whom he adhered. (Calmet) --- The Medes then besieged the city, which they took that night, when most part were drunk. (Worthington) --- It was a solemn festival, Isaiah xxi. (St. Jerome) --- Cyrus rushed in by the channel of the Euphrates, and two of the king's guards slew him to revenge themselves. (Xenoph. 7.; Beros.)
Daniel 5:30 The same night Baltassar, the Chaldean king, was slain.*

Year of the World 3466, Year before Christ 538.
Daniel 5:31 And Darius, the Mede, succeeded to the kingdom, being threescore and two years old.

Darius. He is called Cyaxares by the historians, and was the son of Astyages, and uncle to Cyrus (Challoner) as well as to Baltassar, by the mother's side. He is styled Astyages, (Chap. 13:65.) or Artaxerxes. (Septuagint, Daniel 6:1.) He takes the title of king both of the Medes and Persians, Daniel 6:8., etc. (Calmet)
Daniel 6:0 Daniel is promoted by Darius: his enemies procure a law forbidding prayer: for the transgression of this law, Daniel is cast into the lion's den: but miraculously delivered.

Daniel 6:1 It seemed good to Darius, and he appointed over the kingdom a hundred and twenty governors, to be over his whole kingdom.

Kingdom. Josephus, etc., say Darius had returned into Media, where he made these regulations. But if this did not take place at Babylon, it would be rather at Susa, Daniel 8. Josephus counts 300 or 360 governments, though when the monarchy was increased there were only 127, Esther 1:(Calmet) --- He may therefore speak here of large towns, which had each a magistrate. Such regulations easily vary. (Haydock) --- Darius acts as master of the whole empire.
Daniel 6:2 And three princes over them, of whom Daniel was one: that the governors might give an account to them, and the king might have no trouble.

Daniel 6:3 And Daniel excelled all the princes, and governors: because a greater spirit of God was in him.

Princes. Th.[Theodotion?], "regulators." Chaldean sarecin, (Haydock) may be put for (Calmet) seranim, (Haydock) the usual title (Calmet) of the highest officers, the surenas of Persia. (Amminan 30.)
Daniel 6:4 And the king thought to set him over all the kingdom; whereupon the princes, and the governors, sought to find occasion against Daniel, with regard to the king: and they could find no cause, nor suspicion, because he was faithful, and no fault, nor suspicion was found in him

Kingdom, as prime minister, to whom the three princes should be accountable, as the inferior governors were to them. (Haydock) ---The king was now advanced in years, and wished to ease himself of part of the burden, (Calmet) as he could entirely confide in Daniel. (Haydock) --- He reigned only one year, Daniel 13:65. (Worthington) --- King. Chaldean, "kingdom," (Haydock) to accuse him of treason, (Grotius) or to get him removed. (Calmet) --- This is an old and malignant trick, to call religion treason, and to get laws made for that purpose. (Worthington) --- In him a great proof of integrity! (Menochius)
Daniel 6:5 Then these men said: We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, unless perhaps concerning the law of his God.

Daniel 6:6 Then the princes, and the governors, craftily suggested to the king, and spoke thus unto him: King Darius, live for ever:

Craftily. Chaldean, "came tumultuously to," etc. (Calmet) --- They hoped thus to convince the king, as they were so unanimous. He would not perceive the drift of their petition, adn was flattered with the idea of being like a god. Daniel was not consulted, though on other occasions the king reposed such confidence in him, as the deputies so impudently asserted that the wish was universal! So easily are princes deceived! (Haydock)
Daniel 6:7 All the princes of the kingdom, the magistrates, and governors, the senators, and judges, have consulted together, that an imperial decree, and an edict be published: That whosoever shall ask any petition of any god, or man, for thirty days, but of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions.

Daniel 6:8 Now, therefore, O king, confirm the sentence, *and sign the decree: that what is decreed by the Medes and Persians may not be altered, nor any man be allowed to transgress it.

Esther 1:19.
It, when it is confirmed both by the king and his nobility, Esther 8:8.
Daniel 6:9 So king Darius set forth the decree, and established it.

It. Nabuchodonosor of Babylon, and of Ninive, had both pretended to be gods; (Chap. 3:15; Judith 5:29.) (Calmet) and Curtius (8.) remarks, "that the Persians follow the dictates of prudence as well as of piety, in worshipping their kings among the gods, the majesty of empire being its best protection." (Haydock)
Daniel 6:10 Now, when Daniel knew this, that is to say, that the law was made, he went into his house: and opening the windows in his upper chamber towards Jerusalem, he knelt down three times a day, and adored, and gave thanks before his God, as he had been accustomed to do before.

Before. He did not open the windows that he might be seen, as that would have been rashness; nor did many perceive what he was doing, (ver. 11.; Worthington) as it was in an upper room, but only those who rushed in. (Haydock) --- It was the usual practice of the Jews, (Calmet) to pray turning towards the temple, as Solomon had directed, (3 Kings 8:48; St. Jerome in Ezechiel 8:16.) though it was now in ashes. (Haydock) --- Daniel observed the third, sixth, and ninth hours, as the Church still does, Acts 2:15., and 10:9. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 6:11 Wherefore those men carefully watching him, found Daniel praying and making supplication to his God.

Carefully. Chaldean, "came in a tumultuous manner," as [in] verses 6 et 15. (Calmet)
Daniel 6:12 And they came and spoke to the king concerning the edict: O king, hast thou not decreed, that every man that should make a request to any of the gods, or men, for thirty days, but to thyself, O king, should be cast into the den of the lions? And the king answered them, saying: The word is true, according to the decree of the Medes and Persians, which it is not lawful to violate.

Daniel 6:13 Then they answered, and said before the king: Daniel, who is of the children of the captivity of Juda, hath not regarded thy law, nor the decree that thou hast made: but three times a day he maketh his prayer.

Daniel 6:14 Now when the king had heard these words, he was very much grieved, and in behalf of Daniel he set his heart to deliver him, and even till sun-set he laboured to save him.

Daniel 6:15 But those men perceiving the king's design, said to him: Know thou, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, that no decree which the king hath made, may be altered.

Perceiving. Chaldean, "assembled," (Protestants; Haydock) or "came quickly in a body." (Calmet)
Daniel 6:16 Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of the lions. And the king said to Daniel: Thy God, whom thou always servest, he will deliver thee.

Daniel 6:17 And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den: which the king sealed with his own ring, and with the ring of his nobles, that nothing should be done against Daniel.

Own ring, that none of his enemies might injure Daniel. The nobles also affixed their seal, (Haydock) that the king might not liberate him. (Menochius) --- All this shews that aristocracy was mixed with the monarchical form of government. Nothing of importance is done without the nobles.
Daniel 6:18 And the king went away to his house, and laid himself down without taking supper, and meat was not set before him, and even sleep departed from him.

Meat. Chaldean, "music," (Calmet) or "incense." (De Dieu.) --- He was tired of his godship, to which he had unguardedly opened his heart, ver. 6. (Haydock)
Daniel 6:19 Then the king rising very early in the morning, went in haste to the lions' den:

Daniel 6:20 And coming near to the den, cried with a lamentable voice to Daniel, and said to him: Daniel, servant of the living God, hath thy God, whom thou servest always, been able, thinkest thou, to deliver thee from the lions?

Daniel 6:21 And Daniel answering the king, said: O king, live for ever:

Daniel 6:22 *My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut up the mouths of the lions, and they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him justice hath been found in me: yea, and before thee, O king, I have done no offence.

1 Machabees 2:60.
Offence, as I neglected thy decree to obey a higher Master. (Calmet) --- The king had sense enough to approve of this distinction. (Haydock)
Daniel 6:23 Then was the king exceeding glad for him, and he commanded that Daniel should be taken out of the den: and Daniel was taken out of the den, and no hurt was found in him, because he believed in his God.

Believed, or trusted. (Calmet) --- St. Paul alludes to this miracle, Hebrews 11:33. (Worthington)
Daniel 6:24 And by the king's commandment, those men were brought that had accused Daniel: and they were cast into the lions' den, they and their children, and their wives: and they did not reach the bottom of the den, before the lions caught them, and broke all their bones in pieces.

Accused. They were punished as false witnesses; (Calmet) and the king justly made them suffer what they would have inflicted on the innocent, being convinced that Daniel had only acted according to his devotion. (Worthington) --- These wretches deserved to perish, though they had spoken nothing but the truth. (Haydock) --- Wives. Many examples of such punishments occur, (Calmet) as it was presumed the children and wives were infected by the bad example, and would imitiate it, (Junius) if they had not concurred already. (Menochius) --- This must have been the case, to make it just. (Haydock) See Joshua vii. --- Abominandoe leges, says Ammianus, (23) speaking of the customs of Persia, per quas ob noxam unius omnis propinquitas perit. (Calmet)
Daniel 6:25 Then king Darius wrote to all people, tribes, and languages, dwelling in the whole earth: Peace be multiplied unto you.

Daniel 6:26 It is decreed by me, that in all my empire and my kingdom all men dread and fear the God of Daniel. For he is the living and eternal God for ever: and his kingdom shall not be destroyed, and his power shall be for ever.

Daniel 6:27 He is the deliverer, and saviour, doing signs and wonders in heaven, and in earth: who hath delivered Daniel out of the lions' den.

Daniel 6:28 *Now Daniel continued unto the reign of Darius, and the reign of Cyrus, the Persian.

Daniel 1:21.
Daniel 7:0 Daniel's vision of the four beasts, signifying four kingdoms: of God sitting on his throne: and of the opposite kingdoms of Christ and antichrist.

Daniel 7:1 In the first year of Baltassar, king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream: and the vision of his head was upon his bed: and writing the dream, he comprehended it in a few words: and relating the sum of it in short, he said:

Baltassar. Chaldean, a letter is wanting. (Haydock) --- This Baltassar was slain, Daniel 5. (Calmet) --- The two visions happened before that event. (Worthington) --- The. Protestants, "visions of his head, upon his bed. Then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters." (Haydock)
Daniel 7:2 I saw in my vision by night, and behold the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.

Winds, to imply the tumults occasioned by fresh kingdoms (Worthington) in the world. (Theod.)
Daniel 7:3 And four great beasts, different one from another, came up out of the sea.

Four great beasts; viz. the Chaldeans, Persian, Grecian, and Roman empires. But some rather choose to understand the fourth beast of the successors of Alexander the great, more especially of them that reigned in Asia and Syria, (Challoner) or in Egypt, Daniel 2:40.(Haydock)
Daniel 7:4 The first was like a lioness, and had the wings of an eagle: I beheld till her wings were plucked off, and she was lifted up from the earth, and stood upon her feet as a man, and the heart of a man was given to her.

Man. The emperors of Babylon were forced to confess that they were nothing more. (Calmet) --- Their cruel and rapid conquests (Worthington) are denoted by this monstrous animal. Its wings shew how the lands were divided between the Medes and Persians. Perhaps Neriglissor, etc., shared a part, Daniel 5:1. (Calmet)
Daniel 7:5 And behold another beast, like a bear, stood up on one side: and there were three rows in the mouth thereof, and in the teeth thereof, and thus they said to it: Arise, devour much flesh.

Bear, which is cruel, and eats what is set before it greedily. (Worthington) --- Side. Cyrus did not attack the Jews. (St. Jerome) --- He stood ready to attack the Chaldeans. --- Three. He ruled over the Medes and Chaldeans, as well as over the Persians. (Calmet) --- Rows. Greek, "wings or sides" of an animal, (Haydock) or "bones." (Grotius) --- Cyrus was always at war; and Justin (1.) says, that Tomyris II of Scythia, ordered his head to be cut off, and thrown into a vessel full of blood. His troops are styled robbers, Jeremias 51:48. The ambition of Cambyses, Hystaspes, etc. are insatiable.
Daniel 7:6 After this I beheld, and lo, another like a leopard, and it had upon it four wings, as of a fowl, and the beast had four heads, and power was given to it.

Leopard, a small spotted beast, may denote the size and disposition of Alexander, as well as his rapid conquests. When he was asked how he had subdued so many, he answered, "by never putting off." (Calmet) --- Four. He led his forces on all sides; (Haydock) and after his death, his empire was divided into four, (Worthington) Egypt, Syria, Asia, and Macedon, (Theod.) as he had united in his person the empire of the Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, and Greeks. (Calmet)
Daniel 7:7 After this I beheld in the vision of the night, and lo, a fourth beast, terrible and wonderful, and exceeding strong, it had great iron teeth, eating and breaking in pieces, and treading down the rest with his feet: and it was unlike to the other beasts which I had seen before it, and had ten horns.

