1883 Haydock Douay Rheims Bible

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II Corinthians 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the church of God that is at Corinth, with all the saints who are in all Achaia:

St. Timothy, it appears, had been sent to Corinth to confirm the faithful in the doctrine which they had received from St. Paul. After he had fulfilled this commission, he returned to St. Paul, and gave him an account how they had behaved, and what good effects his first letter had produced. He styles him brother, to conciliate to him the esteem and respect of the Corinthians. This epistle is not merely addressed to the Corinthians, but to all Achaia, of which Corinth was the capital. (Estius) --- Others think that Timothy had left Corinth before St. Paul's first epistle had arrived thither; and that this determined St. Paul to send Titus with another disciple thither. See 2 Corinthians 12:18. From him St. Paul had the consolation to learn the happy effects produced by his first letter. See 2 Corinthians 6:7. 11.
II Corinthians 1:2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

II Corinthians 1:3 *Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all consolation,

Ephesians 1:3.; 1 Peter 1:3.
II Corinthians 1:4 Who comforteth us in all our tribulation: that we also may be able to comfort them who are in all distress, by the exhortation wherewith we also are exhorted by God.

Wherewith we also are exhorted by God. The Latin interpreter sometimes translates the same Greek word by exhorted, sometimes by comforted: so the sense may be, with which we are comforted by God. (Witham) --- St. Paul knew that his former letter had afflicted them exceedingly; here he comforts them by telling them that God had filled him with consolation in order to comfort them. The Greek rather signifies, by the consolation with which we are comforted. Either explanation is sufficiently clear, though the latter is stronger. We may here remark the great tenderness St. Paul had for the Corinthians, since he here insinuates that he had received comfort from God merely to communicate it to them. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 1:5 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us: so also by Christ doth our comfort abound.

St. Paul here styles his own sufferings, the suffering of Christ, to shew that Christ takes part, and suffers in all his members. (St. Chrysostom) --- Though it is generally understood to signify the sufferings undergone for Christ. (Estius) --- If we consider the very intimate union that exists between Jesus Christ, who is the head, and every one of the living members of his body, that is, the Church, that whatever any one suffers, for the cause of truth, Christ is said to suffer, as the Lord said to Saul, why persecutest thou me? and that whatever is given to any indigent brother in the name of a disciple, Christ receives as given to himself, can we want any further proof of the excellence and power of good works, which begin and terminate in charity? (Haydock)
II Corinthians 1:6 Now whether we be in tribulation, for your exhortation and salvation: or whether we be comforted, for your consolation: or whether we be exhorted, for your exhortation and salvation, which worketh the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer.

Or whether we be exhorted,{ Ver. 6. In the Greek we only read, eite de thlibometha, uper tes umon paraklesewos, kai soterias, tes energoumenes en upomone ton auton pathematon, on kai emeis paschomen eite parakaloumetha, uper tes umon parakleseos kai soterias.|} for your exhortation and salvation. These words are not in the present Greek copies; the omission is not of moment, being in a manner a repetition of what is in the same verse: the sense is, that this happens to us for your instruction, and that you may be exhorted, or comforted by our example. This is also signified by the following words, which makes you bear (literally, which worketh the enduring) the like tribulations, as we suffer. (Witham) --- Whatever happens to us, it will always be to your advantage. And certainly it is the greatest comfort when the faithful are in affliction, to see their pastors preaching and planting the faith of Christ, in the midst of afflictions and persecutions. This gives them the greatest courage to bear patiently all adversity, being convinced after the example of their divine master, that by many tribulations we are to enter into the kingdom of heaven. (Cajetan)
II Corinthians 1:7 That our hope for you may be steadfast: knowing that as you are partakers of the sufferings, so shall you be also of the consolation.

II Corinthians 1:8 For we would not have you ignorant, brethren, of our tribulation, which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure above our strength, so that we were weary even of life.

That we were weary even of life.{ Ver. 8. Ita ut taederet nos etiam vivere, oste exaporethenai. See St. Chrysostom, om. b. p. 550.|} The Greek seems to imply the condition of one, who knows not what way to turn himself, seeing no prospect to avoid the dangers. (Witham) --- The sufferings which we underwent in Asia were so great, that we despaired of escaping even with our life. We were in daily expectation of death; like the criminal, who has been condemned to death, we had no hopes of escaping, but we trusted in God, who has delivered us from all danger, by your intercession, ver. 11. He alludes to the tumult raised at Ephesus, and other afflictions which befell him on that account, which, though not mentioned in the Acts, (Acts 19:24[29?], etc.) were of such a nature as to make him weary of life. (St. Chrysostom)
II Corinthians 1:9 But we had in ourselves the answer of death, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God, who raiseth the dead:

The sentence. Literally, the answer of death, by which death seemed unavoidable; and this God permitted to teach us not to trust, or confide, in ourselves, but in him only, etc. (Witham)
II Corinthians 1:10 Who hath delivered, and doth deliver us out of so great dangers: in whom we hope that he will yet also deliver us,

II Corinthians 1:11 You also helping in prayer for us: that for this gift obtained for us, by many persons, thanks may be given by many in our behalf.

That for this gift,{ Ver. 11. Ut ex multorum personis, ejus, quae in nobis est donationis, per multos gratiae agantur pro nobis. The Greek is clearer, ina ek pollon prosopo, ton eis emas charisma, dia pollon eucharistethe uper emon.|} or favour, obtained for us by many persons, etc. The words and construction are obscure, both in the Latin and Greek. It would seem a tautology if translated, that by many persons thanks may be rendered by many. Therefore the sense must be, that God must now be thanked by many persons for the benefit in preserving my life, and hearing the prayers of many persons, who before had prayed for my life. (Witham) --- St. Paul in soliciting the prayers of the Corinthians, did not suppose that this was derogatory to Christ's mediation, nor to the hope he had in God. And can it be more dishonourable to God to solicit the aid of saints in heaven than of sinners on earth? Or is it to be supposed, asks St. Jerome, that the intercession of our fellow-men beneath, is more available with God, than the prayers of those, who enjoy the beatific vision above. (Cont. Vigil.)
II Corinthians 1:12 For our glory is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity of heart and sincerity of God, and not in carnal wisdom, but in the grace of God, we have conversed in this world: and more abundantly towards you.

And sincerity of God,{ Ver. 12. Sinceritate Dei, eilikrineia Theou, so montes Dei, that is magni.|} which, according to the style of the Scriptures, seems the same as in great sincerity. --- In the grace of God. and more abundantly towards you: the sense seems to be, that God had wrought more wonders and miracles by him for their conversion, than in other places. (Witham) --- The apostle here indirectly attacks the false teachers, by saying that his doctrine was always the same, in one continued path of sincerity, and that he made no use of the wisdom of this world, like those false doctors, whose whole design was to insinuate themselves into the affections of the Corinthians by speaking what they knew would be agreeable to them. (Estius) --- He declares that the subject of his glory was, the testimony his own conscience afforded him of having uniformly acted in their regard with sincerity and truth.
II Corinthians 1:13 For we write no other things to you, than what you have read and known. And I hope that you shall know unto the end:

What you have read, in my former letter, or letters, and known by my preaching: this he says, to clear himself from the accusation of his adversaries, that his words, preaching, and promises were not to be regarded, saying different things at different times, and promising to come to them, which he had not done. (Witham)
II Corinthians 1:14 As also you have known us in part, that we are your glory, as you also are ours on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

II Corinthians 1:15 And in this confidence I had a mind to come to you before, that you might have a second favour:

II Corinthians 1:16 And to pass by you into Macedonia, and again from Macedonia to come to you, and by you to be brought on my way towards Judea.

II Corinthians 1:17 When, therefore, I had a mind to do this, did I use levity? Or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that there should be with me, It is, and It is not.

When, therefore, I had a mind, and purposed to come to you, did I use levity? was it an effect of levity, of a fickle mind, and of a want of sincerity? or do I purpose and promise things according to the flesh, to human motives and interest, which make me say, and unsay again, so that in me is yes and no? (Witham)
II Corinthians 1:18 But God is faithful, for our preaching which was to you, was not, It is, and It is not.

But God is faithful: The sense seems to be, as God is faithful, or I appeal to God, who is faithful, that in what I have preached to you, there is not yes and no; my doctrine concerning the faith in Jesus Christ, is and was always the same. Whether I, or Silvanus, or Timothy preached the Son of God, that is, what we taught concerning the Son of God, was not yes and no, was not first one thing, and then another; but in him was yes only, that is, in him, and his doctrine, which we have taught, all is yes, firm, and unchangeable. --- And all the promises of God, of sanctification and salvation, made to us in him, by his merits and grace, are equally yes, certain, and infallible; and therefore by him, and his promises are Amen to God, must needs be true, unto our glory, will turn to the salvation and glory of his elect in heaven. (Witham)
II Corinthians 1:19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, by me, and Sylvanus, and Timothy, was not, It is, and It is not, but, It is, was in him.

It is, was in him. There was no inconstancy in the doctrine of the apostles, sometimes, like modern sectaries, saying, It is, and at other times saying, It is not. But their doctrine was ever the same, one uniform yea, in Jesus Christ, one Amen, that is, one truth in him. (Challoner)
II Corinthians 1:20 For all the promises of God are in him, It is: therefore also by him, Amen to God, unto our glory.

The doctrine which the apostle delivered to them was not ambiguous, doubtful, or contradictory, first one thing, then another; on the contrary, it was such, that the apostle could say, (ver. 14.) we are your glory. --- Amen. All the promises made by God, with regard to Christ, are fulfilled in him; therefore we may say Amen, and give glory to God, through Jesus Christ, who hath fulfilled all his promises. (Calmet) --- One of the distinctive marks, as the holy fathers affirm, between separatists and Catholics is; the former are fond of innovation, changes, and reform, the latter are scrupulously tenacious of what has been delivered from the beginning. See St. Irenaeus, lib. 1:chap. 18.; Tertullian, de praescript.; St. Basil, ep. 12. Vine: Lyr. See also Les Variations, by Bossuet.
II Corinthians 1:21 Now he that confirmeth us with you in Christ, and he that hath anointed us, is God:

\f + \fr 1:21-22\ft This must needs be true, because he is God, who hath confirmed us with you, both us and you in Christ, in the faith, and grace of Christ crucified, who hath anointed us with divine graces, who hath sealed us, as it were, by an indelible character, in the sacraments of baptism, and confirmation, and ordination, when we were made ministers of Christ, who in this manner hath given the pledge { Ver. 22. Pignus spiritus, ton arrabona. That by receiving the earnest, says St. Chrysostom, p. 662, you may be assured to receive the whole.|} of his holy Spirit in our hearts, a sufficient pledge and earnest of his graces in this life, and of the glory he has prepared for us in the next. (Witham) --- By these texts, and Ephesians iv., the Catholic Church teaches, that we are anointed and consecrated to the service of God, and sealed with a spiritual and distinctive mark, called by divines, a character, (see St. Jerome in Ephesians iv.; St. Cyril, cateches. 17.) which, as it is indelible, can never be iterated. The same is true of confirmation, and holy orders. See St. Augustine, cont. Parm. ch. XIII. et Conc. Tarrac. ch. VI.
II Corinthians 1:22 Who also hath sealed us, and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts.

II Corinthians 1:23 But I call God to witness upon my soul, that to spare you, I came not any more to Corinth: not because we lord it over your faith: but we are helpers of your joy: for in faith you stand.

Now as to my not coming to you, I call God to witness, that I only deferred my coming out of kindness to you, and that I came not hitherto to Corinth, to spare you, when by reason of the disorders among you, I must have been forced to use severities against those who were not yet reformed. --- Not that we lord it over your faith, nor desire to treat God's faithful with severity, or by shewing the power that God hath given us: but we rather desire to be helpers and promoters of your joy, that we may rejoice together with you in God. And now I have this greatest comfort to hear that you stand steadfast and firm in the faith of Christ. (Witham)
II Corinthians 2:0 He grants a pardon to the incestuous man, upon his doing penance.

II Corinthians 2:1 But I determined this with myself, that I would not to come to you again in sorrow:

St. Paul continues to justify his not coming to them as he promised. He told them that he did not wish to domineer over their faith, but that his whole design was to contribute to their joy, and that he did not wish to visit them as long as any thing remained worthy of correction, lest his presence should only increase their sorrow. And if in his former epistle he made use of strong expressions, it was not through any design to make them sad, but merely to correct them, by which he manifested his great charity for them. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 2:2 For if I make you sorrowful, who is he then that should make me glad, but he who is made sorrowful by me?

Who is he that should make me glad? etc. The sense is to be gathered from the circumstances. He speaks of the Corinthian guilty of incest, whom he brought to sorrow and repentance, by excommunicating him in his former epistle, and now St. Paul rejoiceth at his conversion. (Witham) --- The meaning of the apostle is, that if I had come to you in order to make you sorrowful, what pleasure could I have derived from your grief, since you are the only persons who can afford me any, the least comfort? What motives could have influenced me to undertake so disagreeable a mission? This is more fully explained in the following verse, which shows this to be the reason why he had written to them. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 2:3 And I wrote this same to you; that I may not, when I come, have sorrow upon sorrow, from them of whom I ought to rejoice: having confidence in you all that my joy is that of you all.

II Corinthians 2:4 For out of much affliction, and anguish of heart, I wrote to you with many tears: not that you should be made sorrowful, but that you might know the charity I have more abundantly towards you.

II Corinthians 2:5 And if any one have caused grief, he hath not grieved me, but in part, that I may not burden you all.

And if any one (he means the same incestuous man) hath caused grief, or caused me to grieve, he hath not grieved me, that is, not me only, but all the virtuous Christians at Corinth: but in part, that I may not charge you all with this fault. The sense seems to be, but in part, that is, it was only one man, and some that joined with him, by showing themselves unconcerned for his scandalous crime, so that I do not blame the rest: or as it was but in part, that is, it was only a passing trouble for a little time, since by admonitions and severities, he soon repented. (Witham) --- When last I wrote to you, I was in great anguish on account of the crime of the incestuous man; but my grief was moderated by the consideration of the behaviour of the rest of the Church of Corinth, which had remained steadfast in faith and virtue. (St. Gregory and St. Augustine) --- It is not the whole Church of Corinth that has caused me this grief, but only one of you: I say this, that you may not believe that I wished to charge you all with this crime. (Grotius)
II Corinthians 2:6 To him who is such a one, this rebuke is sufficient, which is given by many:

This rebuke already given him, may suffice, and I would have you pardon and comfort him, lest he be overwhelmed, and as it were swallowed up{ Ver. 7. Ne forte....absorbeatur, katapothe, absorbeatur, deglutiatur.|} and devoured by and excess of grief, so that by the artifices of Satan, which we are acquainted with, it turn to his greater prejudice. I wrote, and proceeded in that manner, to know by experience, how far you are obedient to me, and to the ministers of Christ. (Witham)
II Corinthians 2:7 So that on the contrary you should rather forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow.

II Corinthians 2:8 Wherefore I beseech you, that you would confirm your charity towards him.

II Corinthians 2:9 For to this end also did I write, that I might know the experiment of you, whether you be obedient in all things.

This was another reason why I wrote my former letter to you, viz. to try your obedience, and your attachment to the faith, and that I might know whether the difference of opinion which prevailed among you had prevented you from being obedient. (Calmet) --- Others explain it thus: I have written this second letter to you to try your obedience, and to know if you will pay the same obedience to my orders, when I tell you to receive the incestuous man into your communion, as you did when I told you to separate him from your communion. (Estius and Theodoret)
II Corinthians 2:10 And to whom you have forgiven any thing, I also: for, what I forgave, if I have forgiven any thing, it was for your sakes in the person of Christ,

I also. The apostle here granted an indulgence, or pardon, in the person, and by the authority of Christ, to the incestuous Corinthian, whom before he had put under penance: which pardon consisted in a releasing of part of the temporal punishment due to his sin. (Challoner) --- Now as you have pardoned him by my instructions, and have received him again into your communion, I also pardon{ Ver. 10. In persona Christi, en prosopo Christou, [not only before Christ] and St. Chrysostom says, os tou Christou keleuontos. Christo jubente, though he had not done sufficient penance, nor deserved it: ou gar epeide axios esti, oude epeide archousan metanoian epedeixato.|} him, and confirm what you have done, for your sake, as well as for his, and dispense with any further severities of a longer penance, which he deserved. (St. Chrysostom) And I do this in the person of Christ, by that power and authority derived from Christ, which he left to his apostles, when he said, (Matthew 18:18.) whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed in heaven, etc. not only in the sight of men, says St. Chrysostom, but in the sight of God, who hath given us this power. (Witham)
II Corinthians 2:11 That we may not be circumvented by Satan: for we are not ignorant of his devices.

In the name and in the person of Christ, I ordered him to be excommunicated; in the same, I order him now to be re-admitted into your communion, and this for your sake. We ought to take care that the remedies we employ, do not give occasion to the triumphs of Satan, by throwing the patient into despair, on account of our too great severity. (St. Ambrose) --- The Greek may be translated: that we may not fall into the power of Satan, on account of our too great severity. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 2:12 And when I was come to Troas, for the gospel of Christ, and a door was opened to me in the Lord,

etc. When I was come to Troas....and a door was opened to me, towards promoting the gospel, which I never neglect, yet I had no rest in my spirit; I remained still in a great concern for you, not meeting with Titus, from whom I expected with impatience to hear how all things went with you at Corinth: I went on, therefore, bidding them farewell at that time, and deferred the good I might do by a longer stay with them till another time. (Witham) --- Troas is the same town as the ancient Troy or Ilium, famous for its ten years' siege, when it was destroyed by the Greeks in the year 1184, B. Christ [1184 B.C.]. (Estius) --- Here, though there was a great promise of abundant fruit, St. Paul's solicitude to meet Titus, that he might learn from him the effect of his letter, made him depart from Macedonia, where he had much to suffer. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 2:13 I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not Titus, my brother, but bidding them farewell, I went into Macedonia.

II Corinthians 2:14 Now thanks be to God, who always causeth us to triumph in Christ Jesus, and maketh manifest the odour of his knowledge by us in every place.

Thanks be to God, who always causeth us to triumph by his grace, so that we every where make manifest the odour of his knowledge, making God known and worshipped, and instructing the people in the faith of Christ, to the advantage and eternal good of those who hearken to us, and are saved; but to the greater condemnation of those, who after they have heard of the truth, by their own fault remain obstinate: so that the preaching of the gospel is to some the odour of death unto death, when they remain dead in their sins, they incur an eternal death: and to them who are converted, the odour of life unto life; they receive the spiritual life of grace in their souls in this world, and an eternal life in the next. (Witham)
II Corinthians 2:15 For we are unto God the good odour of Christ in them who are saved, and in them who perish.

II Corinthians 2:16 To some, indeed the odour of death unto death: but to the others, the odour of life unto life. And for these things who is so sufficient?

The odour of death, etc. The preaching of the apostle, which by its fragrant odour brought many to life, was to others, through their own fault, the occasion of death; by their wilfully opposing and resisting that divine call. (Challoner) --- And for these things who is so sufficient,{ Ver. 16. Et ad haec quis tam idoneus? but in the Greek without tam; kai pros tauta tis ikanos.|} as we whom Christ hath chosen to be the ministers of his gospel? In the Greek copies and in St. Chrysostom, we only read, who is fit? as if he said, who is fit to discharge this great duty, without the continual assistance of God's grace? The reading of the Latin Vulgate seems to agree better with the following verse of the next chapter, when he answers their objection, Do we then begin again to commend ourselves? (Witham) --- Who are so fit as we who are chosen by God to fulfil his ministry? If God had not chosen us, how should we have been able to acquit ourselves of so arduous an undertaking? for we did not intrude or thrust ourselves into this ministry. (Calmet) ---Though it is not so difficult for those to preach the gospel who corrupt its doctrines, who weaken its truths, who disguise its obligations, and who mix the word of God with human inventions in order to be more esteemed, or for the sake of filthy lucre, like those who mix and adulterate their wines, in order to be the greater gainers. (St. Chrysostom) --- But we preach the word in all sincerity, as on the part of God, in the presence of God, and in the Spirit and person of Jesus Christ. (Bible de Vence) --- In this grand work all may justly tremble, for who is fit? as we read in the Greek.
II Corinthians 2:17 For we are not as many adulterating the word of God, but with sincerity, but as from God, in the sight of God, we speak in Christ.

We are not as many false doctors and preachers, who adulterate{ Ver. 17. Adulterantes, kapeleuontes, cauponantes; upon which St. Chrysostom, p. 576, otan tis notheue ton oinon.|} the word of God, by mixing human doctrine, to be more esteemed, or for gain-sake. The expression is metaphorical, from the custom of those who mix and adulterate wines, says St. Chrysostom, for their greater gain and advantage. (Witham)
II Corinthians 3:0 He needs no commendatory letters. The glory of the ministry of the New Testament.

II Corinthians 3:1 Do we begin again to commend ourselves? Or do we need (as some do) epistles of commendation to you, or from you?

The apostle had been obliged, in different parts of his first epistle, to say some things to his own advantage, in order to maintain the dignity of his ministry against false teachers, who had endeavoured to lessen his authority. He is again obliged to shew the excellency of his ministry, and the superiority of the gospel over the law of Moses. (Theodoret) --- We have not need, he says, of commendatory letters, like those false teachers: we have only to say that we founded the Church of Corinth, and we shall be sufficiently known. Your religion, your piety, and your virtues are renowned in the whole world. (ver. 2.) This is our letter: we have no need to speak: the effects speak for themselves. But still this is not our doing; for we are not sufficient to think any thing of ourselves. (ver. 5.) This letter is not of our writing; we could only do the same as Moses in the old law, prepare the tables, (ministered by us) it was God himself that wrote the ten commandments, and it is God himself that has written this our letter, by implanting his faith in your hearts. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 3:2 You are our epistle, written in our hearts, which is known and read by all men:

You are our epistle, better, and of greater force, than any commendatory epistle, written and engraven in my heart, by the love and affection I bear you. You may also be looked upon as the epistle of Christ, because of your zeal for the Christian religion, written upon the soft and fleshy tables of your tender affections, with which you have received, and kept his precepts; and not like the precepts of the law, which were engraven on tables of stone, which the hard-hearted Jews did not keep. (Witham)
II Corinthians 3:3 You being made manifest, that you are the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, and written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God: not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart.

Though the Scriptures be of the Holy Ghost, the proper book of Christ's doctrine is in the hearts of the faithful, the true mansions of the holy Spirit. Hence St. Irenaeus says: "If the apostles had left no writings, ought we not to follow the order of tradition they delivered to the persons to whom they committed the Churches? How many barbarous nations have received and practised the faith without any thing written in ink and paper? (lib. 3:chap. 4.)
II Corinthians 3:4 And such confidence we have, through Christ, towards God:

II Corinthians 3:5 Not that we are sufficient to think any thing of ourselves, as of ourselves: but our sufficiency is from God:

\f + \fr 3:5-6\ft To think any thing of ourselves, that may deserve a reward in heaven. --- But Christ hath made us fit ministers of his New Testament by the Spirit: for the letter of the Old Testament killeth, but the Spirit of the New Testament giveth life. (Witham) --- The letter. Not rightly understood, and taken without the spirit. (Challoner) --- This verse, (6th) refers to that in the last chapter, where he says: And for these things who is so fit? Who is so capable of such a ministry? It is God alone who gives us strength, light and grace. I am far from giving a part only to God, and a part to myself. It all exclusively belongs to him. (St. Chrysostom)
II Corinthians 3:6 Who also hath made us fit ministers of the new testament: not in the letter, but in the Spirit: for the letter killeth: but the Spirit giveth life.

II Corinthians 3:7 Now if the ministration of death, engraven with letters upon stones, was glorious; so that the children of Israel could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which is done away:

Now if the ministration of death: he meaneth the former{ Ver. 7. Ministratio mortis, diakonia thanatou. Thus, says St. Chrysostom, he calls the law, ton nomon legei. p. 584.|} law, which by giving them a greater knowledge, and not giving graces of itself to fulfil those precepts, occasioned death, was notwithstanding glorious, accompanied with miracles on Mount Sinai, and so that the Israelites, when Moses came down from the mountain, could not bear the glory of his countenance, which he was forced to cover with a veil, when he spoke to them. Shall not the ministration of the Spirit in the new law, which worketh our sanctification and salvation, abound with much greater glory? especially since the old law was to be made void, and pass away. --- Neither was that glorified, or to be esteemed glorious, in comparison of the new law, the blessings of the new so far surpassing those of the old law. (Witham) --- If the law of Moses, written on tables of stone, which was only able to cause death, inasmuch as it gave us light sufficient to know what was right, though it did not give us strength or graces to comply with the obligations imposed by it; if this law, nevertheless, was accompanied with so much glory, that Moses was obliged to put a veil over his face, what must we think of the ministry of the Spirit, and of the glorious duties of the apostleship? How ought our glory to be manifest, and who is fit for such an undertaking. If I thus extol the excellency of my ministry, do not imagine that I attribute any thing to myself. I am unworthy of this office, which so far surpasseth that of Moses, that his glory (ver. 10.) could not be truly called glory, when compared with this of ours, which so far excelleth his. (Calmet) --- The letter of the New Testament also, not truly taken or expounded by the Spirit of God, which is in his Church, must in the same manner be said to kill. See St. Augustine, serm. 70. et 100. de tempore. et L. de spirt. et lit. 2 Corinthians 5. 6. et dein.
II Corinthians 3:8 How shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather in glory?