Unlike. It is not named: but shews the incomparable power of the Romans, governed by kings, consuls, tribunes, dictators, and emperors, at different times. (Worthington) --- This is the opinion generally received, which we shall explain. Yet many think that the kingdoms of Syria and Egypt are designated, as [in] Daniel 2:40. St. Jerome acknowledges that what is understood of antichrist, had been partly verified in Epiphanes, his figure. The beast was to be slain before the coming of the Son of man, ver. 11, 26. It would persecute for three years and a half; but God would grant victory to his saints, as he did to the Machabees. Yet they only exhibited a faint idea of what has been done by the Church. The same subject is treated, Daniel 11. Many things caused the dominion of the successors of Alexander to be unlike that of others. It was never united, and was very destructive to the Jews. (Calmet) --- Horns. That is, ten kingdoms, (as [in] Apocalypse 17:12.) among which the empire of the fourth beast shall be parcelled: or ten kings of the number of the successors of Alexander, as figures of such as shall be about the time of antichrist. (Challoner) --- Epiphanes was the eighth king, and Laomedon, Antigonus, and Demetrius, had been governors of Syria before. Most understand this of antichrist, whom Epiphanes foreshewed. Others think that it points out Vespasian, the tenth successor of Caesar, who made war on the Jews. The same prediction may regard different events, as the abomination (chap. 9.) may allude to the profanations committed by Epiphanes, by the Romans at the last siege, and by antichrist. Others apply this to the Turkish empire, which may be paving the way for the great antagonist of Christ. (Calmet) Dioclesian and Julian may also be meant, as well as other forerunners of the man of sin. (Haydock) --- He shall overcome many, but his fury shall continue but a short time, ver. 25. (Worthington)
Daniel 7:8 I considered the horns, and behold another little horn sprung out of the midst of them: and three of the first horns were plucked up at the presence thereof: and behold eyes like the eyes of a man were in this horn, and a mouth speaking great things.

Little horn. This is commonly understood of antichrist. It may also be applied to that great persecutor, Antiochus Epiphanes, as a figure of antichrist. (Challoner) --- He was the youngest son of Antiochus the great, and was a hostage of Rome. While he was returning, his elder brother died, and Epiphanes excluded his son Philometor, of Egypt, and the usurper Heliodorus. He also defeated three, Philometor, on the south; Artaxias, king of Armenia, on the east; and the strength, or God's people, ver 24., and Daniel 8:9. --- Man. He gained several at first, by his affability. --- Things: blasphemy, 1 Machabees 1:23, 43. (Calmet)
Daniel 7:9 I beheld till thrones were placed, and the ancient of days sat: his garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like clean wool: his throne like flames of fire: the wheels of it like a burning fire.

Ancient. The Son is born of the Father, and the Holy Ghost proceeds from both, yet all three are coeternal. (Worthington) --- Hence the Father is sometimes painted in this manner, though he be a pure spirit. His throne resembled that seen by Ezechiel, Daniel 1:(Haydock) --- He takes cognizance of all, and punishes accordingly. (Calmet)
Daniel 7:10 A swift stream of fire issued forth from before him: *thousands of thousands ministered to him, and ten thousand times a hundred thousand stood before him: the judgment sat, and the books were opened.

Apocalypse 5:11.
Fire. Psalm 96:3. --- Thousands. Greek implies one million and one hundred millions. (Menochius) --- The angels are very numerous, particularly the highest, styled assistants. (St. Thomas Aquinas; Worthington)
Daniel 7:11 I beheld, because of the voice of the great words which that horn spoke: and I saw that the beast was slain, and the body thereof was destroyed, and given to the fire to be burnt:

Spoke. I wished to see how the king would be punished. He felt the hand of God as he was going to destroy all the Jews, when he pretended to repent, 1 Machabees vi., and 2 Machabees 9:4. His successors could not much disturb the Jews, ver. 13. (Calmet)
Daniel 7:12 And that the power of the other beasts was taken away: and that times of life were appointed them for a time, and a time.

Time. Each of the four empires had its period assigned. That of Rome attracted the prophet's attention most, and is mentioned first. (Menochius)
Daniel 7:13 I beheld, therefore, in the vision of the night, and lo, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and he came even to the ancient of days: and they presented him before him.

Heaven. Christ appeared about sixty years after the subversion of the Syrian monarchy. Yet these expressions literally refer to his second coming, Matthew 26:64. (Calmet) --- He had the form of man, as he had the nature. (Menochius) --- He is clearly predicted. By his power antichrist is overthrown. (Worthington)
Daniel 7:14 And he gave him power, and glory, and a kingdom: and all peoples, tribes, and tongues shall serve him: *his power is an everlasting power that shall not be taken away: and his kingdom, that shall not be destroyed.

Daniel 3:100.; Daniel 4:31.; Micheas 4:7.; Luke 1:32.
Destroyed. The eternal dominion of Christ could not be expressed in stronger terms. He seems to allude to them, Matthew 28:18. (Calmet)
Daniel 7:15 My spirit trembled; I, Daniel, was affrighted at these things, and the visions of my head troubled me.

Daniel 7:16 I went near to one of them that stood by, and asked the truth of him concerning all these things, and he told me the interpretation of the words, and instructed me:

Daniel 7:17 These four great beasts, are four kingdoms, which shall arise out of the earth.

Earth. The first was on the point of disappearing, Daniel 5:31.(Haydock)
Daniel 7:18 But the saints of the most high God shall take the kingdom: and they shall possess the kingdom for ever and ever.

Most High, (Th.[Theodotion?]) or rather Chaldean, "the very high saints of God;" as also [in] ver. 22, 25, and 27.
Daniel 7:19 After this I would diligently learn concerning the fourth beast, which was very different from all, and exceeding terrible: his teeth and claws were of iron: he devoured and broke in pieces, and the rest he stamped upon with his feet:

Daniel 7:20 And concerning the ten horns that he had on his head: and concerning the other that came up, before which three horns fell: and of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things, and was greater than the rest.

Daniel 7:21 I beheld, and lo, that horn made war against the saints, and prevailed over them,

Saints. The Machabees at last prevailed. Christ will punish the Jews, Matthew 24:30.
Daniel 7:22 Till the ancient of days came and gave judgment to the saints of the most High, and the time came, and the saints obtained the kingdom.

Daniel 7:23 And thus he said: The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be greater than all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

Greater. Chaldean, "unlike," as [in] ver. 7. Epiphanes was a greater scourge of the Jews than any of the preceding.
Daniel 7:24 And the ten horns of the same kingdom, shall be ten kings: and another shall rise up after them, and he shall be mightier than the former, and he shall bring down three kings.

Mightier. Chaldean again, "unlike." Antiochus the great had lost many provinces: but his son was the most implacable enemy of God's people. He subdued them, Egypt and Armenia; or his three competitors, ver. 8.
Daniel 7:25 And he shall speak words against the High One, and shall crush the saints of the most High: and he shall think himself able to change times and laws, and they shall be delivered into his hand until a time, and times, and half a time.

Against, or "over against," like an accuser. Sym.: "as if he were God." --- Laws. He did this with regard to the Jews, (1 Machabees 1:41.; Calmet) prohibiting their festivals. Antichrist will do the like, and pretend to work miracles. (Haydock) --- A time, etc. That is, three years and a half; which is supposed to be the length of the duration of the persecution of antichrist. (Challoner) (Apocalypse 11:2.;Apocalypse 12:14.) --- Josephus (Jewish Wars, preface) says the sacrifices were discontinued so long, or rather this time elapsed from the publishing his edict till the temple was purified. During six months, people offered sacrifice clandestinely, 1 Machabees 4:36, 52.
Daniel 7:26 And judgment shall sit, that his power may be taken away, and be broken in pieces, and perish even to the end.

Daniel 7:27 And that the kingdom, and power, and the greatness of the kingdom, under the whole heaven, may be given to the people of the saints of the most High: whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all kings shall serve him, and shall obey him.

Him. The power of the Machabees was too limited, to be here understood. The Church and Christ must be meant.
Daniel 7:28 Hitherto is the end of the word. I, Daniel, was much troubled with my thoughts, and my countenance was changed in me: but I kept the word in my heart.

Word. The angel spoke no more at this time. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:0 Daniel's vision of the ram and he-goat, interpreted by the angel Gabriel.

Daniel 8:1 In *the third year of the reign of king Baltassar, a vision appeared to me. I, Daniel, after what I had seen in the beginning,

Year of the World 3451, Year before Christ 553. Beginning. This vision was to explain what he had seen (chap. 7.), respecting the four monarchies. The conflict of the Persians with Alexander, after two hundred and twenty years, is here described. (Worthington)
Daniel 8:2 Saw in my vision when I was in the castle of Susa, which is in the province of Elam: and I saw in the vision that I was over the gate of Ulai.

Castle; some read "city." Here the kings had a palace; and Hystaspes, etc. generally resided in it. Nabuchodonosor seems to have subdued Elam. Cyrus had it for his share; but Darius, the Mede, appears from Eschylus to have plundered Susa again. Daniel probably spent the latter part of his life in this city. (Calmet) --- Gate, or "stagnant water;" (paludem. ver. 3.; Haydock) though most understand the river Euleus, on the side of Susiana. The prophets often sought retired places, Daniel 10:4., and Ezechiel 1:1. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:3 And I lifted up my eyes, and saw: and behold a ram stood before the water, having two high horns, and one higher than the other, and growing up. Afterward

A ram. The empire of the Medes and Persians. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- Cyrus, the founder, was allied to both. --- Higher, denoting the Persians; or Hystaspes, and his posterity, the second branch of the royal family, which reigned to the end: whereas Cambyses was the only one of the race of Cyrus who succeeded to the throne. Others think that he alludes to Codomannus, whom Alexander certainly attacked. --- Afterward is not in Hebrew. St. Jerome supposed that another ram was designated, but it is the same.
Daniel 8:4 I saw the ram pushing with his horns against the west, and against the north, and against the south: and no beasts could withstand him, nor be delivered out of his hand: and he did according to his own will, and became great.

South. Codomannus reigned in peace for two years, when he was invaded. But his predecessors had made war chiefly in Greece, Scythia, and Egypt. The stupendous preparations of Xerxes against Greece only accelerated the fall of his own kingdom, by irritating the two nations. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:5 And I understood: and behold a he-goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and he touched not the ground, and the he-goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

A he-goat. The empire of the Greeks, or Macedonians. --- He touched not the ground. He conquered all before him with so much rapidity, that he seemed rather to fly than to walk upon the earth. --- A notable horn. Alexander the great. (Challoner) --- He succeeded his father when only twenty years old, and the next year was chosen generalissimo of the Greeks against Persia, which he invaded at the head of 30,000 foot and 4,000 horses, having only seventy talents of silver and provisions for one month. With this he attacked the most flourishing empire, and conquered it in less than four years' time, when Darius was slain in the year of the world 3674 [326 B.C.]. Alexander survived only six years and ten months, yet subdued so many nations that it is almost incredible that he should have travelled over them. He is the belly of brass and the leopard, Daniel 2:39., and 7:6. (Calmet) --- He died in the midst of his prosperity, (Haydock) when not quite thirty-three years old, (Worthington) and left no heirs to succeed him. This conqueror would be painted with two horns, to intimate that he was the son of Jupiter Ammon. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:6 And he went up to the ram that had the horns, which I had seen standing before the gate, and he ran towards him in the force of his strength.

Daniel 8:7 And when he was come near the ram, he was enraged against him, and struck the ram: and broke his two horns, and the ram could not withstand him: and when he had cast him down on the ground, he stamped upon him, and none could deliver the ram out of his hand.

Hand. He routed all the forces of his enemy (Haydock) at the Granicus, at Issus; and at Gaugamela, (Calmet) or Arbela, Darius escaped, but was slain by his own servants. (Haydock) --- The clemency of the conqueror towards the fallen royal family is not here specified. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:8 And the he-goat became exceeding great: and when he was grown, the great horn was broken, and there came up four horns under it towards the four winds of heaven.

Broken, by death. Usher, the year of the world 3681 [319 B.C.] --- Four. Seleucus, Antigonus, Philip, and Ptolemeus, the successors of Alexander, who divided his empire among them. (Challoner) --- Other generals held out for some time. Philip was only a nominal king; Antipater governed Macedon and Greece. Syria, Asia, and Egypt, formed three other kingdoms. All four marked out by the four heads of the leopard, Daniel 7:6. But the prophet is intent upon Syria and Egypt, which had most to do with the Jews. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn: and it became great against the south, and against the east, and against the strength.

A little horn. Antiochus Epiphanes, a descendant of Seleucus. He grew against the south and the east, by his victories over the kings of Egypt and Armenia; and against the strength, that is, against Jerusalem and the people of God. (Challoner) --- He persecuted God's people, and set up the idol of Jupiter Olympius in the very temple. (Worthington)
Daniel 8:10 And it was magnified even unto the strength of heaven: and it threw down of the strength, and of the stars, and trod upon them.

Even unto, or against the strength of heaven. So are here called the army of the Jews, the people of God, (Challoner) and particularly the teachers. Many priests gave way to idolatry, 1 Machabees 1:48., and 2 Machabees 4:14. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:11 And it was magnified even to the prince of the strength: and it took away from him the continual sacrifice, and cast down the place of his sanctuary.

Strength; the God of armies, (Haydock) over whom Epiphanes seemed to triumph.
Daniel 8:12 And strength was given him against the continual sacrifice because of sins: and truth shall be cast down on the ground, and he shall do and shall prosper.

Strength. Hebrew: "the army was delivered up to him, for the," etc. While several contended for the high priesthood, and imitated the manners of the Greeks, the sacrifices were neglected, and then Antiochus prevailed, 2 Machabees 4:7. --- Ground. The ambitious pontiffs, as well as the king and his officers, kept not their promises. Onias, the lawful high priest, being displaced, went to seek redress at Antioch, in the asylum at Daphne. Andronicus prevailed on him to come out by treacherous promises, and slew him; whereupon even Epiphanes wept, and ordered the murderer to be punished, 2 Machabees 4:32. The following year he entered Jerusalem, and committed horrible profanations.
Daniel 8:13 And I heard one of the saints speaking, and one saint said to another I know not to whom, that was speaking: How long shall be the vision, concerning the continual sacrifice, and the sin of the desolation that is made: and the sanctuary, and the strength be trodden under foot?

Another. We do not inquire how the angels explained themselves, or whether they instruct each other. This conversation was for the prophet's information. (Calmet) --- One angel asked the other a question about futurity. (Worthington)
Daniel 8:14 And he said to him: Unto evening and morning two thousand three hundred days: and the sanctuary shall be cleansed.

Days. That is, six years and almost four months; which was the whole time from the beginning of the persecution of Antiochus till his death. (Challoner) --- He began in the year 143, and died in the year 149, according to the era of Seleucus. (Haydock) --- The temple was purified in the mean time, 1 Machabees 1:21., and 6:16. (Worthington) --- Full days are specified. Sacrifice entirely ceased for three years, in the year 145, Daniel 7:25. Symmachus has 2,400, others 2,200, as quoted by St. Jerome. We know not whether the solar year of 365 days, or the lunar of 354, be meant.
Daniel 8:15 And it came to pass when I, Daniel, saw the vision, and sought the meaning, that behold there stood before me as it were the appearance of a man.

Daniel 8:16 And I heard the voice of a man between Ulai: and he called, and said: Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.

Between, in an island formed by the river. It was the Son of God, (Calmet) or St. Michael, (St. Jerome) directing Gabriel to explain the vision.
Daniel 8:17 And he came and stood near where I stood: and when he was come, I fell on my face trembling, and he said to me: Understand, O son of man, for in the time of the end the vision shall be fulfilled.

Man. So Ezechiel is usually styled, to shew that the human nature is different from that of angels, and would be greatly honoured by Jesus Christ, who takes this appellation. (Worthington) --- Of the end, or determined. This shall take place, (Calmet) but the period is distinct. (Grotius ver. 26.)
Daniel 8:18 And when he spoke to me, I fell flat on the ground: and he touched me, and set me upright,

Daniel 8:19 And he said to me: I will shew thee what things are to come to pass in the end of the malediction: for the time hath its end.

Malediction. Hebrew, "wrath" against the people of God, and their enemies. (Calmet)
Daniel 8:20 The ram, which thou sawest with horns, is the king of the Medes and Persians.

Daniel 8:21 And the he-goat, is the king of the Greeks, and the great horn that was between his eyes, the same is the first king.

Is. Hebrew, "are the kings," (Haydock) including all, ver. 3.
Daniel 8:22 But whereas when that was broken, there arose up four for it, four kings shall rise up of his nation, but not with his strength.

Nation, yet not his children, ver. 8.
Daniel 8:23 And after their reign, when iniquities shall be grown up, there shall arise a king of a shameless face, and understanding dark sentences.

Shameless. Hebrew: "hard," cruel, and impudent, as Epiphanes was, 1 Machabees 1:2. Marcellinus styles him "wrathful and savage." --- Sentences, making use of artifice to seize the estates of his nephew Philometor, and to oppress the Jews, 2 Machabees 5:24. (Calmet) --- The history speaks of Antiochus: antichrist is also meant, as [in] Daniel 12.; Matthew 24. (Worthington)
Daniel 8:24 And his power shall be strengthened, but not by his own force: and he shall lay all things waste, and shall prosper, and do more than can be believed. And he shall destroy the mighty, and the people of the saints,

By. Hebrew: "not to his (Alexander's) strength," ver. 22. Epiphanes conquered Egypt and the Jews: but the former had an infant king, and the latter were unprovided. He shewed more cunning than prowess.
Daniel 8:25 According to his will, and craft shall be successful in his hand: and his heart shall be puffed up, and in the abundance of all things he shall kill many: and he shall rise up against the prince of princes, and shall be broken without hand.

Prince: God. --- Hand of man. He confessed that he was justly punished, 1 Machabees 6:10. Greek, "He shall raise himself by the ruin of many, (Theod. and some manuscripts add, and shall rise up against the prince of princes) and he shall break them like eggs with his hand."
Daniel 8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning, which was told, is true: thou, therefore, seal up the vision, because it shall come to pass after many days.

Morning of this day, or of what shall happen in certain full days, ver. 14. --- Seal. When the predictions were to take place soon, they were dated and published. (Calmet) --- This will remain obscure till after the event. (St. Jerome) --- What regarded the temple, happened in 300 years' time. But it alluded also to antichrist. (St. Gregory, Mor. 30:12.) (Worthington)
Daniel 8:27 And I, Daniel, languished, and was sick for some days: and when I was risen up, I did the king's business, and I was astonished at the vision, and there was none that could interpret it.

Business, at Susa. Nabuchodonosor had given him the province of Babylon. --- It. All prophecies have a degree of obscurity before they be accomplished. Hebrew may intimate that none could tell the cause of his anxiety. (Calmet)
Daniel 9:0 Daniel's confession and prayer; Gabriel informs him concerning the seventy weeks to the coming of Christ.

Daniel 9:1 In *the first year of Darius, the son of Assuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who reigned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans:

Year of the World 3467, Year before Christ 537. Darius, the Mede, Daniel 5:31. If his reign had commenced at the same time with that of Cyrus, at Babylon, as it is commonly supposed, Daniel would have been under no anxiety respecting the people's liberation, as it took place that year, (Calmet) though perhaps not at the commencement. (Haydock) --- Cyrus had now ruled over the Persians above two years, so that the first of Darius at Babylon agrees with the third of his reign over his countrymen, Daniel 10. (Calmet) --- Assuerus, or Achasuerus, is not a proper name, but means "a great prince." (Worthington)
Daniel 9:2 The first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by books the *number of the years, concerning which the word of the Lord came to Jeremias, the prophet, that seventy years should be accomplished of the desolation of Jerusalem.

Jeremias 25:11.; Jeremias 29:10.
Jerusalem. He read attentively the sacred volumes, particularly the prophecy of Jeremias 25:11.; Jeremias 29:10. Knowing that many predictions were conditional, he was afraid lest this might be so; notwithstanding a part of it seemed to be verified by the death of Baltassar. (Calmet) --- Darius had reigned in Persia before. He only ruled part of a year, at Babylon, the 70th of the captivity, 2 Paralipomenon 36:22. Daniel perceiving that the time of the Jews' deliverance was at hand, prayed with great zeal and confidence. (Worthington)
Daniel 9:3 And I set my face to the Lord, my God, to pray and make supplication with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes.

Daniel 9:4 And I prayed to the Lord, my God, and I made my confession, and said: *I beseech thee, O Lord God, great and terrible, who keepest the covenant, and mercy to them that love thee, and keep thy commandments.

2 Esdras 1:5.
Covenant. God never breaks it first. (Calmet) --- Deus sua gratia semel justificatos non deserit, nisi ab eis prius diseratur. (Council of Trent, Session 6:11.)
Daniel 9:5 *We have sinned, we have committed iniquity, we have done wickedly, and have revolted: and we have gone aside from thy commandments, and thy judgments.

Baruch 1:17.
Daniel 9:6 We have not hearkened to thy servants, the prophets, that have spoken in thy name to our kings, to our princes, to our fathers, and to all the people of the land.

Daniel 9:7 To thee, O Lord, justice: but to us confusion of face, as at this day to the men of Juda, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, to them that are near, and to them that are far off, in all the countries whither thou hast driven them, for their iniquities, by which they have sinned against thee.

Daniel 9:8 O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our princes, and to our fathers, that have sinned.

Daniel 9:9 But to thee, the Lord our God, mercy and forgiveness, for we have departed from thee:

Mercy. Thou art just, (ver. 7.) and sovereignly merciful. He speaks in the name of all. Some had continued faithful; but the number was comparatively inconsiderable, ver. 11.)
Daniel 9:10 And we have not hearkened to the voice of the Lord, our God, to walk in his law, which he set before us by his servants, the prophets.

Daniel 9:11 And all Israel have transgressed thy law, and have turned away from hearing thy voice, and the malediction, and the curse, *which is written in the book of Moses, the servant of God, is fallen upon us, because we have sinned against him.

Deuteronomy 27:14.
Fallen, by drops, (stillavit. Deuteronomy 27:13. etc.; Haydock) like an inundation.
Daniel 9:12 And he hath confirmed his words which he spoke against us, and against our princes that judged us, that he would bring in upon us a great evil, such as never was under all the heaven, according to that which hath been done in Jerusalem.

Daniel 9:13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: and we entreated not thy face, O Lord our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and think on thy truth.

Truth, in executing thy promises and menaces.
Daniel 9:14 And the Lord hath watched upon the evil, and hath brought it upon us: the Lord, our God, is just in all his works which he hath done: for we have not hearkened to his voice.

Daniel 9:15 *And now, O Lord, our God, who hast brought forth thy people out of the land of Egypt, with a strong hand, and hast made thee a name as at this day: we have sinned, we have committed iniquity,

Baruch 1:1.; Exodus 14:22.
Daniel 9:16 O Lord, against all thy justice: let thy wrath and thy indignation be turned away, I beseech thee, from thy city, Jerusalem, and from thy holy mountain. For by reason of our sins, and the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem, and thy people, are a reproach to all that are round about us.

Against. Hebrew, "according to." --- Justice. Septuagint, "mercy." Let not the enemy boast that he has ruined thy temple, etc., ver. 17. (Calmet)
Daniel 9:17 Now, therefore, O our God, hear the supplication of thy servant, and his prayers: and shew thy face upon thy sanctuary, which is desolate, for thy own sake.

Daniel 9:18 Incline, O my God, thy ear, and hear: open thy eyes, and see our desolation, and the city upon which thy name is called: *for it is not for our justifications that we present our prayers before thy face, but for the multitude of thy tender mercies.

Jeremias 25:29.; Psalm 48:2.; Psalm 48:9.; Psalm 101:8.
Daniel 9:19 O Lord, hear: O Lord, be appeased: hearken, and do: delay not, for thy own sake, O my God: because thy name is invocated upon thy city, and upon thy people.

Daniel 9:20 Now while I was yet speaking, and praying, and confessing my sins, and the sins of my people of Israel, and presenting my supplications in the sight of my God, for the holy mountain of my God:

Daniel 9:21 As I was yet speaking in prayer, behold the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, *flying swiftly, touched me at the time of the evening sacrifice.

Daniel 8:16.
The man Gabriel. The angel Gabriel in the shape of a man. (Challoner) (Chap. 8:16.) --- Sacrifice, between the two vespers, (Numbers 28:4.) after the ninth hour, which was a time of prayer, Acts 3:1. (Calmet)
Daniel 9:22 And he instructed me, and spoke to me, and said: O Daniel, I am now come forth to teach thee, and that thou mightest understand.

Daniel 9:23 From the beginning of thy prayers the word came forth: and I am come to shew it to thee, because thou art a man of desires: therefore, do thou mark the word, and understand the vision.

Desires. His zeal and mortification merit this title. (Worthington) --- He was an object of God's love. (St. Jerome) (Chap. 10:11. and 11:8.) (Calmet)
Daniel 9:24 *Seventy weeks are shortened upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, that transgression may be finished, and sin may have an end, and iniquity may be abolished; and everlasting justice may be brought; and vision and prophecy may be fulfilled; and the Saint of saints may be anointed.

Matthew 24:15.; John 1:45.
Seventy weeks (viz. of years, or seventy times seven, that is, 490 years) are shortened; that is, fixed and determined, so that the time shall be no longer. (Challoner) --- This is not a conditional prophecy. Daniel was solicitous to know when the seventy years of Jeremias would terminate. But something of far greater consequence is revealed to him, (Worthington) even the coming and death of the Messias, four hundred and ninety years after the order for rebuilding the walls should be given, (Calmet) at which period Christ would redeem the world, (Worthington) and abolish the sacrifices of the law. (Calmet) --- Finished, or arrive at its height by the crucifixion of the Son of God; (Theod.) or rather sin shall be forgiven. Hebrew, "to finish crimes to seal (cover or remit) sins, and to expiate iniquity." --- Anointed. Christ is the great anointed of God, the source of justice, and the end of the law and of the prophets, (Acts 10:38.; 1 Corinthians 1:30; Romans 10:4.; Calmet) as well as the pardoner of crimes. These four characters belong only to Christ. (Worthington)
Daniel 9:25 Know thou, therefore, and take notice: that from the going forth of the word, to build up Jerusalem again, unto Christ, the prince, there shall be seven weeks, and sixty-two weeks: and the street shall be built again, and the walls, in straitness of times.