II Corinthians 3:9 For if the ministration of condemnation be glory: much more the ministration of justice aboundeth in glory?

II Corinthians 3:10 For even that which was glorious in this part was not glorified, by reason of the glory that excelleth.

II Corinthians 3:11 For if that which is done away, was glorious: much more that which remaineth is in glory.

II Corinthians 3:12 Having, therefore, such hope, we use much confidence:

Having therefore such hope, we use much confidence and assurance, and need not conceal God's promises, nor put a veil over our face, as Moses did, the children of Israel not being able to look on the face{ Ver. 12. In faciem ejus quod evacuatur; but the common Greek copies, and also St. Chrysostom, eis to telos, in finem.|} of that which is made void, meaning on that passing glory of Moses, to whom the law was given, and of that law, and all that belonged to it, which was only to last till the coming of Christ, and which is now made void. The reading of the ordinary Greek is now different, viz. that they looked not on the end of that which is now made void, meaning by the end, on Christ, who was the end of the law, which now by his coming is abolished and made void, as it was always designed to be. (Witham)
II Corinthians 3:13 *And not as Moses put a veil over his face, that the children of Israel might not steadfastly look on the face of that which is made void,

Exodus 34:35.
The apostle here informs the Corinthians that the apostles speak with confidence, without any veil, discovering to men mysteries hidden from the foundation of the world; not like Moses, who put a veil on his face that the Israelites might not look steadfastly, or might not discover the weakness and short duration of the law, which was represented by the light that surrounded his face, and which quickly passed away. St. Paul here gives the allegorical explanation of the light and veil on the face of Moses. (Estius)
II Corinthians 3:14 But their senses were made dull. For, until this present day, the self-same veil, in the reading of the old testament, remaineth not taken away, (because in Christ it is done away.)

\f + \fr 3:14-15\ft But the senses and minds of the Jews have been dulled, hardened, and blinded, so that to this day we may say the veil remains over their eyes and minds, and hearts; that is, the greatest part of them understand not Moses' books, prophecies, and those things that were figures of Christ. But they shall understand them, and the veil shall be taken off, when they shall be converted before the end of the world. (Witham)
II Corinthians 3:15 But even until this day when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart.

II Corinthians 3:16 But when they shall be converted to the Lord, the veil shall be taken away.

II Corinthians 3:17 *Now the Lord is a Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.

John 4:24.
Now the Lord is a Spirit. Many expound it, the Spirit is the Lord. And where this Lord and this Spirit is, there is liberty; that is by this Spirit, they who are sanctified are freed from the slavery of sin and the devil. (Witham) --- We must recollect what he had said before, that the letter killeth and that the Spirit giveth life; that by the Spirit was meant the gospel, and by the letter was meant the law of Moses. Here he says that God is the Spirit, in opposition to the law of Moses; that he is the Author of the liberty of the children of God, in the new law; that in the new law are found the true adorers in spirit and truth, in opposition to the spirit of servitude which animated the Jews. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 3:18 But we all, beholding the glory of the Lord with face uncovered, are transformed into the same image from glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord.

We all, beholding,{ Ver. 18. St. Augustine, de gloria fidei in gloriam speciei, de gloria, qua Filii Dei sumus, in gloriam, qua similes ei erimus, quoniam videbimus eum sicuti est.|} etc. that is we who have been called to the faith of Christ, have received a greater knowledge; and we hope and believe to be hereafter transformed into the same image, and to be in some measure like unto God, whom we shall see and enjoy, when we pass from the less glory of grace and sanctification in this life, which is the seed of glory, to the state of a more perfect glory and happiness in heaven, says St. Augustine. (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:0 The sincerity of his preaching: his comfort in his afflictions.

II Corinthians 4:1 Therefore, seeing we have the ministration, according as we have obtained mercy, we faint not.

The apostle, having in the last chapter shewn the excellence of his ministry above that of the law, proceeds to inform them of his own labours, etc. in order to destroy the credit which the false teachers had acquired amongst the Corinthians, and to caution them against any attempts that these teachers might make to destroy what had caused St. Paul so much trouble to effect. But he still refers all to God. As for these false teachers, what Churches had they founded? what persecutions have they endured? (Calmet)
II Corinthians 4:2 But we renounce the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor adulterating the word of God, but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man's conscience, in the sight of God.

II Corinthians 4:3 And if our gospel be also hidden, it is hidden to them who perish:

The apostle here brings another proof of the sincerity of his preaching, viz. the success with which it is attended: And he says, if there be any who have not yet received it, that is their own fault. For had they been as eager to receive it, as we have been to announce it to them, the whole world had[would have?] long since been converted. (Theodoret)
II Corinthians 4:4 In whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of unbelievers, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not shine unto them.

In whom the God of this world hath blinded the minds of unbelievers.{ Ver. 4. In quibus Deus hujus saeculi excaecavit mentes infidelium, en ois o Theos tou aionos toutou etuphlose ta noemata ton apiston. St. Chrysostom, om. e. p. 594. lin. 11. says, it should be read thus: anagnosteon, oti ton apiston tou aionos toutou, etuphlosen o theos [] oemata.|} Thus the words are placed, both in the Latin and Greek text, so that the true God seems to be called the God of this world, as he is elsewhere called the God of heaven, the God of Abraham. God, says St. Chrysostom, blinded, that is, permitted them to be blinded. Others translate, in whom God hat blinded the minds of the infidels of this world; so that this world may be joined with unbelievers, and not with God: and by the God of this world, some understand the devil, called sometimes the prince of this world, that is, of the wicked. (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:5 For we preach not ourselves, but Jesus Christ, our Lord: and ourselves, your servants, through Jesus.

II Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, in the face of Christ Jesus.

The light to shine out of darkness. He alludes to what is related at the first creation, when God divided the light from darkness. (Genesis 1:4.) --- In the face of Christ Jesus, which may signify in the person of Christ, who was the true light enlightening every man, that comes into this world. (John 1:9.) (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:7 But we have this treasure in earthen vessels: that the excellency may be of the power of God, and not of us.

II Corinthians 4:8 In all things we suffer tribulation, but are not distressed: we are straitened, but are not destitute:

We are straitened.{ Ver. 8. Aporiamur, aporoumenoi, from a and poros, transitus. See Mr. Legh.|} This, by the Greek, seems the sense of the Latin word, which is taken to signify, one perplexed, and in a doubt. See John 13:22.; Acts 25:20.; Galatians 4:20. (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:9 We suffer persecution, but are not forsaken: we are cast down, but we perish not:

II Corinthians 4:10 Always bearing about in our body the dying of Jesus, that the life also of Jesus may be made manifest in our bodies.

That the life also of Jesus may be made manifest in our bodies, when we suffer, and undertake voluntary sufferings for his sake. (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:11 For we who live, are always delivered unto death for Jesus' sake: that the life also of Jesus may be made manifest in our mortal flesh.

II Corinthians 4:12 So then death worketh in us, but life in you.

Death worketh in us, when we are under persecutions, and dangers of death, and life in you, who live in ease and plenty. (Witham) --- The preaching of the gospel, which we undertake in such a disinterested manner, and which exposes us to so many dangers, is the cause of death to us, but of life to you. It draws down upon us a thousand dangers and disgraces; but procures you all kinds of advantages. You tranquilly enjoy the fruit of our labour, though we do not envy you this happiness, because we hope one day to enjoy the reward of our labours. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 4:13 But having the same spirit of faith, as it is written: *I have believed, therefore I have spoken: we also believe, and therefore we speak:

Psalm 115:10.
We also believe, etc. That is, we have the like faith as David, when he spoke in that manner; we hope and believe, God will deliver us, or at least raise us up from the dead with Jesus. (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:14 Knowing that he who raised up Jesus, will raise us up also with Jesus, and place us with you.

II Corinthians 4:15 For all things are for your sakes: that the grace abounding through many, may abound in thanksgiving to the glory of God.

etc. For all things, that we suffer, are for your sakes, that many may be brought to give thanks, and to praise God for eternity. This encourages us not to fail, nor faint in the cause of God, under these momentary and light tribulations, which mark in us above measure, an exceeding and eternal weight of glory. See the Greek text. (Witham)
II Corinthians 4:16 For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man is corrupted: yet the inward man is renewed day by day.

II Corinthians 4:17 For our present tribulation, which is momentary and light, worketh for us above measure exceedingly an eternal weight of glory.

Worketh. In the Greek, katergazetai, which the English Bible of the year 1577 falsely renders by prepareth, unwilling to allow, with the apostle, that tribulation worketh eternal glory. The ardour with which the apostle speaks is sufficient to inspire the most timid with courage. A life full of crosses, labours, persecutions, injuries, etc. he calls momentary and light, if compared with the eternal, immense, and incomprehensible glory prepared for us. (St. Augustine) --- All earthly substance, compared with the happiness of heaven, is rather a loss than a gain. This life, when put in comparison with that to come, is rather a death than life. (St. Gregory in Evangel.)
II Corinthians 4:18 While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen. For the things which are seen, are temporal: but the things which are not seen, are eternal.

II Corinthians 5:0 He is willing to leave his earthly mansion, to be with the Lord. His charity for the Corinthians.

II Corinthians 5:1 For we know that if our earthly house of this habitation be dissolved, that we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in heaven.

Of this habitation.{ Ver. 1. Habitationis, tou skenous.|} In the Greek, of this tabernacle; that is of the body. St. Chrysostom takes notice that a tabernacle, or tent, is not to dwell in for a long time, but only to lodge in for a while, as this life is short; but the building God has prepared for his elect in heaven, is for eternity. (Witham) --- But, although the hopes of possessing this eternal mansion consoles us interiorly, and supports us under the pressure of evil, the obligation we have of purchasing it, even at the expense of our lives, does not fail to afflict us. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 5:2 For in this also we groan, desiring to be clothed over with our habitation, which is from heaven.

To be clothed over, signifying the natural desire men have not to die, but to be changed without dying to a happy state in heaven. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:3 *If so that we may be found clothed, not naked.

Apocalypse 16:15.
That we may be found clothed, not naked,{ Ver. 3. Si tamen vestiti, non nudi inveniamur, eige kai endusamenoi: some read, ekdusamenoi. See St. Chrysostom.|} not divested of the body, as before; that is we desire immortal happiness without dying: though some expound it, not naked; that is not deprived of the glory we hope for. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:4 For we also, who are in this tabernacle, do groan, being burthened: because we would not be unclothed, but clothed over, that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.

II Corinthians 5:5 Now he that maketh us for this very thing, is God, who hath given us the pledge, of the Spirit.

He that maketh us for this very thing, (literally, to this same thing ) is God, who created us to be eternally happy, who hath given us the earnest of the Spirit. See 2 Corinthians 1:ver. 22. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:6 Therefore, having always confidence, knowing that, while we are in the body, we are absent from the Lord:

We are absent from the Lord, and as it were pilgrims. He compares the condition of men in this mortal life with that of pilgrims far from their own beloved country, yet with hopes to arrive there, which makes them willing to undergo dangers, and makes Christians even resigned to death, to a separation of the body from the soul, that they may be present with the Lord, and enjoy him. But let every one reflect that he must be judged, and receive a reward or punishment according to his works. (ver. 10.) (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:7 (For we walk by faith, and not by sight)

It is only by faith we now walk in this foreign land towards God; we do not as yet feast on Him by any clear view. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 5:8 We are confident, and have a good will to be absent rather from the body, and to be present with the Lord.

II Corinthians 5:9 And therefore we labour, whether absent or present, to please him.

II Corinthians 5:10 *For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the proper things of the body, according as he hath done, whether it be good or evil.

Romans 14:10.
II Corinthians 5:11 Knowing, therefore, the fear of the Lord, we persuade men: but to God we are manifest. And I trust also that in your consciences we are manifest.

Knowing, therefore, the fear of the Lord, and how dreadful a thing it is to appear at his tribunal, we endeavour to exhort men to fear and to worship him: and this intention is made known to God, who sees our heart: and I hope our sincere manner of asking and preaching is also known to your consciences. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:12 We commend not ourselves again to you, but give you occasion to glory in our behalf: that you may have somewhat to answer them who glory in face, and not in heart.

We commend not, nor desire to commend ourselves, but they who may do harm to others, and to the progress of the gospel, make it necessary to speak what may give you an occasion to answer their objections, and even to glory in my behalf against those who glory in face, in outward appearances of learning and talents, but not in heart, being sensible themselves that they have no solid grounds of boasting in this manner. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:13 For whether we be transported in mind, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for you.