Word, etc. That is, from the twentieth year of king Artaxerxes, when, by his commandment, Nehemias rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, 2 Esdras 2:From which time, according to the best chronology, there were just sixty-nine weeks of years, that is 483 years, to the baptism of Christ, when he first began to preach and execute the office of Messias. (Challoner) --- The prophecy is divided into three periods: the first of forty-nine years, during which the walls were completed; (they had been raised in fifty-two days, (2 Esdras 6:15.) but many other fortifications were still requisite) the second of four hundred and thirty-four years, at the end of which Christ was baptized, in the fifteenth of Tiberius, the third of three years and a half, during which Christ preached. In the middle of this last week, the ancient sacrifices became useless, (Calmet) as the true Lamb of God had been immolated. (Theod.) --- A week of years denotes seven years, as Leviticus xxv. and thus seventy of these weeks would make four hundred and ninety years. (Ven. Bede, Rat. temp. 6 etc.; Worthington) --- Origen would understand 4900 years, and dates from the fall of Adam to the ruin of the temple. Marsham begins twenty-one years after the captivity commenced, when Darius took Susa, and ends in the second of Judas, when the temple was purified. This system would destroy the prediction of Christ's coming, and is very uncertain. Hardouin modifies it, and acknowledges that Christ was the end of the prophecy, though it was fulfilled in figure by the death of Onias 3:See 1 Machabees 1:19; Senens. Bib. viii. haer. 12; and Estius. From Daniel 7. to xii., the changes in the East, till the time of Epiphanes, are variously described. After the angel had here addressed Daniel, the latter was still perplexed; (Chap. 10:1.) and in order to remove his doubts, the angel informs him of the persecution of Epiphanes, as if he had been speaking of the same event. We may, therefore, count forty-nine years from the taking of Jerusalem (when Jeremias spoke, Daniel 5:19.) to Cyrus, the anointed, (Isaias 45:1.) who was appointed to free God's people. They should still be under the Persians, etc., for other four hundred and thirty-four years, and then Onias should be slain. Many would join the Machabees; the sacrifices should cease in the middle of the seventieth week, and the desolation shall continue to the end of it. Yet, though this system may seem plausible, it is better to stick to the common one, which naturally leads us to the death of Christ, dating from the tenth year of Artaxerxes. (Calmet) --- He had reigned ten years already with his father. (Petau.) --- All the East was persuaded that a great king should arise about the time; when our Saviour actually appeared, and fulfilled all that had been spoken of the Messias. (Calmet, Diss.) --- Ferguson says, "We have an astronomical demonstration of the truth of this ancient prophecy, seeing that the prophetic year of the Messias being cut off was the very same with the astronomical." In a dispute between a Jew and a Christian, at Venice, the Rabbi who presided....put an end to the business by saying, "Let us shut up our Bibles; for if we proceed in the examination of this prophecy, it will make us all become Christians." (Watson, let. 6.) --- Hence probably the Jews denounce a curse on those who calculate the times, (Haydock) and they have purposely curtailed their chronology. (Calmet) --- Times, etc. (angustia temporum) which may allude both to the difficulties and opposition they met with in building, and to the shortness of the time in which they finished the wall, viz. fifty-two days. (Challoner)
Daniel 9:26 And after sixty-two weeks Christ shall be slain: and the people that shall deny him shall not be his. And a people, with their leader, that shall come, shall destroy the city, and the sanctuary: and the end thereof shall be waste, and after the end of the war the appointed desolation.

Weeks, or four hundred and thirty-eight years, which elapsed from the twentieth of Artaxerxes to the death of Christ, according to the most exact chronologists. (Calmet) --- Slain. Protestants, "cut off, but not for himself, and the people of the prince that," etc. (Haydock) --- St. Jerome and some manuscripts read, Christus, et non erit ejus. The sense is thus suspended. The Jews lose their prerogative of being God's people. (Calmet) --- Christ will not receive them again. (St. Jerome) -- Greek: "the unction shall be destroyed, and there shall not be judgment in him." The priesthood and royal dignity is taken from the Jews. (Theod.) --- The order of succession among the high priests was quite deranged, while the country was ruled by the Romans, and by Herod, a foreigner. (Calmet) --- Leader. The Romans under Titus. (Challoner; Calmet)
Daniel 9:27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many, in one week: and in the half of the week the victim and the sacrifice shall fail: and there shall be in the temple the abomination of desolation: and the desolation shall continue even to the consummation, and to the end.

Many. Christ seems to allude to this passage, Matthew 26:28. He died for all; but several of the Jews particularly, would not receive the proffered grace. (Calmet) --- Of the week, or in the middle of the week, etc. Because Christ preached three years and a half: and then, by his sacrifice upon the cross, abolished all the sacrifices of the law. (Challoner) --- Temple. Hebrew, "the wing," (Calmet) or pinnacle, (Haydock) the highest part of the temple. (Calmet) --- Desolation. Some understand this of the profanation of the temple by the crimes of the Jews, and by the bloody faction of the zealots. Others, of the bringing in thither the ensigns and standard of the pagan Romans. Others, in fine, distinguish three different times of desolation: viz. that under Antiochus; that when the temple was destroyed by the Romans; and the last near the end of the world, under antichrist. To all which, as they suppose, this prophecy may have a relation. (Challoner) --- Protestants, "For the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even unto the consummation; and that determined, shall be poured upon the desolate." (Haydock) --- The ruin shall be entire. (Calmet)
Daniel 10:0 Daniel having humbled himself, by fasting and penance, seeth a vision, with which he is much terrified: but he is comforted by an angel.

Daniel 10:1 In *the third year of Cyrus, king of the Persians, a word was revealed to Daniel, surnamed Baltassar, and a true word, and great strength: and he understood the word: for there is need of understanding in a vision.

Year of the World 3478, Year before Christ 536. Third. This concurs with the first of Darius. Cyrus then reigned in Persia, and the king is here often mentioned, as the vision happened near it, on the banks of the Tigris. Only twenty-one days had elapsed since the former. --- Strength. Hebrew, "warfare," or determinate time, Job 7:1. This shall surely take place, but not soon. (Calmet) --- For. Protestants, "and had understanding," etc. (Haydock) --- He was informed of the meaning, or strove to know what the preceding vision denoted. (Calmet) --- Pharao and Baltassar were not prophets, as they did not comprehend what they saw. For understanding is requisite, in order that a vision may be prophetical. (St. Thomas Aquinas, 2:2. q. 175 a. 2; Worthington)
Daniel 10:2 In those days I, Daniel, mourned the days of three weeks.

Weeks. Marsham says twenty-one years. But it means only so many days. He began to mourn on the third of Nisan, and continued fasting (ver. 4.) it seems even on the sabbaths, and on the feast of Passover, till the 24th. (Calmet) --- He was grieved that the people did not make use of the leave granted by Cyrus; (Theod.) or because the Samaritans had prevailed at court to have the temple forbidden; (Usher, year of the world 3470; 1 Esdras 1:14.) or rather because he could not fully understand the former visions, Daniel 9:30., and 12:9. etc. (Calmet)
Daniel 10:3 I ate no desirable bread, and neither flesh, nor wine, entered into my mouth, neither was I anointed with ointment: till the days of three weeks were accomplished.

Daniel 10:4 And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, I was by the great river, which is the Tigris.

Daniel 10:5 And I lifted up my eyes, and I saw: and behold a man clothed in linen, and his loins were girded with the finest gold:

Linen. Hebrew baddim. --- Finest. Hebrew uphaz, (Haydock) from Phasis or Ophir.
Daniel 10:6 And his body was like the chrysolite, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as a burning lamp: and his arms, and all downward even to the feet, like in appearance to glittering brass: and the voice of his word like the voice of a multitude.

Chrysolite. Hebrew, "Tharsis." This precious stone was perhaps greenish.
Daniel 10:7 And I, Daniel alone, saw the vision: for the men that were with me saw it not: but an exceeding great terror fell upon them, and they fled away, and hid themselves.

Daniel 10:8 And I, being left alone, saw this great vision: and there remained no strength in me, and the appearance of my countenance was changed in me, and I fainted away, and retained no strength.

Daniel 10:9 And I heard the voice of his words: and when I heard I lay in a consternation upon my face, and my face was close to the ground.

Daniel 10:10 And behold a hand touched me, and lifted me up upon my knees, and upon the joints of my hands.

Hand; the Holy Ghost, or rather the angel Gabriel.
Daniel 10:11 And he said to me: Daniel, thou man of desires, understand the words that I speak to thee, and stand upright: for I am sent now to thee. And when he had said this word to me, I stood trembling.

Desires most amiable. (Calmet) --- This new title is given to comfort the prophet. (Worthington)
Daniel 10:12 And he said to me: Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thy heart to understand, to afflict thyself in the sight of thy God, thy words have been heard: and I am come for thy words.

Daniel 10:13 But the prince of the kingdom of the Persians resisted me one and twenty days: and behold Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me, and I remained there by the king of the Persians.

The prince, etc. That is, the angel guardian of Persia: who, according to his office, seeking the spiritual good of the Persians, was desirous that many of the Jews should remain among them. (Challoner) --- St. Jerome, etc. explain it of the angel guardian. (Worthington) --- Each country has an archangel over it, as individuals have an angel. Others assert that this was an evil angel; for how could a good one oppose so long the will of God? Yet this argument may be retorted, as evil spirits themselves must comply. It seems, therefore, that Cyrus was exhorted by the good angels to invade the Chaldeans, and thus to liberate God's people. He was afraid of the hazardous attempt, and free-will may resist the inspirations of God. --- One, or "prince." (Calmet) --- Michael, and the guardian of Daniel, joined their prayers for the liberation of the Jews, ver. 20. (Worthington)
Daniel 10:14 But I am come to teach thee what things shall befall thy people in the latter days, for as yet the vision is for days.

Days. It will not soon take place; or, I have many things to tell.
Daniel 10:15 And when he was speaking such words to me, I cast down my countenance to the ground, and held my peace.

Daniel 10:16 And behold as it were the likeness of a son of man touched my lips: then I opened my mouth and spoke, and said to him that stood before me: O my lord, at the sight of thee my joints are loosed, and no strength hath remained in me.

Daniel 10:17 And how can the servant of my lord speak with my lord? for no strength remaineth in me; moreover, my breath is stopped.

Daniel 10:18 Therefore, he that looked like a man, touched me again, and strengthened me.

Daniel 10:19 And he said: Fear not, O man of desires, peace be to thee: take courage, and be strong. And when he spoke to me, I grew strong, and I said: Speak, O my lord, for thou hast strengthened me.

Daniel 10:20 And he said: Dost thou know wherefore I am come to thee? And now I will return, to fight against the prince of the Persians. When I went forth, there appeared the prince of the Greeks coming.

To thee? He awakens his attention (ver. 14.; Calmet) and gratitude. (Haydock) --- Prince, angel guardian; or Alexander, who would one day rout the Persians, Daniel 11:2. (Calmet)
Daniel 10:21 But I will tell thee what is set down in the scripture of truth: and none is my helper in all these things, but *Michael, your prince.

Apocalypse 12:7.
Of truth, in the former sealed visions. (Calmet) --- Your prince. The guardian general of the Church of God, (Challoner) as he was of the synagogue. (Calmet)
Daniel 11:0 The angel declares to Daniel many things to come, with regard to the Persian and Grecian kings: more especially with regard to Antiochus, as a figure of antichrist.

Daniel 11:1 And from the first year of Darius, the Mede, I stood up, that he might be strengthened, and confirmed.

Confirmed. Gabriel assisted Michael to comply with God's orders, Daniel 10:21. (Calmet) --- The angel continues his speech, and informs us that he had prayed for Darius after the fall of Babylon, seeing that he was well inclined towards the Jews, as his successor Cyrus (who liberated them) was also. (Worthington)
Daniel 11:2 And now I will shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand yet three kings in Persia, and the fourth shall be enriched exceedingly above them all: and when he shall be grown mighty by his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.

Three, etc. Cambyses, Smerdis magus, and Darius the son of Hystaspes. (Challoner; Worthington) --- Cyrus had been mentioned before, Daniel 10:13, 20. Smerdis, or Artaxerxes, (1 Esdras 4:7.) was the chief of the seven magi, and usurped the throne for six months after the death of Cambyses. (Calmet) --- He had been declared king before (Haydock) by Patizites, his own brother. The news excited the fury of Cambyses, who mounting on horseback gave himself a mortal wound in the thigh. (Herod. 3:21.) See Ezechiel 38:21. (Haydock) --- Fourth: Xerxes. (Challoner) --- He invaded Greece with an immense army, forcing those on the road to join him. (Just. 1:10.; Herod. vii. and viii.; Calmet)
Daniel 11:3 But there shall rise up a strong king, and shall rule with great power: and he shall do what he pleaseth.

A strong king: Alexander. (Challoner) --- The sequel clearly points him out. Before fifteen years had elapsed, his mother, brother, and children were slain. Arideus, his brother, was declared regent till it should be seen what Roxana should bring forth. After the death of those who might be heirs of Alexander, four generals took the title of kings. Others governed in different places, but were destroyed by degrees.
Daniel 11:4 And when he shall come to his height, his kingdom shall be broken, and it shall be divided towards the four winds of the heaven: but not to his posterity, nor according to his power with which he ruled. For his kingdom shall be rent in pieces, even for strangers, besides these.

These four; Ptolemy, Seleucus, Antigonus, and Antipater, kings of Egypt, Syria, Asia, and Greece, Daniel 7:6., and 8:22. Besides the other generals, (Calmet) foreigners began to erect new kingdoms in what had formed the empire of Alexander. (St. Jerome; Livy xlv.; Calmet)
Daniel 11:5 And the king of the south shall be strengthened, and one of his princes shall prevail over him, and he shall rule with great power: for his dominions shall be great.

South: Ptolemeus, the son of Lagus, king of Egypt, which lies south of Jerusalem. (Challoner) ---St. Irenaeus (IV. 43.) observes, that all prophecies are obscure till they be fulfilled. History shews that this relates to Ptolemy. The kingdoms of Egypt and of Syria are more noticed, as they had much to do with the Jews. (Worthington) --- Ptolemy took Cyprus (Calmet) and Jerusalem. (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 12:12.) --- His princes (that is, one of Alexander's princes) shall prevail over him; that is, shall be stronger than the king of Egypt. He speaks of Seleucus Nicator, king of Asia and Syria, whose successors are here called the kings of the north, because their dominions lay to the north in respect to Jerusalem. (Challoner) --- Nicator means a "conqueror." (Haydock) ---This king was master of all from Media and Babylonia to Jerusalem. (Appian, etc.; Calmet) ---Philadelphus was more powerful than his father. (Worthington)
Daniel 11:6 And after the end of years they shall be in league together: and the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to make friendship, but she shall not obtain the strength of the arm, neither shall her seed stand: and she shall be given up, and her young men that brought her, and they that strengthened her in these times.

South. Bernice, daughter of Ptolemeus Philadelphus, given in marriage to Antiochus Theos, grandson of Seleucus, (Challoner) and king of Syria. She brought a great "dowry," and was therefore styled Phernophoros. Antiochus agreed to repudiate Laodicea; but he soon took her back. Fearing his inconstancy, she poisoned him, and slew his son by Bernice. This lady in a rage mounted her chariot, and having knocked down the cruel minister of such barbarity, trampled upon his body. The rest pretended that the infant was still living, and delivered up a part of the palace to Bernice, yet slew her as soon as they had an opportunity. (St. Jerome; Usher, year of the world 3758; V. Max. 9:10. etc; Calmet) --- Young. Hebrew, "her conductors, her child, and he that," etc. (Haydock) --- Her physician, Aristarchus, persuaded her to enter the palace. Her women and Egyptian guards defended her for some time. (Polygaen. Strat. viii.; Calmet)
Daniel 11:7 And a plant of the bud of her roots shall stand up: and he shall come with an army, and shall enter into the province of the king of the north: and he shall abuse them, and shall prevail.

A plant, etc. Ptolemeus Evergetes, the son of Philadelphus. (Challoner) --- Three of Bernice's maids of honour (Haydock) covered her body, and pretended that she was only wounded, till her brother Evergetes came and seized almost all Asia, Callinicus not daring to give him battle. (St. Jerome, etc.; Vaillant. A. 79. Lagid.; Calmet) --- He laid waste Syria. (Worthington)
Daniel 11:8 And he shall also carry away captive into Egypt their gods, and their graven things, and their precious vessels of gold and silver: he shall prevail against the king of the north.

Gods. He took back what Cambyses had conveyed out of Egypt; and it was on this account that the people styled him "benefactor." (St. Jerome; Calmet) --- North. Seleucus Callinicus. (Challoner) --- If Evergetes had not been recalled into Egypt by civil broils, he would have seized all the kingdom of Seleucus. (Just. xvii.) --- As he passed by Jerusalem (ver. 9.) he made great presents, and caused victims of thanksgiving to be offered up. (Josephus, contra Apion ii.)
Daniel 11:9 And the king of the south shall enter into the kingdom, and shall return to his own land.

Daniel 11:10 And his sons shall be provoked, and they shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and he shall come with haste like a flood: and he shall return, and be stirred up, and he shall join battle with his forces.

His sons. Seleucus Ceraunius and Antiochus the great, the sons of Callinicus. (Challoner) --- The former was poisoned after three years' reign, as he marched against Attalus. (Just. xxix.) --- Antiochus the great reconquered many provinces from Egypt, but was beaten at Raphia, on the confines, and lost Coelo-syria. (Calmet) --- He shall, etc. Antiochus the great. (Challoner) --- He prosecuted the war, as his brother was prevented by death. (Worthington)
Daniel 11:11 And the king of the south being provoked, shall go forth, and shall fight against the king of the north, and shall prepare an exceeding great multitude, and a multitude shall be given into his hands.

South. Ptolemeus Philopator, son of Evergetes. (Challoner) --- He was an indolent prince; but his generals gained the victory. (Calmet)
Daniel 11:12 And he shall take a multitude, and his heart shall be lifted up, and he shall cast down many thousands: but he shall not prevail.

Prevail. Many fell on both sides. (Haydock) --- But Antiochus did not prevail; (Worthington) or rather Philopator neglected the opportunity of dethroning his rival, (Calmet) as he might have seized all his dominions, if he had not been too fond of ease. (Just. xxx.) --- He followed the suggestions of his proud heart, when he attempted to enter the most holy place of the temple; and though he was visibly chastised by God, he would have vented his resentment on the Jews, if Providence had not miraculously protected them. (3 Machabees; Calmet) See Ecclesiasticus L. (Haydock)
Daniel 11:13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall prepare a multitude much greater than before: and in the end of times, and years, he shall come in haste with a great army, and much riches.

Times, seventeen years after the battle of Raphia. When Philopator was dead, and his son Epiphanes not above five years old, Antiochus and Philip of Macedon basely attempted to divide his dominions. Scopas engaged Antiochus, but lost the battle, and all that Philopator had recovered. (Calmet) --- Many revolted in Egypt on account of the arrogance of Agathocles, who ruled in the king's name, ver. 14. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 11:14 *And in those times many shall rise up against the king of the south, and the children of prevaricators of thy people shall lift up themselves to fulfil the vision, and they shall fall.

Isaias 19:1.
Vision. Many Jews, deceived by Onias, erected a temple in Egypt, falsely asserting that they fulfilled the prophecy of Isaias, 19:19. (Worthington) --- This Onias was the son of Onias III, who was slain at Antioch, Daniel 9:25. (Haydock) --- The temple of Onion was called after him. All allow that he transgressed the law, by offering sacrifice there after God had pitched upon Jerusalem. But this was done (Calmet) under Philometor, forty-seven years (Usher) or longer after those times, when Epiphanes fought against Antiochus. The rebellion of the Jews against Egypt may therefore be meant. It was decreed that they should be under Antiochus, that his son might cause them to fall, (Calmet) and punish them for their crimes. (Haydock)
Daniel 11:15 And the king of the north shall come, and shall cast up a mount, and shall take the best fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, and his chosen ones shall rise up to resist, and they shall not have strength.

Cities; Sidon, Gaza, and the citadel of Jerusalem, etc. (Calmet)
Daniel 11:16 And he shall come upon him, and do according to his pleasure, and there shall be none to stand against his face: and he shall stand in the glorious land, and it shall be consumed by his hand.

Upon him. Antiochus shall come upon the king of the south. --- Land: Judea. (Challoner) --- Consumed, or "perfected." Antiochus was very favourable to the Jews; (Calmet) invited all to return to Jerusalem, and furnished what was requisite for the sacrifices. (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 12:3.)
Daniel 11:17 And he shall set his face to come to possess all his kingdom, and he shall make upright conditions with him: and he shall give him a daughter of women, to overthrow it: and she shall not stand, neither shall she be for him.

Kingdom, viz. all the kingdom of Ptolemeus Epiphanes, son of Philopator. (Challoner) --- The Romans interrupted Antiochus, who resolved to lull the young prince asleep, till he had subdued these enemies. (Calmet) --- Of women. That is, a most beautiful woman, viz. his daughter Cleopatra. --- It, viz. the kingdom of Epiphanes; but his policy shall not succeed; for Cleopatra shall take more to heart the interest of her husband than that of her father. (Challoner) --- He came with her to Raphia, and gave her Judea, etc. for her dowry, reserving half of the revenues. Hebrew and Greek have, "to corrupt her;" (Calmet) Vulgate eam; as he wished his daughter to act perfidiously, that he might seize the whole kingdom. (Haydock) --- Epiphanes and his generals were on their guard, and Cleopatra took part with her husband. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 11:18 And he shall turn his face to the islands, and shall take many: and he shall cause the prince of his reproach to cease, and his reproach shall be turned upon him.

Islands, near Asia. He also went into Greece, and was master of that country when the Romans declared war against him. (Calmet) --- Of his reproach. Scipio, the Roman general, called the prince of his reproach, because he overthrew Antiochus, and obliged him to submit to very dishonourable terms, before he would cease from the war. (Challoner) --- Protestants, "for a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease, without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him." (Haydock) --- Being defeated at Magnesia, he chose the wisest plan of avoiding fresh reproach, by making peace, though (Calmet) the terms were very hard. (Livy xxxvii.) --- He jokingly observed, that he was obliged to the Romans for contracting his dominions. (Cicero, pro Dejot.)
Daniel 11:19 And he shall turn his face to the empire of his own land, and he shall stumble, and fall, and shall not be found.

Found. Antiochus plundered the temple of the Elymaites to procure money; but they, (St. Jerome) or the neighbouring barbarous nations, rose up and slew him. (Just. xxxii.)
Daniel 11:20 And there shall stand up in his place one most vile, and unworthy of kingly honour: and in a few days he shall be destroyed, not in rage nor in battle.

One more vile. Seleucus Philopator, who sent Heliodorus to plunder the temple; and was shortly after slain by the same Heliodorus. (Challoner) --- He reigned about twelve years; and had sent his own son, Demetrius, to be a hostage at Rome instead of Epiphanes, whom he designed to place at the head of an army to invade Egypt. Hebrew, "one who shall cause the exactor to pass over the glory of the kingdom," the temple, 2 Machabees 3:(Calmet)
Daniel 11:21 And there shall stand up in his place one despised, and the kingly honour shall not be given him: and he shall come privately, and shall obtain the kingdom by fraud.

One despised; viz. Antiochus Epiphanes, who at first was despised and not received for king. What is here said of this prince, is accommodated by St. Jerome and others to antichrist, of whom this Antiochus was a figure. (Challoner) --- He lived and died basely; as the origin and end of antichrist will be ignominious. (Worthington) --- All that follows, to the end of Daniel 12., regards Epiphanes. He had no title to the crown, which he procured by cunning, and held in the most shameful manner. He canvassed for the lowest offices, so that many styled him Epimanes, :"the madman." (Diod. in Valesius, p. 305.; Calmet)
Daniel 11:22 And the arms of the fighter shall be overcome before his face, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.

Fighter. That is, of them that shall oppose him, and shall fight against him. (Challoner) --- Heliodorus, who had murdered his brother and usurped the throne, and Ptolemy Epiphanes, were discomfited. The latter was making preparations against Seleucus, and said that his riches were in the purses of his friends, upon which they poisoned him. (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- Covenant, or of the league. The chief of them that conspired against him; or the king of Egypt, his most powerful adversary. (Challoner) --- This title belongs to antichrist, who will join the Jews, and be received as their Messias. (St. Irenaeus 5:25.; St. Jerome, etc. Jo. 543.) (Worthington)
Daniel 11:23 And after friendships, he will deal deceitfully with him: and he shall go up, and shall overcome with a small people.

People. Ephiphanes pretended to be tutor of Philometor. But the nobles of Egypt distrusted him; whereupon he came to a battle, near Pelusium, and the young king surrendered himself. His uncle thus took possession of Egypt with surprising facility. Yet the people of Alexandria crowned Evergetes, which occasioned a civil war. (Calmet)
Daniel 11:24 And he shall enter into rich and plentiful cities: and he shall do that which his fathers never did, nor his fathers' fathers: he shall scatter their spoils, and their prey, and their riches, and shall forecast devices against the best fenced places: and this until a time.

Places. Theodotion reads, "Egypt," omitting the b, (Haydock) which gives a good sense. --- (Calmet)
Daniel 11:25 And his strength, and his heart, shall be stirred up against the king of the south, with a great army: and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with many and very strong succours: and they shall not stand, for they shall form designs against him.