For whether we be transported in mind, and out of zeal for the good of others seem to exceed in speaking of ourselves, it is to God, for God's honour and that of his ministers: or whether we be more moderate,{ Ver. 13. Sive enim mente excedimus, Deo, sive sobrii sumus, vobis, eite gar exestemen, theo eite sophronoumen, umin. See Annotation on Mark III. 21. p. 147.|} (literally, sober ) that is, if I speak not, even what with truth I might, of my own actions, it is to you, to give you an example of modesty and humility.
II Corinthians 5:14 For the charity of Christ presseth us: judging this, that if one died for all, then all were dead.

For the charity of Christ, the love of God, the love that Christ has shewn to me and all mankind, and a return of love due to him, presseth me on, is the motive of all that I do; because I consider that if one, our Redeemer Christ Jesus, died for all, then all were dead, and had been lost in their sins, had not Christ come to redeem us. Thus St. Augustine in many places, proving original sin against the Pelagians. Divers interpreters add this exposition, therefore all are dead; that is, ought to die, and by a new life look upon themselves as dead to sin, which is connected with what follows in the next verse. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:15 And Christ died for all: that they also, who live, may not now live to themselves, but to him, who died for them, and rose again.

And Christ died for all, (not only for the predestinate or the elect) that they also, who live, may not now live to themselves; that they may not follow their own inclinations of their nature, corrupted by sin, but may seek in all things the will of Christ, their Redeemer, their Lord, to whom they belong, who died and rose again for them. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:16 Wherefore, henceforth we know no man according to the flesh. And if we have known Christ according to the flesh: but now we know him so no longer.

Wherefore, henceforth we know no man according to the flesh; that is having our thoughts and hearts fixed upon Christ, as he is risen, and has prepared for us an immortal life, we know not, that is we do not esteem any thing in this mortal life, nor any man according to any human considerations of this life; we regard not whether they are Jews, and the sons of Abraham, or Gentiles; nay, if we have known and esteemed Christ, as descending from Abraham and David, now we know him so no longer, nor consider him as born a mortal man, but as he is risen immortal, and will bless us with an immortal and eternal glory. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:17 If then any be in Christ a new creature: the old things are passed away: *behold all things are made new.

Isaias 43:19.; Apocalypse 21:5.
If then any be in Christ, etc. The sense seems to be, if by believing in Christ we are become as it were new creatures, rescued by his grace and his Spirit, the old things are passed away, we must renounce all former carnal affections, all sin and all errors in which either Jews or Gentiles lived. --- Behold all things are made new: the New Testament succeeds to the Old, the law and doctrine of Christ to the law of Moses, the Christian Church to the Jewish Synagogue, truth and grace to types and figures, etc. (Witham) --- With the renovated Christian all his thoughts, sentiments, inclinations, and actions, are new.
II Corinthians 5:18 But all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself, by Christ: and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation.

But all things (all these blessings of grace and glory) are of God, who hath sent his only divine Son, by whom he hath reconciled us to himself, by his incarnation and death for our redemption. (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:19 For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing to them their sins, and he hath placed in us the word of reconciliation.

Not imputing, that is truly taking away our sins, blotting out the handwriting of the decree which was against us,...fastening it to the cross, as it is said, Colossians 2:14. And to us, who are his apostles and the ministers of his gospel, he hath imparted and committed this word of reconciliation, by the preaching of his doctrine, and the administration of his sacraments, etc. In these functions we act and we speak to you as the ambassadors of Christ; we speak to you in his name, we represent his person, when we exhort you to be reconciled to God. "He that heareth you, heareth me." (Luke 10:16.) (Witham)
II Corinthians 5:20 We are, therefore, ambassadors for Christ, God as it were exhorting by us. For Christ, we beseech you, be ye reconciled to God.

Be not deaf to this voice, harden not your hearts, suffer yourselves to be moved to the charity of God: it is immense, it is infinite. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 5:21 Him, who knew no sin, he hath made sin for us, that we might be made the justice of God in him.

Him (Christ) who knew no sin, (who had never sinned, nor was capable of sinning) he (God) hath made { Ver. 21. Pro nobis peccatum fecit, uper emon amartian epoiesen. See St. Augustine, lib. de pec. Orig. 2 Corinthians 32. serm. 48. de verbis Dei. nunc 134. tom. v. p. 655. and Serm. vi. de verb. Apost. 2 Corinthians 8. Serm. clv. t. 5. p. 745.; Epist. ad Honoratum 120, nunc 140. 2 Corinthians 30. tom. ii. p. 450, etc.|} sin for us. I had translated, with some French translators, he hath made a sacrifice for sin, as it is expounded by St. Augustine and many others, and grounded upon the authority of the Scriptures, in which the sacrifices for sins are divers times called sins, as (Osee 4:8.) and in several places in Leviticus, by the Hebrew word Chattat, which signifies a sin, and is translated a victim for sin. But as this is not the only interpretation, and that my design is always a literal translation of the text, not a paraphrase, upon second thoughts I judged it better to follow the very words of the Greek, as well as of the Latin text. For besides the exposition already mentioned, others expound these words, him he hath made sin for us, to signify that he made Christ like unto sinners, a mortal man, with the similitude of sin. Others that he made he reputed a sinner; with the wicked was he reputed; (Mark 15:28.) God having laid upon him all our iniquities. (Isaias 53:6.) --- That we might be made the justice of God in him; that is, that we might be justified and sanctified by God's sanctifying grace, and the justice we receive from him. (Witham) --- Sin for us. That is, to be a sin-offering, a victim for sin. (Challoner)
II Corinthians 6:0 He exhorts them to a correspondence with God's grace, and not to associate with unbelievers.

II Corinthians 6:1 And we helping, do exhort you, that you receive not the grace of God in vain.

We helping, or in the Greek, working together, that is, with God, as employed by him, or as his ministers, and ambassadors, we exhort you not to receive the grace of God in vain, by resisting his interior graces, by an idle, or a wicked life. (Witham)
II Corinthians 6:2 For he saith: *In an accepted time have I heard thee: and in the day of salvation have I helped thee. Behold, now is the acceptable time: behold, now is the day of salvation.

Isaias 49:8.
Now is the day of salvation, by the coming of your Redeemer. (Witham)
II Corinthians 6:3 *Giving no offence to any one, that our ministry be not blamed.

1 Corinthians 10:32.
In this, and in the following verses, St. Paul shews his anxious solicitude not to give any, the least occasion of scandal, lest some reproach might fall upon the ministry of the gospel: for nothing is more likely to cast a blemish on the sanctity of religion, than the want of conduct in any of its ministers. If what they say be true, why do their own lives correspond so little with what they say. This will be the cry of all libertines. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 6:4 But in all things let us exhibit ourselves *as the ministers of God, in much patience, in tribulation, in necessities, in distresses,

1 Corinthians 4:1.
II Corinthians 6:5 In stripes, in prisons, in seditions, in labours, in watchings, in fastings,

II Corinthians 6:6 In chastity, in knowledge, in long suffering, in sweetness, in the Holy Ghost, in charity unfeigned,

II Corinthians 6:7 In the word of truth, in the power of God: by the armour of justice, on the right hand, and on the left:

II Corinthians 6:8 Through honour, and dishonour, through bad name and good name: as seducers, and yet true: as unknown, and yet known:

The apostles maintained the character, and fulfilled the duties of the ministers of Christ, equally in prosperity and adversity; they continued to speak the truth, though regarded by the Jews as seducers; exposed to all kinds of dangers, they relied on God, who preserved them, though in the midst of dangers, and of death itself. Though they possessed nothing in this world, yet God never permitted them to remain in want: his providence procured for them all things necessary. Though they had nothing in their possession, yet they procured relief for others, by the alms, of which they were made the disposers, though this latter part is generally understood of the spiritual riches, which they bestowed upon their auditors. (Estius)
II Corinthians 6:9 As dying, and behold we live: as chastised, and not killed:

II Corinthians 6:10 As sorrowful, yet always rejoicing: as needy, yet enriching many: as having nothing, and possessing all things.

II Corinthians 6:11 Our mouth is open to you, O ye Corinthians, our heart is enlarged.

etc. Our mouth is open to speak with freedom and confidence. --- Our heart is enlarged, dilated, as it were, with the warmth of love and charity. --- But you are straitened in your own bowels; you have not the like charity and love for me, nor for all your brethren, and for all mankind, etc. (Witham) --- The apostle here complains, that the Corinthians have not the same affection for him, which he has for them: as if he should say, however enlarged your heart may be, through the love you have for me, it can never equal the ardour of my love for you. He alludes to those who followed some false teachers, of whom he says a little after: Though I love you more, I am less loved. --- But having the same recompense, by a just return have the same affection for me, as I have for you. (St. Chrysostom) --- Let your heart be dilated for me, and receive the advice I give you as coming from a father, who most tenderly loves his children. (Haydock)
II Corinthians 6:12 You are not straitened in us: but in your own bowels you are straitened:

II Corinthians 6:13 But having the same recompense, (I speak as to my children) be ye also enlarged.

II Corinthians 6:14 Bear not the yoke together with unbelievers. For what participation hath justice with injustice? Or what fellowship hath light with darkness?

Bear not the yoke together with unbelievers. He does not mean, that they must wholly avoid their company, which could not be done, but not to have too intimate a friendship with them, not to marry with them, to avoid their vices. Be ye separate....touch not the unclean thing. He does not speak of meats, clean and unclean, according to the law of Moses, nor of legal uncleannesses, but what is sinful under the new law of Christ, and would defile the soul, as idolatry, fornication, etc. (Witham)
II Corinthians 6:15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath the faithful with the unbeliever?

Such as have cast off the yoke of God are called children of Belial. (John 8:44.) Belial, in its radical signification, means without yoke. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 6:16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? *For you are the temple of the living God: as God saith: **I will dwell in them, and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

1 Corinthians 3:16-17. and 6:19.; Leviticus 26:12.
The apostle here blames the too great affection the Corinthians had for the Gentiles, who sometimes invited them to their religious feasts, at which were eaten meats which had been offered to idols, and which gave scandal both to the Christians and Gentiles. To draw them from these feasts he tells them, that they are the temples of the Holy Ghost, and that consequently they ought not to make themselves the temples of devils, by eating of the sacrifices of devils. (Calmet) --- St. Paul, in this and the foregoing verses, clearly shews that the faithful ought not to frequent, on any account, the tabernacles of those who have left the Church. In the old law, Moses was ordered to command the ancients of Israel, on the part of God, to depart from the tents of those wicked men, lest they be involved in their sins. (Numbers 16:27.)
II Corinthians 6:17 *Wherefore, go out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing:

Isaias 52:11.
II Corinthians 6:18 And I will receive you: *and I will be a Father to you: and you shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.

Jeremias 31:9.
II Corinthians 7:0 The apostle's affection for the Corinthians: his comfort and joy on their account.

II Corinthians 7:1 Having, therefore, these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of the flesh and of the spirit, perfecting sanctification in the fear of God.

Having, therefore, these promises, mentioned just before, that God would be a father to us, etc. let us cleanse ourselves from all filth or defilement of the flesh, and of the spirit, that is, from all kind of sins. It is not without good grounds, that St. Thomas Aquinas, and the divines in the schools, tell us, that some sins, as those of impurity, gluttony, and drunkenness, may be called carnal sins, bring disorders that in a particular manner affect and defile the body: and that (though all sins whatsoever defile the soul, and when they are such as are called mortal, bring a spiritual death to the soul, by depriving her of the grace of God) other kinds of sins may be called spiritual sins, their malice and disorder affecting, and residing, as it were, in the mind or spirit of man; such are all the sins of pride, envy, idolatry, etc. (Witham)
II Corinthians 7:2 Receive us. We have injured no one, we have corrupted no one, we have overreached no one.

Receive us.{ Ver. 2. Capite nos, choresate emas. St. Chrysostom says, hom. xiv., toutesti philesate emas. Others think the sense is, receive and understand the instruction I give you.|} This, according to St. Chrysostom and others, is the same as what he said before, be enlarged or dilated in heart, that is, have a love, and true charity, and a zeal for us, and for the ministers of the gospel. --- We have injured no one, etc. He perhaps hints at the ways and proceedings of the false teachers among them. (Witham)
II Corinthians 7:3 I speak not to your condemnation. For we have said before, that you are in our hearts, to die together, and to live together.

I speak not this to your condemnation; he means not to condemn them in general, though some had been blameable. --- Great is my glorying. I have great joy in the greatest part of you. (Witham)
II Corinthians 7:4 Great is my confidence with you, great is my glorying for you. I am filled with comfort, I exceedingly abound with joy in all our tribulation.

II Corinthians 7:5 For also, when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no rest, but we suffered all tribulation: combats without, fears within.

Our flesh, that is, I myself, had no rest, because of the concern I was in about you, after I had written my last letter. (Witham) --- Combats without, fears within. Openly persecuted by the pagans, by the Jews, and by false brethren, I was tormented in my interior, by the apprehensions and fears I have just related to you. I was under continual apprehension, that my letter had been written in too severe a tone. I was in doubt whether the incestuous man would submit to the sentence of excommunication, and censure pronounced against him. And I said with myself, will not false teachers undo, and render fruitless all my endeavours to benefit the Church? Will not my letter alienate their minds from me? (Calmet) --- Our body had no ease, assailed with a deluge of evils from without, by the enemies of the gospel from within, by fears of new persecutions. (Menochius)
II Corinthians 7:6 But God, who comforteth the humble, comforted us by the coming of Titus.

\f + \fr 7:6-7\ft etc. God....comforted us by the coming of Titus, and with the joyful news he brought me, of the submission and repentance of the incestuous man, and of the good state you are in, of your earnest desire to see me. Now I have no reason to repent, that I wrote to you pretty sharply; though my letter troubled you, through the concern you were in on account of the incestuous man, yet both his sorrow, and yours for his sake, will turn to his, and your greater advantage, with a lasting repentance, such as a true sorrow produces, when it is from God. I see the good effects, by the apology or defence you make for yourselves, by your zealous indignation,{ Ver. 7. Desiderium, epipothesin. St. Chrysostom says, oude epithumian all epipothesin.|} and, as it were, revenge against sin, etc. (Witham)
II Corinthians 7:7 And not by his coming only, but also by the consolation, wherewith he was comforted in you, relating to us your desire, your mourning, your zeal for me, so that I rejoiced the more.

II Corinthians 7:8 For although I made you sorrowful by my epistle, I do not repent: and if I did repent, seeing that the same epistle (although but for a time) did make you sorrowful,

II Corinthians 7:9 Now I am glad: not because you were made sorrowful: but because you were made sorrowful unto penance. For you were made sorrowful according to God, that in nothing you should suffer damage by us.

Now I rejoice, etc. I should have been inconsolable, had my letter made you sad, without producing the salutary effect intended by it; but I now rejoice that it caused a sorrow and sadness productive of the great advantages you have reaped from it. Thus in every sentence St. Paul shews the solicitude of a father, seeking nothing but the advancement of his spiritual children. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 7:10 *For the sorrow which is according to God, worketh lasting penance unto salvation: but the sorrow of the world worketh death.

1 Peter 2:19.
For the sorrow, etc. Sorrow for the loss of temporal goods, such as friends, riches, honours, etc. is productive of no good effects; but on the contrary, it ruins the constitution, exciting in the soul emotions of anger, murmuring, revenge, and brooding melancholy. It moreover betrays an inordinate attachment to creatures. But sorrow for our own sins, and for those of others, sufferings which we endure for the glory of God, work penance unto salvation, which is lasting; or, as the Greek has it, worketh penance unto salvation, of which we shall never repent. For tears shed in prayer unto God are sweeter, says St. Augustine, (Psalm cxxvii.) than any pleasure that can be procured from the stage, etc. The tears of the saints are like sweet wine, which inebriate those who love God. (St. Augustine, Psalm lxxxiii.) --- Contrition, or a hearty sorrow for sin, and not faith alone, as some pretend, is essential to salvation.
II Corinthians 7:11 For behold this self-same thing, that you were made sorrowful according to God, how great carefulness it work in you: yea, defence; yea, indignation; yea, fear; yea, desire; yea, zeal; yea, revenge: in all things you have shewed yourselves to be undefiled in the matter.

II Corinthians 7:12 Therefore, though I wrote to you, not on account of him who did the wrong, nor of him who suffered it: but to manifest our solicitude, which we have for you,

I wrote to you not on the account, etc. That is, not only on his account, or the account of his father, who suffered the injury, (by which his father seems to have been then alive) but also to demonstrate the care and solicitude I have for you. I was also overjoyed to find that Titus was so well received by you, with fear and trembling, that is, with so great respect, and submission to him. (Witham)
II Corinthians 7:13 Before God: therefore we were comforted. But in our consolation we did the more abundantly rejoice for the joy of Titus, because his spirit was refreshed by you all.

II Corinthians 7:14 And if I have boasted any thing to him of you, I have not been put to shame, but as we have spoken all things to you in truth, so also our boasting which was made to Titus, is found a truth:

II Corinthians 7:15 And his bowels are more abundantly towards you: remembering the obedience of you all, how with fear and trembling you received him.

II Corinthians 7:16 I rejoice that in all things I have confidence in you.

After these proofs of your charity, and the uprightness of your heart, I can reprehend and correct you, exhort and praise you, without fear of my reprehensions separating you from me, without apprehension that my recommendations will prove false, or my confidence vain; I now reckon you as persons entirely devoted to me, and whose affection towards me will never cease. (Calmet) See Grotius, Estius, etc. etc. --- I therefore rejoice, as we read in the Greek, after this trial, that you will refuse me nothing I ask of you: and this my confidence I shall shew, by asking you to contribute to the wants of the distressed brethren in Jerusalem, who have suffered so much for their religion.
II Corinthians 8:0 He exhorts them to contribute bountifully to relieve the poor of Jerusalem.

II Corinthians 8:1 Now we make known to you, brethren, the grace of God, that hath been given in the churches of Macedonia:

Grace of God,{ Ver. 1. Gratiam Dei. ten charin tou Theou. The same word gratia and charis is used, ver. 4, 6 and 7, where it is generally understood of their charitable contributions.|} that hath been given in the Churches of Macedonia. It was certainly the grace of God, that moved the Macedonians to make those charitable contributions for the relief of their poor Christian brethren in Judea, which St. Paul now speaks of: and therefore with those who seem the most exact translators, (even with the most approved Protestant translation) I have, according to the letter, put the grace of God, rather than the godly charity, as others would have it, whom I had once followed, and which I think probable, taking the grace of God, for a great grace, a great charity, or a great benevolence. (Witham)
II Corinthians 8:2 That in much experience of tribulation they have had abundance of joy, and their very deep poverty hath abounded unto the riches of their simplicity:

Poverty hath abounded, etc. The sense seems to be, that in their great poverty, they shewed the riches of their simplicity, that is, of a sincere, willing, and charitable heart. (Witham)
II Corinthians 8:3 For according to their power I bear them witness, and beyond their power they were willing,

II Corinthians 8:4 With much intreaty begging of us the grace and communication of the ministry that is done towards the saints.

Begging of us the grace, etc. We may translate, benevolence, or charity, meaning their charitable alms or contributions. It also may be called a grace, a favour, or a charity, which they did for the poor. He exhorts them to these charitable contributions by the example of Christ, who being the God of glory, made himself the lowest and poorest of men to enrich us with grace and glory. (Witham) --- Towards the saints. The saints whom St. Paul is here speaking of, are the faithful of Jerusalem, who had been deprived of all their property at the beginning of their conversion, by their countrymen, for their steady adherence to the Christian faith, and were now reduced to the greatest want. It is for the support of their brethren in Palestine that the charitable contributions here mentioned by St. Paul, were raised in the Churches of Macedon. (Calmet) --- In the Greek we read, entreating us to receive the alms which they offered as a contribution to the charitable fund destined for the saints, or faithful, at Jerusalem. See Romans 15:25 and 26, and 1 Corinthians 16:1 and 3.
II Corinthians 8:5 And not as we hoped, but they gave their ownselves first to the Lord, then to us by the will of God;

They gave their ownselves. That is, they resigned themselves and families to the care of Providence for the necessaries of life, begging that the apostle would receive their alms, which exceeded even their means. (Calmet) --- And by the will of God they also gave themselves to us, that we might dispose of them, and of all that belonged to them, as we should judge proper. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 8:6 Insomuch, that we desired Titus, that as he had begun, so also he would finish in you this same grace.

We desired Titus. Having experienced the benevolence and generosity of the faithful of Macedon, St. Paul dismisses his faithful disciple, Titus, to exhort the Corinthians to imitate the example of their brethren in Macedon, laying before their eyes, in the following verses, the charity of Christ, who reduced himself to the greatest poverty and indigence, to shew us an example of humility and charity.
II Corinthians 8:7 That as in all things you abound in faith, and word, and knowledge, and all carefulness; moreover also in your charity towards us; so in this grace also you may abound.

II Corinthians 8:8 I speak not as commanding: but by the carefulness of others, approving also the good disposition of your charity.

II Corinthians 8:9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that being rich, he became poor for your sakes: that through his poverty you might be rich.

II Corinthians 8:10 And in this I give counsel: for this is profitable for you, who have begun not only to do, but also to be willing a year ago:

Begun not only to do, but also to be willing. The sense seems to be, that they not only began the last year to do it, to contribute, but that they were the first that had this will, and began it of their own accord, by a motion of their own will. And therefore in the next chapter (ver. 2.) he boasted of their ready mind to the Macedonians, and that their zeal or emulation had incited a great many. (Witham)
II Corinthians 8:11 Now, therefore, perform it ye also in deed: that, as your mind is forward to be willing, so it may be also to perform, out of that which you have.

II Corinthians 8:12 For if the will be forward, it is accepted according to that which it hath, not according to that which it hath not.

\f + \fr 8:12-13\ft He tells them that it is the will that chiefly makes their charity acceptable to God, who sees the heart. And that the design is not to make others live at their ease, in a richer condition than those who give, but to make a kind of equality, their brethren in Judea being now in great poverty and want. (Witham) --- God regards two things in our alms: first, the zeal and good-will with which we give our alms; secondly, the greatness of our charities, that is, if they be proportionate to our means. If you have little, give a little, but with good-will; if you have much, give also much, but with equal benevolence and zeal. God measures the extent of our charity by the greatness of our zeal, not requiring of us what we have not, but what we have to spare, relieving others, without overcharging ourselves. (Bible de Vence) --- Yielding our superfluities, that the poor may not want necessaries. (Menochius)
II Corinthians 8:13 For I mean not that others should have ease, and you distress: but by an equality.

II Corinthians 8:14 In this present time let your abundance supply their want: that their abundance also may supply your want, that there may be an equality, as it is written:

This present time, let your abundance, etc. The sense, according to some interpreters is, that the time may perhaps come, when they in Judea may supply the wants of those in Achaia in the same kind. Others rather understand it of a communication of spiritual for temporal goods, that your alms, by the assistance of those who will pray for you, and your charities, may obtain for you the spiritual riches of grace, which every one stands chiefly in need of. (Witham)
II Corinthians 8:15 *He that had much, had nothing over: and he that had little, had no want.

Exodus 16:18.
He that had much, etc. The words were spoken of those who gathered the manna. (Exodus 16:18.) Every one was there ordered to gather such a particular measure, called a gomer, and they who for fear of wanting, gathered more, found they had no more than the measure they were ordered to take, and they, who as it happened, took less, still found they had their measure of a gomer. By this example, St. Paul exhorts them to contribute to the relief of their brethren, with confidence in God's providence, and without fear of wanting themselves. (Witham)
II Corinthians 8:16 And thanks be to God, who hath given the same carefulness for you in the heart of Titus.

etc. The apostle then tells them, that he has sent Titus, and two other brethren of known probity and honesty, lest any one should suspect, that he, or they should turn these charitable contributions to their own profit and advantage by enriching themselves, that no one, saith he, might find fault with us in this abundance, which is managed by us. (Witham)
II Corinthians 8:17 For indeed he accepted the exhortation: but being more careful, of his own will he went unto you.

II Corinthians 8:18 We have sent also with him the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches:

Brother, whose praise is in the gospel, through all the Churches.{ Ver. 18. Cujus laus est in evangelio, ou o epainos en to euaggelio. See St. Chrysostom, om. in. p. 645. othen moi dokei ton barnaban ainittesthai.|} It may either signify in writing or in preaching the gospel, so that though St. Jerome expound this of St. Luke, who wrote his gospel, (but probably not till after this time) yet St. Chrysostom rather understands it of Barnabas, by the words that follow, who was ordained by the Churches companion of our travels. Others also guess it might be Silas or Silvanus. Who the third brother was, is also uncertain. (Witham) --- Commentators very in their opinions upon the person here mentioned. St. Chrysostom and Theo. are of opinion, that this person is St. Luke or Barnabas; St. Jerome also thinks that it must be St. Luke the evangelist.
II Corinthians 8:19 And not that only, but he was also ordained by the churches companion of our travels, for this grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the Lord, and our determined will:

II Corinthians 8:20 Avoiding this, lest any man should blame us in this abundance which is administered by us.

II Corinthians 8:21 *For we provide good things, not only before God, but also before men.

Romans 12:17.
II Corinthians 8:22 And we have sent with them our brother also, whom we have often proved diligent in many things: but now much more diligent, with much confidence in you,

\f + \fr 8:22-23\ft With much confidence in you, either for Titus, etc. Some expound it of the confidence which this the third brother had in the Corinthians, but it seems rather to be understood of the confidence which St. Paul himself had in them, that they would shew great respect both to Titus, and to the other brethren whom he sent. He concludes, (ver. 24.) by exhorting them to these charitable contributions, which he calls the manifestation of their charity, in the sight of the Churches. Literally, in the face of the Churches, in your public meetings. (Witham) --- Most commentators understand here Apollo, but without any certainty. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 8:23 Either for Titus, who is my companion and fellow-labourer towards you, or our brethren, the apostles of the churches, the glory of Christ.