The king. Ptolemeus Philometor. (Challoner) --- Epiphanes came under the pretext of restoring Philometor, and gained a victory over Evergetes; but returned in Syria, that the two brothers might weaken each other, (Calmet) while the Syrians formed designs against both. (Haydock)
Daniel 11:26 And they that eat bread with him, shall destroy him, and his army shall be overthrown: and many shall fall down slain.

Slain. This was the perfidious policy of Epiphanes, who expected that the two brothers would destroy each other, so that he might easily seize Egypt, of which he kept the key, retaining the city of Pelusium. They were however reconciled, and reigned together. The Scripture often represents that as done which is only intended.
Daniel 11:27 And the heart of the two kings shall be to do evil, and they shall speak lies at one table, and they shall not prosper: because as yet the end is unto another time.

Two kings: Epiphanes and Philometor. --- Time. Epiphanes, vexed that he should thus be duped, returned again into Egypt, ver. 21.(Calmet)
Daniel 11:28 And he shall return into his land with much riches: and his heart shall be against the holy covenant, and he shall succeed, and shall return into his own land.

Riches, taken in Egypt (Calmet) and in Jerusalem. (Haydock) --- The people had refused to receive Jason; and Epiphanes treated them in the most barbarous manner, profaned the temple, etc., 1 Machabees 1:23., and 2 Machabees 5:21. (Calmet)
Daniel 11:29 At the time appointed he shall return, and he shall come to the south, but the latter time shall not be like the former.

Daniel 11:30 And the galleys and the Romans shall come upon him, and he shall be struck, and shall return, and shall have indignation against the covenant of the sanctuary, and he shall succeed: and he shall return, and shall devise against them that have forsaken the covenant of the sanctuary.

Galleys. Hebrew, "ships of Chittim." (Haydock) --- The ambassadors probably came in vessels belonging to Macedonia, (Calmet) which they found at Delos. (Livy xliv.) --- Romans. Popilius and the other Roman ambassadors, who came in galleys, and obliged him to depart from Egypt. (Challoner) --- He was only four or seven miles from Alexandria, and went to meet the ambassadors, who gave him the senate's letter, ordering him to desist from the war. He said he would consult his friends: but Popilius formed a circle round him with his wand, requiring an answer before he went out of it. Hereupon the king withdrew his forces. (Polyb. xcii.; V. Max. 6:4.) --- Succeed. Apollonius massacred many Jews on the sabbath, 1 Machabees 1:30. --- Against. Hebrew, "respecting." Protestant: "have intelligence with them," etc. (Haydock) --- These wretches prompted him to make such edicts, for he was attached to no religion, 2 Machabees 4:9.
Daniel 11:31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall defile the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the continual sacrifice, and they shall place there the abomination unto desolation.

Arms, (brachia) or strong men, Apollonius, Philip, etc., (2 Machabees vi.) and likewise the senator from Antioch, who executed his decrees. (Calmet) --- Abomination. The idol of Jupiter Olympius, which Antiochus ordered to be set up in the sanctuary of the temple, which is here called the sanctuary of strength, from the Almighty that was worshipped there. (Challoner) --- Other idols were set up, and the people were compelled to sacrifice. (Calmet) --- Yet even in the hottest persecutions some remain faithful. (Worthington)
Daniel 11:32 And such as deal wickedly against the covenant shall deceitfully dissemble: but the people that know their God shall prevail and succeed.

Dissemble. Thus acted the officers and apostate Jews. --- Know. Such were the Assideans, Eleazar, and the Machabees.
Daniel 11:33 And they that are learned among the people shall teach many: and they shall fall by the sword, and by fire, and by captivity, and by spoil for many days.

Learned; the priests, Matthathias, etc., Malachias 2:7.
Daniel 11:34 And when they shall have fallen, they shall be relieved with a small help: and many shall be joined to them deceitfully.

Help. The victories of the Machabees were miraculous. --- Deceitfully, like those who took the spoils of idols, and were slain. Hebrew may imply, "secretly." (Calmet)
Daniel 11:35 And some of the learned shall fall, that they may be tried, and may be chosen, and made white, even to the appointed time: because yet there shall be another time.

Fall, or become martyrs. (Haydock) --- Such were Eleazar, etc. (Calmet) --- Another time, after death; (Haydock) or the perfect deliverance shall take place later, ver. 27.
Daniel 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will, and he shall be lifted up, and shall magnify himself against every god: and he shall speak great things against the God of gods, and shall prosper, till the wrath be accomplished. For the determination is made.

Every god. "He plundered many (Calmet or most; pleista.; Haydock) temples." (Polyb. Athen. 5:6.) --- The Samaritans, and even the priests of the Lord, obeyed the impious decree; so that the king looked upon himself as a sort of god. --- Accomplished against the Jews, when Epiphanes shall be punished.
Daniel 11:37 And he shall make no account of the God of his fathers: and he shall follow the lust of women, and he shall not regard any gods: for he shall rise up against all things.

God. He laughed at religion, yet sometimes offered splendid presents and victims, which shewed his inconstancy. (Calmet) --- Women. He kept many concubines, (Diod.) and committed the greatest obscenities publicly: mimis et scortis. (St. Jerome) --- Hebrew may have quite a different sense. He had no regard for the sex, (Calmet) killing all indiscriminately. (Grotius)
Daniel 11:38 But he shall worship the god Maozim, in his place: and a god whom his fathers knew not, he shall worship with gold, and silver, and precious stones, and things of great price.

The god Maozim. That is, the god of forces or strong holds. (Challoner) --- Mahuzzim denotes "strong ones," (Haydock) guardians, etc. Dr. Newton (Diss.) explains, the king (ver. 36) of the Roman state; and supposes that here the guardian saints and angels are meant, whose worship he shews "began in the Roman empire, very soon after it became Christian. This exposition seems far preferable to that which interprets" Jupiter or the heavens, and understands the idol set up by Epiphanes. See Univ. Hist. X. Parkhurst. --- If these authors speak of the inferior veneration shewn to saints and angels in the Catholic Church, it had a much earlier commencement, being coeval with religion itself. But only the blindest prejudice can represent this as idolatrous, and of course this system must fall to the ground. (Haydock) --- Others suppose that Mars, Hercules, Azizus, or Jupiter, may be designated. Hebrew, "He will rise up against all, (38) and against the strong God (of Israel, ver. 31.; and Daniel 8:10.) (Calmet) he will, in his place, worship a strange god, " etc. (Junius) --- None of the ancestors of Epiphanes had ever adored Jupiter on the altar of holocausts. (Calmet) --- He and antichrist adore either the great Jupiter or their own strength. (Worthington)
Daniel 11:39 And he shall do this to fortify Maozim with a strange god, whom he hath acknowledged, and he shall increase glory, and shall give them power over many, and shall divide the land gratis.

To. Hebrew, "in the most strong holds, with," etc. (Haydock) --- He built a fortress near the temple, styled Maoz, (Ezechiel 24:25.) on account of its strength. (Calmet) --- Glory. He shall bestow honours, riches, and lands, upon them that shall worship his god. (Challoner) --- He will entrust the strong places to them.
Daniel 11:40 And at the time prefixed the king of the south shall fight against him, and the king of the north shall come against him like a tempest, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with a great navy, and he shall enter into the countries, and shall destroy, and pass through.

Fight. Epiphanes made war on Egypt, till the Romans forced him to desist. The prophet explains his preceding attempts, to which he only alluded, ver. 29, 30.
Daniel 11:41 And he shall enter into the glorious land, and many shall fall: and these only shall be saved out of his hand, Edom, and Moab, and the principality of the children of Ammon.

Land; Egypt, or rather Judea. (Calmet) --- Ammon. He will not divide his forces. (St. Jerome)
Daniel 11:42 And he shall lay his hand upon the lands: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.

Daniel 11:43 And he shall have power over the treasures of gold, and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt: and he shall pass through Lybia, and Ethiopia.

Ethiopia. Hebrew, "the Lubim and Cushim shall be at his steps." Theodotion reads, "in their fortresses." He had troops form these nations, or Egypt was guarded by them.
Daniel 11:44 And tidings out of the east, and out of the north, shall trouble him: and he shall come with a great multitude to destroy and slay many.

North. Judas continued victorious. Armenia (Calmet) and Parthia rebelled. (Tacitus 5:8.) --- Many. Epiphanes left three generals and half his army to destroy the Jews. (Calmet)
Daniel 11:45 And he shall fix his tabernacle, Apadno, between the seas, upon a glorious and holy mountain: and he shall come even to the top thereof, and none shall help him.

Apadno. Some take it for the proper name of a place; others, from the Hebrew translate it, his palace. (Challoner) --- He fixed his royal tent between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. (Worthington) ---Porphyrius explains this of the march beyond the Euphrates, which St. Jerome does not disapprove. Apadno may denote Mesopotamia, which is styled Padan Aram. --- Glorious. Hebrew Zebi, (Calmet) or Tsebi, (Haydock) may allude to Mount Taba, where the king perished, without help, 1 Machabees 6:11., and 2 Machabees 9:9. St. Jerome and many others explain all this of antichrist, and no doubt he was prefigured. The like events will probably take place again towards the end of the world. But as the particulars cannot be ascertained, we have adhered to the history of Antiochus. (Calmet)
Daniel 12:0 Michael shall stand up for the people of God: with other things relating to antichrist, and the end of the world.

Daniel 12:1 But *at that time shall Michael rise up, the great prince, who standeth for the children of thy people: and a time shall come, such as never was from the time that nations began, even until that time. And at that time shall thy people be saved, every one that shall be found written in the book.

Apocalypse 12:7.
Michael, "who is like God," alludes to the name of the Machabees; Who is like unto thee among the gods? The archangel protected the Jews, while Epiphanes was engaged beyond the Euphrates. --- Time. The nation was in the utmost distress. Only about seven thousand ill-armed men adhered to Judas: yet these delivered the country by God's decree. --- Book. God seemed to keep a register of his friends. (Calmet) --- Michael, the guardian of the Church, will protect her against antichrist, as her pastors will do visibly. (Worthington)
Daniel 12:2 And many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake: *some unto life everlasting, and others unto reproach, to see it always.

Matthew 25:46.; John 5:29.
Many. This shews the great number. All shall rise again. In a figurative sense, the Jews who seemed buried shall appear and fight. --- To see. Hebrew, "everlasting." (Calmet) --- St. Jerome has not seen a d (Haydock) in the word. This text is express for eternal happiness or misery. (Calmet) --- Some have understood, deraon, "stench," or contempt, to denote the ignominy of the damned; but the prophet speaks of the times of the Machabees. (Houbigant.) --- All shall rise in their bodies, but all shall not be changed for the better, 1 Corinthians 15:51. (Worthington)
Daniel 12:3 But they that are learned, *shall shine as the brightness of the firmament: and they that instruct many to justice, as stars for all eternity.

Wisdom 3:7.
Learned in the law of God and true wisdom, which consists in knowing and loving God. (Challoner) --- Hebrew, "instructors." --- Instruct. Hebrew, "justify," in the same sense. The Machabees and other priests, etc. who instructed people in the law, and stood up for its defence, may be meant. (Calmet) --- "There is as much difference between a learned sanctity and a holy rusticity, as there is between heaven and the stars." (St. Jerome) --- Teachers, martyrs, and virgins are entitled to an aureola, or accidental reward, besides the essential beatitude. (Worthington) --- Many. Th.[Theodotion?] and the Vulgate read, "and of the just many shall be like for an age and after." (St. Jerome)
Daniel 12:4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time appointed: many shall pass over, and knowledge shall be manifold.

Shut. The vision will not be understood till the event. (Calmet) --- It is not to be interpreted by human wit, but by the spirit of God, wherewith the Church is enlightened and governed. (St. Jerome in Gal.) (Worthington)
Daniel 12:5 And I, Daniel, looked, and behold as it were two others stood: one on this side upon the bank of the river, and another on that side, on the other bank of the river.

Two angels of Persia and Greece, near the Tigris. (Maldonatus)
Daniel 12:6 And I said to the man that was clothed In linen, that stood upon the waters of the river: How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?

1:Hebrew, "He." Theod.[Theodotion?], Syriac and Arabic, "they said" to Gabriel, Daniel 10:5. Angels ask questions of each other, Daniel 8:13. --- Wonders. How long shall this be in the dark, and the misery continue?
Daniel 12:7 And I heard the man that was clothed in linen, that stood upon the waters of the river, *when he had lifted up his right hand, and his left hand to heaven, and had sworn by him that liveth for ever, that it should be unto a time, and times, and half a time. And when the scattering of the band of the holy people shall be accomplished, all these things shall be finished.