II Corinthians 8:24 Wherefore shew ye to them, in the sight of the churches, the evidence of your charity, and of our boasting on your behalf.

II Corinthians 9:0 A further exhortation to almsgiving: the fruits of it.

II Corinthians 9:1 For concerning the ministry, that is done towards the saints, it is superfluous for me to write to you.

The ministry, that is, the contributions for the brethren, so it is also called again, (ver. 12.) the ministry of this office, or, as the Greek signifies, of this sacrifice, inasmuch as alms, and such charitable works, are spiritual sacrifices to God. (Witham)
II Corinthians 9:2 For I know your ready mind: for which I boast of you to the Macedonians. That Achaia also was ready a year ago, and your emulation hath provoked a great many.

That Achaia also was ready. Corinth was the capital of Achaia. St. Paul had formerly exhorted the Macedonians to contribute to the utmost of their power, informing them, that Corinth and all Achaia were prepared a year ago to collect alms, and now the apostle, speaking to the Corinthians, encourages them by the example of the faithful of Macedon, and informs them of the greatness of their charitable contributions, and the greatness of their zeal. (Theo.)
II Corinthians 9:3 Now I have sent the brethren, that what we boast of concerning you, be not made void in this behalf, that, (as I have said) you may be ready:

Titus, and two others.
II Corinthians 9:4 Lest, when the Macedonians shall come with me, and find you unprepared, we (not to say ye) should be ashamed in this matter.

II Corinthians 9:5 Therefore, I thought it necessary to desire the brethren that they would go to you before, and prepare this blessing before promised, to be ready, so as a blessing, not as covetousness.

Not forced from covetousness. Literally, not as avarice, as it were extorted from covetous people, who give unwillingly. (Witham)
II Corinthians 9:6 Now this I say: He who soweth sparingly, shall also reap sparingly; and he who soweth in blessings, shall also reap of blessings.

II Corinthians 9:7 Every one as he hath determined in his heart, not with sadness, or of necessity: *For God loveth a cheerful giver.

Ecclesiasticus 35:11.
II Corinthians 9:8 And God is able to make all grace abound in you: that ye always having all sufficiency in all things, may abound to every good work,

God is generous to the liberally disposed Christian; filling such as relieve the poor with every species of good, and returning their charities a hundred-fold. (Menochius)
II Corinthians 9:9 As it is written: *He hath dispersed abroad, he hath given to the poor: his justice remaineth for ever.

Psalm 111:9.
II Corinthians 9:10 Now he that ministereth seed to the sower, will both give you bread to eat, and will multiply your seed, and increase the growth of the fruits of your justice:

II Corinthians 9:11 That being enriched in all things, you may abound unto all bountifulness, which causeth through us thanksgiving to God.

\f + \fr 9:11-13\ft All bountifulness,{ In omnem simplicitatem, aploteta, upon which St. Chrysostom says, om. k., aploteta ten dapsileian kalei, a plentiful abundance.|} by which is signified, a sincere and free liberality, by giving with a sincere heart, and good intention. St. Paul encourages them to contribute willingly for God's sake, and out of a true charity for their indigent brethren, who will praise, and thank God, and pray for them, etc. (Witham)
II Corinthians 9:12 For the administration of this service doth not only supply the want of the saints, but aboundeth also by many thanksgivings in the Lord.

II Corinthians 9:13 By the proof of this ministry, glorifying God in the obedience of your confession to the gospel of Christ, and for the liberality of your communicating to them, and to all,

II Corinthians 9:14 And in their praying for you, longing for you, because of the eminent grace of God in you.

II Corinthians 9:15 Thanks be to God for his unspeakable gift.

For his unspeakable gift. Such is the conclusion, which the apostle puts to the subject upon alms-deeds. In the following chapter he proceeds to a new subject; but first thanks the Almighty, that he has enriched the Corinthians with so charitable a disposition. St. Chrysostom, Theo., and some other commentators think, that by the expression, his unspeakable gift, is meant the incarnation of Christ. The fruit of alms-deeds is the increase of grace in all justice and good works to life everlasting; God granting these blessings for a reward and recompense of charitable works, which therefore are called the seed, (ver. 10, above) or meritorious cause of these spiritual fruits.
II Corinthians 10:0 To stop the calumny and boasting of false apostles, he sets forth the power of his apostleship.

In these three following chapters, St. Paul, for the common good of those whom he had converted, and to obviate the prejudice raised by his adversaries against his person and preaching, is forced to set in a true light his apostolical authority, the favours he had received from God, his actions, his labours, and his sufferings, with an apology for mentioning them, giving all the glory to God. (Witham)
II Corinthians 10:1 Now I Paul myself beseech you, by the meekness and gentleness of Christ, who in presence indeed am lowly among you, but being absent, am bold towards you,

\f + \fr 10:1-11\ft Who in presence indeed am lowly.{ Ver. 1. Humilis sum, tapeinos.|} Literally, humble, (see Luke 1:ver. 48.) that is, of a mean aspect, as to exterior appearances, and my speech contemptible, without the ornaments of human eloquence, but am said to be bold when absent, reprehending and threatening by my letters, which are owned to be weighty and strong, let such persons think, and be convinced, that such as I am by my letters, they shall find me by deeds, when I come, and shall be present with them. I desire and beseech you, that I may not be bold when I come, to make use of my authority, nor of those spiritual arms and weapons, of censures and excommunications, nor perhaps of exemplary punishments, which God sometimes in a miraculous manner shewed by his apostles. See the examples of Ananias and Saphira struck dead at St. Peter's words, (Acts v.) of Elymas struck with blindness for opposing St. Paul's preaching. (Acts xiii.) He puts them in mind, that the power, which God has given to his apostles, is so great and prevalent, that no force upon earth has been able to resist or hinder the designs of God, as to the spreading of the gospel, and the faith of Christ, and as he expresseth it, to the destruction of fortifications, we subverting counsels, and every thing that opposed the knowledge of God, who reduceth whom he pleaseth to the obedience of Christ. He admonishes them all to return to the obedience due to him, and the true ministers of the gospel, lest he be obliged to revenge, that is, punish such as remain disobedient. He acknowledges that his apostolical power was given him for the good and edification of the faithful, not for their destruction, which he will take care not to abuse. In fine, he tells them here in short, and more at large in the following chapter, that they may, if they please, consider outward appearances, his apostolical functions, the miracles God has wrought in his favour, what he has done, and suffered, by which will appear the advantages he has above his adversaries, who spoke with contempt of him. (Witham)
II Corinthians 10:2 But I beseech you, that I may not be bold when I am present, with that confidence wherewith I am thought to be bold against some, who think of us as if we walked according to the flesh.

I beg of you now to hear my apology, that I may not be obliged to make us of my authority, when present among you, which they say I have abused, and usurped over you. There is in this discourse a little irony against the facility with which the Corinthians heard the enemies of St. Paul. He alludes to those false teachers who decried his doctrine, by preaching up the observance of the ceremonial parts of the law, for they were Jews, and had introduced many new practices into the Church. We may here take notice, that these observations are applicable to the epistles of St. Paul to the Galatians, and Philippians, for they are the same false teachers whom he there attacks, and who accused St. Paul of being a hypocrite, a seducer, in a word, one who walked according to the flesh. (Estius and St. Chrysostom)
II Corinthians 10:3 For walking in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh.

II Corinthians 10:4 For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but powerful through God to the destruction of fortifications, we subverting counsels,

For the weapons, etc. The powers with which we are endowed will easily overturn all obstacles, or fortifications which devils may raise against us. They will easily refute the pride, the learning, and the eloquent sophisms of philosophers, and reduce every height, or high-minded philosopher, to the obedience of Christ. (Calmet) --- Hence doth our Saviour pray, "I praise thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them to little ones. Yea, Father, for so hath it seemed good in thy sight." (Matthew 11:25.)
II Corinthians 10:5 And every height that exhalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every understanding to the obedience of Christ,

II Corinthians 10:6 And having in readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience shall be fulfilled.

Having in readiness. God gave power, not only to persuade, and to convince the incredulous, but also to punish them, as we see in the examples of Simon Magus and Elymas. What then should hinder him from using the same against these false apostles? But he says, your obedience must first be fulfilled. God forbid that I should first use the sword, before I have tried the ways of sweetness and conciliation. But if any remain obstinate, then I will employ the arms that God has given me. (Grotius) --- This sweet and forcible example of the apostle is worthy the imitation of all superiors, temporal and ecclesiastical, how ever high their dignity or command. (Haydock)
II Corinthians 10:7 See the things that are according to outward appearance. If any man trust to himself, that he is Christ's, let him think this again with himself, that as he is Christ's, so are we also.

II Corinthians 10:8 For if I also should boast somewhat more of our power, which the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your destruction, I should not be ashamed,

II Corinthians 10:9 But that I may not be thought as it were to terrify you by epistles:

II Corinthians 10:10 (For his epistles, indeed, say they, are weighty and strong; but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible:)

II Corinthians 10:11 Let such a one think this, that such as we are in word by epistles, when absent, such are we also indeed, when present.

II Corinthians 10:12 For we dare not rank or compare ourselves with some, that commend themselves: but we measure ourselves by ourselves, and compare ourselves with ourselves.

etc. The following verses to the end of the chapter, are equally obscure, both in the Greek and Latin text. --- We dare not rank or compare ourselves, etc. He seems to write this ironically, by way of mocking at those, who commended and preferred themselves before others. But I will not compare myself with others, but will only compare { Ver. 12. Ipsi in nobis nos metipsos metientes; the Greek is somewhat different, autoi en eautois eautous metrountes, ipsi in seipsis, seipsos mensurantes.|} myself with myself, to shew that my actions agree with my words and my letters. --- We will not glory beyond our measure, but according to the measure of the rule which God hath measured to us, a measure to reach even to you. Here he speaks of a measure, and a rule. By the measure, with which God measured to him, he means the places and countries, in which he, and the other apostles were appointed to preach, and plant the gospel: and by the rule also prescribed him, he means that it was given him as a rule not to preach, where other ministers of Christ had preached. When he says, therefore, we will not glory beyond our measure,{ Ver. 15. Non in immensum, ouk eis ta ametra, non in non mensurata.|} or (as it is implied in the Greek) of things out of the measure, the sense is, I will not, like false preachers, pretend to have preached in places out of my province, or which were not measured out to me, nor have we extended ourselves farther than we ought to have done, when we came to you, for you were within our measure. Nor have I transgressed the rule, because others had not preached to you before me, so that I have not boasted in other men's labours. But as your faith is growing, and increasing, when I have sufficiently settled the gospel among you, I hope my measure may be enlarged, and that without breaking the settled rule, I may preach also to people and places beyond you. This is what seems to be understood by these words, to be enlarged or magnified, even to an abundance, and yet not to glory in other men's labours, but to glory in the Lord only, and in what we do, as we have been directed, and assisted by him. (Witham)
II Corinthians 10:13 *But we will not glory beyond our measure: but according to the measure of the rule, which God hath measured to us, a measure to reach even to you.

Ephesians 4:7.
The apostle here reprehends the vain boasting of false teachers. I will not, like them, say, that I have carried the light of the gospel to the utmost limits of the globe, that I have converted millions of men, avoided an infinity of dangers, performed many miracles, etc. No: I confine myself to the part assigned me by God. I will only glory in having come even to you. This I can do with justice, and without arrogance. Each one has his share, his measure, or his part to cultivate in the vineyard of Christ. (Calmet and Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 10:14 For we stretch not ourselves beyond our measure, as if we reached not to you: for we are come as far as to you in the gospel of Christ.

II Corinthians 10:15 Not glorying beyond measure in other men's labours: but having hope of your increase in faith, to be magnified in you according to our rule abundantly.

II Corinthians 10:16 Yea, to those places that are beyond you, to preach the gospel, not to glory in another man's rule in those things that are made ready to our hand.

The words, measure, rule, etc. signify through the whole of this chapter a share, or an allotment of any place to cultivate. St. Paul never gloried like the persons whom he is here blaming, that he entered into other men's labours. But still neither those persons who have come to you, nor we who first preached the gospel to you, have any right to glory, except in God alone. (Calmet) --- We still hope, that your faith every day increasing, we shall be able to extend our measure much further, and carry the gospel to nations far beyond you, without interfering with any other, by glorying of having built on what they had already prepared. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 10:17 *But he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

Jeremias 9:23.; 1 Corinthians 1:31.
II Corinthians 10:18 For not he, that commendeth himself, is approved: but he whom God commendeth.

II Corinthians 11:0 He is forced to commend himself and his labours, lest the Corinthians should be imposed upon by the false apostles.

II Corinthians 11:1 Would to God you could bear with some little of my folly: but do, bear with me:

My folly. So he calls his reciting his own praises, which commonly speaking, is looked upon as a piece of folly and vanity; though the apostle was constrained to do it, for the good of the souls committed to his charge. (Challoner)
II Corinthians 11:2 For I am jealous of you with the jealousy of God. For I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.

With the jealousy of God, or that came from God: it may also signify a great, or godly jealousy. --- To present you, that is, the Church of Corinth, a chaste virgin to Christ, as the whole Catholic Church is called the chaste spouse of Christ. See Matthew 9:13.; Apocalypse 21:2. (Witham) --- I cannot suffer these false prophets thus to destroy what has been prepared with so much labour, but I am not jealous for my own sake; it is for the honour of God; for I do not wish to prepare this spouse for myself, but for God. (Tirinus) --- It is a duty incumbent on me to preserve you in the purity of the faith you have received, to present you to him as a virgin, holy, and free from every spot or blemish, and hence arise my fear and solicitude, lest by insinuating and designing men, you suffer yourselves to be drawn away from the simplicity of your faith in Christ Jesus, the Lord.
II Corinthians 11:3 But I fear lest, *as the serpent seduced Eve by his subtility, so your minds should be corrupted, and fall from the simplicity which is in Christ.

Genesis 3:4.
So your minds shall be corrupted by those false teachers, from the simplicity in Christ, from the sincerity and purity of the gospel doctrine. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:4 For if he that cometh, preacheth another Christ, whom we have not preached; or if you receive another Spirit, whom you have not received; or another gospel, which you have not received: you might well bear with him.

You might well bear with him. These new teachers pretended at least to preach only the doctrine of Christ. St. Paul tells them, they might in some measure be excused, if they preached a new doctrine, or another gospel that brought them greater blessings, or another Spirit accompanied with greater spiritual gifts, than they had already received by his preaching. But I think, and may say, I have nothing less than the greatest apostles, and you have received the same blessings from me, as others from them. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:5 For I suppose that I have done nothing less than the great apostles.

For I suppose. Many understand this as spoken ironically, and alluding to the false apostles, who called themselves great. But it ought rather to be understood in a literal sense, that God had performed as many and great miracles by his hands, as by any of the apostles. St. Paul here wishes to refute those who called themselves the disciples of Peter, and other apostles. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 11:6 For though I be rude in speech, yet not in knowledge; but in all things, we have been made manifest to you.

Though I be rude in speech, (as St. Jerome also thought) in my expressions in the Greek tongue, yet not in knowledge, the chief or only thing to be regarded. Nay, St. Paul's adversaries acknowledged that his letters were weighty and strong. (chap. 10. ver. 11.) St. Chrysostom in many places, and St. Augustine, lib. 4:de Doct. Christiana, ch. VI. and VII tom. 3. p. 68. and seq., shews at large the solid rhetoric and eloquence of St. Paul, even in this and the next chapter. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:7 Or did I commit a fault, abasing myself, that you might be exalted? Because I have preached to you the gospel of God gratis?

Did I commit a fault? etc. It is a kind of reproach to them, and by the figure, called irony, with a reflection on the false preachers, who some way or other, got themselves handsomely maintained, while St. Paul neither took, nor would take any thing of them, that his adversaries might not have an occasion to say, he did as they did, or that they only did as he did. And lest they should suspect that he would receive nothing form them, because he did not love them (as men sometimes refuse presents from those whom they do not love) he appeals to God, how much he loves them. But he will have this to boast of against his adversaries, those false apostles and crafty labourers, who cunningly endeavoured to transform themselves, that they might be thought the apostles of Christ, insinuating themselves into their favour, and receiving at least presents from them, which St. Paul would not do, though it was but reasonable that he should live by the gospel. See 1 Corinthians 9. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:8 I have taken from other churches, receiving wages of them to serve you.

II Corinthians 11:9 And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was burthensome to no man: for that which was wanting to me, the brethren supplied who came from Macedonia; and in all things I have kept myself without being a burthen to you, and so I will keep myself.

II Corinthians 11:10 The truth of Christ is in me, that this glory shall not be stopt in me in the regions of Achaia.

The truth of Christ is in me. This is a kind of asseveration; I assure you by the truth of Christ, which is in me, that what I say is true, and that no one can deny it in Achaia. (Theodoret)
II Corinthians 11:11 Wherefore? Because I love you not? God knoweth it.

II Corinthians 11:12 But what I do, that I will do, that I may cut off the occasion from them that desire occasion, that in what they glory, they may be found even as we.

St. Paul declares that he will continue to receive nothing for his preaching and his labours, that the false apostles may not glory in their disinterestedness; or rather, that he will not, by receiving any thing, authorize by his example, these new teachers, who only seek their own ease, to live on the Church, and to receive their support from it. (St. Augustine and Estius)
II Corinthians 11:13 For such false apostles are deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.

II Corinthians 11:14 And no wonder: for Satan himself transformeth himself into an angel of light.

II Corinthians 11:15 Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers be transformed as the ministers of justice: whose end shall be according to their works.

II Corinthians 11:16 I say again, (let no man think me to be foolish, otherwise take me as one foolish, that I also may glory a little.)

etc. Otherwise take me as one foolish. St. Paul divers times excuses himself for mentioning things in his own commendation: he owns that this in itself, and unless it were necessary, might be blamed as folly, that it would not be according to God, but he declares himself forced by them to it, and that he will speak nothing but the truth. See 2 Corinthians 12:6-11. He tells them that they bear with others that are foolish, even with those false preachers that endeavour to bring them into slavery by their domineering carriage, by making them perhaps subject to the yoke of the Mosaical law. Who devour them, that is, their goods and substance, who take from them, who in a manner strike them on the face, (ver. 20.) he means a metaphorical striking them, that is, by imperious ways, and insolent language. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:17 That which I speak, I speak not according to God, but as it were in foolishness, in this matter of glorying.

II Corinthians 11:18 Seeing that many glory according to the flesh, I will glory also.

II Corinthians 11:19 For you gladly suffer the foolish: whereas yourselves are wise.

I trust that you will permit me to speak in my own praise, since as wise as you are, you have permitted others, who have not greater wisdom than myself. And if it be folly to praise one's self, as you have pardoned them, I trust you will also pardon me. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 11:20 For you suffer if a man bring you into bondage, if a man devour you, if a man take from you, if a man be extolled, if a man strike you on the face.

St. Paul still continues to speak ironically, that they will permit him to praise himself in his own justification, since they have permitted these false teachers to reduce them to bondage under the law, to devour their substance, and to behave haughtily to them, striking them on the face, etc. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 11:21 I speak according to dishonour, as if we had been weak in this part. Wherein if any man is bold, (I speak foolishly) I am bold also.

I speak according to dishonour, as if we had been weak in this part. The interpreters are divided on this verse; the sense seems to be, I speak what others took upon as dishonourable in us, that we had not the like authority over you as these false teachers, and therefore could not keep you in such subjection as they have done. But yet I must tell you, that wherein if any man is bold, I am bold also; that is, I have no less motives to domineer and boast, than they have. And then he proceeds to particulars. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:22 They are Hebrews: so am I. They are Israelites: so am I. They are the seed of Abraham: so am I.

II Corinthians 11:23 They are the ministers of Christ: (I speak as one less wise) I am more: in many more labours, in prisons more frequently, in stripes above measure, in deaths often.

They are ministers of Christ: I am more. To wit, an apostle chosen and sent by Jesus Christ, appointed in a special manner to be the apostle of the Gentiles, your apostle. (Witham)
II Corinthians 11:24 Of the Jews *five times did I receive forty stripes, save one.

Deuteronomy 25:3.
The Jews had power under the Romans to inflict punishments, not indeed capital, but corporal, such as flogging, etc. See Mark 13:9. The law, in Deuteronomy 25:3. permitted, but did not command, forty stripes to be inflicted; it strictly forbad that number to be exceeded.
II Corinthians 11:25 *Thrice was I beaten with rods, **once I was stoned, ***thrice I suffered shipwreck: a night and a day I was in the depth of the sea.

Acts 16:22. --- ** Acts 14:18. --- *** Acts 27:41.
Thrice I suffered shipwreck. This was before the shipwreck in his voyage to Rome, by which we make take notice, that St. Luke, in the Acts, omits a great many things relating to St. Paul; as also when he adds,{ Ver. 25. Nocte et die in profundo maris sui, en to butho pepoieka.|} a night and a day I was in the depth of the sea. We do not read expressed in the Greek, of the sea; but the Greek word is observed to imply the same: and so it is understood by St. Chrysostom who gives these two expositions; first, that he was truly and literally in the middle of the sea. Secondly, that he was floating or swimming in the sea after shipwreck, which seems the more common interpretation. (Witham) --- St. Paul could have avoided that disgrace, as a Roman. See Acts xxiii.; but in Acts xvi. he refused to claim his privilege, that he might have an opportunity of converting the guard of the prison. (Pastorini)
II Corinthians 11:26 In journeying often, in perils of rivers, in perils of robbers, in perils from my own nation, in perils from the Gentiles, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils from false brethren.

II Corinthians 11:27 In labour and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.

II Corinthians 11:28 Besides those things that are without: my daily instance, the solicitude for all the churches.

My daily instance. The labours that come in, and press upon me every day. (Challoner)
II Corinthians 11:29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is scandalized, and I do not burn?

II Corinthians 11:30 If I must needs glory: I will glory of the things that concern my infirmity.

II Corinthians 11:31 The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is blessed for ever, knoweth that I lie not.

II Corinthians 11:32 *At Damascus, the governor of the nation, under Aretas, the king, guarded the city of the Damascenes, to apprehend me:

Acts 9:24.
II Corinthians 11:33 And through a window in a basket I was let down by the wall, and so escaped his hands.

II Corinthians 12:0 His raptures and revelations. His being buffeted by Satan. His fear for the Corinthians.

II Corinthians 12:1 If I must glory (it is not expedient indeed:) but I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord.

If I must glory. St. Paul in the whole of this discourse shews the repugnance he had of speaking in his own praise, and that if he did it, it was only through constraint, and for the advantage of the Corinthians; as also to defend himself from his calumniators. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 12:2 *I know a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, whether in the body I know not, or out of the body I know not, God knoweth, such a one caught up to the third heaven.

Acts 9:3.
I know a man, etc. He speaks of himself, as it were of a third person. --- Whether in the body, I know not. If St. Paul himself knew not, how can we pretend to decide, whether his soul was for some moments separated from his body, or in what manner he saw God. (Witham) --- It appears that this took place about the period when the Holy Ghost commanded that he should be separated for the work whereunto he was called. (Acts 13:2.)
II Corinthians 12:3 And I know such a man, whether in the body, or out of the body, I know not, God knoweth:

II Corinthians 12:4 That he was caught up into paradise: and heard secret words, which it is not allowed to man to utter.

Caught up into paradise. St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas are of opinion that this third heaven and paradise are the same place, and designate the abode of the blessed. In order to understand the language of the apostle, we must observe that the Hebrews distinguished three different heavens. The first comprised the air, the clouds, etc. as far as the fixed stars. The second included all the fixed stars; and the third was the abode of Angels, in which God himself discovered his infinite glory, etc. The first is called in Scripture simply the heavens, the second the firmament, and the third the heaven of heavens. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 12:5 Of such a one I will glory: but for myself I will glory nothing, but in my infirmities.

II Corinthians 12:6 For even if I would glory, I shall not be foolish: for I shall say the truth: but I forbear, lest any man should think of me above that which he seeth in me, or any thing he heareth from me.

II Corinthians 12:7 And lest the greatness of the revelations should puff me up, there was given me a sting of my flesh, an angel of Satan, to buffet me.