Apocalypse 10:5.
Heaven. He thus shews that he is not God. (Calmet) --- Time often implies a year, Daniel 4:13. Hence he means three years and a half. Christ assures us that those days shall be shortened, (Matthew 24:22.) and the persecutor shall tarry a short time, Apocalypse 17:10., and 12:14. The same period is insinuated by 1290 days, (ver. 11) and 1330, ver. 12. The two witnesses prophesy 1260 days, during which the Church shall be fed in the wilderness, Apocalypse 12:6. But the term is most exactly specified by forty-two months, Apocalypse 11:2., and 13:5. Hence all the Fathers agree that the last persecution shall continue no longer. (Worthington) --- How absurdly do some Protestants explain this of years during which, they say, the papacy shall subsist! Whence will they date its origin? But they will readily trifle with the word of God, and admit any one to indulge his fancy, as long as he does not strike at the thirty-nine articles. If he do, he may expect the treatment of poor Stone, (Haydock) whose death in the King's Bench, aged 75, has been just announced. He pleaded that one article decided, "nothing was to be maintained which could not be proved by Scripture." Yet he was deprived of his living by Dr. Porteus, who at one time was as eager to procure a change in the articles, yet was not prevented by his scruples from mounting the episcopal throne of Chester or of London. Stone had not this discretion. (Rock. N. 306.) He fell a victim to contradictory articles. He might be in error. But what right had Proteus to throw the first stone at him? or how will Protestants shew that any man is reprehensible for adopting the principles of the Reformation, which was entirely built on private interpretation? They applaud Luther, who established Scripture self-interpreted for the only rule, and they condemn Stone, Wesley, etc. for acting accordingly. If they have such just weights and measures for their own, what wonder then if the rights of Catholics be disregarded? (Haydock) --- Half a time. The idol of Jupiter remained just three years. Yet the temple was not ready for sacrifices till other ten days had elapsed. They had been interrupted six months before that idol was set up. (Calmet) --- We must date from the profanation and distress caused by Apollonius, 1 Machabees 4:52. (Jos. [Josephus?]; S. Hypol. [St. Hippolytus?]; Usher, the year of the world 3836.; Calmet) --- Band. Literally, "hand." (Haydock) --- When the people shall be destitute of strength, God will miraculously deliver them.
Daniel 12:8 And I heard, and understood not. And I said: O my lord, what shall be after these things?

Understand not. The prophets were obliged to pray, and sometimes to receive a fresh revelation to explain what they had seen, Daniel 9:2.; 1 Peter 1:11.; and 1 Corinthians 14:26. What regarded Antiochus and the Church was almost inexplicable before the event, as the times of antichrist are to us, ver. 9.
Daniel 12:9 And he said: Go, Daniel, because the words are shut up, and sealed until the appointed time.

Daniel 12:10 Many shall be chosen, and made white, and shall be tried as fire: and the wicked shall deal wickedly, and none of the wicked shall understand, but the learned shall understand.

White, by persecution endured with patience, Daniel 11:35. --- Learned. While the weak Jews will be scandalized at this treatment, the virtuous will reflect that suffering is a trial of God's servants, and a mark of predestination.
Daniel 12:11 And from the time when the continual sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination unto desolation shall be set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred ninety days.

Days: thirteen more than three and a half, as we reckon. The odd number might be neglected, ver. 7. The abomination continued three years and ten days, but the sacrifices had been discontinued six months and three days before. See Daniel 8:14. If Daniel speak of lunar years, as it is probable, the difference would only be two days. (Calmet) --- From the abolishing of the mass as much as possible, and the practice of heresy and abomination, unto the end of antichrist's persecution, 1290 days shall elapse. (Worthington)
Daniel 12:12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh unto a thousand three hundred thirty-five days.

Days. After the three years and a half, fifty-eight days will occur before the death of Antiochus, when Judas will disperse the troops of his three generals. (Calmet) --- Some respite will be granted for forty-five days, during which sinners may repent. (Menochius) --- It is difficult to say why forty-five days are here added to the former number. We are content to depart with Daniel, (ver. 9.) without searching any farther into these high mysteries. (Worthington)
Daniel 12:13 But go thou thy ways until the time appointed: and thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot unto the end of the days.

Lot. Thou shalt enjoy a glorious resurrection, (Menochius) and thy dignities till death, for which thou must prepare. (Calmet) --- Days. "Hitherto," says St. Jerome, "we read Daniel, in the Hebrew volume; what follows, to the end, is translated from Theodotion's edition." (Haydock) --- The history of Susanna is there placed at the beginning. (Calmet) --- According to the order of time, it should be placed after the first chapter. (Menochius)
Daniel 13:0 The history of Susanna, and the two elders.

Daniel 13:1 Now *there was a man that dwelt in Babylon, and his name was Joakim:

Year of the World 3398, Year before Christ 606. This history of Susanna, in all the ancient Greek and Latin Bibles, was placed in the beginning of the Book of Daniel, till St. Jerome, in his translation, detached it from thence, because he did not find it in the Hebrew; which is also the case of the history of Bel and the dragon. But both the one and the other are received by the Catholic Church, and were from the very beginning a part of the Christian Bible. (Challoner) --- Daniel seems not to have written the history of Susanna, at least in the volume which contains his prophecies, though it be unquestionably canonical. (Cornelius a Lapide) --- It has been doubted whether it was ever in Hebrew. (Calmet) --- But Origen solves the difficulties of Africanus. (Haydock) --- Susanna means "lily," and is proposed as a pattern of conjugal chastity. (Calmet) --- Daniel was about twelve years old when he disclosed the malice of her accusers. (St. Augustine, ser. 242. de temp.) (Worthington)
Daniel 13:2 And he took a wife, whose name was Susanna, the daughter of Helcias, a very beautiful woman, and one that feared God.

Daniel 13:3 For her parents being just, had instructed their daughter according to the law of Moses.

Daniel 13:4 Now Joakim was very rich, and had an orchard near his house: and the Jews resorted to him, because he was the most honourable of them all.

Daniel 13:5 And there were two of the ancients of the people appointed judges that year, of whom the Lord said: That iniquity came out from Babylon, from the ancient judges, that seemed to govern the people.

Judges. The Jews say they were Achab and Sedecias, (Origen) as this text seems to allude to Jeremias 29:21. or 33:14. But how were they burnt? since the Jews appear to have stoned them, unless they were delivered up to the king's officers, ver. 61. (Calmet) --- The captives under Joakim, were better treated than those who were taken nineteen years afterwards, when all fell into a heavier bondage. (Worthington) --- The might enjoy possessions, (Haydock) and have judges of their nation. (Calmet) --- Cappel. urges this difficulty, and many others, to shew that this account is fabulous. But as the Jews were allowed to follow their religion, the Chaldeans would strive to keep them in good order. It is not said that Joakim was one of the captives. He might have settled long before at Babylon, where Helcias probably brought up his daughter in the fear of God, ver. 3. The judges might also have had authority before over the Israelites, in Assyria, who were now all under the same government, ver. 57. (Houbigant.; Pref.)
Daniel 13:6 These men frequented the house of Joakim, and all that had any matters of judgment came to them.

Daniel 13:7 And when the people departed away at noon, Susanna went in, and walked in her husband's orchard.

Noon, at which time the Jews dined, (ver. 13.; Jos.[Josephus?] vita) and the streets were as little frequented as they are at night among us. Hence the judges thought this a fit opportunity. (Calmet)
Daniel 13:8 And the old men saw her going in every day, and walking: and they were inflamed with lust towards her:

Daniel 13:9 And they perverted their own mind, and turned away their eyes, that they might not look unto heaven, nor remember just judgments.

Mind. They were distracted by love, (Haydock) and rendered foolish.
Daniel 13:10 So they were both wounded with the love of her, yet they did not make known their grief one to the other.

Daniel 13:11 For they were ashamed to declare to one another their lust, being desirous to have to do with her:

Daniel 13:12 And they watched carefully every day to see her. And one said to the other:

Daniel 13:13 Let us now go home, for it is dinner time. So going out, they departed one from another.

Daniel 13:14 And turning back again, they came both to the same place: and asking one another the cause, they acknowledged their lust: and then they agreed upon a time, when they might find her alone.

Daniel 13:15 And it fell out, as they watched a fit day, she went in on a time, as yesterday and the day before, with two maids only, and was desirous to wash herself in the orchard: for it was hot weather.

Daniel 13:16 And there was nobody there, but the two old men that had hid themselves, and were beholding her.

Daniel 13:17 So she said to the maids: Bring me oil, and washing balls, and shut the doors of the orchard, that I may wash me.

Daniel 13:18 And they did as she bade them: and they shut the doors of the orchard, and went out by a back door to fetch what she had commanded them, and they knew not that the elders were hid within.

Back door, leading from the house. Strangers came by the other gates. (Calmet) --- Susanna had not perhaps at first intended to bathe. Cappel. accuses her of imprudence, without reason. He cannot believe that the old judges would be so sottish as they appear to have been. (Houbigant.)
Daniel 13:19 Now when the maids were gone forth, the two elders arose, and ran to her, and said:

Daniel 13:20 Behold the doors of the orchard are shut, and nobody seeth us, and we are in love with thee: wherefore consent to us, and lie with us.

Daniel 13:21 But if thou wilt not, we will bear witness against thee, that a young man was with thee, and therefore thou didst send away thy maids from thee.

Daniel 13:22 Susanna sighed, and said: I am straitened on every side: for if I do this thing, it is death to me: and if I do it not, I shall not escape your hands.

Death of the soul, (St. Jerome) and also of the body, if the adultery were detected. How much does Susanna surpass the famed Lucretia, who slew herself to shew that she had not consented to her violation! Si adultera cur laudata? Si pudica cur occisa? (St. Augustine, de Civ. Dei. 1:19.; St. Ambrose, de Sp. 3:3.) (Calmet)
Daniel 13:23 But it is better for me to fall into your hands without doing it, than to sin in the sight of the Lord.

Daniel 13:24 With that Susanna cried out with a loud voice: and the elders also cried out against her.

Out. So the law ordained, when a woman was assaulted. (Haydock)
Daniel 13:25 And one of them ran to the door of the orchard, and opened it.

Daniel 13:26 So when the servants of the house heard the cry in the orchard, they rushed in by the back door, to see what was the matter.

Daniel 13:27 But after the old men had spoken, the servants were greatly ashamed: for never had there been any such word said of Susanna. And on the next day,

Daniel 13:28 When the people were come to Joakim, her husband, the two elders also came full of wicked device against Susanna, to put her to death.

Daniel 13:29 And they said before the people: Send to Susanna, daughter of Helcias, the wife of Joakim. And presently they sent.

People, for greater shew of justice. (Worthington) --- We here behold the forms.
Daniel 13:30 And she came with her parents, and children, and all her kindred.

Daniel 13:31 Now Susanna was exceeding delicate, and beautiful to behold.

Daniel 13:32 But those wicked men commanded that her face should be uncovered, (for she was covered) that so at least they might be satisfied with her beauty.

Uncovered, pretending that respect for the company required it, or perhaps that they might detect her guilt by her blushes. (Calmet) --- But their real motive is here disclosed. (Haydock)
Daniel 13:33 Therefore her friends, and all her acquaintance wept.

Daniel 13:34 But the two elders rising up in the midst of the people, laid their hands upon her head.

Head, saying, "Thy malice brings on this chastisement, and not we." (Lyran.) --- They appear to discharge their conscience, (Leviticus 1:4.;Leviticus 24:14.) not as judges but as accusers. The people pass sentence, ver. 41. Adulteresses were stoned, Leviticus 20:10. (Calmet)
Daniel 13:35 And she weeping looked up to heaven, for her heart had confidence in the Lord.

Daniel 13:36 And the elders said: As we walked in the orchard alone, this woman came in with two maids, and shut the doors of the orchard, and sent away the maids from her.

Daniel 13:37 Then a young man that was there hid came to her, and lay with her.

Daniel 13:38 But we that were in a corner of the orchard, seeing this wickedness, ran up to them, and we saw them lie together.

Daniel 13:39 And him indeed we could not take, because he was stronger than us, and opening the doors, he leaped out:

Daniel 13:40 But having taken this woman, we asked who the young man was, but she would not tell us: of this thing we are witnesses.

Daniel 13:41 The multitude believed them, as being the elders, and the judges of the people, and they condemned her to death.

Death. The multitude approved of this sentence, which the judges pronounced, pretending to act agreeably to the law, Deuteronomy xxii. (Worthington)
Daniel 13:42 Then Susanna cried out with a loud voice, and said: O eternal God, who knowest hidden things, who knowest all things before they come to pass,

Daniel 13:43 Thou knowest that they have borne false witness against me: and behold I must die, whereas I have done none of these things, which these men have maliciously forged against me.

Daniel 13:44 And the Lord heard her voice.

Daniel 13:45 And when she was led to be put to death, the Lord raised up the holy spirit of a young boy, whose name was Daniel:

Boy. He was about twelve years old. (St. Ignatius, ad Magn.; Sulpit. ii.; Theod.) --- He might walk out, though he lodged at court. (Houbigant.) --- God enabled him to declare that Susanna was innocent. The people had consented to her death, but he stands up in her defence. (Worthington)
Daniel 13:46 And he cried out with a loud voice: I am clear from the blood of this woman.