\f + \fr 12:7-10\ft A sting of my flesh,{ Ver. 7. Stimulus carnis meae, angelus Satanae, qui me colaphizet, skolops te sarki (in carne mea) aggelos Satan, ina me kolaphize. See St. Chrysostom, om. ks. where he says, me genoito. See Tillemont, ch. X. on S. Paul; Cornelius a Lapide; etc.|} an angel, or a messenger of Satan, to buffet me. The Latin word signifies any thing that pricks or stings, the Greek word a sharp stick or pale: he speaks by a metaphor, as also when he says to buffet me; that is, by causing great trouble or pain. Some understand by it a violent headache or pain, or distemper in the body. St. Augustine mentions this opinion, and does not reject it, in Psalm xcviii. tom. 4. p. 1069.; in Psalm cxxx. p. 1465. St. Jerome also speaks of it in 2 Corinthians 4:ad Galatas, tom. 4. p. 274, Ed. Ben. But St. Chrysostom, by the sting, and the angel of Satan, understands that opposition which St. Paul met with from his enemies, and those of the gospel; as Satan signifies an adversary. Others understand troublesome temptations of the flesh, immodest thoughts, and representations, suggested by the devil, and permitted by Almighty God for his greater good. --- Thrice I besought the Lord. That is, many times, to be freed from it, but received only this answer from God, that his grace was sufficient to preserve me from consenting to sin. And that power and strength in virtue should increase, and be perfected in weakness, and by temptations, when they are resisted. St. Augustine seems to favour this exposition, in Psalm lviii. Conc. 2. p. 573. St. Jerome, in his letters to Eustochium, to Demetrias, and to Rusticus, the monk. And it is the opinion of St. Gregory, lib. 23. moral. tom. 1. p. 747. and of many others. (Witham) --- If there were any danger of pride from his revelations, the base and filthy suggestions of the enemy of souls must cause humiliations, and make him blush. But these are to be borne with submission to the will of God, for his power is more evident in supporting man under the greatest trials, than in freeing him from the attacks. --- Power is made perfect. The strength and power of God more perfectly shines forth in our weakness and infirmity; as the more weak we are of ourselves, the more illustrious is his grace in supporting us, and giving us the victory under all trials and conflicts. (Challoner) --- When I am weak. The more I suffer for Christ, the more I perceive the effects of his all-powerful grace, which sustains, enlightens, and strengthens me: the more also the glory and power of God appeareth in me. The pagans themselves were not ignorant that calamity was the soil in which virtue usually grows to perfection. Calamitas virtutis occasio est. (Seneca) --- Optimos nos esse dum infirmi sumus. (Pliny vii. ep. 26.)
II Corinthians 12:8 For which thing I thrice besought the Lord, that it might depart from me:

II Corinthians 12:9 And he said to me: My grace is sufficient for thee: for power is made perfect in infirmity. Gladly, therefore, will I glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may dwell in me.

II Corinthians 12:10 Therefore I take pleasure in my infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake. For when I am weak, then am I powerful.

II Corinthians 12:11 I am become foolish: you have compelled me. For I ought to have been commended by you: for in nothing am I less than those, who are above measure apostles: although I am nothing.

\f + \fr 12:11-13\ft Although I am nothing. These words are a demonstration of the humility of St. Paul, when forced to speak his own praises. --- The signs and marks of my apostleship....on you, by your conversion, especially being accompanied by wonders and miracles. --- Pardon me this injury. A reproach by irony, against such as seemed to value him less, because he lived in poverty, and took nothing of them. (Witham)
II Corinthians 12:12 Yet the signs of my apostleship have been wrought on you, in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds.

II Corinthians 12:13 For what is there that you have had less than the other churches; but that I myself was not burthensome to you? Pardon me this injury.

II Corinthians 12:14 Behold, now the third time I am ready to come to you: and I will not be burthensome to you. For I seek not the things that are yours, but you. For neither ought the children to lay up for the parents, but the parents for the children.

Now the third time I am ready to come. So he says again in the next chapter. That is, he was once with them, he had purposed to come a second time, and now a third time. --- I seek not the things that are yours, but you. That is, says St. Chrysostom, your souls, not your goods; your salvation, not your gold. --- For the children. A modest pretty turn in their favour, by saying that fathers and parents are commonly supposed to leave their goods and riches to their children, not children for their parents. (Witham) --- St. Paul came to Corinth for the first time in the year 52[A.D. 52], remaining with them 18 months. (Acts 18.) He came the second time in 55, but did not remain long with them; on which account it is omitted by St. Luke in the Acts. The date of this letter is in 57, when St. Paul again came to them towards the end of the year. (Calmet) --- Other interpreters, with no less authority question this sentiment, see ver. 1. of the following chapter, and say he only went twice; the first time as mentioned in Acts 18:1.; the second time, as we may draw from Acts 20:2 and 3, after this epistle, as it is evident from comparing 2 Corinthians 1:15.
II Corinthians 12:15 But I most gladly will spend and be spent myself for your souls: although, loving you more, I be loved less.

I most gladly will spend { Ver. 15. Libentissimè impendam, et superimpendar, edista dapaneso, kai ekdapanethesomai, comsumam, et consumar.|} all, and even my life, for your sake, and so as to be spent, and even sacrificed, for your souls; though the more I love you, the less you or some of you love me, a kind and modest reproach. (Witham)
II Corinthians 12:16 But be it so: I did not burthen you: but being crafty, I caught you by guile.

\f + \fr 12:16-18\ft I caught you by guile. He answers an objection or suspicion of his adversaries, as if he took no presents himself, but employed others to do it for him: he appeals to them, if Titus did not serve them in all things as he had done, in the same spirit, treading the same steps. Think you, as some pretended of old, formerly, or of a long time, that we make vain and false excuses to you, and at the bottom aim to be gainers by you? He appeals with an oath to God, that he does all things for their good, for their advantage, and edification. (Witham)
II Corinthians 12:17 Did I circumvent you, by any of those whom I sent to you?

II Corinthians 12:18 I desired Titus, and I sent with him a brother. Did Titus circumvent you? did we not walk with the same spirit? did we not in the same steps?

II Corinthians 12:19 Of old, think you that we excuse ourselves to you? We speak before God in Christ: but all things, my dearly beloved, for your edification.

After having answered one of their objections with regard to his disinterestedness, he thus proceeds: I perceive that of old, or for a long time, you have regarded this lengthened discourse merely as an apology to justify myself from the suspicion of avarice. But we speak before God in Christ; or, God is my witness that I have acted thus only for your edification. (Theodoret) --- Seeking not the things that are yours, but yourselves, most willingly to spend our strength and life, and to be spent or completely exhausted for the sake of your souls.
II Corinthians 12:20 For I fear, lest perhaps when I come, I shall not find you such as I would: and that I shall be found by you such as you would not: lest perhaps contentions, envyings, animosities, dissensions, detractions, whisperings, swellings, seditions, be among you:

\f + \fr 12:20-21\ft He puts them in mind to be all of them reformed, to lay aside animosities, dissensions, swellings,{ Ver. 20. Inflationes, phusioseis, tumores; a metaphor for being puffed up with pride, vain glory, etc.|} proceeding from pride, uncleanness, fornication, etc. which indeed will be a humiliation and trouble to him, to be forced to use his power by severities; for if he find them such as he would not, they will also find him such as they would not. (Witham) --- Ton me metanoesanton. This, according to St. Augustine, is spoken here of doing great penance for heinous sins, and not merely of repentance, as some moderns would fain interpret it. (ep. 198.)
II Corinthians 12:21 Lest again, when I come, God humble me among you: and I bewail many of them that sinned before, and have not done penance for the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness, that they have committed.

II Corinthians 13:0 He threatens the impenitent, to provoke them to penance.

II Corinthians 13:1 Behold, this is the third time I am coming to you: *In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.

Deuteronomy 19:15.; Matthew 18:16.; John 8:17.; Hebrews 10:28.
The third time he had made preparations to visit the Corinthians, (see 2 Corinthians 12:14.) when every delinquent shall be tried as the law directs. (Deuteronomy 19:15.; Matthew 18:16.; Hebrews 10:28.)
II Corinthians 13:2 I have told you before, and foretell, as present, and now absent, to them that sinned before, and to all the rest, that if I come again, I will not spare.

I will not spare. Estius, Menochius, and others explain this of the censures, excommunications, etc. of the Church; whilst some are of opinion that he means temporal punishments. But we must observe, that not unfrequently God punished, even in a sensible manner, those who by their crimes had compelled their pastors to make use of the spiritual sword. (Calmet)
II Corinthians 13:3 Do you seek a proof of Christ, who speaketh in me, who towards you is not weak, but is mighty in you?

Do you seek a proof? By the Greek it signifies for you, or in your regard. The sense is, that he has left me power enough to chastise those among you who shall deserve it, when I come. (Witham) --- I do not know why you delay your conversion. Can you doubt whether it is God who speaks to you by my mouth, who has great power among you, and who is very capable of punishing you. (Bible de Vence)
II Corinthians 13:4 For though he was crucified through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God. For we also are weak in him: but we shall live with him by the power of God towards you.

He was crucified through weakness. That is, he took upon him our weak and infirm nature, in which he was made capable of suffering, and of laying down willingly his life for us on the cross. But he liveth again by the power of God, of his divine power. --- We also are weak in him, like him liable to sufferings, undergoing sufferings by his example; but we shall live with him by the power of God, of which you have also a share. (Witham)
II Corinthians 13:5 Try your ownselves if you be in the faith: prove ye yourselves. Know you not your ownselves, that Christ Jesus is in you? unless perhaps you be reprobates.

Try your ownselves if you be in the faith.{ Ver. 5. Si estis in fide, ei este en te pistei. St. Chrysostom, om. kth., p. 701, emoi dokei entautha legein ten ton semeion. Also in Ver. 5., Nisi forte reprobi estis, adokimoi, improbati, or non probati. The Protestants, as well as Rheims, hath reprobates; but Dr. Wells, in his amendments, has put destitute of proofs, which here is the true sense.|} He does not mean if they have a right Christian faith or belief, but either whether they had a saving Christian faith working in them by charity, or as St. Chrysostom says, a faith that shewed itself by the gift of miracles, at that time commonly given to the first Christians. --- Unless perhaps you are disapproved,{ Ver. 7. Non ut nos probati appareamus....nos autem ut reprobi simus, os (not ina) adokimoi omen, that is sicut or tanquam non probati simus.|} rejected, and justly deprived of this gift, which was a proof that they were Christians, and had received the Spirit of Christ. I judged it better to translate here disapproved, that reprobates, which in other places is often taken as opposed to the predestinate and the elect, whereas there it signifies those who were rejected, and deprived of the gifts of the spirit, particularly of that of miracles, and of those spiritual gifts granted to the first Christians, and which were a proof that they had received the grace: and the 7th verse, not that we may appear approved, but that....we may be as reprobates. That is, we wish that we may have no occasion to shew the power and the gifts of the spirit, and that of miracles, but as if we were rejected, disapproved, reproved, and deprived of such proofs. (Witham)
II Corinthians 13:6 But I trust that you shall know that we are not reprobates.

\f + \fr 13:6-7\ft I trust that we have not fallen from the state in which we were, but that we continue to exercise our ministry and to use the power which he has given us. Though I do not wish to find you guilty of any sins which may oblige me to use this power over you. I rather wish in this respect to have no authority whatever over you, to be as it were an outcast or reprobate, that you may never feel the power that God hath given me for the punishment of the wicked. (St. Chrysostom) --- Reprobates. That is, without proof, by having no occasion of shewing our power in punishing you. (Challoner)
II Corinthians 13:7 Now we pray God, that you may do no evil, not that we may appear approved, but that you may do that which is good, and that we may be as reprobates.

II Corinthians 13:8 For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.

II Corinthians 13:9 For we rejoice, that we are weak, and you are strong. This also we pray for, your perfection.

We rejoice that we have not made our power appear in punishing the wicked, and afflicting our enemies; we are glad that we appear to them to be weak; but we are particularly glad, when you live in such a manner as to give us no occasion of reprimanding you, or of exercising our power over you. (St. Chrysostom)
II Corinthians 13:10 Therefore I write these things being absent, that, being present, I may not deal more severely, according to the power which the Lord hath given me to edification, and not to destruction.

We write this for the edification of Christ's mystical body, and to cause all men to enter; not for its destruction, and to compel many to abandon it.
II Corinthians 13:11 For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, take exhortation, be of one mind, have peace: and the God of peace and of love will be with you.

Rejoice. Chairete, bene valete. In this sense the Greeks used this term at the conclusion of their writings; and Loipon, to denote that the writer or speaker was hastening to a conclusion. (Pastorini) --- Be perfect.{ Ver. 11. Exhortamini, parakaleisthe, consolemini, consolationem capite.|} Literally, in the Latin be exhorted. (Witham)
II Corinthians 13:12 Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the saints salute you.

This was customary with both Jews and Persians, as we learn from Xenophon and Herodotus, and with other oriental nations. And in process of time, from the custom of common life, it was introduced into ecclesiastial assemblies. The ancients were in the habit before they began their meal to embrace each other, to manifest by that sign their mutual cordiality and friendship; then they contributed their alms, that they might give a substantial proof of what was represented by their kiss of charity. (Pastorini)
II Corinthians 13:13 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.

For my part, I wish you, with all my heart, that the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the charity of God, and the communication of his holy Spirit, may dwell with you all. Amen is wanted in the Greek, but was added by the Church of Corinth, which was accustomed to make this reply as often as this epistle was read. When we recall to our mind the excess of corruption that had reigned in the city of Corinth under paganism, excess attested by profane authors, and which St. Paul brings to their recollection, (1 Corinthians 6:9.) we are all astonishment that in the short space of four years the gospel had operated amongst the faithful of this church, such a prodigious change in their manners, and that they were become capable of receiving lessons of morality so very pure as is this of the apostle. (Bergier.)