Clear. This form is often used, Acts 18:6., and Matthew 27:24.
Daniel 13:47 Then all the people turning themselves towards him, said: What meaneth this word that thou hast spoken?

Daniel 13:48 But he standing in the midst of them, said: Are ye so foolish, ye children of Israel, that without examination or knowledge of the truth, you have condemned a daughter of Israel?

Truth. They had taken no precautions to ascertain it; which they ought to have done the more, as Susanna had always been highly esteemed. (Calmet) --- As the witnesses were positive, she must die, except their falsehood could be manifested, which none suspected. (Houbigant.)
Daniel 13:49 Return to judgment, for they have borne false witness against her.

Daniel 13:50 So all the people turned again in haste, and the old men said to him: Come, and sit thou down among us, and shew it us: seeing God hath given thee the honour of old age.

Old men. They speak sarcastically; or rather other senators, who had not been in the plot, address Daniel.
Daniel 13:51 And Daniel said to the people: Separate these two far from one another, and I will examine them.

Daniel 13:52 So when they were put asunder one from the other, he called one of them, and said to him: O thou that art grown old in evil days, now are thy sins come out, which thou hast committed before:

Daniel 13:53 In judging unjust judgments, oppressing the innocent, and letting the guilty to go free, whereas the Lord saith: *The innocent and the just thou shalt not kill.

Exodus 23:7.
Daniel 13:54 Now then if thou sawest her, tell me under what tree thou sawest them conversing together: He said: Under a mastic tree.

Daniel 13:55 And Daniel said: Well hast thou lied against thy own head: for behold the angel of God having received the sentence of him, shall cut thee in two.

Two. This punishment was not unusual: yet it is probable that the two old men were stoned to death by the law of retaliation, ver. 61., and Exodus 19:4.) There is an allusion, in Greek, between schinon and schisei, and also between Prinos and prisei; (ver. 58, 59) and hence it is concluded that this work was originally in that language. But there might be a similar allusion in Hebrew or Chaldean or the translator might think it lawful to put one tree for another. (Calmet) --- We find a tree called shinar, in Persia. (Tavern. 4:6.) It would be easy to produce similar allusions in the Latin ilex; thus ilicò peribis, etc. (Menochius)
Daniel 13:56 And having put him aside, he commanded that the other should come, and he said to him: O thou seed of Chanaan, and not of Juda, beauty hath deceived thee, and lust hath perverted thy heart:

Daniel 13:57 Thus did you do to the daughters of Israel, and they for fear conversed with you: but a daughter of Juda would not abide your wickedness.

Israel, when you were judges in Assyria, ver. 5. (Haydock) --- Conversed. No one could be alone with women, in the East, without suspicion.
Daniel 13:58 Now, therefore, tell me, under what tree didst thou take them conversing together. And he answered: Under a holm tree.

Daniel 13:59 And Daniel said to him: Well hast thou also lied against thy own head: for the angel of the Lord waiteth with a sword to cut thee in two, and to destroy you.

Daniel 13:60 With that all the assembly cried out with a loud voice, and they blessed God, who saveth them that trust in him.

Daniel 13:61 And they rose up against the two elders, (for Daniel had convicted them of false witness by their own mouth) and they did to them as they had maliciously dealt against their neighbour,

Neighbour; stoning or strangling them, unless they gave them up to Nabuchodonosor's officers, ver. 5. (Calmet)
Daniel 13:62 *To fulfill the law of Moses: and they put them to death, and innocent blood was saved in that day.

Deuteronomy 19:18-19.
Daniel 13:63 But Helcias, and his wife, praised God, for their daughter, Susanna, with Joakim, her husband, and all her kindred, because there was no dishonesty found in her.

Daniel 13:64 And Daniel became great in the sight of the people from that day, and thence forward.

Forward. By this first prophetical act Daniel acquired fame, (Worthington) which he retained till the death of Astyages. (Maldonatus; Menochius)
Daniel 13:65 And king Astyages was gathered to his fathers; and Cyrus, the Persian, received his kingdom.

Astyages, or Darius, Daniel 5:31. This belongs to the following chapter (Calmet) or to the 9th. (Worthington) --- Cyrus. Little is known about his birth or death. Yet all agree that he conquered the Chaldeans. (Calmet)
Daniel 14:0 The history of Bel; and of the great serpent, worshipped by the Babylonians.

Daniel 14:1 And Daniel was the king's guest, and was honoured above all his friends.

Guest. It seems most probable that the king here spoken of was Evilmerodac, the son and successor of Nabuchodonosor, and great favourer of the Jews; (Challoner; Worthington) or it might be Darius, (Houbigant.) or Cyrus, under whose reign St. Irenaeus (IV. 11.) and others place this history. (Calmet) --- The more correct Greek editions begin with the preceding verse. (Menochius) --- Septuagint read, "Prophecy of Abaum, son of Juda, of the tribe of Levi. There was a priest, Daniel, son of Abda, who was a guest of the king of Babylon," etc. See Pref. (Haydock)
Daniel 14:2 Now the Babylonians had an idol called Bel: and there was spent upon him every day twelve great measures of fine flour, and forty sheep, and sixty vessels of wine.

Daniel 14:3 The king also worshipped him, and went every day to adore him: but Daniel adored his God. And the king said to him: Why dost thou not adore Bel?

Daniel 14:4 And he answered, and said to him: Because I do not worship idols made with hands, but the living God, that created heaven and earth, and hath power over all flesh.

Daniel 14:5 And the king said to him: Doth not Bel seem to thee to be a living god? Seest thou not how much he eateth and drinketh every day?

Daniel 14:6 Then Daniel smiled, and said: O king, be not deceived: for this is but clay within, and brass without, neither hath he eaten at any time.

Daniel 14:7 And the king being angry, called for his priests, and said to them: If you tell me not who it is that eateth up these expenses, you shall die.

Daniel 14:8 But if you can shew that Bel eateth these things, Daniel shall die, because he hath blasphemed against Bel. And Daniel said to the king: Be it done according to thy word.

Daniel 14:9 Now the priests of Bel were seventy, besides their wives, and little ones, and children. And the king went with Daniel into the temple of Bel.

Daniel 14:10 And the priests of Bel said: Behold we go out: and do thou, O king, set on the meats, and make ready the wine, and shut the door fast, and seal it with thy own ring:

Daniel 14:11 And when thou comest in the morning, if thou findest not that Bel hath eaten up all, we will suffer death, or else Daniel, that hath lied against us.

Daniel 14:12 And they little regarded it, because they had made under the table a secret entrance, and they always came in by it, and consumed those things.

Daniel 14:13 So it came to pass after they were gone out, the king set the meats before Bel: and Daniel commanded his servants, and they brought ashes, and he sifted them all over the temple before the king: and going forth, they shut the door, and having sealed it with the king's ring, they departed.

Daniel 14:14 But the priests went in by night, according to their custom, with their wives, and their children: and they eat and drank up all.

Daniel 14:15 And the king arose early in the morning, and Daniel with him.

Daniel 14:16 And the king said: Are the seals whole, Daniel? And he answered: They are whole, O king.

Daniel 14:17 And as soon as he had opened the door, the king looked upon the table, and cried out with a loud voice: Great art thou, O Bel, and there is not any deceit with thee.

Daniel 14:18 And Daniel laughed: and he held the king, that he should not go in: and he said: Behold the pavement, mark whose footsteps these are.

Daniel 14:19 And the king said: I see the footsteps of men, and women, and children. And the king was angry.

Angry. Cappel thinks the priests would not be so easily caught, or that such an imposture would not be so long concealed. But it was their interest to keep the secret, particularly if the king furnished the provisions; and in the night time they would not perceive the small ashes. (Houbigant.) --- The pagans stupidly believed (Calmet) that the idols eat. (Aristophanes, Plutus. 3:2.) --- All the objections against this history are refuted by Jeremias 51:5. (Houbigant.) --- It is wonderful that so learned a man as Cappel should urge so many. (Haydock)
Daniel 14:20 Then he took the priests, and their wives, and their children: and they shewed him the private doors by which they came in, and consumed the things that were on the table.

Daniel 14:21 The king, therefore, put them to death, and delivered Bel into the power of Daniel: who destroyed him and his temple.

Daniel 14:22 And there was a great dragon in that place, and the Babylonians worshipped him.

Dragon. The devil had seduced our first parents in the form of a serpent, and caused most nations to adore it. (Calmet) --- They expected benefit, or to be preserved from harm. (Valer. 1:8.; St. Augustine, de Civ. Dei. 14:11.; Worthington)
Daniel 14:23 And the king said to Daniel: Behold, thou canst not say now, that this is not a living god: adore him, therefore.

Daniel 14:24 And Daniel said: I adore the Lord, my God: for he is the living God: but that is no living god.

Daniel 14:25 But give me leave, O king, and I will kill this dragon without sword or club. And the king said: I give thee leave.

Daniel 14:26 Then Daniel took pitch, and fat, and hair, and boiled them together: and he made lumps, and put them into the dragon's mouth, and the dragon burst asunder. And he said: Behold him whom you worshipped.

Asunder, being choked, and not poisoned. (Vales. 81.) (Menochius) --- The throat is narrow. (Solin. 43.)
Daniel 14:27 And when the Babylonians had heard this, they took great indignation: and being gathered together against the king, they said: The king is become a Jew. He hath destroyed Bel, he hath killed the dragon, and he hath put the priests to death.

Jew, or "a Jew is king;" Daniel governs all. (Grotius)
Daniel 14:28 And they came to the king, and said: Deliver us Daniel, or else we will destroy thee and thy house.

House. Religion is daring. Darius was weak, and only a sort of viceroy, left by Cyrus. (Houbigant.)
Daniel 14:29 And the king saw that they pressed upon him violently: and being constrained by necessity: he delivered Daniel to them.

Daniel 14:30 And they cast him into the den of lions, and he was there six days.

The den of lions. Daniel was twice cast into the den of lions: once under Darius, the Mede, because he had transgressed the king's edict, by praying three times a day; and another time under Evilmerodac, by a sedition of the people. This time he remained six days in the lions' den; the other time only one night. (Challoner)
Daniel 14:31 And in the den there were seven lions, and they had given to them two carcasses every day, and two sheep: but then they were not given unto them, that they might devour Daniel.

Carcasses: people condemned, (Calmet) or dead. (Houbigant.)
Daniel 14:32 Now there was in Judea a prophet called Habacuc, and he had boiled pottage, and had broken bread in a bowl: and was going into the field, to carry it to the reapers.

Habacuc. The same, as some think, whose prophecy is found among the lesser prophets: but others believe him to be different. (Challoner) --- About twenty years before there was no prophet in Judea, Daniel 3:38. Habacuc, the eighth of the minor prophets, lived before the Babylonian monarchy was formed, Daniel 1:6. (Worthington) --- Yet he might still survive. If this had not been a true history, such an extraordinary mode of conveyance would not have been mentioned. Cappel imagines it was an allusion to Philip, the deacon, and fabricated by some Christian. But Theodotion found it in Hebrew (Houbigant.) and he was no friend to Christianity when he wrote; though he had once followed Tatian, and the Marcionites. (Haydock)
Daniel 14:33 And the angel of the Lord said to Habacuc: Carry the dinner which thou hast into Babylon, to Daniel, who is in the lions' den.

Daniel 14:34 And Habacuc said: Lord, I never saw Babylon, nor do I know the den.

Daniel 14:35 *And the angel of the Lord took him by the top of his head, and carried him by the hair of his head, and set him in Babylon, over the den, in the force of his spirit.

Ezechiel 8:3.
Daniel 14:36 And Habacuc cried, saying: O Daniel, thou servant of God, take the dinner that God hath sent thee.

Daniel 14:37 And Daniel said: Thou hast remembered me, O God, and thou hast not forsaken them that love thee.

Daniel 14:38 And Daniel arose and eat. And the angel of the Lord presently set Habacuc again in his own place.

Daniel 14:39 And upon the seventh day the king came to bewail Daniel: and he came to the den, and looked in, and behold Daniel was sitting in the midst of the lions.

Seventh. He had not come before, supposing he was dead, till at last a rumour got to his ears, notwithstanding the precautions of the Babylonians, who hoped that Daniel would be starved to death. (Houbigant, Proleg. p. 2. p. 425 which end here.)
Daniel 14:40 And the king cried out with a loud voice, saying: Great art thou, O Lord, the God of Daniel. And he drew him out of the lions' den.

Daniel. Greek adds, "besides thee there is no other." (Haydock)
Daniel 14:41 But those that had been the cause of his destruction, he cast into the den, and they were devoured in a moment before him.

Den, by the law of retaliation, Daniel 6:24. (Menochius)
Daniel 14:42 Then the king said: Let all the inhabitants of the whole earth fear the God of Daniel: for he is the Saviour, working signs, and wonders in the earth: who hath delivered Daniel out of the lions' den.

Then, etc. is not in Greek nor in the ancient manuscripts of St. Jerome. The verse may be taken from Daniel 2:26. (Calmet)